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PIRI REIS AND THE HAPGOOD HYPOTHESIS

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Bianca
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« Reply #30 on: July 11, 2007, 07:52:00 am »



Bartholomew Columbus/Alessandro Zorzi, sketch map, Africa
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« Reply #31 on: July 11, 2007, 07:56:44 am »

« Last Edit: November 11, 2007, 10:14:03 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #32 on: July 11, 2007, 08:00:51 am »







                                            PIRI REIS AND THE COLUMBIAN THEORY


 
Written by Paul Lunde


Until the discovery of the Piri Reis map, there were only two cartographical sources, both indirect, for how Columbus viewed his discoveries.


One was a sketch made about 1525 by a certain Alessandro Zorzi of Venice, who said it was based on a map brought to Italy by Columbus' brother Bartholomew in 1506. Unfortunately, Zorzi's map also embodies information not known in 1506 and cannot, therefore, be used as evidence of Columbus' geographical notions, although it does show the New World as a part of the Asian mainland.


The only other surviving map going back to Columbus' own voyages is one drawn by Juan de la Cosa, who was a member of Columbus' first expedition of 1492 and who later sailed with Vespucci. But this map too, traditionally dated 1500, incorporates information that was not known to Columbus. For example, it shows Cuba as an island - yet Columbus not only believed Cuba to be part of the mainland of Asia but made each of his crew members swear that it was not an island.


This is why Kahle's 1931 lecture on the Piri Reis map so electrified his audience. It seemed almost miraculous that the only direct cartographical record of the greatest discovery of all time should have been preserved in a library in Istanbul, and that we should owe its preservation to an admiral of the Ottoman navy.

Oddly enough, however, few scholars since Paul Kalile seem to have carefully examined the "Columbian" portions of the Piri Reis map, and the question of whether or not - and to what degree - it represents Columbus' ideas is still far from settled.
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« Reply #33 on: July 11, 2007, 08:07:02 am »







                                                    T H E   M A P  O F   P I R I   R E I S




 The Piri Reis map is drawn on gazelle hide, with a web of lines criss-crossing the Atlantic. Called "rhumb lines" they are typical of late medieval manners'charts, and most scholars believe do not indicate latitude and longitude, but were used as an aid in laying a course.


Among the map's illustrations are two lozenges, which give the scale, and beautifully drawn ships, some accompanied by inscriptions which record important discoveries (see pages 24 and 25). One is almost certainly an account of the expedition of Cabral in 1500; Cabral discovered Brazil when he was blown off course across the Atlantic while on his way to India.


The Iberian Peninsula and the coast of west Africa are carefully drawn, in a manner suggesting the style of the practical mariners' charts called "portolanos" Here many of the place names are given in Turkish, rather than being merely transliterated from Portuguese or Spanish—showing that the Ottomans had practical experience of their own along those coasts.


At the top of the map is a ship anchored near a fish, with two people sitting on its back. The accompanying inscription tells a tale from the life of the Irish Saint Brandon, a charming medieval legend. Faithfully copied by Piri Reis from one of his source maps, it is evidence that at least one of the mappaemundi-maps of the world - mentionedas sources by Piri Reis was a medieval European production and not a map of the "ancient sea kings"


Another immediately striking feature of the map is the number of islands, most of them legendary, and some of them adorned with parrots. Maps showing islands scattered through the Atlantic were current in thelater Middle Ages, and a globe made by Martin Behaim in 1492 - the same year Columbus first set off-shows a quantity of them; so does the Toscanelli map, which we know Columbus used.
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« Reply #34 on: July 11, 2007, 08:09:33 am »









                                                T H E   C A R I B B E AN




With regard to the Hapgood hypotheses, the Caribbean portion of the Piri Reis map is particularly important. In its northwest corner, for example, there is a large island labeled Hispaniola - today the home of Haiti and the Dominican Republic - which Columbus discovered on his first voyage and where he set up a colony, marked by the three towers on the map. Immediately below Hispaniola is Puerto Rico, and to the northeast is a group of 11 islands labeled Undizi Vergine - "The Eleven Virgins" The fact that this name is in a recognizable form of Italian -as opposed toPortugucse-is evidence, as Kahlepointed out, of its Columbian origin. This part of the Piri Reis map is thus not based on maps from the ancient civilization postulated by Hapgood.


Further evidence is the fact that the map of the Caribbean area is so wildly inaccurate. Hapgood attempted to bring it into line with geographic reality by postulating an equidistant projection based on a point near Cairo, identifying the island clearly labeled Hispaniola as Cuba, and re-orienting the entire Caribbean regions—which is seriously forcing the evidence. Not only is Hispaniola—Hapgood's "Cuba"—grossly out of proportion to Brazil, for example, but it is oriented north-south rather than east-west. Most striking of all, it is almost identical to the conventional represen tations of Marco Polo's "Cipangu"—that is, Japan—on late medieval maps such as Behaim's and Toscanelli's. Why? Probably because Columbus was convinced, on his first voyageat least, that he had found the fabled Cipangu (japan), and he may have drawn Hispaniola in this shape to support his claim.


