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History of Humanity

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Author Topic: History of Humanity  (Read 3008 times)
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« Reply #60 on: August 28, 2009, 05:27:09 pm »

2,000 B.C. - Middle Kingdom / Egypt - "By the year 2,000 B.C. Egypt was reportedly just recovering from a period of feudalism in which both the economy and military power declined. At the opening of the 20th century B.C., Egypt had established a centralized government once again. This was the 'Middle Kingdom' under the rulers of the 12th Dynasty [as opposed to the 'Old Kingdom' of the pyramid-builders]."

2,000 B.C. - Baalbek - "Situated in the Bekaa Valley, it was dedicated to Baal, the Phoenician god of rain and sun. During the period of Roman rule, Alexander the Great, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Hadrian and Caracalla all had a hand at restoring Baalbek�s temples, which dated to the 2nd millennium B.C., and building new ones. In 748 the Arabs came and in 1,400, the Mongol chieftain, Tamerlane."�

2,000 B.C. - Minoan Civilization - "Reportedly, 'Crete was the cradle of the Minoan Civilization, which spanned roughly from 2,000 B.C to 1,200 B.C. In addition to incredible frescoes, indoor plumbing (!), the Minoans also developed the first written system of Europe.' "

2,000 B.C. - Cappadocia - "The Hittites lived around what is now Cappadocia. They mixed with the already-settled Hatti and were followed by the Lydians, Phrygians, Byzantines, Romans and Greeks. The name Cappadocia comes from the Hittite for 'land of pretty horses'."

2,000 B.C. - Mithraism - "According to Persian mythology, Mithras was born of a virgin given the title 'Mother of God'. The name Mithras was the Persian word for 'contract.' Mithras was also known throughout Europe and Asia by the names Mithra, Mitra, Meitros, Mihr, Mehr, and Meher. The veneration of this God began about 4,000 years ago in Persia, where it was soon imbedded with Babylonian doctrines."

2,000 B.C. - Xia Dynasty / China - "According to popular history, the Xia dynasty [2,000-1,500 B.C.] is believed to be the first prehistoric Chinese dynasty."

2,000 B.C. - Chinese Pyramids - "According to Childress [Lost Cities of China..., Adventures Unlimited 1991], China's Great Pyramid is said to be at least 4,000 years old, and likely much older. It is said that its sides were originally painted black on the North, blue-gray [or faded green] on the East, red on the South, white on the West, and yellow on the top Center platform."

2,000 B.C. - Caucasian Mummies / China - "Cherchen Man [a six-foot tall male Caucasian dead for about 3,000 years and buried in non-native garments made of wool], along with dozens of other perfectly preserved mummies found in Turkestan, in western China, has stood archaeology on its ears. When the earliest of these Central Asian corpses, nestled into the sands of tarim basin, about 2,000 B.C. or a little after, the pyramids of Egypt had already stood for half a millennium, but the best known pharaohs, Ramesses II and King Tut were rather more than five hundred years into the future. Next door in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians were already dying out and Hammurabi was soon to set up his famous law code; the Greeks and Romans had not yet even arrived in Greece and Italy from the northeast. On the other hand, 'Ice Man,' the late Stone Age body found in 1991 by hikers in the Alps, had died well over a thousand years before."

2,000 B.C. - Incas - "Archaeologists have found evidence to show that the Incan culture grew out of a long slow development of civilization in the valley of Cusco and neighboring areas. The ancestors of the Incans lived in Peru as early as 2,000 B.C."

1,971 B.C. - Sesostris I / Egypt�- "Sesostris I rules in Egypt."

1,958�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -
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« Reply #61 on: August 28, 2009, 05:27:22 pm »

1,953 B.C. - Planetary Conjunction - "The five visible planets - Saturn, Venus, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter - were believed to be the ministers of Shangdi, the Lord on High. Their conjunction in the predawn sky of February 1,953 B.C. was thought to indicate Shangdi's conferral of the right to rule on the Xia Dynasty."

1,944 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

1,937 B.C. - 12th Egyptian Dynasty �- "A traditional date for the 12th Egyptian Dynasty �[1937 B.C.-1908 B.C.]."

1,900 B.C. - Amorites / Mesopotamia - Reportedly: "Around 1,900 B.C., a group of Semites - Canaanites - called the Amorites - had managed to gain control of most of the Mesopotamian region. Reportedly the Amorite name means 'the high one.' " Link: 1

1,900 B.C. - Amorites / Palestine - "Palestine was invaded by North Western Semites who came from Asia Minor, these Indo-Aryans nomadic desert tribes destroyed most of the cities in Palestine by 1900 B.C., they were a tall fair race they were called the Amorite [from the Babylonian word Amurru 'westerner']. The Amorites settled first in the Northern and the Eastern parts of Palestine then settled as Hill tribes in the South West of Palestine. �Egypt was invaded also by the desert nomadic tribes the Amorites who destroyed Palestine [Hyksos kingdom in Egypt]." Links: 1

1,900 B.C. - Melchizedek / Salem - "Reportedly, 'King Melchizedek ruled Salem before it became Jerusalem. He charged everybody in his domain a flat 10% tax.' "

1,900 B.C.

1,900 B.C. - Enuma Elish - "A reported date for the writing of the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian Creation Myth. The 19th century was believed to be the time when Babylonia began compiling Old Sumerian history into epic form."

1,890 B.C. - Babylonian Era - "In its very oldest form, Marduk's story might be 1000 years older than the Genesis account, but it is distinctly Babylonian and the Babylonian era began in about 1890 BC. Prior to that was the Sumerian era from about 3800 BC to 1960 BC - the era of the kings of Eridu, Kish, Shuruppak, Larsa and Ur. It is within the records of ancient Sumer that Marduk's original prototype appears, and it is from these that we find the first account of Adam." [Genesis Of The Grail Kings, Laurence Gardner] Links: 1

1,878 B.C. - Sesostris III / Egypt - "Sesostris III rules [1878- 843 B.C.] in Egypt during the 12th Dynasty."

1,850 B.C. - Hebrew Settlement / Canaan - "The Genesis account of Abraham and his immediate descendants may indicate that there were three main waves of early Hebrew settlement in Canaan, the modern Israel. One was associated with Abraham and Hebron and took place in about 1850 BCE. A second wave of immigration was linked with Abraham's grandson Jacob, who was renamed Israel ['May God show his strength!']; he settled in Shechem, which is now the Arab town of Nablus on the West bank. The Bible tells us that Jacob's sons, who became the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel, emigrated to Egypt during a sever famine in Canaan. The third wave of Hebrew �settlement occured in about 1200 BCE when tribes who claimed to be descendants of Abraham arrived in Canaan from Egypt. They said that they had been enslaved by the Egyptians but had been liberated by a deity called Yahweh, who was the god of their leader Moses. After they had forced their way into Canaan, they allied themselves with the Hebrews there and became known as the people of Israel. The Bible makes it clear that the people we know as the ancient Israelites were a confederation of various ethnic groups, bound together principally by their loyalty to Yahweh, the God of Moses. The biblical account was written down centuries later, however, in about the eigth century BCE, though it certainly drew on earlier narrative sources." [A History of God, Karen Armstrong, pp. 11-12]

1,847�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,800 B.C. - Amorites / Babylon - "A tribe known as the Amorites, speaking a Semitic language, took over a small Akkadian town called Bab-ilum [Akkadian for 'Gate of God'] about 1,800 B.C., and made it their capital. It then entered a 1,500 year period of greatness. The later Greeks called it Babylon, and the region that had been thought of as Sumeria for 3,000 years came to be called Babylonia."

1,800 B.C. - Canaanite Influence / Avaris, Egypt - "An archaeological dig was undertaken by Manfred Bietak, of the University of Vienna at Tell ed-Daba, at a site in the eastern Nile delta identified as Avaris, the reported Hyksos capital. Excavations there show a gradual increase of Canaanite influence in the styles of pottery, architeture and tombs from around 1800 BCE."
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« Reply #62 on: August 28, 2009, 05:27:34 pm »

1,800 B.C.

1,783 B.C. - 13th Egyptian Dynasty �- "A traditionaldate for the 13th Egyptian Dynasty �[1783 B.C.-1640 B.C.]."

1,773 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

1,760 B.C. - Kassites / Babylon - "In Babylonia, about 1,760 B.C., the Kassites who conquered the land from western Iran, had a god written down as 'Suriias' - the Indo-Iranian, Suryas."

1,760 B.C. - Gilgamesh Epic - "A reported date for the writing of the Gilgamesh Epic. Other dates associated with the writing of this epic include: 1,600 B.C. According to one translation, the Babylonian name for the Epic of Gilgamesh is 'He who Saw Everything.' "

1,749 B.C. - Shamshi-Adad I / Assyria - "Shamshi-Adad I rules [1749-1717 B.C.] in Assyria."

1,728 B.C. - Hammurabi �/ Babylon - "Hammurabi becomes king of Babylon, spreads his rule over all of Babylonia, and develops code of laws."

1,720 B.C. - Joseph / Egypt�- "It is traditionally presumed that Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt in the 1720's BC and was made Governor by the Pharaoh a decade or so later. Afterwards, his father Jacob [whose name was later changed to Israel] and seventy family members followed him into Goshen to escape the famine in Canaan. Notwithstanding this, Genesis 47:11, Exodus 1:11 and Numbers 33:30 all refer to 'the land of Ramesses' [Egyptian: 'the house of Ramesses'] - but this was a complex of grain storehouses built by the Israelites for Ramesses II in Goshen some 300 years after they were supposedly there!" [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman]

1,704�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,700 B.C. - Proto-Canaanite - "According to reports: Proto-Canaanite, also known as Proto-Sinaitic, was the first consonantal alphabet. Even a quick and cursory glance at its inventory of signs makes it very apparent of this script's Egyptian origin. It is thought that at around 1,700 BCE, Sinai was conquered by Egypt [for its turquoise mines and trade routes]. Egyptian influence must have poured into the local West-Semitic speaking population, who, among other things, adopted a small number of hieroglyphic signs [probably no more than 22] to write down their language. In the Old Testament, the Hebrews never call their language 'Hebrew' or 'Israelite,' but quite correctly 'the language of Canaan.' "

1,700 B.C. - Shang Dynasty / China - "The Shang dynasty [1700-1027 B.C.] [also called the Yin dynasty in its later stages] is believed to have been founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler."

1,700 B.C. - Cities / Nubia - "Nubia, known as the Kingdom of Kush in the Bible. By this time the Nubians have established sizable cities with a class society of workers, farmers, priests, soldiers bureaucrats and an aristocracy with technological and cultural skills on a level with other advanced civilizations of their day."

1,700 B.C. - Earthquakes / Crete - "Knossos [Crete] was first destroyed by an earthquake. Mycenae, the great city of the Peloponnesus, was another earthquake victim about this time."
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« Reply #63 on: August 28, 2009, 05:27:52 pm »

1,700 B.C. - New Year Festival / Babylon - "Like other people in the ancient world, the Babylonians attributed their cultural achievements to the gods, who had revealed their own lifestyle to their mythical ancestors. Thus Babylon itself was supposed to be an image of heaven, with each of its temples a replica of a celestial palace. This link with the divine world was celebrated and perpetuated annually in the great New Year Festival, which had been firmly established by the seventeenth century BCE. Celebrated in the holy city of Babylon during the month of Nisan - our April - the Festival solemnly enthroned the king and established his reign for another year. Yet this political stability could only endure insofar as it participated in the more enduring and effective government of the gods, who had brought order out of chaos when they had created the world. The eleven sacred days of the Festival thus projected the participants outside profane time and into the sacred eternal world of the gods by means of ritual gestures. A scapegoat was killed to cancel the old, dying year; the public humiliation of the king and the enthronement of a carnival king in his place reproduced the original chaos; a mock battle reenacted the struggle of the gods against the forces of destruction.
� �"These symbolic actions thus had a sacramental value; they enabled the people of Babylon to immerse themselves in the sacred power of mana on which their own great civilization depended. Culture was felt to be a fragile achievement, which could always fall pray to the forces of disorder and disintegration. On the afternoon of the fourth day of the Festival, priests and choristers filed into the Holy of Holies to recite the Enuma Elish, the epic poem whic celebrated the victory of the gods over chaos. The story was not a factual account of the physical origins of life upon�earth, but was a deliberately symbolic attempt to suggest a great mystery and to release its sacred power." [A History of God, Karen Armstrong, pp. 6-7]

1,700 B.C. - Aryan Invasion? / Indus Valley - "In the seventeenth century BCE, Aryans from what is now Iran had invaded the Indus valley and subdued the indigenous population. They had imposed their religious ideas, which we find expressed in the collection of odes known as the Rig-Veda. There we find a multitude of Gods, expressing many of the same values as the deities of the Middle East presenting the forces of nature as instinct with power, life and personality." [A History of God, Karen Armstrong, p. 28]

1,680 B.C. - Labarnas I / Hatti - "Labarnas I rules the kingdom of Hatti from 1,680-1,650 B.C." Links: 1

1,670 B.C. - Hyksos Invasion? / Egypt - "Manetho described a massive, brutal invasion of Egypt by foreigners from the east, whom he called Hyksos, an enigmatic Greek form of an Egyptian word that he translated as 'shepard kings' but that actually means 'rulers of foreign lands.' Manetho reported that the Hyksos established themselves in the delta at a city named Avaris. And they founded a dynasty there that ruled Egypt with great cruelty for more than 500 years.�In the early years of modern research, scholars identified the Hyksos with the kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt, who ruled from about 1670 to 1570 BCE. The early scholars accepted Mantheo's report quite literally and sought evidence for a powerful foreign nation or ethnic group that came from afar to invade and conquer Egypt. Subsequent studies showed that inscriptions and seals bearing the names of Hyksos rulers were West Semitic - in other words, Canaanite. Recent archaeological excavations in the eastern Nile delta have confirmed that conclusion and indicate that the Hyksos 'invasion' was a gradual process of immigration from Canaan to Egypt, rather than a lightning military campaign." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, pp. 54-55.]�

1,650 B.C. - Israelites? / Egypt �- "According to one report, this was the time when the Israelites were in Egypt [Jacob, Joseph]."

1,640 B.C. - 14th Egyptian Dynasty - "1640 B.C. - 1540 B.C. encompasses the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th Egyptian Dynasties."

1,628 B.C. - Volcanic Eruption / Thera �- "New data about climatically-effective volcanic eruptions during the past several thousand years may be contained in frost-damage zones in the annual rings of [pine] trees. There is good agreement in the timing of frost events and recent eruptions, and the damage can be plausibly linked to climatic effects of stratospheric aerosol veils on hemispheric and global scales. The cataclysmic proto-historic eruption of Santorini [Thera], in the Aegean, is tentatively dated to 1,628-1,626 B.C. from frost-ring evidence. Other dates attributed to the eruption of Thera include: 1,645, 1,503, and 1,470 B.C."

1,602 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

1,600 B.C. - Early Vedic Period - "According to popular history, this was the beginning of the Early Vedic period [1,600-1,000 B.C.] of Indian civilization. Reportedly, the Vedas have been passed down through oral tradition for over 10,000 years, appearing in written form between 2,000 - 4,000 B.C."

1,600 B.C. - Hittite Invasion / Babylon - "The Hittites Empire stretched from Mesopotamia to Syria and Palestine. Their invasion spelled the end of the Old Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia. The Hittite civilization dominated Mesopotamia from 1,600 B.C. to 1,200 B.C. The Bible mentions the Hittites among the early inhabitants of Palestine, and that intermarriage between Hebrews and Hittites took place. Ezekiel 16:3 goes so far as to tell the Jerusalemites that they are a hybrid people; their father, so to speak, is Amorite, and their mother, Hittite."

1,600 B.C. - Hellens / Greece - "By 1,600 B.C., invading tribes from the north invaded the land we now call Greece, and they were the people we call Greeks [They themselves called the land Hellas, and themselves Hellenes. The name 'Greece' was first used by the Romans]."

1,600 B.C. - Nebra Sky Disk / Mittelberg Germany - "The recent discovery of an astronomical artifact that is probably about 3600 years old just goes to show how little we really know about our our ancestors. The location? Atop the Mittelberg, a 252m hill in the Ziegelroda Forest, 180km south-west of Berlin, in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. The place of discovery, on the mountain's summit, has been compared to the Stonehenge ritual site in Britain. The artifact? Archaeologists are investigating a 32cm bronze-and-gold disc that maps 32 stars, including the Pleiades. The stars are shown as they appear in reference to a local mountain on the horizon, the Brocken. The Brocken is fabled in northern European mythology as the place where witches gather for a coven every April 3. The artifact was discovered within a pit inside a Bronze Age ringwall. The ringwall was built in such a way that the sun seemed to disappear every equinox behind the Brocken. Since the Mittelberg is near the German town of Nebra, the star map has been dubbed the 'Nebra Disc.' Experts believe the map and site formed an observatory, which was used to set the calendar for planting and harvesting crops. The nearby forest contains 1000 barrows or princely graves from the period. The identity of the Bronze Age people of Europe has been lost in the mists of time. They are not mentioned in ancient Greek or other Mediterranean sources. Only their hut sites, graves and treasures are left. It is impossible to guess the language they spoke."

1,600 B.C.

1,595 B.C. - Kassites / Babylon - "The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. The Kassites maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own."

1,593�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,570 B.C. - Hyksos Expulsion / Egypt�- "By 1,570 B.C., a century and a half after the Hyksos had made their appearance, the Egyptians, under Ahmose, who ruled from 1,570 - 1,546 B.C., drove them out of the land. The Egyptians followed them across the Sinai Peninsula and annexed Canaan, hoping it would serve as a buffer against future invasions." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, p. 40]

*Trivia: "Manetho suggested that after the Hyksos were driven from Egypt, they founded the city of Jerusalem and constructed a temple there. Far more trustworthy is an Egyptian source of the sixteenth century B.C.E. that recounts the exploits of Pharoah Ahmose, of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who sacked Avaris and chased the remnants of the Hyksos to their main citadel in southern Canaan - Sharuhen, near Gaza - which he stormed after a long siege. And indeed, around the middle of the sixteenth century BCE, Tell ed-Daba was abandoned, marking the sudden end of the Canaanite influence there." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, pp. 55-56]

*Trivia:�"Beginning after the expulsion of the Hyksos, the Egyptians tightened their control over the flow of immigrants from Canaan into the delta. They established a system of forts along the delta's eastern border and manned them with garrison troops and administrators. Incidentally, no mention of the name Israel has been found in any of the inscriptions or documents connected with the Hyksos period." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman]

1,564 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune. This combined force helps us define our underlying historical reality on a collective-unconscious level - this world-view and body of collective experience being a combination of actualities and perceptions." �

Note: "Configuration dates on this timeline prior to the 6th century B.C. represent estimated projections only. In most cases they are off by several years." [Etznab Mathers]
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« Reply #64 on: August 28, 2009, 05:28:16 pm »

1,550 B.C. - 18th Egyptian Dynasty �- "Beginning of Egyptian New Kingdom [1550 B.C.-1070 B.C.] period. This was also the 'Egyptian Empire,' because it ruled over Asians as well as Egyptians. 1,540 B.C. represents a traditional date for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty �[1540 B.C.-1514 B.C.]."

1,550 - Palestine - "The Canaanites lived in small cities on the costal plains of Palestine and Syria under the rule of the Semites Hyksos until Amasis I [Ahmose] about 1550 B.C. liberated Egypt from the Hyksos and formed the New Kingdom." Links: 1

1,550 B.C. - Destruction / Indus Valley Civilization - "In India writing disappeared for a time with the destruction of the Indus Valley civilization."

1,530 B.C. - Kassites / Mesopotamia - "About 1,530 B.C., a century and a half after the death of Hammurabi, Babylonia and Assyria alike were conquered by charioteers from the north, a group called 'Kassites' by the later histories. Under the Assyrian king, Ashur-Dan, the last Kassite king was driven from the Babylonian throne in the twelfth century B.C." Links: 1

1,525 B.C. - Birth / Hatshepsut - "In Egypt Queen Hatshepsut, one of the XVIII Dynasty rulers, was born. Her name translates as 'The Foremost of Noble Ladies'."

1,504 B.C. - Tuthmosis III Rules Egypt - "Tuthmosis III [1587 - 1375 B.C.] was one of the most significant Egyptian rulers during the 18th Dynasty. As a young man he was co-regent to Queen Hatshepsut, his sister, and when she died in 1,480 B.C. Thothmes, whose name means 'born of Thoth,'�ruled on his own as supreme Pharoah. There were rumours that the young man had murdered his sister to gain the crown but there is no proof to support this allegation. "

1,503 B.C. - Deluge of Deucalion�- "A traditional date for the deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly, a country of Greece. Reportedly, the island of Thera [actually the top of a volcano sticking out of the sea] exploded. A rain of ashes fell on Crete, and tidal waves struck its shores, and also the shores of Greece, which may have given rise to Greek legends concerning a great flood. Crete was greatly weakened by this explosion and the Minoan civilization tottered to its end, thereafter. Other dates attributed to the Thera eruption include: 1,628 B.C."

1,500 B.C. - Independent Assyria �- "According to popular history, Assyria becomes an independant kingdom."

1,500 B.C. - Aryan Invasion? / India - "According to popular history, by 1,500 B.C. charioteers invaded Asia and put an end to the Indus Valley region. The invaders of India called themselves 'Aryans,' from their word for 'noble.' They spoke an Indo-European language known as 'Sanskrit.' It is because they brought this language into India, while other charioteers spread related languages westward into Europe, that we call the language-family Indo European. In 1999 researchers reported that gene patterns confirmed that Caucasoid invaders entered India between 1,000 and 2,000 BC."

1,500 B.C. - Heroic Age - "A traditional date for the 'Heroic Age' [1,500 B.C. - 1,000 B.C.] of Greece and Israel. Reportedly, the customs of both Greeks and Hebrews in the 'Heroic Age' were often alien to their descendants in the classical periods."

1,500 B.C. - Byblos Script - "Byblos is an ancient Phoenician city along the coast of modern day Lebanon. Its name was the origin of the Greek word 'biblion' which means 'book', hence 'bibliography' and 'Bible'. In short Byblos is nearly synonymous with writing. Ironically, Byblos was also home to a still poorly understood script during roughly the middle of the second millenium BCE. There are only a few short examples of this script, mainly on stone or metal. This script contains roughly 100 signs, which fits with the number of signs necessary for a syllabary."

1,500 B.C. - Linear B - "With such a non-descriptive name, Linear B proved to be the oldest surviving record of a Greek dialect, known as Mycenaean, named after the great site of Mycenae where the legendary Agamemnon ruled. Its usage spanned the time period between 1,500 B.C. and 1,200 B.C. approximately, and geographically covered the island of Crete as well as the southern part of the Greek Mainland."

1,500 B.C. - Olmecs - "According to popular belief, the Olmecs were a culture of ancient peoples of the East Mexico lowlands. Other reports suggest a much older culture was responsible for the ancient sites which the Olmecs ['their descendants'] later inherited. It was at San Lorenzo that the earliest carbon-dates for an Olmec site [around 1,500 B.C.] had been recorded by archaeologists. However, Olmec culture appeared to have been fully evolved by that epoch and there was no evidence that the evolution had taken place in the vicinity of San Lorenzo. Not a single, solitary �sign of anything that could be described as the 'developmental phase' of Olmec society had been unearthed anywhere in Mexico [or, for that matter, anywhere in the New World]." More Links: 1 [number 12]

*Trivia: "A four-tonne 'Olmec' head bearing African features located in La Venta, Gulf of Mexico, has been approximately dated to 1,500 BC.

*Trivia: "The roots of the Mayan civilization can be traced back thousands of years to the Olmecs, an earlier civilization that inhabited an area along the Gulf of Mexico. The Olmec, which means 'rubber people,' date back to at least 4000 BC. They began their rise to civilization around 1500 BC, and are considered to have reached the first advanced stages of high civilization around 550 BC." �

1,500 B.C. - Biblical Exodus - "Reportedly, Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt and established a calendar with Egyptian features but based on a seven day week. The later 8-day Sukkot festival commemorates the fall harvest and the wandering of the Hebrews in the Sinai desert after the Exodus. In 1998 Jonathan Kirsch authored 'Moses: A Life'. Miriam was the sister of Moses and led the celebration following the crossing of the Red Sea."

1,500�B.C. - Kush / Southern Egypt - "By this time the kingdom of Kush was established south of Egypt. The Kushites were dark-complexioned Negroids."
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« Reply #65 on: August 28, 2009, 05:28:31 pm »

1,491 - Biblical Exodus - "According to standard Bible chronology, the Hebrews went to Egypt some three centuries before the time of Ramesses and made their exodus in about 1,491 BC, long before he came to the throne."

