Atlantis Online
August 22, 2019, 05:16:47 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Scientists to drill beneath oceans
http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,8063.0.html
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Earthquake: Effects & Impacts

Pages: 1 2 3 4 [5]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Earthquake: Effects & Impacts  (Read 822 times)
Illyria
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 1119



« Reply #60 on: July 02, 2009, 01:32:19 pm »

Preparation

In order to determine the likelihood for future seismic activity, geologists and other scientists examine the rock of an area to determine if the rock appears to be "strained". Studying the faults of an area to study the buildup time it takes for the fault to build up stress sufficient for an earthquake also serves as an effective predicition technique.[34] Measurements of the amount of pressure which collocates on the fault line each year, time passed since the last major temblor, and the energy and power of the last earthquake are made.[34] Together the facts allow scientists to determine how much pressure it takes for the fault to generate an earthquake. Though this method is useful, it has only been implemented on California's San Andreas Fault.[34]

Today, there are ways to protect and prepare possible sites of earthquakes from severe damage, through the following processes: earthquake engineering, earthquake preparedness, household seismic safety, seismic retrofit (including special fasteners, materials, and techniques), seismic hazard, mitigation of seismic motion, and earthquake prediction.

Report Spam   Logged
Illyria
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 1119



« Reply #61 on: July 02, 2009, 01:34:07 pm »

Historical earthquakes

Historical earthquakes is a list of significant earthquakes from before the 20th century. As the events listed here occurred before routine instrumental recordings, they rely mainly on the analysis of written sources. There is often significant uncertainty in location and magnitude and sometimes date for each earthquake. The number of fatalities is also often highly uncertain, particularly for the older events.

