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the Land of Punt

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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #15 on: July 12, 2007, 03:12:06 pm »

Two scenes found within the funerary temple


The Sun -Temple of Userkaf - 'Stronghold of Re'

Although his pyramid was built at Saqqara, Userkaf began a new building project at Abusir - that of the Sun temple, this signifies the with the beginnings of the Fifth Dynasty - the cult of Re at Heliopolis takes on new importance. Following the building of this first solar temple, following members of the dynasty would not also build their sun-temples at Abusir but also their pyramids (written sources state that there were six temples built here, but only four are known). Although the site had extensively quarried for stone in acient times, when Herbert Ricke excavated in 1955-7, enough was left for its basic plan to be mapped out. Userkaf's temple was built in several successive periods (the 1st phase being the temple being perhaps nothing more than a symbolic mound surrounded with a wall, 2nd phase a granite obelisk added to the top of the mound, a building clad in quartzite and granite replacing the original mound. 3rd phase the enclosure and area around the obelisks completely rebuilt (it is thought that it was the later king, Niuserre that added an inner enclosure wall and chambers of limestone. In the 4th phase a mudbrick altar was added - the Palermo stone states that two oxen and two geese were sacrificed daily in this temple.


phases 1,2 and 3 (diagrams not to scale)

Both queens had their own separate pyramids within their own enclosures. Iput's pyramid was originally built as a mastaba tomb but was later altered into a pyramid by Pepi I (her son). The pyramid had a height of 15.75m - it was built directly over the burial shaft of the Masataba. Although Iput's burial had been disturbed, her skeleton was still intact - part of a necklace, a gold bracelet and 5 canopic jars were also found.

Little now remains of Khuit's pyramid - its estimated original height of 20m has now shrunk down to a mere 7m.


http://members.tripod.com/~ib205/userkaf.html
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #16 on: July 12, 2007, 03:12:48 pm »

Hatshepsut wearing the nemes headdress

Dynasty 18, reign of Hatshepsut (1473-1458 BC)

Red granite, H 66 inches


The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Daughter of of King Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose, Hatshepsut became Queen when her husband and half-brother Thutmose II succeeded his father. Thutmose and Hatshepsut had a daughter together. Thutmose II declared this son (Thutmose III) his successor before he died in his early thirties. When Thutmose III inherited the throne he was still a child so his step-mother/aunt acted as his regent.


She took the title "King of Upper and Lower Egypt". She had herself portrayed in all the trappings of the kings including a false beard. This apparently caused a great deal of difficulty for those doing inscriptions. Within the same inscription she is often refered to as king and later as queen.


Hatshepsut was one of the first women rulers in history and one of only a handful of female egyptian kings. Her reign was generally peaceful and she increased the trade borders of the country.

http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/hatshepsut.html
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #17 on: July 12, 2007, 03:13:15 pm »

DIONYSOS & THE PILLARS OF INDIA

Dionysos in his wanderings was said to have erected pillars the pillars at the end of the earth in India. Presumably these were the world pillars believed to hold up the sky.

"[Dionysos] traversed Thrake and the whole of India and set up pillars there." - Apollodorus, The Library 2.29

"In India, too, there are no Pillars, it is said, either of Herakles or of Dionysos to be seen standing, and, of course, when certain of the places there were spoken of or pointed out to the Makedonians, they believed to be the Pillars those places only in which they found some sign of the stories told about Dionysos or of those about Herakles." - Strabo, Geography 3.5.6


http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/DionysosMyths3.html#India
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #18 on: July 12, 2007, 03:13:49 pm »

From Atalante:

The "determinative" at the end of the hieroglyphic name Punt means "land (outside Egypt)".

Now lets look at the "biliteral hieroglyph" that occurs in the middle of the word for Punt. (as drawn at http://www.maat-ka-ra.de/english/punt/puntlage.htm

That biliteral is a "rabbit", which is normally pronounced "wen".

Here is a link which not only shows the rabbit biliteral, but also breaks the "rabbit" down into its official component hieroglyph elements.

http://www.greatscott.com/hiero/hiero_bilit.html

According to Critias (and according to Erick, here on the AR bulletin board about a year ago) this breaking down of hieroglyph symbols is exactly what Solon did while he was studying the Atlantis source material in Egypt, ca 570 BC.

