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Nathaniel Turner

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Whitney
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« Reply #15 on: July 17, 2009, 01:46:54 am »

References

   1. ^ Drewry, William Sydney (1900). The Southampton Insurrection. Washington, D. C.: The Neale Company. p. 108.
   2. ^ Description of Turner included in a $500 reward notice in the Washington National Intelligencer on September 24, 1831.
   3. ^ Aptheker (1993), p295.
   4. ^ a b Gray (1831), p9.
   5. ^ Gray (1831), p10.
   6. ^ Gray, Thomas Ruffin (1831). The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrections in Southampton, Va.. Southampton, Virginia: Lucas & Deaver. pp. 7–9, 11..
   7. ^ a b c d Gray (1831), p11.
   8. ^ Aptheker, Herbert (1993). American Negro Slave Revolts. New York: International Publishers. p. 298. ISBN 0-7178-0605-7.
   9. ^ a b c d e Oates, Stephen. "Children of Darkness". American Heritage Magazine. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1973/6/1973_6_42.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  10. ^ Richmond Enquirer, November 8, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 299. Aptheker notes that the Enquirer was "hostile to the cause Turner espoused." p. 298.
  11. ^ a b Aptheker (1993), p300.
  12. ^ Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301, citing the Huntsville, Alabama, Southern Advocate, October 15, 1831.
  13. ^ a b Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, pp. 300–302.
  14. ^ Richmond Whig, September 3, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301.
  15. ^ Richmond Enquirer, September 6, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301.
  16. ^ New York Evening Post, September 5, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 301.
  17. ^ a b c Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolinia: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10.
  18. ^ "Nat Turner's Rebellion", Africans in America, PBS.org, accessed 5 Mar 2009
  19. ^ Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion (1992), p. 78
  20. ^ Lewis, Rudolph. "Up From Slavery: A Documentary History of Negro Education". Rudolph Lewis. http://www.nathanielturner.com/educationhistorynegro6.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  21. ^ James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1988, pp.244-245

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« Reply #16 on: July 17, 2009, 01:47:10 am »

Sources

    * Herbert Aptheker. American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers, 1983 (1943).
    * Stephen B. Oates, The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. New York, NY: HarperPerennial, 1990 (1975). ISBN 0-06-091670-2.
    * Kim Warren, "Literacy and Liberation", Reviews in American History Volume 33, Number 4, December 2005, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
    * Virginia Writers' Program, Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion, Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library, reprint, 1992. ISBN 0-88490-173-4.

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« Reply #17 on: July 17, 2009, 01:47:36 am »

Nat Turner's rebellion was suppressed within 48 hours, but Turner eluded capture until October 30, when he was discovered hiding in a hole covered with fence rails and then taken to court. On November 5, 1831, he was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. Turner was hanged on November 11 in Jerusalem, Virginia, now known as Courtland, Virginia. His body was flayed, beheaded and quartered.

After his execution, his lawyer, Thomas Ruffin Gray, who had access to the jail in which Turner had been held, took it upon himself to publish The Confessions of Nat Turner, derived partly from research done while Turner was in hiding and partly from conversations with Turner before his trial. This document is the primary historical document regarding Nat Turner.
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« Reply #18 on: July 17, 2009, 01:48:10 am »



The capture of Nat Turner
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« Reply #19 on: July 17, 2009, 01:48:47 am »

In total, the state executed 56 Blacks suspected of having been involved in the uprising. In the bloody aftermath, close to 200 blacks, many of whom had nothing to do with the rebellion, were beaten, tortured and murdered by angry white mobs.[10]

Prior to the Nat Turner Revolt, there was a small and ineffectual antislavery movement in the state of Virginia,[citation needed] largely on account of economic trends that made slavery less profitable in the Old South in the 1820s and fears among whites of the rising number of blacks, especially in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions. Most of the movement's members, including acting governor John Floyd, supported resettlement for these reasons. Considerations of white racial and moral purity also influenced many of these antislavery Virginians.[citation needed]

However, fears of repetitions of the Nat Turner Revolt served to polarize moderates and slave owners across the South.[citation needed] Municipalities across the region instituted repressive policies against enslaved and free blacks. Rights were taken away from free blacks. The freedoms of all black people in Virginia were tightly curtailed. Socially, the uprising discouraged whites' questioning the slave system from the perspective that such discussion might encourage similar slave revolts. Manumissions of slaves had decreased by 1810. The shift away from tobacco had made owning slaves in the Upper South an excess to the planters' needs, so they started to hire out slaves. With the ending of the slave trade, the invention of the cotton gin, and opening up of new territories in the Deep South, suddenly there was a growing market for the trading of slaves. Over the next decades, more than a million slaves would be transported to the Deep South in a forced migration as a result of the domestic slave trade.
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« Reply #20 on: July 17, 2009, 01:49:13 am »

In terms of public response and loss of white lives, slaveholders in the Upper South and coastal states were deeply shocked by the Nat Turner Rebellion. While the 1811 German Coast Uprising in Louisiana involved a greater number of slaves, it resulted in only two white fatalities. Events in Louisiana did not receive as much attention in those years in the Upper South and Lowcountry. Because of his singular status, Nat is regarded as a hero by some African Americans and pan-Africanists worldwide.

Nat became the focus of historical scholarship in the 1940s, when historian Herbert Aptheker was publishing the first serious scholarly work on instances of slave resistance in the antebellum South. Aptheker stressed how the rebellion was rooted in the exploitative conditions of the Southern slave system. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similar instances, though none of them reached the scale of the Nat Turner Revolt.
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« Reply #21 on: July 17, 2009, 01:49:25 am »

Legacy

    * The Confessions of Nat Turner, a novel by William Styron, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1968. This book had wide critical and popular acclaim. Several black critics considered it racist and "a deliberate attempt to steal the meaning of a man's life."[citation needed] These assertions were part of cultural discussions about how different peoples can interpret the past and whether any one group has sole ownership of any portion.

    * Nat Turner: A Troublesome Property, a film by Charles Burnett, was released in 2003.

    * In 2007 cartoonist and comic book author Kyle Baker wrote a two-part comic book about Turner and his uprising, which was called Nat Turner.

    * Rapper Reef The Lost Cauze put out a song on his latest album called Nat Turner
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« Reply #22 on: July 17, 2009, 01:49:50 am »

Notes

   1. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
   2. ^ Drewry, William Sydney (1900). The Southampton Insurrection. Washington, D. C.: The Neale Company. pp. 108.
   3. ^ Description of Turner included in $500 reward notice in the Washington National Intelligencer on September 24, 1831, quoted in Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, p. 294.
   4. ^ Aptheker (1993), p295.
   5. ^ Gray, Thomas Ruffin (1831). The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrections in Southampton, Va.. Baltimore, Maryland: Lucas & Deaver. pp. 7–9, 11..
   6. ^ Gray (1831), p 9.
   7. ^ a b c Gray (1831), p 11.
   8. ^ Oates, Stephen B. (1990 [1975]) The fires of jubilee: Nat Turner's fierce rebellion, New York: HarperPerennial ISBN 0-06-091670-2.
   9. ^ Oates, Stephen. "Children of Darkness". American Heritage Magazine. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1973/6/1973_6_42.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-07-18.
  10. ^ Africans in America/Part
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« Reply #23 on: July 17, 2009, 01:50:31 am »

Further reading

    * Herbert Aptheker. American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York: International Publishers, 1983 (1943).
    * Herbert Aptheker. Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion. New York: Humanities Press, 1966.
    * Scot French. The Rebellious Slave: Nat Turner in American Memory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2004.
    * William Lloyd Garrison, "The Insurrection", The Liberator, (September 3, 1831). A contemporary abolitionist's reaction to news of the rebellion.
    * Thomas R. Gray, The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrections in Southampton, Va. Baltimore: Lucas & Deaver, 1831. Available online.
    * Kenneth S. Greenberg, ed. Nat Turner: A Slave Rebellion in History and Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    * Stephen B. Oates, The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. New York: HarperPerennial, 1990 (1975). ISBN 0-06-091670-2.
    * Junius P. Rodriguez, ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2006.
    * Ely, Mike. "The Slave Rebellion of General Nat Turner". [mikeely.wordpress.com/interviews. History. Available online.] December 2007.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nat_Turner
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« Reply #24 on: July 17, 2009, 01:51:15 am »

# Works by Nat Turner at Project Gutenberg
# The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Va. Baltimore: T. R. Gray, 1831.

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Nat Turner
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nat_Turner
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"Religion is What Keeps the Poor from Murdering the Rich" -- Napoleon Bonaparte
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