1,483 B.C. - Tuthmosis III / Canaan - "Tuthmosis III led Egyptian armies into Asia in 1,483 B.C. and conquered Canaan. He then marched farther northward and defeated Mitanni."

1,480 B.C. - Military Expansion / Egypt - "Following Queen Hatsheput's death, Thothmes III [her brother] began a campaign of military expansion which transformed �Egypt into a world power."

1,479 B.C. - Canaanite Defeat / Megiddo - �"Thutmose III defeats Canaanites at Megiddo."

1,475 B.C. - Egyptian Occupation / Palestine - "During the early period of The New Kingdom the Egyptian armies liberated Palestine Around 1475 B.C. Palestine revolted against the rule of the Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut. The next Egyptian Pharaoh Tuthmosis III reoccupied Palestine." �Links: 1�

1,450�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,450 B.C. - Amenophis II Rules Egypt - "Amenophis II [son of Thutmosis III] rules [1450-1425 B.C.] Egypt. By 1,450 B.C. Egypt had reached its maximum expansion."

1,450 B.C. - Egyptian Province / Palestine - "Palestine stayed as an Egyptian province during The Amarna Period 1450-1350 B.C." Links: 1��

1,450 B.C. - Tyre Founded �- "Tyre founded by colonists from Sidon."

1,450 B.C. - Ugarit Culture - "The conception of a messenger of God that underlies Biblical prophecy was reportedly Amorite [West Semitic] and found in the tablets at Mari. Mesopotamian religious and cultural conceptions are reflected in Biblical cosmogony, primeval history [including the Flood story in Gen. 6:9-8:22], and law collections. The Canaanite component of Israelite culture consisted of the Hebrew language and a rich literary heritage - whose Ugaritic form [which flourished in the northern Syrian city of Ugarit from the mid-15th century to about 1200 B.C.] illuminates the Bible's poetry, style, mythological allusions, and religiocultic terms. Though plainer when compared with some of the learned literary creations of Mesopotamia, Canaan, and Egypt, the earliest Biblical writings are so imbued with contemporary ancient Middle Eastern elements that the once-held assumption that Israelite religion began on a primitive level must be rejected. Late-born amid high civilizations, the Israelite religion had from the start that admixture of high and low features characteristic of all the known religions of the area. Implanted on the land bridge between Africa and Asia, it was exposed to crosscurrents of foreign thought throughout its history."

1,440 B.C. - Biblical Exodus - "I Kings 6:1 tells us that the start of the construction of the Temple in the fourth year of Solomon's reign took place 480 years after the Exodus. According to a correlation of the regnal dates of Israelite kings with outside Egyptian and Assyrian sources, this would roughly place the Exodus in 1,440 B.C. That is more than a hundred years after the date of the Egyptian expulsion of the Hyksos, around 1,570 B.C." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 56]

1,431 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

1,417 B.C. - Amenophis III �Rules Egypt - "Amenophis III, the grandson of Thutmosis III, rules Egypt form 1417- 1379 B.C."

1,413 B.C. - Joseph In Egypt - "Reportedly, Joseph was in Egypt not in the early 18th century BC, but in the early 15th century BC. There he was appointed Chief Minister to Tuthmosis IV [1413-1405]. To the Egyptians, however, Joseph [Yusuf the viser] was known as Yuya and his story is particularly revealing - not just in the biblical account of Joseph, but also in respect to Moses." [Laurence Gardner]

1,400 B.C. - �Hsiung-nu - "From 1,400 B.C., but particularly around 200 B.C., Chinese chroniclers mention the existence of war-like tribes of nomads which they refer to as the 'Hiung-nu' or 'Hsiung-nu' who were posing a threat to the empire. These were some of the earliest reference to the evolving and growing race of nomadic warriors who were to become the Turks."

1,400 B.C. - Traditions / East Mediterranean - "Reportedly, prior to the Amarna Age [i.e., before 1,400 B.C.] Egyptian, Canaanite, Mesopotamian, Anatolian, Aegean and other influences met around the East Mediterranean to form an international order, by which each in turn was effected. Out of the Amarna Age order emerged the earliest traditions of Israel and Greece."

1,400 B.C. - Surya / Middle East - "Clay tablets from about 1,400 B.C. Egypt testify to gods with Iranian names in Syria and Palestine, and plainly enough, Syria and Assyria contain the name, Surya, itself, 'sura' being a common adjective in Persian scriptures meaning 'strong' or 'mighty,' evidently derived from the word 'surya.' "

1,400 B.C. - Mycenaean Greeks - �"After the destruction of Knossos the Mycenaean civilization replaced the Minoan. Bronze weapons, war scenes on art, Cyclopean defense walls and the burial of male warriors with their weapons indicates that the Mycenaeans were militaristic. The horse drawn chariot emerged about this time. The Mycenaeans dominated the Aegean world for about 200 years."

1,400 B.C. - Phoenician Language - "The Phoenicians, located between Babylonia and Egypt, could not trade easily unless they could handle both languages. Attempts to work out a simpler writing code had begun as early as 1400 B.C., but without total success."

1,400 B.C.

1,400 B.C. - Ball-Habad / Canaan - "The myth of Marduk and Tiamat seems to have influenced the people of Canaan, who told a very similar story about Baal-Habad, the god of storm and fertility, who is often mentioned in extremely unflattering terms in the Bible. The story of Baal's battle with Yam-Nahar, the god of the seas and rivers, is told on tablets that date to the fourteenth century BCE. Baal and Yam both lived with El, the Canaanite High God. At the council of El, Yam demands that Baal be delivered up to him. With two magic weapons, Baal defeats Yam and is about to kill him when Asherah [El's wife and mother of the gods] pleads that it is dishonorable to slay a prisoner. Baal is ashamed and spares Yam, who represents the hostile aspect of the seas and rivers which constantly threaten to flood the earth, while Baal, the Storm God, makes the earth fertile. In another version of the myth, Baal slays the seven-headed dragon Lotan, who is called Leviathan in Hebrew. In almost all cultures the dragon symbolizes the latent, the unformed and the undifferentiated. Baal has thus halted the slide back to primal formlessness in a truly creative act and is rewarded by a beautiful palace built by the gods in his honor. In very early religion, therefore, creativity was seen as divine: we still use religious language to speak of creative 'inspiration' which shapes reality anew and brings fresh meaning to the world.
� �"But Baal undergoes a reverse: he dies and has to descend to the world of Mot, the god of death and sterility. When he hears of his son's fate, the High God El comes down from his throne, puts on sackcloth and gashes his cheeks, but he cannot redeem his son. It is Anat, Baal's lover and sister, who leaves the divine realm and goes in search of her twin soul, 'desiring him as a cow her calf or a ewe her lamb.' When she finds his body, she makes a funeral feast in his honor, seizes Mot, cleaves him with her sword, winnows, burns and grinds him like corn before sowing him in the ground. Similar stories are told about the other great goddesses - Inana, Ishtar, and Isis - who search for the dead god and bring new life to the soil. The victory of Anat, however must be perpetuated year after year in ritual celebration. Later - we are not sure how, since our sources are incomplete - Baal is brought back to life and restored to Anat. This apotheosis �of wholeness and harmony, symbolized by the union of the sexes, was celebrated by means of ritual sex in ancient Canaan. By imitating the gods in this way, men and women would share their struggle �against sterility and ensure creativity and fertility of the world. The death of a god, the quest of the goddess and the triumphant return to the divine sphere were constant religious themes in many cultures and would recur in the very different religion of the One God worshipped by Jews, Christians and Muslims." [A History of God, Karen Armstrong, pp. 10-11]

1,394 B.C. - Birth / Aminadab [Moses] - "Reportedly, Aminadab was born the son of Tiye and Joseph [Yuya]. He was subsequently set afloat downstream in a basket of reeds in order to save his life. Other words associated with Aminadab include: Moses."

1,390 B.C. - Height of Power / Hittites �- "Hittites at height of power."
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« Reply #66 on: August 28, 2009, 05:28:46 pm »

1,379 B.C. - Amenophis IV [Akhenaton] Rules�Egypt - "According to popular history, Amenophis IV who ruled Egypt from 1379-1362 B.C. is the first person we know [as a historic figure and not as a legend] who was a monotheist and believed in a single God - in his case, the Sun-God, or Aton. He renamed himself Akhenaton ['servent of Aton'] and founded a new capital between Memphis and Thebes which is called Akhetaton ['place of power of Aton']."

1,375 B.C. - Suppiluliumas I / Hittites - "Suppiluliumas I rules [1375-1334 B.C.] the Hittites."

1,375 B.C. - Status / Palestine - "North Palestine was invaded by the Phoenicians and then the Hittite around 1375 B.C. The rest of Palestine stayed under the Egyptian control. The Egyptian Pharaohs Siti I then Rameses II managed to expel the Hittites from Palestine." �Link: 1��

1,374 B.C. - Mussilish II / Hittites - "Mussilish II,�the son of Suppiluliumas I, rules [1334-1306 B.C.] the Hittites."

1,362 B.C. - Tutankhamen Rules Egypt - "The sun-in-law of Akhenaton, Tutankhamen, rules Egypt from 1362-1352 B.C., a time in which the old religion was restored. The tumb of Tutankhamen was discovered, intact, in 1922."

1,339�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,320 B.C. - Ramesses / Egypt - "The first pharaoh named Ramesses came to the throne only in 1,320 BCE - more than a century after the traditional Biblical date. As a result, many scholars have tended to dismiss the literal value of the Biblical dating." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 56]

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« Reply #67 on: August 28, 2009, 05:28:57 pm »

1,306 B.C. - Muwatallish / Hittites - "Muwatallish rules [1,306-1,282 B.C.] the Hittites. Under his reign the Hittites fought and won the battle of Kadesh against Rameses II."

1,304 B.C. - Annals / Ramesses II - "The annals of Ramesses II [1304-1237 BC] specify that Semitic people were settled in the land of Goshen and it is further explained that they went there from Canaan for want of food."

1,301 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "Early Chinese Eclipse [June 5th]."

1,300 B.C. - Iron Age / Caucasian Foothills�- "About 1,300 B.C. the technique for smelting and carbonizing iron was developed in the Caucasian foothills under the Hittites. This marked the beginning of the Iron Age."

1,300 B.C. - Abecedary - "The earliest example of an abecedary [a list of the letters in an alphabet in the some kind of order] was found in the city of Ugarit. This abecedary shows a total of 30 symbols used in the Ugaritic script."

1,300 B.C. - South Arabian Script - "The South Arabian alphabet was used primarily in the Sabaean and Minaean kingoms in the Southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula. It is thought to have diverged from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as early as 1,300 BCE, and a developing form appeared in Babylonia and near Elath of the Gulf of Aqaba around the 8th/7th centuries BCE."

1,300 B.C.

1,300 B.C. - Status / Ur - Reportedly: "As late as the 13th century B.C., one of the northern Urs [Ur colonies] was an active community of merchants in the service of the Hittite kings."

1,295 B.C. - 19th Egyptian Dynasty �- "The 19th Egyptian Dynasty �[1295 B.C.- 1294 B.C.]."

1,294 B.C. - Egyptian Influence / Canaan - "An Egyptian stronghold was excavated at the site of Beth-shean to the south of the sea of Galilee in the 1920's. Its various structures and courtyards contained statues and enscribed heiroglyphic monuments from the days of the pharaohs Seti I [1294-1279 BCE], Ramesses II [1279-1213 BCE], and Ramsees III [1184-1153 BCE]. The ancient Canaanite city of Megiddo disclosed evidence of strong Egyptian influence as late as the days of Ramesses VI, who ruled toward the end of the twelfh century BCE. This was long after the supposed conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. Other indications - both literary and archaeological - seem to show that in the 13th century BCE, the grip of Egypt on Canaan was stronger than ever."

1,279 B.C. - Ramesses II / Egypt - "Egyptian sources report that the city of Pi-Ramesses ['The House of Ramesses'] was built in the delta in the days of the great Egyptian king Ramesses II, who ruled 1,279-1,213 BCE, and that Semites were apparently employed in its construction." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 57]

*Trivia: "The identification of Ramesses II as the pharaoh of the Exodus came as the result of modern scholarly assumptions based on the identification of the place-name Pi-Ramesses with Raamses [Exodus1:11; 12:37]. In regard to the Biblical Exodus, beyond a vague reference to the Israelites' fear of taking �the coastal route, there is no mention of the Egyptian forts in northern Sinai or their strongholds in Canaan."

Trivia: "By tradition, Rameses II is the Pharaoh under whom the Israelites were enslaved and in whose court Moses grew to manhood. However there is nothing outside the Bible to support this." [Asimov's Chronology Of The World, Isaac Asimov, p. 42]

1,275 B.C. - Assyrian Victory / Mitanni - �"Assyria conquers the Mitanni kingdom, as Assyria enters its first period of strength."

1,274 B.C. - Shalmaneser I / Assyria - "Shalmaneser �I rules [1274-1245 B.C.] in Assyria."

1,260 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

1,250 B.C. - Incas - "According to popular history, beginning about 1,250 B.C., several advanced cultures, such as the Chavin, Chimu, Nazca, and Tiahuanaco, developed in different parts of Peru."

1,245 B.C. - Tukultininurta I / Assyria - "Tukultininurta I rules [1245-1208 B.C.] in Assyria."

1,235 B.C. - Nimrod / Assyria - �"According to popular history, Tukulti-Ninurta I [Nimrod] rules in Assyria."

1,230 B.C. - Israelite Conquest? / Canaan - "A suggested date for the Israeli conquest of Canaan."
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« Reply #68 on: August 28, 2009, 05:29:23 pm »

1,223 B.C. - Israel Mentioned / Merneptah Stele�- "The earliest mention of Israel in an extrabiblical text was found in Egypt in the stele describing the campaign of Pharaoh Merneptah - the son of Ramesses II - in Canaan at the very end of the thirteenth century BCE. The inscription tells of a destructive Egyptian campaign into Canaan, in the course of which a people named Israel were decimated to the extent that the pharoah boasted that Israel's 'seed is not!' The boast was clearly an empty one, but it did indicate that some group known as Israel was already in Canaan by that time. In fact, dozens of settlements that were linked with the early Israelites appeared in the hill country of Canaan around that time. So if a historical Exodus took place, scholars have argued, it must have occured in the late thirteenth century BCE." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 57]

1,220 B.C. - Status / Palestine - "Around 1200 B.C. Egypt lost control over Palestine and the Palestinian Canaanites controlled Palestine. During the Late Bronze Age c. 1220 or c. 1190 B.C. the Egyptian Hebrew [Israelite] tribes left Egypt with Moses through Sinai to the area south of Jordan and North West of Saudi Arabia [Mizraim] where they became by time powerful enough to group and invade some parts of Palestine which was inhabited by several groups of people. In this process the Egyptian Hebrews had to fight the Hill tribes of the Amorites and to conquer the Amorites kings Sihon and Og. During the Early Iron Age as Egypt lost control over Palestine, Palestine was invaded by Hebrew tribes from the north then by the Aegean [the Sea People] Philistines who by time controlled all Palestine. By that time, The Early Iron Age, several different people were living in Palestine: - Ammonites [the descendants of Amon, the son of the younger daughter of Lot, the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham; they were a transjordanic tribe] - Amorites - Canaanites [the Gibeonites] Hill people from Gibeon one of the four cities of the Hivites] - Edomites, Idumeans [The descendants of Esau] who were forcibly converted to Judaism by John Hyrcanus c. 125 B.C. and incorporated with the Jewish nation] - Hebrews [other than the Egyptian Hebrews] - Hittite [the descendants of Hath, the second son of Canaan, who were called the Hyksos by the Egyptians] - Hivites [a Canaanite nation that lived in four cities in Palestine: Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth and Kirjath-Jearim] - Horites, Horimes [cave-dwellers of Mount Seir] - Hurries - Khabiri - Jebusites [a Canaanite tribe that lived in the mountain; Jerusalem was their capital] - Leahhites [Mountain people from Mount Lebanon. They were descendants of Leah, the elder daughter of Laban, the son of Bethuel, and grand-nephew of Abraham] - Mitannies, Moabites [descendants of Moab, the eldest son of the eldest daughter of Lot, the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham. The Moabites spoke a dialect of Hebrew and gave a kindly reception to the Egyptian Israelites in the East of The Dead Sea] and - Philistines [the Sea People]. Some of these different people were Semites and the others were Hemites." Link: 1

1,211 B.C. - Fatality / Merneptah - �"Traditional date for the death of Merneptah."

