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Easter Island Statue Project

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Kerry Lenzendorf
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« on: July 26, 2007, 11:27:42 pm »

2002-2005
Field Report

En Español

Introduction

Easter Island Statue Project (EISP) and Rano Raraku

Nature of the Work

EISP History: The Easter Island Statue Project (EISP) is an archaeological survey and inventory designed to locate, document and classify every monolithic and portable stone sculpture in archaeological context on Rapa Nui. It was begun in 1982 by Jo Anne Van Tilburg as her pre-dissertation fieldwork, and was conducted in cooperation with the Universidad de Chile. Work continued as independent post-dissertation museum and archive research, and independent fieldwork was re-established in 1989. In that year Cristián Arévalo Pakarati joined the project as field assistant. He was promoted to graphic designer in 1992 and, in 2002, to Project Co-Director. Interim reports of all field work conducted are on file at UCLA and with the Universidad de Chile (see attached bibliography).

Archive and Museum Results: To date, 21 monolithic statues or fragments of statues have been documented in museum collections in 7 countries of the world. Objects that are directly related to statue aesthetics, including portable figures, have been documented at the Smithsonian Institution, the Peabody Museum (Harvard) and the British Museum. Unpublished fieldnotes and other documents of the Mana Expedition to Easter Island (1914, Royal Geographical Society); H.M.S. Topaze expedition (1868, British Museum); and U.S.S. Mohican expedition (1886, Smithsonian Institution), and historical voyages (Natural History Museum, Santiago de Chile) have been researched.

Fieldwork Results: All fieldwork has been accomplished under my personal direction and has, to date, yielded records on 883 monolithic statues and 40 portable statues on 4 of 10 known site types. These records are stored in digital format in computer interactive files at my research unit (UCLA Rock Art Archive).

Purpose: The purpose of the Statue Project is to amass large quantities of objective data in standardized ways, creating a body of information which, when analyzed, enables the recognition of patterns illustrating shared cultural norms that will allow for outlining and defining the prehistoric social system.

EISP Research Hypotheses:

a. Morphological and stylistic statue design attributes are capable of description, analysis and classification;

b. Morphological style of monolithic sculpture will relate to ceremonial architecture (ahu) construction type;

c. Statue style sequence will relate to ceremonial architecture chronology;

d. The greatest number of statues will be located in relation to the largest and most important lineage centers, and specific morphological and stylistic attributes will be associated with the statues on these centers;

e. Statue type with relate to architectural phase, establishing a site-specific
chronological sequence;

f. Chronological sequences will have validity for all sites within type categories;

g. The typical chiefdom may be defined in terms of statue style, territory, population and resource use.


Research Value of the Work
The value of the Rapa Nui Statue Project is that it supports reconstruction of the prehistoric Rapa Nui human population as a component of ecological, political and esoteric systems. It combines analytical tools with social theory to contribute a unique perspective on island change. It facilitates the semiotic analysis of prehistoric Polynesian spatial organization. It is complementary to other ecological, geographic, economic and social analyses in Pacific Studies, and integrates Rapa Nui into the larger and better understood East Polynesian interaction sphere. Finally, it provides insight into the long-term development of human systems, allowing visualization of historical and ecological linkages of the past with the present and future.

Conservation Value of the Work
The Rapa Nui Statue Project is the world’s largest and most fully detailed archive of moai descriptive data. It spans a time frame of 20 years and includes over10, 000 visual images; 4,000 graphic images; 46,000 metrics and hundreds of pages of fieldnotes and maps. All data are filed on CD-ROM and stored in archival conditions. Comparative analyses illustrate that all moai have been subjected to environmental damage. All restoration, conservation or reconstruction of moai requires or depends upon these data.

Rano Raraku Research
The first modern mapping in Rano Raraku produced a plan and incomplete diagrammatic sketches of the exterior southeast face and interior (Routledge 1919). Later mapping produced diagrammatic sketches (Skjölsvold 1961: Fig. 89). The most complete map to date documents quarries, standing and fallen moai on the exterior (Cristino et al. 1981). In the interior quarries, standing and fallen moai have been localized (ibid.) but not fully documented (Van Tilburg 1986, 1994). Our work will accomplish complete statue and feature documentation in Sections C and D, interior quarries; map the interior fully, and secure photogrammetric data on selected statues.

