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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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Author Topic: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  (Read 127 times)
Lisa Wolfe
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« Reply #15 on: November 19, 2009, 02:40:12 am »

After leaving Tinian the aircraft made their way separately to Iwo Jima where they rendezvoused at 2,440 meters (8,000 ft) and set course for Japan. The aircraft arrived over the target in clear visibility at 9,855 meters (32,330 ft). During the journey, Navy Captain William Parsons had armed the bomb, which had been left unarmed to minimize the risks during takeoff. His assistant, 2nd Lt. Morris Jeppson, removed the safety devices 30 minutes before reaching the target area.[22]
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« Reply #16 on: November 19, 2009, 02:41:39 am »



Seizo Yamada's ground level photo taken from approximately 7 km northeast of Hiroshima.
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« Reply #17 on: November 19, 2009, 02:42:05 am »

About an hour before the bombing, Japanese early warning radar detected the approach of some American aircraft headed for the southern part of Japan. An alert was given and radio broadcasting stopped in many cities, among them Hiroshima. At nearly 08:00, the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small—probably not more than three—and the air raid alert was lifted. To conserve fuel and aircraft, the Japanese had decided not to intercept small formations. The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to air-raid shelters if B-29s were actually sighted, but no raid was expected beyond some sort of reconnaissance.
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« Reply #18 on: November 19, 2009, 02:42:21 am »

The release at 08:15 (Hiroshima time) went as planned, and the gravity bomb known as "Little Boy", a gun-type fission weapon with 60 kilograms (130 lb) of uranium-235, took 57 seconds to fall from the aircraft to the predetermined detonation height about 600 meters (2,000 ft) above the city. Due to crosswind, it missed the aiming point, the Aioi Bridge, by almost 800 feet (240 m) and detonated directly over Shima Surgical Clinic.[24] It created a blast equivalent to about 13 kilotons of TNT (54 TJ). (The U-235 weapon was considered very inefficient, with only 1.38% of its material fissioning.)[25] The radius of total destruction was about one mile (1.6 km), with resulting fires across 4.4 square miles (11 km2).[26] Americans estimated that 4.7 square miles (12 km2) of the city were destroyed. Japanese officials determined that 69% of Hiroshima's buildings were destroyed and another 6–7% damaged.[5]

70,000–80,000 people, or some 30%[27] of the population of Hiroshima were killed immediately, and another 70,000 injured.[28] Over 90% of the doctors and 93% of the nurses in Hiroshima were killed or injured—most had been in the downtown area which received the greatest damage.[29]

Although the U.S. had previously dropped leaflets warning civilians of air raids on twelve other Japanese cities,[30] the residents of Hiroshima were given no notice of the atomic bomb.[31][32][33]
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« Reply #19 on: November 19, 2009, 02:43:28 am »



The energy released was powerful enough to burn through clothing. The dark portions of the garments this victim wore at the time of the blast were emblazoned on to the flesh as scars.[23]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki
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« Reply #20 on: November 19, 2009, 02:58:06 am »

God wont be-able to help us, if this ever happen again.   
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« Reply #21 on: November 21, 2009, 02:48:09 am »

That's right.  Today's nuclear weapons are many times more powerful than the ones used in 1945.  They would kill millions in a flash, not the tens of thousands here.

It will happen again someday, probably because of terrorism.
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« Reply #22 on: November 21, 2009, 03:02:24 am »



HIROSHIMA before bombing. Area around ground zero. 1,000 foot circles.
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« Reply #23 on: November 21, 2009, 03:03:19 am »



Hiroshima after the bombing.
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« Reply #24 on: November 21, 2009, 03:04:17 am »

Japanese realization of the bombing

The Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air. He tried to re-establish his program by using another telephone line, but it too had failed.[34] About twenty minutes later the Tokyo railroad telegraph center realized that the main line telegraph had stopped working just north of Hiroshima. From some small railway stops within 16 kilometers (10 mi) of the city came unofficial and confused reports of a terrible explosion in Hiroshima. All these reports were transmitted to the headquarters of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.
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« Reply #25 on: November 21, 2009, 03:04:47 am »

Military bases repeatedly tried to call the Army Control Station in Hiroshima. The complete silence from that city puzzled the men at headquarters; they knew that no large enemy raid had occurred and that no sizeable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time. A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff. It was generally felt at headquarters that nothing serious had taken place and that the explosion was just a rumor.

The staff officer went to the airport and took off for the southwest. After flying for about three hours, while still nearly one hundred miles (160 km) from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb. In the bright afternoon, the remains of Hiroshima were burning. Their plane soon reached the city, around which they circled in disbelief. A great scar on the land still burning and covered by a heavy cloud of smoke was all that was left. They landed south of the city, and the staff officer, after reporting to Tokyo, immediately began to organize relief measures.

By August 8, 1945, newspapers in the U.S. were reporting that broadcasts from Radio Tokyo had described the destruction observed in Hiroshima. "Practically all living things, human and animal, were literally seared to death," Japanese radio announcers said in a broadcast received by Allied sources.[35]
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« Reply #26 on: November 21, 2009, 03:05:53 am »

Post-attack casualties

According to most estimates, the immediate effects of the blast killed approximately 70,000 people in Hiroshima. Estimates of total deaths by the end of 1945 from burns, radiation and related disease, the effects of which were aggravated by lack of medical resources, range from 90,000 to 140,000.[4][36] Some estimates state up to 200,000 had died by 1950, due to cancer and other long-term effects.[1][7][37] Another study states that from 1950 to 1990, roughly 9% of the cancer and leukemia deaths among bomb survivors was due to radiation from the bombs, the statistical excess being estimated to 89 leukemia and 339 solid cancers.[38] At least eleven known prisoners of war died from the bombing.[39]
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« Reply #27 on: November 21, 2009, 03:07:41 am »



Small-scale recreation of the Nakajima area around ground zero.
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« Reply #28 on: November 21, 2009, 03:08:04 am »

Survival of some structures

Some of the reinforced concrete buildings in Hiroshima had been very strongly constructed because of the earthquake danger in Japan, and their framework did not collapse even though they were fairly close to the blast center. Eizo Nomura (野村 英三, Nomura Eizō?) was the closest known survivor, who was in the basement of a modern "Rest House" only 100 m (330 ft) from ground-zero at the time of the attack.[40] Akiko Takakura (高蔵 信子, Takakura Akiko?) was among the closest survivors to the hypocenter of the blast. She had been in the solidly built Bank of Hiroshima only 300 meters (980 ft) from ground-zero at the time of the attack.[41] Since the bomb detonated in the air, the blast was directed more downward than sideways, which was largely responsible for the survival of the Prefectural Industrial Promotional Hall, now commonly known as the Genbaku, or A-bomb Dome. This building was designed and built by the Czech architect Jan Letzel, and was only 150 m (490 ft) from ground zero (the hypocenter). The ruin was named Hiroshima Peace Memorial and was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996 over the objections of the U.S. and China.[42]
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« Reply #29 on: November 21, 2009, 03:09:57 am »

Events of August 7-9

   
Truman announcing the bombing of Hiroshima


President Truman announces the bombing of Hiroshima.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki
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