Atlantis Online
November 17, 2019, 01:05:23 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: THE SEARCH FOR ATLANTIS IN CUBA
A Report by Andrew Collins
http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/atlantiscuba.htm
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

12 Great Underwater Discoveries

Pages: 1 [2]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: 12 Great Underwater Discoveries  (Read 138 times)
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #15 on: October 14, 2009, 12:27:46 am »



A warship from Kubilia Khan's legendary fleet carried ceramic bombs whose existence was questioned until they were recovered by archaeologists. (KOSUWA)
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #16 on: October 14, 2009, 12:29:17 am »

Flagships of European Sea Powers

Mary Rose

In 1967, diver Alexander McKee, with the help of MIT electrical engineer Harold E. Edgerton who developed side-scan sonar, discovered what he believed to be the wreckage of Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose in the Solent Channel off the southwestern coast of England. After years of excavating layers of silt and clay under the direction of archaeologist Margaret Rule, the preservation of the ship's starboard side and a wealth of artifacts clearly identified the vessel as Mary Rose, by far the most significant find in the nautical archaeology of the Tudor era. In 1982, the vessel was raised and brought ashore to Portsmouth, England, making it the only 16th-century warship on display in the world. Mary Rose was revolutionary in its armament, and a pre-cursor to 17th- century ships-of-the-line. Its inventory of more than 2,000 artifacts, including clothing, food supplies, and personal items such as knives, quills, and book covers provide insight into lower-class Tudor society.
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #17 on: October 14, 2009, 12:30:09 am »



This sole period depiction of Mary Rose is from the 1546 Anthony Roll, an illustrated record of Henry VIII's fleet. (Wikicommons)
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #18 on: October 14, 2009, 12:30:24 am »

Vasa

Built under the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in 1626, the massive Vasa was meant to be both the most powerful warship and the most potent piece of visual political propaganda of the 17th- century. Unfortunately for King Adolphus, the ship's construction was rushed and the vessel was top heavy, causing it to roll and sink minutes into its maiden voyage. Fortunately for archaeologists, the nature of its sinking preserved the vessel in almost pristine condition with four preserved decks, thousands of artifacts, and over 700 decorative sculptures. Vasa was raised in 1961 after being discovered five years earlier by amateur nautical archaeologist Anders Franzen. The only fully preserved 17th- century warship, it has provided invaluable information about warfare, shipbuilding and the general life of Swedish sailors of that century. Additionally, much of the rigging, masts, and sails of the ship have been restored, providing visitors to the Vasa Museum in Stockholm with a look at how the ship must have looked just before it set off on its fateful maiden voyage.
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #19 on: October 14, 2009, 12:30:59 am »



The restored 17th-century Swedish warship Vasa, which sank just off of Stockholm in 1628. (ship: Wikicommons/Georg Dembowsk; stern: Wikicommons/Andy Carvin)
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #20 on: October 14, 2009, 12:32:36 am »

The War Between the States at Sea

Two of the most innovative 19th-century warships were lost at sea during the U.S. Civil War

USS Monitor

Late in the summer of 1861, the United States Navy received reports of the near completion of Confederate ironclad warship CSS Virginia. The Union scrambled to develop a counter measure, and began accepting designs for the construction of its own ironclad. Engineer John Ericsson won the design competition, presenting a model with an armored revolving turret containing two guns, and a deck only 18 inches above shoreline. These innovations allowed the vessel, dubbed the USS Monitor, to both aim at opposing ships regardless of its orientation and avoid easy targeting. Clashing in the battle of Hampton Roads off southeast Virginia in March of 1862, Monitor and Virginia heralded a new era of naval warfare, one dominated by vessels powered by steam and constructed entirely of iron plates. Sunk in a storm in December 1862, much of Monitor still rests submerged off the coast of North Carolina. In 1975, the site became the first National Marine Sanctuary, and was designated a National Historic landmark in 1986. Several segments of the ship have been raised, and can be viewed at the Mariner's Museum in Newport News, Virginia.
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #21 on: October 14, 2009, 12:33:25 am »



The ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia clashed in the Battle of Hampton Roads in March, 1862. Much of Monitor, including its revolving turret, has been recovered. (Courtesy NOAA)
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #22 on: October 14, 2009, 12:33:47 am »

H.L. Hunley

At the same time as the ironclads were being rushed into production, the Confederacy was developing an innovative underwater military vessel: the submarine. Launched in 1863, the H.L. Hunley was the culmination of years of unsuccessful submarine designs by marine engineers Horace L. Hunley, James McClintock, and Baxter Watson. Hand propelled by seven men and steered by one, Hunley became the first submarine to successfully attack an enemy warship, sinking the USS Housatonic in February, 1864 with an electronically detonated spar torpedo. The vessel however never returned to harbor, and the mystery of its disappearance was not solved until it was raised in August 2000 (www.hunley.org). Submerged in silt, the sub and its contents were incredibly well preserved, allowing archaeologists to conclude that the vessel sank when its crew lost consciousness due to a lack of oxygen.

http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/underwater/civilwar.html
Report Spam   Logged
Stingray
Full Member
***
Posts: 29



« Reply #23 on: October 14, 2009, 12:34:12 am »



The remains of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley undergoing conservation (Courtesy Friends of the Hunley)
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: 1 [2]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy