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Roman Architecture: Engineering an Empire

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Author Topic: Roman Architecture: Engineering an Empire  (Read 1886 times)
Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #15 on: July 16, 2007, 04:06:54 pm »



Aqueduct of Valens, Istanbul, Turkey
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #16 on: July 16, 2007, 04:07:41 pm »

The Romans built aqueducts in most sufficiently large cities in the Empire. Their remains (in some cases still functioning) may be found today in many places.
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« Reply #17 on: July 16, 2007, 04:09:24 pm »



Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct)*
UNESCO World Heritage Site


The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located near Remoulins, in the Gard département.
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #18 on: July 16, 2007, 04:10:33 pm »



Built on three levels, the Pont is 49 m high, and the longest level is 275 m (300 yards) long.

Lower level: 6 arches, 142 m long, 6 m thick, 22 m high
Middle level: 11 arches, 242 m long, 4 m thick, 20 m high
Upper level: 35 arches, 275 m long, 3 m thick, 7 m high
On its first level, it carries a road and at the top of the third level, a water conduit, which is 1.8 meters (6 feet) high and 1.2 meters (4 feet) wide and has a gradient of 0.4 percent.
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #19 on: July 16, 2007, 04:12:44 pm »



Pont du Gard, 1850s

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #20 on: July 16, 2007, 04:13:25 pm »

History

It was long thought that the Pont du Gard was built around the year 19 BC. Newer excavations, however, suggest the construction took place in the middle of the first century A.D. Its construction is attributed to Augustus' son-in-law and aide, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Designed to carry the water across the small Gardon river valley, it was part of a nearly 50 km (31 mi) aqueduct that brought water from springs near Uzès to the Roman city of Nemausus (Nîmes). The full aqueduct had a gradient of 34 cm/km (1/3000), descending only 17 m vertically in its entire length and delivering 20,000 cubic meters (5 million gallons) of water daily.

It was constructed entirely without the use of mortar. The aqueduct's stones – some of which weigh up to 6 tons – are held together with iron clamps. The masonry was lifted into place by block and tackle with a massive human-powered treadmill providing the power for the winch. A complex scaffold was erected to support the aqueduct as it was being built. The face of the aqueduct still bears the mark of its construction, in the form of protruding scaffolding supports and ridges on the piers which supported the semicircular wooden frames on which the arches were constructed. It is believed to have taken about three years to build, employing between 800 and 1,000 workers.

From the fourth century onwards, its maintenance was neglected, and deposits filled up to two thirds of the conduit space. By the ninth century, it became unusable, and the people of the area started using its stones for their own purposes. However, the majority of the Pont du Gard remains impressively intact.

From the Middle Ages to the 18th century, the aqueduct was used as a conventional bridge to facilitate foot traffic across the river. The pillars of the second level were reduced in width to make more room for the traffic, but this jeopardized the stability of the structure. In 1702 the pillars were restored to their original width in order to safeguard the aqueduct. In 1743, a new bridge was built by the engineer Pitot next to the arches of the lower level, so that the road traffic could cross on a purpose-built bridge. The aqueduct was restored in the 18th century, by which time it had become a major tourist site, and was restored again in the reign of Napoleon III in the mid-19th century.

The outstanding quality of the bridge's masonry led to it becoming an obligatory stop for French journeymen masons on their traditional tour around the country (see Compagnons du Tour de France), many of whom have left their names on the stonework. Markings left by the original builders can also be seen, indicating the positions in which the dressed stones were to be placed: for instance, FRS II (standing for frons sinistra II, or "front left 2").

The Pont du Gard was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1985.

In 1998 the Pont du Gard was hit by major flooding which caused widespread damage in the area. The road leading up to it and the neighboring facilities were badly damaged, although the aqueduct itself was not seriously harmed.

The French government sponsored a major redevelopment project in conjunction with local sources, UNESCO and the EU which concluded in 2000, pedestrianising the entire area around the aqueduct and greatly improving the visitor facilities, including establishing a museum on the north bank. The project has been criticized for its cost (€32 million) and for the perceived loss of natural beauty of the surrounding landscape and area. During the redevelopment it was not possible to walk through the conduit at the top of the aqueduct; however guided crossings are now provided by the museum. The redevelopment has ensured that the area around the Pont du Gard is now much quieter due to the removal of vehicle traffic, and the new museum provides a much improved historical context for visitors.

The Pont du Gard is today one of France's top five tourist attractions, with 1.4 million visitors reported in 2001.


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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #21 on: July 16, 2007, 04:18:12 pm »



New (1743) bridge flanking the aqueduct
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« Reply #22 on: July 16, 2007, 04:19:26 pm »



Interior of the Pont du Gard's conduit
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« Reply #23 on: July 16, 2007, 04:23:16 pm »

Eifel Aqueduct



The route of the Eifel aqueduct, with its average slope.

The Eifel Aqueduct was one of the longest aqueducts of the Roman Empire. It shows the great skill of the Roman engineers, whose level of technical achievement was lost in the Middle Ages and regained only in recent times.