To the best of my knowledge, Erick never tried to analyze the word Punt.

Amazingly enough, I may be the first person to propose a "Punt = rabbit land = Spain" theory.

Our modern word for "Spain" was originally selected by Phoenicians because the name meant
"land of rabbits" in Phoenician language.
quote from:
http://www.wwf.org.uk/news/n_0000002518.asp

Land of the rabbits has lost its bunnies...
Thursday 13 April 2006
A tragedy is unfolding in Spain, "the land of the rabbits," this Easter, leaving one of Europe's most exciting ecosystems seriously threatened.
A collapse in the number of rabbits in the Iberian peninsula, the region where the European or "true" rabbit evolved, is pushing some of Europe's most charismatic species - including the Iberian lynx and the Spanish Imperial eagle to the brink of extinction.

Spain is so inextricably linked to rabbits that even the name "Espa˝a" is derived from the Phoenician word I-shephan-im or Ishaphan which, roughly translated, means "land of the rabbits".

endquote

The above comments mesh together nicely when we review the voyage which Pharoah Necco II financed to circumnavigate Africa, ca 600 BC.

That 600 BC voyage was made by Phoenician sailors. They were almost certainly trying to find the legendary land of Punt. And they did find Spain, which they, consequently, named the "land of rabbits".
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #19 on: July 12, 2007, 03:15:05 pm »

Rich:

http://www.bu.edu/bridge/archive/2005/03-18/archaeologist.html
http://science.monstersandcritics.com/news/article_1088919.php/Ancient_ship_remains_are_unearthed_at_Egyptian_Red_Sea_port

http://www.maat-ka-ra.de/english/punt/puntlage.htm
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #20 on: July 12, 2007, 03:15:33 pm »

Boreas:

Commiphora wightii (Guggul or Mukul myrrh tree) is a flowering plant in the family Burseraceae. The guggul plant may be found from northern Africa to central Asia, but is most common in northern India. It prefers arid and semi-arid climates and is tolerant of poor soil.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_mukul
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #21 on: July 12, 2007, 03:16:29 pm »

Brooke:

Ethiopic Writing System

Ethiopic is an African Writing System designed as a meaningful and graphic representation of knowledge. It is a component of the African Knowledge Systems and one of the signal contributions made by Africans to world history and cultures. It is created to holistically symbolize and locate the cultural and historical parameters of the Ethiopian people. The System, in its classic state, has a total of 182 syllographs, which are arranged in seven columns, each column containing 26 syllographs. Ethiopic is a knowledge system because it is brilliantly organized to represent philosophical features, such as ideography, mnemonics, syllography, astronomy, and grammatology. To view the Ethiopic numeric system visit the following site: http://www.library.cornell.edu/africana/Writing_Systems/Geez.html

http://www.ccsu.edu/afstudy/upd6-1.html
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Kothar Bishop
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« Reply #22 on: July 12, 2007, 03:17:24 pm »

CHAPTER II.
OLD ETHIOPIA--ITS PEOPLE.


Because of the great lapse. of time, it seems almost impossible to locate the original seat of the old Ethiopian empire. Bochart thought it was "Happy Araby," that from this central point the Cushite race spread eastward and westward. Some authorities like Gesenius thought it was Africa. The Greeks looked to old Ethiopia and called the Upper Nile the common cradle of mankind. Toward the rich luxurience of this region they looked for the "Garden of Eden." From these people of the Upper Nile arose the oldest traditions and rites and from them sprang the first colonies and arts of antiquity. The Greeks also said that Egyptians derived their civilization and religion from Ethiopia. "Egyptian religion was not an original conception, for three thousand years ago she had lost all true sense of its real meaning among even the priesthood." (Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection--Preface.) Yet Egyptian forms of worship are understood and practiced among the Ethiopians of Nubia today. The common people of Egypt never truly understood their religion, this was why it so easily became debased.