Date   Time‡   Place   Latitude   Longitude   Fatalities   Magnitude   Comments   Sources   
1813 BC  Shandong, China    ? – Earliest earthquake for which written records exist [1]
464 BC  Sparta, Greece    ? ~7.2 Ms Led to a helot uprising and strained relations with Athens, one of the factors that led to the Peloponnesian War [2]
226 BC  Rhodes, Greece    ? – Destroyed Colossus of Rhodes and city of Kameiros [3]
July 21, 365  Crete (Greece)
see 365 Crete earthquake   "thousands" XI Destruction also in Cyrene & Alexandria (by tsunami) Ammianus Marcellinus[4] and numerous other late Antiquity writers[5]
May 19, 526  Antioch, Syria
see526 Antioch earthquake)   250,000 VIII   The city of Antioch was greatly damaged, and some decades later the city's population was just 300,000. Procopius, II.14.6; sources based on John of Ephesus
November 24, 847  Damascus, Syria   70,000 X   [6]
856  Corinth, Greece   45,000 –   [7]
December 28, 893  Dvin, Armenia 39.95 44.20 30,000 – Mislocated in India [8]
March 23, 893  Ardabil, Iran 38.28 48.30 150,000 – – [9][10]
August 12, 1042  Palmyra, Baalbek, Syria   50,000 >VIII   [6]
October 11, 1138  Aleppo, Syria
see 1138 Aleppo earthquake 36.1 36.8 230,000 XI   [6][11]
August 12, 1157 08:15 Syria 35.1 36.3 "Tens of thousands" 7.2 Ms Largest in a sequence lasting from late 1156 to early 1159 [6][11][12]
February 4, 1169  Sicily 37.3 15.0 15,000 X   [13]
June 29, 1170 06:29 Eastern Mediterranean 34.4 36.4 5,000[14]-80,000 in Aleppo
25,000 in Hama 7.3-7.5[15] -7.7[16] Syria, Lebanon, central southern Turkey Numerous sources from Crusader times[11][12]
July 5, 1201 and/or May 20, 1202  Eastern Mediterranean; see 1202 Syria earthquake   1,100,000 (includes famine/disease deaths) 7.6 Damage across a wide area from Syria to Upper Egypt –
1268  Cilicia, Anatolia (Turkey)
see 1268 Cilicia earthquake 37.5 35.5 60,000 ~7  –
September 27, 1290  Chihli (Hopeh), China   100,000 6.7   [17]
May 26, 1293  Kamakura, (now in Kanagawa Prefecture, Kantō region,) Japan 35.2 139.4 23,024 7.1   [18]
January 25, 1348 15:00 Friuli, Venice, Rome
see Earthquake of 1348 46.37 13.58 10,000 6.9  [19]
October 18, 1356  Basel, Switzerland
see 1356 Basel earthquake 47.5 07.6 1,000 6.2 Mw [20]
May 21, 1382  Canterbury, UK    ? 5.8 Struck during synod - later called "Earthquake Synod" - called to condemn heresy of John Wycliffe - some saw as portentous [21]/[22]
February 2, 1428  Catalonia (now Spain)
Catalan earthquake of 1428   100s VIII–IX Sometimes called the terratrèmol de la candelera because it took place during the Candlemas. [23]/[24]
September 10, 1509  Istanbul, Turkey
see 1509 Istanbul earthquake   10,000 7.2 Mw –
January 26, 1531 04:30 Lisbon, Portugal 38.9 -09.0 30,000 6.9   [25]
January 23, 1556  Shaanxi, China
see Shaanxi Earthquake 34.5 109.7 830,000+ 8.2~.3  USGS
July 13, 1605  Qiongshan, Hainan, China 19.9 110.5 3,000 7.5 (X)   [26]
April 6, 1667  Dubrovnik, Croatia 42.3 18.1 3,000 7.2  [27]
November 25, 1667  Shemakha, Azerbaijan   80,000 XII   [17]
01668-08-17August 17, 1668  Anatolia, Turkey 40 36 8,000 8  USGS
June 7, 1692 11:43 local time Port Royal, Jamaica 17.9 -76.8 2,000+ ~7 (X)   [28][29]
January 11, 1693  Catania Province, Sicily
see 1693 Sicily earthquake   60,000 7.5   –
September 5, 1694  Irpinia, Italy 40.88 15.35 6,000 6.9 Mw [30]
01700-01-26January 26, 1700 ~21:00 Cascadia subduction zone
see 1700 Cascadia earthquake    9 M (Satake et al., 1996) USGS
October 28, 1707 06:15 Japan 32.5 136.0 4,900 (Japan) 8.4   [31]
1730 10:00 local time Beijing, China 40.0 116.2 100s 6.5   [32][33]
October 16, 1737 15:30 local time Kamchatka, Russia 51.1 158.0  8.3 Ms See Kamchatka earthquakes [34][35]
June 7, 1755  Northern Persia 34.0 51.5 1,200
40,000[36] 5.9   [37][33]
01755-11-01November 1, 1755 10:16 Lisbon, Portugal
see 1755 Lisbon earthquake 36 -11 80,000 8.7 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
November 18, 1755 09:11 Boston, Massachusetts, USA 42.7 -70.2 0 5.9 Mw [38][39]
November 25, 1759 19:23 local time Eastern Mediterranean
see Near East earthquake of 1759 33.7 35.9 1,000s 7.4 Ms Earthquake in same area on October 30 considered to be a foreshock [6]
February 28, 1780  Iran 38.0 46.2 200,000 7.4 Ms [40]
February 4—5, March 28, 1783 12:00 Calabria, Italy 38.15 15.70 35,000 6.9 Mw First in a sequence of five earthquakes Mw ≥ 5.9 to hit Calabria in less than two months [41]
February 4, 1797  Quito, Ecuador & Cuzco, Peru   41,000 7.3 Mw [42]
February 10, 1797  Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia) -1.0 99.0 300 8.4   [43][44]
November 22, 1800 1:30 p.m. local time San Diego, California, USA 34.00 -117.18 Unknown 6.5 Resulted in varying levels of damage at Mission San Diego de Alcalá, Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, and Mission San Juan Capistrano California Earthquake History 1769-Present
01811-12-16December 16, 1811 08:00 New Madrid, Missouri, USA
see 1812 New Madrid earthquake 36.6 -89.6  8.1 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
01812-01-23January 23, 1812 15:00 New Madrid, Missouri, USA 36.6 -89.6  7.8 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