Field Methods
All methods are non-invasive. No excavations will be conducted during this phase of the work.

a. digital photography, computer filing and analysis;
b. digital mapping;
c. measurements and photogrammetric documentation;
d. sketches and drawings;
e. fieldnotes.

http://ioa.ucla.edu/eisp/history/rrmap/mapdemo/rrmap_intro_fs.htm
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Kerry Lenzendorf
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« Reply #1 on: July 26, 2007, 11:29:40 pm »

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Kerry Lenzendorf
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« Reply #2 on: July 26, 2007, 11:31:00 pm »



Rano Raraku
Section D

En Español

Easter Island Statue Project
Quarry Survey 2003-2005

EISP Team
Dr. Jo Anne Van Tilburg, Director
Cristián Arévalo Pakarati, Co-Investigator

Dr. Peter Boniface, Surveyor
Matthew Bates, Surveyor

Alice Hom, EISP Database Manager
Gordon Hull, Computer Analyst
Debra Isaac, Graphic Artist
Alana Perlin, Graphic Artist
Bill White, Photographer
Cristián Silva Araki, Field Assistant
Susana Nahoe, Field Assistant


 

Nature of Our Work

Mapping
Global Positioning Survey (GPS) of Quarries in Section D, of prone, supine or lateral moai related to Section D, and of all standing moai in Rano Raraku interior

The specific goal of the survey in Section D is to map every statue or possible statue and each quarry found within its boundary; to map the orientations and tilt of all prone, supine, lateral statues in relationship to Section D; to map every standing statue in the interior, and to compile a contour map of the area showing the main topographical features.

We will use three single-frequency Ashtec GPS receivers, providing centimeter level accuracy. The survey is based on an existing GPS station approximately 10 km west of the site. This station was set up by NASA in 1998 and placed our survey on the GPS datum WGS 84 during fieldwork in August, 2002.

Following our practice established in August, 2002, four base stations will be established in Rano Raraku in relation to Section D, and will be marked by steel pegs placed level with the ground. These will be covered by grass and placed away from the main path so that they will not be visible or dangerous to tourists or others. Another three points will be established in the working area Section D and will be marked by wooden pegs, also flush with the ground and away from the path. All pegs will be left in place; we will use them during the remaining of the survey work, and then they will be removed.


Dr. Peter Boniface callibrating equipment at the NASA datum.
© 2002 EISP/JVT/Photo: J. Van Tilburg

In August 2002, the survey was placed on the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) projection zone 12 - the same projection as was used by the previous survey. Thus, we will provide consistent data. There is, however, a significant difference between the 1978 map (cited above) and our survey. Our map is based on a modern Global Positioning Survey (GPS) using the new WGS 84 figure of the earth.

The positions of all moai in Section D, as well as all of those standing outside of it, will be surveyed giving a latitude, longitude and elevation above sea level. The attitude of the statues will also be recorded - the direction the statue faces, the forward slope and the sideways/lateral slope. Points will be surveyed on the quarries sufficient to show the outline of the quarries and other detail, including stepped surfaces, canals, taheta and other features that are clear evidence of carving techniques, methods and quarry use.


Cristián and Matthew surveying the quarry.
© 2004 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Hom

 

Detail Map

In addition to our survey map, described above, in October 2002 we created a hand drawn detail map of each quarry and statue located in Section D. This map, which contains on it the survey reference points, will be used to illustrate specific archaeological and formal details of quarries and statues, and will serve as the reference guide for the computerized development using CAD of the GPS survey map described above.

 

Photography and Metric Documentation

In 1983, 1984 and 1989 we accomplished standard, black and white photography of all standing and fallen statues in the interior and exterior of Rano Raraku. These photographs and negatives are contained in scanned computer files, along with historical photographs, excavation records, measurements, digital photographic records, and photogrammetric documentations. We have also recorded details of rock art superimposed on statues and quarries.


Jo Anne measuring a moai.
© 2003 EISP/JVT/Photo:A. Perlin

Results

Previous investigation (Cristino et al. 1981; Van Tilburg and Vargas 1998) had suggested the probable presence of 30 to 35 statues in Section C. Our map shows a total of 54 features, of which 10 are moai heads; 18 are moai; 2 are torsos; 13 are shaped blocks in the process of becoming moai; 4 are possible moai; 3 are possible heads, and 2 are questionable features that may be moai.

The number of statues in Section D was estimated to be about 60, but the total number of features was not known. A fire had occurred prior to our October-Novermber, 2002 fieldwork, revealing a series of features we designated AF I-AF IX. Three new heads, 1 shaped block (a possible torso), 2 fragments of statues and 3 new portions of papa were exposed. In Section D, we documented 44 moai, 17 heads/faces, and 9 blocks being shaped to form statues.


EISP Database interface.
© 2002-2005 EISP/JVT/Design: A. Hom



Conservation Value of the Work

EISP is the world’s largest and most fully detailed archive of moai descriptive data. It spans a time frame of 20 years and includes over10, 000 visual images; 4,000 graphic images; 46,000 metrics and hundreds of pages of fieldnotes, drawings and maps. All data are filed on CD-ROM and stored in archival conditions at Van Tilburg’s UCLA research unit. Comparative analyses illustrate that all moai have been subjected to environmental damage. Every effort to restore, conserve or reconstruct moai, in or out of Rano Raraku, requires or depends upon these data. We have made detailed records, both visual and narrative, of the stone condition in the interior. It is noteworthy that grass and other vegetation provide a significant hazard to moai integrity.

Public Outreach and Tourist Education

As suggested by CONF, EISP will provide a sign stating the nature of the project for the edification of tourists who pass by during our fieldwork. We have previously offered to accommodate within the project two students selected by the Consejo or other agencies, and continue to offer this educational opportunity. We have discussed with representatives of CONF and CONDI the preparation of an educational brochure for visitors to Rano Raraku, and this is in process. Finally, our records will ultimately be available on CD-ROM.

next: Quarry 12

Separate Field Season Reports:
2002 July-August
2002 October-November
2003
2004

http://ioa.ucla.edu/eisp/history/rrmap/mapdemo/rrmap_D_fs.htm
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Kerry Lenzendorf
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« Reply #3 on: July 26, 2007, 11:32:35 pm »



Rano Raraku
Section C

En Español

Easter Island Statue Project
Quarry Survey 2002-2005

EISP Team
Dr. Jo Anne Van Tilburg, Director
Cristián Arévalo Pakarati, Co-Investigator

Dr. Peter Boniface, Surveyor
Matthew Bates, Surveyor

Alice Hom, EISP Database Manager
Gordon Hull, Computer Analyst
Debra Isaac, Graphic Artist
Alana Perlin, Graphic Artist
Bill White, Photographer
Cristián Silva Araki, Field Assistant
Susana Nahoe, Field Assistant

 

Nature of Our Work

Mapping: Global Positioning Survey (GPS) of Quarries in Section C, of prone, supine or lateral moai related to Section C, and of all standing moai in Rano Raraku interior

The specific goal of the survey in Section C was to map every statue or possible statue and each quarry found within its boundary; to map the orientations and tilt of all prone, supine, lateral statues in relationship to Section C; to map every standing statue in the interior, and to compile a contour map of the area showing the main topographical features.

We used two single-frequency Ashtec GPS receivers, providing centimeter level accuracy. The survey was based on an existing GPS station approximately 10 km west of the site. This station was set up by NASA in 1998 and placed our survey on the GPS datum WGS 84.

Four base stations were established in Rano Raraku on the south side of the volcano and were marked by steel pegs placed level with the ground. These were covered by grass and were placed away from the main path so that they would not be visible or dangerous to tourists or others. Another three points were established in the working area "C" and were marked by wooden pegs, also flush with the ground and away from the path. All pegs were left in place; we will use them during the remaining of the survey work, and then they will be removed.


Peter and Cristián surveying in Rano Raraku.
© 2003 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Perlin

The survey was placed on the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) projection zone 12 - the same projection as was used by the previous survey. Thus, we will provide consistent data. There is, however, a significant difference between the 1978 map (cited above) and our survey. Our map is based on a modern Global Positioning Survey (GPS) using the new WGS 84 figure of the earth.

The positions of all moai in area "C," as well as all of those standing outside of it, were surveyed giving a latitude, longitude and elevation above sea level. The attitude of the statues was also recorded - the direction the statue faced, the forward slope and the sideways/lateral slope. Points were surveyed on the quarries sufficient to show the outline of the quarries and other detail, including stepped surfaces, canals, taheta and other features that are clear evidence of carving techniques, methods and quarry use.