An even more important argument for the Columbian origin of this part of the map and against its classical or "ancient"origin - unless Hapgood's ancient mariners were very bad cartographers indeed - is the fact that the real Cuba, as an island, is missing. And so it should be on a Columbian map, for Columbus thought Cuba was part of the mainland of Asia, and drew it accordingly. On Piri Reis' map, the wedge-shaped projection on the mainland opposite Hispaniola is almost certainly the eastern tip of Cuba; the southward-trending coast below is an attempt to draw Cuba as if it ran north and south—as Columbus believed it did. It is interesting that Behaim's globe and other maps influenced by Marco Polo's description of Cathay show a very similar wedge-shaped projection opposite the island of Cipangu; if Columbus thought he was off the coast of Asia, he may have drawn the mainland this way to correspond to its then conventional representation.
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« Reply #35 on: July 11, 2007, 08:11:28 am »



                                                  S O U T H   A M E R I C A



The delineation of the coast of Brazil on the Piri Reis map is much more accurate than that of the Caribbean. The relationship and distance between South America and the west African coast, for example, is much more correct than on most European maps of the time - and the place names along the coast, clearly transliterated from Italian and Spanish names, are taken from accounts of the voyages of Amerigo Vespucci and others.


The most striking topographical detail, and the one that has caused the most discussion, is the chain of mountains running through South America - the mountains which Hapgood identified as the Andes. The rivers which issue from their base are obviously meant to be the Amazon, the Orinoco and the Rio Plata, and the animal with two horns standing on the mountains is Hapgood's "llama". Interestingly, though, the Piri Reis map is not the only early map -

                                                         
                                                                 NICOLO DE CANERIO MAP

 nor the first - to show mountains in the interior of South America. The Nicolo de Canerio map, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, and the Waldseemuller chart both show the east coast of South America, though
schematically drawn, and a chain of mountains adorned with trees. The de Canerio map was drawn between 1502 and 1504 - long before the eastern coast of South America had been explored. As there is a striking similarity between this map and the Piri Reis map, it is therefore possible that one of Piri Reis'source maps was based on that of de Canerio rather than on one produced by an ancient civilization. Other maps showing the east coast of South


MARTIN WALDSEEMULLER MAP

America may also have been available in some form to Piri Reis -such as the maps of Martin Waldseemuller (1507), Glareanus (1510) and Johannes de Stobnicza (1512). All of these are related to each other and, almost without question, ultimately derive from a de Canerio-derived map.

                       
                         JOHANNES DE STOBNICZA MAP
The map by Johannes de Stobnicza, in particular, could - have been available to Piri Reis, for it was printed in Cracow, Poland, in an edition of Ptolemy, in 1512, the year before the Piri Reis map was drawn. Thus it could have been one of the maps "drawn in the time of Alexander the Great" which Piri Reis refers to—especially considering the confusion that existed between the two Ptolemies.
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« Reply #36 on: July 11, 2007, 08:14:04 am »







               A N T A R C T I C A   A N D   T H E   E A S T W A R D - T R E N D I N G   C O A S T




This portion of the map was crucial to Hapgood's hypotheses, yet it too could have been derived from sources other than a forgotten advanced civilization. While none of the maps derived from de Canerio's shows an Antarctic continent, other groups of early maps do. Beginning in the early 15th century, mapmakers often indicated a huge southern landmass that linked Africa to Asia and made a landlocked sea of the Indian Ocean–a geographical notion derived from Ptolemy's references to a "southern land". When Magellan passed through the strait that now bears his name, he sighted Tierra del Fuego to the south and assumed that it was a promontory of Ptolemy's southern landmass; it was not until Drake's southern voyage of 1578 that this idea too was exploded.


The search for terra australis went on for centuries—incidentally leading to the discovery of the land which now fittingly bears the name that so fascinated Renaissance cartographers: Australia. But Antarctica itself eluded the great discoverers.


There are, however, some indications that the coast of Antarctica was sighted before its "official" discovery in 1820. The great Amerigo Vespucci related how, blown off course and driven 500 miles south, he sighted a land which he named Terra da Vista - "Land Seen" - and which was possibly the Falklands or even Antarctica. In 1514, theyear after the completion of the Piri Reis map, two Portuguese ships reported something similar, as did two Dutch ships about the same time: also blown off course, they sighted land and named it "Pressillgtlandt". Whatever land was sighted on these obscure voyages, the accounts prove one thing: there was no inherent impossibility in a 16th-century ship getting a long way south.