1,200 B.C. - Plilistine Invasion / Asia Minor - "About 1,200 B.C. tribesmen called Phrygians [Philistines] invade Asia Minor. The Hittite empire comes to an end. The Phrygians were also known as 'The Sea People.' "

1,200 B.C. - Tarshish Founded �- "Tarshish founded by colonists from Tyre."

1,200 B.C. - Jericho Destroyed - "By 1,200 B.C. Canaan was virtually in anarchy, and Jericho which had existed for nearly 7,000 years, was temporarily destroyed."

1,200 B.C.

1,200 B.C. - Status / Ugarit -�Reportedly: "Ugarit provides us with the clearest picture of what was happening in the Near East during the Amarna Age. The community might be called Semitic, because the official language [Ugaritic] is clearly Semitic. However, there was an influencial Aegean enclave there, attested by Cypro-Minoan texts, Mycenaean art objects, and the presence of a Caphtorian god in the Ugaritic pantheon. Hittites, Hurrians, Alashiyans and other segments of the community are mentioned in the tablets. Assyrian and Egyptian enclaves are recorded side by side, though Ugarit certainly did not belong to either the Assyrian or Egyptian kings. What we see at Ugarit is the interpenetration of commercial empires. At that important city, at the crossroads of east-west and north-south traffic, representatives of the Aegean, Hittite, Hurrian, Mesopotamian, Canaanite, Egyptian and other populations met to conduct their affairs in an international order. The ancient Canaanite city-state of Ugarit is of utmost importance for those who study the Old Testament. The literature of the city and the theology contained therein go a very long way in helping us to understand the meaning of various Biblical passages as well as aiding us in deciphering difficult Hebrew words. Ugarit was at its political, religious and economic height around the 12th century B.C. and thus its period of greatness corresponds with the entry of Israel into Canaan."
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« Reply #69 on: August 28, 2009, 05:29:35 pm »

1,200 B.C. - Phoenician Alphabet - "The Phoenician alphabet evolved from the more 'naturalistic' sytle of Proto-Canaanite into a more linear form during the 12th century B.C. or so. Most of the alphabets used today are descended from Phoenician. The immediate offspring of Phoenician were the old Hebrew alphabet, and Aramaic, as well as Archaic Greek according to tradition. The Hebrew alphabet was also used by Moabites as well as Israelites. This alphabet, though, eventually disappeared from the mainstream, and survived as the Samaritan script. Aramaic, on the other hand, became extremely popular, and many people adopted it."

1,200 B.C. - Hebrew Alphabet - "According to reports: The Hebrews adopted the alphabet in the twelfth or eleventh century B.C., but only one Hebrew inscription - the Gezer Calendar [which may, in fact, be Phoenician] - is known to be older than the eighth century B.C. Although it is likely that the Hebrew script was widely used in the ninth century, even by Israel's eastern neighbors [Mesha Stone], virtually no ninth-century Hebrew incriptions are known to date. In the Old Testament, the Hebrews never call their language 'Hebrew' or 'Israelite,' but quite correctly 'the language of Canaan.' "

1,196�B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,190 B.C. - Rameses III / Egypt�- "Rameses III rules [1188-1156 B.C.] Egypt and defeats the Philistines."

1,186 B.C. - 20th Egyptian Dynasty �- "A traditional date for the 20th Egyptian Dynasty �[1186 B.C.-1069 B.C.]."

1,184 B.C. - Trojan War �- "A traditional date for the Trojan War."

1,170 B.C. - Israelites Enter Canaan�- "A traditional date when the Israelites entered Canaan. Also, a time when the Philistines were thought to have settled the coast [Joshua]."

1,150 B.C. - Period of Judges - "According to popular history, Barak and Deborah defeat Sisera; period of Judges."

1,116 B.C. - Tiglath-Pilesar I / Assyria - "Tiglath-Pilesar I rules in Assyria."

1,100 B.C. - Greeks / Asia Minor Coast �- "Gideon defeats Midianites; Greeks begin to settle Asia Minor coast."

1,100 B.C. - South Arabian Script�- "At around 1,300 BC, a branch of the evolving Proto-Canaanite broke off and spread into the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. This Proto-Arabian script eventually evolved by the 5th century B.C. into the highly elegant South Arabian script."
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« Reply #70 on: August 28, 2009, 05:29:51 pm »

1,093 B.C. - Assyrian Decline �- "Death of Tiglath-Pilesar I; Assyria in decline."

1089 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

1,085 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

1,080 B.C. - Philistine Victory / Shiloh - �"Philistines defeat Israelites at Aphek; Shiloh destroyed."

1,070 B.C. - 21st Egyptian Dynasty - "A traditional date for the 21st Egyptian Dynasty �[1070 B.C.- 945 B.C.]."

1,071 B.C. - Neptune-Pluto Conjunction - "Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. They characterise an underlying driving-force behind history, an undertow of reality which marries the inevitable ram-force of Pluto with the imaginal, ideational power of Neptune." �

Note: "Neptune-Pluto configurations later than 600 B.C. represent estimated projections only. They are caluclated here by subtracting alternating multiples of �493 years." [Etznab Mathers]

1,050 B.C. - Jewish Monarchy - "The Gezer calendar was most probably derived from the Canaanite cycle before the establishment of the Jewish monarchy in 1,050 B.C. Evidence of the calendar's Canaanite origins is found in the Old Testament, which indicates that Hebrews were using Canaanite month names."

1,050 �B.C - Milarepa / Tibet? - "In 1050 Milarepa sought vengeance on unscrupulous relatives for mistreating his mother and sister."

1,048 B.C. - 1st Israelite King / Saul �- "A reported date when the Israelite tribes united under their first king, Saul."

1,040 B.C. - Samuel �- "According to popular history, Samuel judges the tribes."

1,028 B.C. - Saul / Israel�- "The Israelite [Hebrew] tribes came under one king [Saul] around 1,020 B.C. Saul ruled from 1,020 to 1,000 B.C."

1,013 B.C. - Philistine Victory / Mt. Gilboa�- �"Philistines defeat Israelites at mount Gilboa: Saul and Jonathan killed; David rules Judah."

1,008 B.C. - King David - "David of Bethlehem married Saul's daughter to become King of Judah [corresponding to half of the Palestinian territory] in around 1,008 B.C. Subsequently, he also acquired Israel [the balance of the territory] to become overall King of the Jews."

*Trivia:�"From the time of King David, the dynasty of Abiathar [2 Samuel 20:25] was established in the hierarchy of senior priests. The line of Zadok was the primary priestly heritage and the line of Abiathar was second in authority. In addition to the traditional priestly styles, the Essenes also preserved the names of the Old Testament archangels within their governing structure. Hence, the Zadok priest was also the archangel Michael, while the Abiathar priest [whatever his personal name] was also the angel Gabriel. Being subordinate to the Zadok/Michael [the Lord - 'like unto God'], the Abiathar/Gabriel was designated Angel of the Lord [the ambassador of the Michael-Zadok]. This angelic system is detailed in the Book of 1 Enoch 4:9, wilst the War Scroll 9:15-17 identifies the angels' order of priestly ranking during the Gospel era." [Laurence Gardner]

1,000 B.C. - The Israel of King David - "According to the Bible, Joshua led the Israelites into lands west of the Jordan river, where they routed the Canaanites but failed to win Gaza from the Philistines. Kind David expanded Israel and built his capitol around the ancient sacrificial altar at Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. There his son Solomon built a grand Temple of God. Later Israel split, and its pieces fell: to Assyria in 722 B.C. and to Babylon in 586 B.C., when the Temple was razed and the Israelites sold into slavery." [National Geographic Magazine / October 2002 / page 106]

1,000 B.C. - King David - Reportedly: "David ruled from 1,000 to 961 B.C."

1,000 B.C. - Aramaeans / Syria - "A traditional date when the Aramaeans began infiltrating Syria."

1,000 B.C. - Minor Power / Egypt - "Weakened by the invading 'Sea People' [the Phrygians, or Philistines], by 1,000 B.C. the Egyptian empire was no more, and Egypt remained a minor power thereafter."

1,000 B.C. - King Midas �/ Phrygia - "By 1,000 B.C. the Phoenicians had an alphabet, each letter representing a consonantal sound, and, using that alphabet, any language could be written down simply. King Midas ruled Phrygia around this time."

1,000 B.C. - I Ching - "The I Ching, or Book of Changes, is the most widely read of the five Chinese Classics. The book was traditionally written by the legendary Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi [2953-2838 B.C.]. It is possible that the the I Ching originated from a prehistoric divination technique which dates back as far as 5,000 B.C. Futher commentaries were added by King Wen and the Duke of Chou in the eleventh century B.C."

1,000 B.C. - Rig Veda - "During this period [1,000-600 BCE] of Indian civilization, the Late Vedic period, the Aryans are integrated into Indian culture, and the Rig Veda is written."

1,000 B.C. - Gathas - "Accoring to one report, before anyone other than the Pharaoh Akhenaton, Zoroaster introduced a practical monotheism equivalent to that the Jews and Christians think is inique to them. Zoroaster founded his religious system in the time when the Persians were migrating south of the Caucasus, from 1,000 B.C. onwards towards their eventual homeland. The date of Zoroaster's life is uncertain, no reference being made to him by the Persian kings or indeed until Xanthos of Lydia in 470 B.C., but the Gathas of Zoroaster have elements in common with the Vedas of India which date to the start of the first millennium B.C., suggesting that the religion that Zoroaster was reforming was similar to Brahminism."
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« Reply #71 on: August 28, 2009, 05:30:34 pm »

1,000 B.C. - Old Testament - "More than two hundred years of detailed study of the Hebrew text of the Bible and ever more wide-ranging exploration in all the lands between the Nile and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have enabled us to begin to understand when, why, and how the Bible came to be. Detailed analysis of the language and literary geners of the Bible has led scholars to identify oral and written sources on which the present biblical text was based. At the same time, archaeology has produced a stunning, almost encyclopedic knowledge of the material conditions, languages, societies, and historical developments of the centuries during which the traditions of ancient Israel gradually crystalized, spanning roughly six hundred years - from about 1000 to 400 BCE. Most important of all, the textual insights and the archeological evidence has combined to help us to distinguish between the power and poetry of biblical saga and the more dpwn-to-earth events and processes of ancient Near Eastern history." [The Bible Unearthed, Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman, p. 5]

1,000 B.C. - Aramaic Script - "While Aramaic was displacing Akkadian in the course of the first millennium B.C., it absorbed a host of Sumerian words from Akkadian and transmitted them to the rest of the Near East. Some got into Arabic and have been carried to the ends of the eastern hemisphere by Islam. Of older date are the Sumerian loanwords in biblical Hebrew. According to popular belief: Originally Aramaic was spoken [and written] only in the region whose modern name is Syria. However, during the late Assyrian empire, and subsequently during the Babylonian and Persian empires, Aramaic became an international language, written and spoken in Anatolia, the Levantine coast, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia where it was adopted by many local groups. In Israel, it became the 'Jewish' alphabet, the direct descendant of which is the modern Hebrew alphabet. It also became much more cursive as time goes on, such as the Nabatean alphabet, which eventually became Arabic."

1,000 B.C. - Luwian Script - "This script was originally mislabeled as Hieroglyphic Hittite, but the decipherment of the signs eventually led to the conclusion that the language recorded was not Hittite, but a related language called Luwian. Hittite and Luwian both belong to Anatolian subgroup of the Indo-European language family. Hieroglyphic Luwian was used in city-states of Southern Anatolia and Northern Syria, from 1000 BCE (?) to 700 BCE."

1,000 B.C. - Early Greek �Inscriptions - "The earliest Greek inscriptions known today belong to the eigth century B.C. Although we cannot demonstrate that Greek inscriptions existed earlier than the eigth century B.C., a comparative analysis of the characteristic traits of the West Semitic script and those of Archaic Greek writing, leads to the assumption that the Greek borrowing of the alphabet should be dated some three hundred years earlier than the earliest known Greek inscriptions."

1,000 B.C. - Greek Colonies / Cyprus - "Reportedly, 'Cyprus may never have belonged to Greece, although Greek colonies have been on the island for over 3,000 years.' "

1,000 B.C. - Etruscans - "Etruscan civilization existing by this time."

1,000 B.C.

1,000 B.C. - Jewish Calendar - "Present knowledge of the Jewish calendar in use before the period of the Babylonian Exile is both limited and uncertain. The Bible refers to calendar matters only incidentally, and the dating of components of Mosaic Law remains doubtful. The earliest datable source for the Hebrew calendar is the Gezer Calendar, written probably in the age of Solomon, in the late 10th century B.C. The inscription indicates the length of main agricultural tasks within the cycle of 12 lunations. The calendar term here is yereah, which in Hebrew denotes both 'moon' and 'month.' Thus, the Hebrew months were lunar. They are not named in pre-exilic sources except in the Biblical report of the building of Solomon's Temple in I Kings, where the names of three months, two of them also attested in the Phoenician calendar, are given; the months are usually numbered rather than named."
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« Reply #72 on: August 28, 2009, 05:30:50 pm »

980 B.C. - Height of Power / Israel - �"A traditional date when King David's empire was at its peak"

976 B.C. - Jeroboam �I / Israel - "Reportedly, the son of Nebat (1Ki 11:26-39), 'an Ephrathite,' the first king of the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief superintendent of the 'burnden', i.e., of the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been discovered, he fled to Egypt (1Ki 11:29-40), where he remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I. Other �traditional dates attributed to Jeroboam I include: 931-909 B.C."

973 B.C. - Solomon / Israel & Judah - �"A traditional date when Solomon ruled [962-922 B.C.] united Israel-Judah. Other traditional dates attributed to Solomon include: 970-931 B.C."

969 B.C. - Hiram / Tyre - �"A traditional date when Hiram ruled Tyre."

962 B.C. - Jewish Temple Completed - �"A Traditional date for the completion of the First Jewish Temple by Solomon. Reportedly, this building was regarded as the repository of ancient occult wisdom and symbolism by both the Freemasons and the Knights Templar. King David initiated the building of the temple at Jerusalem and after his death his son Solomon completed the task. To build the edifice Solomon imported masons, artists and craftsmen from neighboring countries. Specifically he sent a message to the king of Tyre asking if he could hire the services of the king's master builder, Hiram Abiff, who was skilled in geometry. Solomon appointed Hiram as the chief architect and master mason of the temple to be built in Jerusalem. In the Old Testament it is said of Solomon that 'he sacrificed and burnt incense in high places', [I Kings 3:3] which were the sites of shrines dedicated to the worship of the Great Goddess. The available evidence suggests that during the 370-year �history of the original temple at Jerusalem it was wholly or partly used for Goddess worship for 200 years of that period. When one of Yahweh's prophets �denounced Solomon's waywardness in favor of a young man called Jeroboam who became the new king [I Kings 11:29-40], the worship of pagan gods briefly abated. In I Kings 23: 4-7 it is recorded that the high priest Hilkaih destroyed the shrines to the goddess Ashtoreth which Solomon had erected all over Israel."

961 B.C. - Arabian Trade / King Solomon - Reportedly: "Solomon ruled from 961 to 922 B.C. and he started to trade with the Arabs who were in Arabia." �

950 B.C. - Rezin / Syria - �"A traditional date when Rezin founded the kingdom of Damascus [Syria]."

945 B.C. - 22nd Egyptian Dynasty - "traditional date for the 22nd Egyptian Dynasty �[945 B.C.- 712 B.C.]."

942 �B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

933 B.C. - Fatality / Solomon�- "A traditional date when Solomon died."

933 B.C. - Jeroboam I / Israel - "On the death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent to invite Jeroboam I to become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly proclaimed 'king of Israel' (1Ki 12:1; 1:1-20). He rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two extremities of his kingdom, 'golden calves,' which he set up as symbols of Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as the man 'who made Israel to sin.' This policy was followed by all the succeeding kings of Israel. Other traditional dates attributed to Jeroboam I include: 931-909 B.C."

931 B.C. - Rehoboam / Judah - "A traditional date when Rehoboam ruled in Judah 931-914 B.C."

922 B.C. - Secession / Israel from Judah - "The Bible describes how, soon after the death of Solomon, the ten northern tribes, resenting their subjugation to Davidic kings in Jerusalem, unilaterally seceded from the united monarchy, thus forcing the creation of two rival kingdoms: the kingdom of Israel, in the north, and the kingdom of Judah, in the south. For the next two hundred years, the people of Israel lived in two separate kingdoms, reportedly succumbing again and again to the lure of foreign deities."