Bill and Cristián surveying a high papa.
© 2003 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Perlin

Detail Map

In addition to our survey map, described above, we have created a hand drawn detail map of each quarry and statue located in Section C. This map, which contains on it the survey reference points, will be used to illustrate specific archaeological and formal details of quarries and statues, and will serve as the reference guide for the computerized development using CAD of the GPS survey map described above.


Detail of Cristián’s sketch map, drawn in the field during the survey.
© 2002-2004 EISP/JVT/Sketch: C. Arévalo P.

Photography and Metric Documentation

In 1983, 1984 and 1989 we accomplished standard, black and white photography of all standing and fallen statues in the interior and exterior of Rano Raraku. These photographs and negatives are contained in scanned computer files, along with historical photographs, excavation records, measurements and other details. During this field season, we took additional color slides of each statue on the interior slopes, as well as details of rock art superimposed on statues and quarries. Further, each new statue found in situ and surveyed in Section C was drawn, measured and photographed.

 
Susana measuring a statue.
© 2003 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Perlin

Results

Previous investigation (Cristino et al. 1981; Van Tilburg and Vargas 1998) had suggested the probable presence of 30 to 35 statues in Section C. Our map shows a total of 54 features, of which 10 are moai heads; 18 are moai; 2 are torsos; 13 are shaped blocks in the process of becoming moai; 4 are possible moai; 3 are possible heads, and 2 are questionable features that may be moai. The number of statues in Section D is estimated to be about 60. The total number of features, however, is not known. The result of this work to date is a clearer understanding of quarry methods, techniques and strategies, as well as a more complete record of the existing features. It is probable, as well, that the final number of statues will exceed the previous estimate.

Conservation Value of the Work

The Rapa Nui Statue Project is the world’s largest and most fully detailed archive of moai descriptive data. It spans a time frame of 20 years and includes over10, 000 visual images; 4,000 graphic images; 46,000 metrics and hundreds of pages of fieldnotes, drawings and maps. All data are filed on CD-ROM and stored in archival conditions at Van Tilburg’s UCLA research unit. Comparative analyses illustrate that all moai have been subjected to environmental damage. Every effort to restore, conserve or reconstruct moai, in or out of Rano Raraku, requires or depends upon these data. We have made detailed records, both visual and narrative, of the stone condition in the interior. It is noteworthy that grass and other vegetation provide a significant hazard to moai integrity.


Detail of lichen growth on the back of a moai.
© 2004 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Hom

http://ioa.ucla.edu/eisp/history/rrmap/mapdemo/rrmap_C_fs.htm
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Kerry Lenzendorf
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« Reply #4 on: July 26, 2007, 11:33:47 pm »



Quarry 2:
Papa Haa Pure

Papa Haa Pure is designated on our Section C survey map as Quarry Two. It is divided into three working quarries or quarry chambers and includes ten statues: standing statues “Papa” (239) and “Papa's Wife” (240) and quarry statues C-2 through C-8. The papa are numbered C.P-6 through C.P-8, and are separated by non-bedrock patches of sometimes very deep grass. Papa C.P-6 and C.P-7 are both largely flat, and C.P-7 is broken into eroded segments. Papa C.P-8 still shows the remnant of at least one canal and one possible shaped block. The carving canals between Moai C-2 and C-7 range in width from 50 cm to 57 cm, with one eroded canal near Moai C-5 being 75 cm wide.

The westernmost chamber of Quarry Two is 2.8 m wide, 2 m high and 1.9 m deep on the west side. The middle or main portion of Quarry Two lies behind Moai C-7 (which is deeply undercut). Here the rear quarry wall is 3.7 m high and contains a distinct line of cupules. The deepest chamber in Quarry Two lies behind Moai C-8. The rear quarry wall here is 3.6 m high.