There may, in fact, bean even simpler explanation of the presence of "Antarctica" on the Piri Reis map. To start with, as Hapgood admits, about 900 miles of South American coastline are missing from the map: below the Rio de la Plata the coast simply turns eastward. And, interestingly, if this eastward section of coast is looked at vertically - that is, as continuing south instead of east (see page 21) - it does bear a remarkable resemblance to the actual east coast of South America from below Rio de la Plata down to Tierra del Fuego. Some of the smaller coastal features, moreover, jibe with a modern map as well, and the small group of three islands (Ma de Sara) could then be identified as the Falkland Islands, and the wedge-shaped projection at the most easterly point of the line could correspond to the tip of South America.



To put it more simply, Piri Reis, or the scribe who copied his work, may have realized, as he came to the Rio de la Plata, that he was going to run off the edge of his valuable parchment if he continued south. So he did the logical thing and turned the coastline to the east, marking the turn with a semicircle of crenelations, so that he could fit the entire coastline on his page. If that was the case, then the elaborate Hapgood hypotheses - or at least those elements based entirely on the Piri Reis map - would have no foundation whatever.
 


AUTHOR:

Paul F. Hoye, Editor of Aramco World and formerly a reporter and columnist on The Providence Journal, studied Middle East affairs at Columbia University under the Advanced International Reporting Program. Paul Lunde is a graduate of London's School of Oriental and African Studies, and is currently working on Arabic manuscripts in the Vatican Library in Rome.






www.saudiaramcoworld.com
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« Reply #37 on: July 11, 2007, 11:42:32 am »






                                   

                                      FRANCESCO ROSSELLI MAP




As far as is known, the first cartography to indicate a southern continent was by the great Leonardo da Vinci himself, who depicted it on a globe and the planispheric map made by Francesco Rosselli. Dated to about 1508, the globe shows a vast land below Africa, labelled Antarcticus. In 1515 a southern continent was shown on another globe made by Schoner. But Finé's continent is more exactly drawn than those of his predecessors and in fact - as can be seen from the illustrations - the great Mercator adopted Finé's version of the shape of the continent wholesale, along with a similar Latin inscription: "It is certain that there is a land here, but what its limits and boundaries are is unknown"

www.saudiaramco.com


One possible explanation appeared in a longer inscription on a map by Cornelius de Judaeis dated 1593. It says that a promontory of this land was "discovered by the Portuguese, but they did not explore the interior. This reference to the Portuguese is interesting, for Finé inscribes a portion of the Antarctic continent, "Regio Brasilis", "the region of Brazil" - which might imply Portuguese discovery.


Furthermore, the coastline that turns eastward on the Piri Reis map - identified by Hapgood with the coast of Queen Maud Land - also bears a curious inscription referring to the Portuguese. It reads: "It is related by the Portuguese that on this spot, night and day are, at their shortest period, of two hours duration, and at longest phase, of twenty-two hours. "Unfortunately, this tantalizing bit of information - which would certainly suggest Antarctic latitudes - is vitiated by what immediately follows: "But the day is very warm and in the night there is much dew" 
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« Reply #38 on: November 11, 2007, 09:37:25 pm »








Above, you have Athanasius Kircher's map (1669).


 

Kircher was a Jesuit German priest, who lived between 1602-1680. He published "Mundus Subterraneus", a book containing a map of Atlantis according to ancient Egyptian maps. The original map was taken from Egypt by the Romans, probably around 30 B.C.

Some claim that Kircher's island looks like the Antarctica on Piri Reis' map, and like nowadays Antarctica without the ice. The inscriptions on the continents say: "America, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis, Africa, Spain". In the upper corner: "Site of Atlantis, now beneath the sea, according to the beliefs of the Egyptians and the description of Plato".

 

Being based on Egyptian maps, in Kircher's map north becomes south. The compass should point up, not down, so then the map would become the way we are used to it now: Africa and Spain, the Strait of Gibraltar on the right, and America, on the left.

According to Hapgood, 15,000 years ago, Antarctica was 2500 miles North of where it is now. Also, Reality TV said that once Antarctica was found where Sahara is now.

Once the map is reversed, you can see the resemblance. However, Kircher's Atlantis looks like an Antarctica without the ice cap.

However, this map is also the reason why Atlantis is being searched in Azores.

The question being asked by the Atlantis believers is if it is more likely to look for Atlantis on an island that moved thousands of kilometers south to reach Antarctica's position now and mostly ignore Plato's story, or to search for it in the Azores, where the tops of the volcanoes are still on land.


http://atlantis.haktanir.org/ch3.html
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