Ptolemaic writers said that Egypt was formed of the mud carried down, from Ethiopia, that

p. 28

[paragraph continues] Ethiopians were the first men that ever lived, the only truly autochthonous race and the first to institute the worship of the gods and the rites of sacrifice. Egypt itself was a colony of Ethiopia and the laws and script of both lands were naturally the same; but the hieroglyphic script was more widely known to the vulgar in Ethiopia than in Egypt. (Diodorus Siculus, bk. iii, ch. 3.) This knowledge of writing was universal in Ethiopia but was confined to the priestly classes alone in Egypt. This was because the Egyptian priesthood was Ethiopian. The highly developed Merodic inscriptions are not found in Egypt north of the first cataract or in Nubia south of Soba. These are differences we would expect to find between a colony and a parent body. Herodotus (bk. ii, p. 29) says that Meroe was a great city and metropolis, most of its buildings were of red brick. 800 B. C. at Napata, the buildings were of hard stone. (Meroe--Crowfoot, pp. 6, 30.)

The Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature says, "There is every reason to conclude that the separate colonies of priestcraft spread from Meroe into Egypt; and the primeval monuments in Ethiopia strongly confirm the native traditions, reported by Diodorus Siculus, that the worship of Zeus-Ammon originated in Meroe, also the worship of Osiris. This would render highly probable the opinion that commerce, science and art descended into Egypt from the Upper Nile. Herodotus called the Ethiopians "Wisemen occupying the Upper Nile, men of long life, whose manners and customs pertain to the Golden Age,

p. 29

those virtuous mortals, whose feasts and banquets are honored by Jupiter himself." In Greek times, the Egyptians depicted Ethiopia as an ideal state. The Puranas, the ancient historical books of India, speak of the civilization of Ethiopia as being older than that of Egypt. These Sanskrit books mention the names of old Cushite kings that were worshipped in India and who were adopted and changed to suit the fancy of the later people of Greece and Rome.

The Hindu Puranas speak of the Cushites going to India before they went to Egypt, proving Hindu civilization coeval with that of Chaldea and the country of the Nile. These ancients record that the Egyptians were a colony drawn out from Cusha-Dwipa and that the Palli, another colony that made the Phoenicians followed them from the land of Cush. In those primitive days, the central seat of Ethiopia was not the Meroe of our day, which is very ancient, but a kingdom that preceeded it by many ages; that was called Meru. Lenormant spoke of the first men of the ancient world as "Men of Meru." Sanskrit writers called Indra, chief god of the Hindu, king of Meru. He was deified and became the chief representative of the supreme being. Thus was primitive India settled by colonists from Ethiopia. Early writers said there was very little difference in the color or features of the people of the two countries.

Ancient traditions told of the deeds of Deva Nahusha, another sovereign of Meru, who extended his empire over three worlds. The lost

p. 30

literature of Asia Minor dealt with this extension of the Ethiopian domain. An old poem "Phrygia," was a history of Dionysus, one of the most celebrated of the old Ethiopians. It was written in a very old language and character. He preceeded Menes by many ages. Baldwin says that the authentic books that would have given us the true history concerning him, perished long before the Hellenes. The Greeks of historical times distorted the story of Dionysus and converted him into their drunken god of wine. "They misconstrued and misused the old Cushite mythology, wherever they failed to understand it, and sought to appropriate it entirely to themselves." One of the poetical versions of the taking of Troy, on the coast of Asia Minor, was entitled "The Ăthiops," because the inhabitants of Troy, as we shall prove later, who fought so valiantly in the Trojan war, were Cushite Ethiopians. This version presented the conflict as an Egyptian war.

In those early ages Egypt was under Ethiopian domination. In proof of this fact, the Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature says, "Isaiah often mentions Ethiopia and Egypt in close political relations. In fine the name of Ethiopia chiefly stood as the name of the national and royal family of Egypt. In the beginning Egypt was ruled from Ethiopia. Ethiopia was ruined by her wars with Egypt, which she sometimes subdued and sometimes served." Modern books contain but little information about the country of the Upper Nile, but archaic books were full of the story of the

p. 31

wonderful Ethiopians. The ancients said that they settled Egypt. Is it possible that we could know more about the origin of this nation than they? Reclus says, "The people occupying the plateau of the Blue Nile, are conscious of a glorious past and proudly call themselves Ethiopians." He calls the whole triangular space between the Nile and the Red Sea, Ethiopia proper. This vast highland constituted a world apart. From it went forth the inspiration and light now bearing its fruit in the life of younger nations.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/we/we05.htm
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