The non-standing statues in Quarry Two vary in terms of stages of completion. Moai C-2 and C-6 are still largely attached to bedrock, and Moai C-5 (which is a head only visible) appears to be attached as well, although in all three cases the carving canals are in place. Moai C-4 is attached at the head but otherwise undercut. Moai C-3 is undercut. Moai C-7 is the most complete of this group, with rounded undercutting some 47 cm deep along the length of the statue on the east (right) side. The stage of completion for Moai C-8 cannot be accurately judged due to its position and condition. All of the statues in Quarry Two vary in total length (see measurements). All but two of them (C-2 and C-8) were being carved in a head-up, base-down position. Facial features in all cases were complete, although with C-2 and C-8 this statement cannot be verified due to position. It is apparent that the next statue intended for removal from Quarry Two is C-7.

http://ioa.ucla.edu/eisp/history/rrmap/mapdemo/rrmap_Cmoai_fs.htm
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« Reply #5 on: July 26, 2007, 11:36:22 pm »

RR-03C-003




Location: Rano Raraku Quarry 2



Right side view of Moai 3.
© 2002 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Hom

Cross Reference IDs
Mana Expedition: 116/3

Metrics
Overall length: 520 cm


Right side view of Moai 3.
© 2002 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Hom

Statue Descriptions
Object Definition: moai
Position: Supine (face up)
Material: Rano Raraku tuff
Body Shape: Vertically Rectangular
Head Shape: Vertically Rectangular
Forehead Shape: Level or Flat
Profile of Nose: Concave
Base Shape: Somewhat Rectangular
Base Angle: Plane
Tilt: +65
Head Orientation: South
Type: Rectangular
Statue Embellishments/Reuse: unfinished carving




Head of Moai 3 from left side.
© 2002 EISP/JVT/Photo: A. Hom

Field Notes

July 2002: J. Van Tilburg
Moai still fully attached to the quarry. Lots of short pick marks visible about 10-30 cm long and narrow, about 2-3 cm wide and 2 cm deep. Undercut edge of the statue is to the east. This moai and its companion seem to have been cut out of the papa from which C-2 was taken. Undercutting is most complete from head to shoulders. Ears are both partially roughed out. Very badly eroded over the entire surface of the statue. The base nearly meets the base of C-2 below it. Hands, arms barely visible. Canal between base and C-2 is 16 cm wide. Canal between this and companion moai is 65 cm wide. Distance between top of head and quarry is 31 cm. Facial measurements were not taken due to erosion or because the features were not fully detailed or not finished.

1913-1914: K. Routledge, transcribed by J. Van Tilburg
This is statue 116 on the diagrammatic sketch (Routledge 1919:175) and statue 3 in Routlege’s (RGS/WKR) quarry notes, which are as follows:

“3. 15' 1" - crown not hewn base partly hewn Base of head entirely undercut. - body undercutting commenced at sides”

Her table shows that this statue is not undercut at the crown, only partially undercut at the base. She says it is partially also “at head” and that the “entire body [is] partial.”

[Reference: RGS/WKR 1913-1914]

Condition Report

July 2003, J. Van Tilburg

This statue is overall eroded and pulverized on the exposed upper surface. The color varies considerably depending upon the level of water retention present, which is occasionally quite significant. We have assessed this statue three separate times and under differing conditions (rain and dry). The stone surface is extremely friable. Tourists have been seen to walk on the statue.

General Condition: Poor

Context: Direct Exposure: Earth, sand, or soil; Tourist traffic

Stone Structural Problems: Ridged indentations of erosion, Surface pulverization, Decomposing.

Stone Surface Condition: Eroded

Stone Biological Problems: Rainwater retention, lichens.

Color of stone: Brown-black, grey.

Composition of Tuff: Conglomerate inclusions.

http://ioa.ucla.edu/eisp/history/rrmap/mapdemo/rrmap_Cmoai_fs.htm
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Kerry Lenzendorf
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« Reply #6 on: July 26, 2007, 11:40:55 pm »





The monolithic statues of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) are called moai in the Rapanui language. Carved on the island by the ancestors of the current population, approximately 50% of the total of 887 statues documented to date still remain in the immediate vicinity of Rano Raraku, the quarry in which they were produced. The majority of the remaining statues were transported to and erected upon a variety of ceremonial structures called ahu. This feat is one of the great megalithic achievements of Pacific prehistory.



http://ioa.ucla.edu/eisp/
« Last Edit: July 26, 2007, 11:43:41 pm by Kerry » Report Spam   Logged
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« Reply #7 on: August 27, 2007, 03:47:30 pm »

The name of the statues which face towards centre (cf navel) is Moai. In their (Polynesian) mythology the "maybe ancestor of mankind" born in center of the earth was called Moa. Prob whence name Sa-moa, and the bird Moa. Moa could possibly be Noah (also supp = "Ma-noa")Huh [NZ yeti/yowie/sasquatch is called Moehau tho prob not same name.]
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