The aqueduct, constructed in AD 80, carried water some 95 km (60 miles) from the hilly Eifel region of what is now Germany to the ancient city of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (present-day Cologne). If the auxiliary spurs to additional springs are included, the length was 130 km (80 miles). The construction was almost entirely below ground, and the flow of the water was produced entirely by gravity. A few bridges, including one up to 1,400 m (0.87 miles) in length, were needed to pass over valleys. Unlike some of the other famous Roman aqueducts, the Eifel aqueduct was specifically designed to minimize the above-ground portion to protect it from damage and freezing.
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« Reply #24 on: July 16, 2007, 04:27:06 pm »



Reconstructed aqueduct near Mechernich-Vussem

History

Before the building of the Eifel Aqueduct, Cologne got its water from the Vorgebirge aqueduct, which had its source in the springs and streams from the Ville region to the west of the city. As the city grew, this aqueduct was no longer able to provide enough water of sufficient quality: the springs contained a small amount of silt in the summer, and sometimes even ran dry. A new aqueduct was built to bring water from the springs of the Eifel into the city.

The Eifel aqueduct was built in the northern part of the region. The construction is of concrete with stones forming an arched covering. It had a maximum capacity of approximately 20,000 m³ (4.4  million UK gallons) of drinking water daily. The aqueduct provided water for the fountains, baths, and private homes of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. The aqueduct remained in use until about 260, when the city was first plundered by the German tribes. After this date, it was never brought back into operation, and the city obtained its water from the old Vorgebirge Aqueduct.
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« Reply #25 on: July 16, 2007, 04:29:49 pm »

Caesarea Maritima



Caesarea Maritima (Greek: παράλιος Καισάρεια), also called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 A.D. onwards (originally called only Caesarea:kai Stratônos purgon, hê ktisantos autên Hêrôdou megaloprepôs kai limesin te kai naois kosmêsantos, Kaisareia metônomasthê [1]), was a city built by Herod the Great about 25–13 BC. Today, the city lies on the Mediterranean coast of Israel about halfway between the modern day cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos ("Strato" or "Straton's Tower," in Latin Turris Stratonis). Caesarea Maritima should not be confused with other cities named to flatter the Caesar: Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights or Caesarea Mazaca in Anatolian Cappadocia. The city was described in detail by 1st century Jewish historian Josephus (Jewish Antiquities XV.331ff; Jewish War I.408ff), for the massacre of Jews at this place led to the Jewish rebellion and to the Roman war.
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« Reply #26 on: July 16, 2007, 04:35:20 pm »



Remains of the ancient Roman aqueduct
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« Reply #27 on: July 16, 2007, 04:38:20 pm »

Roman Aqueducts Today

     There were many aqueducts that served Rome as well as ones that provided other Roman cities with water. The Aqua Appia was the first aqueduct to serve Rome. Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Marcia, Aqua Claudia and Aqua Anio Novus were other aqueducts that flowed to Rome. They were supplied by the Anio River. The Aqua Appia was 10.5 miles long. Forty years after the completion of the Appia, the Anio Vetus was being built. It length was 40 miles long. Other aqueducts to Rome included the Aqua Tepula, Aqua Julia, Aqua Virgo, Aqua Alsietina, Aqua Hadriana, and the Aqua Augusta. Ancient Rome and the surrounding countryside must have been quite a site. The beauty and mystery of these incredible structures can still be experienced today. Rome is not the only area in which aqueducts were utilized. Many other countries used the same technology to solve their own water problems. Aqueducts were found in the old Spanish towns of Tarraco, Merida, and Segovia. The Segovia aqueduct probably dates to the first century. Its grandeur and cost of construction would indicate that Segovia was a very important Roman city. However, the city was not on a major road and it was hardly mentioned in ancient sources. Many of the aqueducts were equally splendid but did not survive. The Segovia aqueduct still delivers water to the city. Other aqueducts still in existence are Pont du Gard in France, Aqueduct of Valence in Istanbul , Medieval aqueduct in Sulmona, the old aqueduct at Napoli Sotterranea , the Ottoman Aqueduct, and the remains of an aqueduct beyond the French Rivieria 10 miles south of Mons. Today aqueducts may be found in California . The aqueduct is a technology that has survived the test of time. Yes, aqueducts are history but they are also progress.
 
http://www.dl.ket.org/latin3/mores/aqua/rome.htm
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« Reply #28 on: July 16, 2007, 04:42:47 pm »

Antonine Wall



The Antonine Wall is a stone and turf fortification, built by the Romans across what is now the central belt of Scotland. Although most of the wall has been destroyed over time, sections of the wall can still be seen in Bearsden, Kirkintilloch, Twechar, Croy, Falkirk and Polmont.
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« Reply #29 on: July 16, 2007, 04:43:43 pm »



The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy

Construction of the Antonine Wall began in 142, during the reign of Antoninus Pius, by Quintus Lollius Urbicus and was completed in 144. The wall stretches 60 kilometres (37 miles) from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Bo'ness, Falkirk, on the Firth of Forth. The wall was intended to replace Hadrian's Wall 160 km (100 miles) to the south, as the frontier of Britannia, but while the Romans did establish temporary forts and camps north of the wall, they did not conquer the Caledonians, and the Antonine Wall suffered many attacks. The Romans called the land north of the wall Caledonia, though in some contexts the term may mean the area north of Hadrian's Wall.

The Antonine Wall was inferior to Hadrian's Wall in terms of scale and construction, but it was still an impressive achievement, considering that it was completed in only two years, at the northern edge of the Roman empire in what they perceived as a cold and hostile land. The wall was typically an earth bank, about four metres high, with a wide ditch on the north side, and a military way or road on the south. The Romans initially planned to build forts every six miles, but this was soon revised to every two miles, resulting in a total of 19 forts along the wall. The best preserved but also one of the smallest forts is Rough Castle Fort.

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