918 B.C. - Uranus-Neptune Conjunction -

918 B.C. - Sacked / Jewish Temple - �"About 918 B.C., an Egyptian army, under Sheshonk ['Shishak' in the Bible] of the 22nd Dynasty, who reigned from 935-914 B.C., sacked Jerusalem and the Temple."

914 B.C. - Abijam Rules Judah - �"A traditional date when Abijam ruled in Judah 914-911 B.C."

911 B.C. - Asa Rules Judah�- �"A traditional date when Asa ruled in Judah 911-870 B.C."

909 B.C. - Nadab Rules Israel�- "A traditional date when Nadab ruled in Israel 909-908 B.C."

908 B.C. - Baasha Rules Israel�- "A traditional �date when Baasha ruled in Israel 908-885 B.C."

900 B.C. - Demotic Invented - �"A modified form of heratic writing invented."

900 B.C. - Bible Writing / Song of Deborah - "By 900 B.C., some Israelite writing had appeared that was later to be incorporated into the Bible. The Song of Deborah is an example of this."

900 B.C. - Height of Power / Olmec Civilization - "Olmec civilization [in southern Mexico] at its peak."

*Trivia: "The Olmec, which means 'rubber people,' date back to at least 4000 BC. They began their rise to civilization around 1500 BC, and are considered to have reached the first advanced stages of high civilization around 550 BC." �

9,00 B.C.

898 B.C. - Solar Eclipse - "China's Double-Dawn Eclipse [April 21st]"

885 B.C. - Elah �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Elah ruled in Israel 885-884 B.C."

884 B.C. - Samaria Founded - "Date for the foundation of Samaria, mentioned in the Mesha stela from Moab."

884 B.C. - Zimri �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Zimri ruled in Israel 884 B.C."

884 B.C. - Tibni �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Tibni ruled in Israel 884-880 B.C."

884 B.C. - Omri �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Omri ruled in Israel 884-873 B.C."

883 B.C. - Ashurnasirpal II Rules Assyria �- "A traditional date when Ashurnasirpal II ruled in Assyria 883-859 B.C."

874 B.C. - Ahab Rules Israel - "A traditional date when King Ahab ruled [874-853 B.C.] in Israel. Ahab, the king who actually stopped Assyria for a while, is painted in the darkest colors in the Bible, along with his wife, Jezebel. His victory over Assyria isn't even mentioned. Under the influence of Jezebel, King Ahab built an altar to Baal and a sacred grove to the goddess [I Kings 16:30-33]. It is said that 850 priests of Baal and Astoreth were entertained at a lavish banquet organized by the new queen. Other traditional dates attributed to Ahab include 873-852 B.C."

870 B.C. - Jehoshaphat Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoshaphat ruled in Judah 870-846 B.C."

859 B.C. - Shalmaneser III Rules Assyria �- "A traditional date when Shalmaneser III ruled in Assyria 859-824 B.C."
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« Reply #73 on: August 28, 2009, 05:31:10 pm »

854 B.C. - Israelite Coalition - "Israel, in combination with Judah [a puppet of Israel at the time] and Aram [Syria] manage to defeat Assyria in battle. Later Syria and Israel turn against eachother and Ahab dies in battle against Syria. Meanwhile, Israel and Judah were not truly monotheistic. The writers of the Bible tried to make monotheism the stern belief of Moses and David, but even if it were, the people did not follow them any more than the Egyptian people had followed Akhenaton. The Yahwists [those who believe in Yahweh as the single god of the Jews] were always a minority at this time, and were, in fact, persecuted by the kings - who found them rigid and extreme, and getting in the way of practical politics. The outstanding Yahwists of this century were Elijah and Elisha. The Bible, written in later times by Yahwists, present them as wonder-working prophets and their opponents as villians. Thus, Ahab, the king who actually stopped Assyria for a while, is painted in the darkest colors in the Bible, along with his wife Jezebel. His victory over Assyria isn't even mentioned."

852 B.C. - Ahaziah �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Ahaziah ruled in Israel 852-851 B.C."

851 B.C. - Joram �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Joram [yvrm] ruled in Israel 851-842 B.C."

851 B.C. - JehoramRules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoram [yhvrm] ruled in Judah 851-843 B.C."

850 B.C. - Mesha Stone�- "Reportedly, the Mesha Stone inscription dates from 850 B.C."

843 B.C. - AhaziahRules Judah - "A traditional date when Ahaziah ruled in Judah 843-842 B.C."

842 B.C. - Jehu �Rules Israel- "A traditional date when Jehu [yhva] ruled in Israel 842-814 B.C."

842 B.C. - Athaliah Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Athaliah ruled in Judah 842-836 B.C."

836 B.C. - Jehoash Rules Judah - "A traditional date when Jehoash [yvas] ruled in Judah 836-798 B.C."

835 �B.C. - Urartu �[Ararat] Established - "Urartu, the Biblical 'Ararat,' was a kingdom established about 835 B.C. in the foothills of the Caucasus, north of Assyria."

825 B.C. - Jeroboam II Rules Israel? - "Reportedly, Jeroboam II, the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years, B.C. 825-784 (2Ki 14:23). He followed the example of the first Jeroboam in keeping up the worship of the golden calves (2Ki 14:24). His reign was contemporary with those of Amaziah (2Ki 14:23) and Uzziah (2Ki 15:1), kings of Judah. He was victorious over the Syrians (2Ki 13:4; 14:26-27), and extended Israel to its former limits, from 'the entering of Hamath to the sea of the plain' (2Ki 14:25; Am 6:14). His reign of forty-one years was the most prosperous that Israel had ever known as yet. With all this outward prosperity, however, iniquity widely prevailed in the land (Am 2:6-8; 4:1; 6:6; Ho 4:12-14). The prophets Hosea (Ho 1:1), Joel (Joe 3:16; Am 1:1-2), Amos (Am 1:1), and Jonah (2Ki 14:25) lived during his reign. He died, and was buried with his ancestors (2Ki 14:29). He was succeeded by his son Zachariah (q.v.). His name occurs in Scripture only in 2Ki 13:13; 14:16,23,27-29; 15:1,8; 1Ch 5:17; Ho 1:1; Am 1:1; 7:9-11. In all other passages it is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that is meant. Other dates attributed to Jeroboam include: 788 -747 B.C." [traditional Old Testament]

831 B.C. - Uranus-Pluto Conjunction -

817 B.C. - Jehoahaz �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Jehoahaz [yhvachz] ruled in Israel 817-800 B.C."

814 B.C. - Phoenicians / Carthage �- "By 814 B.C. the Phoenicians established the city of Carthage near the site of modern Tunis."

811 B.C. - Adad-nirari Rules Assyria�- "A traditional date when Adad-nirari ruled in Assyria 811-783 B.C."

800 B.C. - Joash �Rules Israel - "A traditional date when Joash [yvas] ruled in Israel 800-784 B.C."

800 B.C. - Sammuramat / Assyria - "Toward 800 B.C., the Assyrian king was a minor, and his mother Sammuramat, was the effective head of the government. The Greeks built their legend of Semiramis about her."

800 B.C. - Brahmans / India - "The Brahmans, a priestly caste, begin [800-600 B.C.] to emerge around this time, along with the caste system. The Upanishads are written about this time [800-500 B.C.]."

800 B.C. - Homer / Greece - "By 800 B.C., Homer [concerning whom next to nothing is known - not even if he really existed] had written the Iliad and the Odyssey. About the same time, Hesiod was writing Theogony, which was an important guide to Greek mythology."
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« Reply #74 on: August 28, 2009, 05:31:24 pm »

800 B.C. - Bible Authors - "During the nineteenth century, some German biblical scholars developed a critical method which discerned four different sources in the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. These were later collated into the final text of what we know �as the Pentateuch during the fifth century BCE. This form of criticism has come in for a good deal of harsh treatment, but nobody has yet come up with a satisfactory theory which explains why there are two quite different accounts of key biblical events, such as the Creation and the Flood, and why the Bible sometimes contradicts itself. The two earliest biblical authors, whose work is found in Genesis and Exodus, were probably writing during the eigth century, though some would give them an earlier date. One is known as 'J' because he calls his God 'Yahweh,' the other 'E' since he prefers to use the more formal divine title 'Elohim.' By the eighth century, the Israelites had divided Canaan into two separate kingdoms. J was writing in the southern kingdom of Judah, while E came from the northern kingdom of Israel." [A History of God, Karen Armstrong, p. 12]
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