01812-02-07February 7, 1812 09:45 New Madrid, Missouri, USA 36.6 -89.6  8 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
December 8, 1812 9:45 a.m. local time Wrightwood, California, USA 34.22 -117.39 42 7.0 Destroyed the "Great Stone Church" at Mission San Juan Capistrano Southern California Earthquake Data Center
December 21, 1812 11:00 a.m. local time Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA 34.12 -119.54 0 7.0 Destroyed the church at Mission Santa Barbara, caused near-total destruction at Mission La Purísima Concepción, and considerable damage at Mission Santa Inés Southern California Earthquake Data Center
01823-06-02June 2, 1823 08:00 south flank of Kīlauea, Hawaii, USA 19.3 -155  7 MI (Klein and Wright, 2000) USGS
November 25, 1833  Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia) -2.5 100.5 "numerous victims" 8.8-9.2 Mw Huge tsunami flooded all southern part of western Sumatra [43] [45]
01836-06-10June 10, 1836 15:30 south San Francisco Bay region, California, Mexico (now USA) 36.9 -121.5  6.5 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
January 1, 1837 16:00 local time Galilee, Israel
see Galilee earthquake of 1837 33.0 35.5 6,000-7,000 >7.0 Ms [6][46]
01838-06-31June 1838  San Francisco Peninsula, California, Mexico (now USA) 37.3 -123.2  6.8 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01843-01-05January 5, 1843 02:45 Marked Tree, Arkansas, USA 35.5 -90.5  6.3 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
May 8, 1847  Around Zenkō-ji Temple, (now in Nagano Prefecture, Chūbu region,) Japan 36.7 138.2 more than 8,600 7.4 2,094 houses lost by fire with quake at Nagano [47]
January 23, 1855 21:11 local time Wairarapa, New Zealand
see 1855 Wairarapa earthquake -41.4 174.5 4 ~8.0 Raised sections of Wellington coastline by 2 metres –
November 11, 1855  Edo (now Tokyo, Kantō region), Japan   more than 4,700 6.9 10,000 house destroyed in Edo 安政の大地震 in Japanese
01857-01-09January 9, 1857 16:24 Fort Tejon, California, USA (San Andreas fault from Parkfield to Wrightwood)
see 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake   1 7.9 M (Grant and Sieh, 1993; Stein and Hanks, 1998) USGS
01857-12-16December 16, 1857 21:00 Naples, Italy 40.3 16 11,000 6.9 MI USGS
February 16, 1861  Sumatra, East Indies (now Indonesia) 1.0 97,5 905 8.5 Caused major tsunami. [48][49]
01865-10-08October 8, 1865 20:46 San Jose, California, USA 37.2 121.9  6.5 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01868-04-03April 3, 1868 02:25 Hilea, southeast Hawaii, Hawaii, United States 19.2 -155.5 77 7.9 MI (Klein and Wright, 2000) USGS
01868-10-21October 21, 1868 15:53 Hayward, California, USA, Hayward Fault Zone
see 1868 Hayward earthquake 37.7 -122.1 30 6.8 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01871-02-20February 20, 1871 08:42 Molokai, Hawaii, USA 21.2 -156.9  6.8 MI (Klein and Wright, 2000) USGS
01872-03-26March 26, 1872 10:30 Owens Valley, California, USA
see 1872 Lone Pine earthquake 36.5 -118 27 7.6 M (Beanland and Clark, 1994) USGS
01872-12-15December 15, 1872 05:40 north Cascades, Washington, USA 47.9 -120.3  7.3 MI (Malone and Bor, 1979; Rogers et al., 1983) USGS
September 9, 1880 7:04 local time Zagreb, Croatia 45.9 16.1 1 6.2 Ms [50]
01873-11-23November 23, 1873 05:00 California-Oregon coast, USA 42.2 -124.2  7.3 MI (Bakun, 2000) USGS
01886-08-31August 31, 1886 02:51 Charleston, South Carolina, USA 32.9 -80 60 7.3 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
September 1, 1888 04:10 local time North Canterbury, New Zealand
see 1888 North Canterbury earthquake -42.6 172.4  7.0-7.3 First earthquake observed to be associated with mainly horizontal fault displacement –
01890-04-24April 24, 1890 11:36 Corralitos, California, USA 37 121.8  6.3 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01891-10-27October 27, 1891 21:38 Mino-Owari (Gifu-Aichi Prefectures), Tōkai region, Japan
see Nōbi Earthquake 35.6 136.6 7,273 8 MS USGS
01892-04-19April 19, 1892 10:50 Vacaville, California, USA 38.5 -121.8 1 6.4 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01892-04-21April 21, 1892 17:43 Winters, California, USA 38.6 -122  6.4 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01895-10-31October 31, 1895 11:08 Charleston, Missouri, USA 37 -89.4  6.6 MI (Johnston, 1996) USGS
01896-06-15June 15, 1896 19:32 Off the Pacific coast of Sanriku, Iwate Prefecture, Tōhoku region, Japan 39.5 144  8.5 (approx) M USGS
01897-06-12June 12, 1897 11:06 Assam, India 26 91 1,500 8.3  USGS
01897-06-20June 20, 1897 20:14 Calaveras Fault, California, USA 37 -121.6  6.3 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01898-03-31March 31, 1898 07:43 Mare Island, California, USA 38.1 122.4  6.3 MI (Bakun, 1999) USGS
01898-04-15April 15, 1898 07:07 Mendocino County, California, USA 39.3 -123.9  6.8 MI (Bakun, 2000) USGS
01899-09-04September 4, 1899 00:22 Cape Yakataga, Alaska, USA 60 -142  7.9 MS USGS
01899-09-10September 10, 1899 21:41 Yakutat Bay, Alaska, USA 60 -142  8 MS USGS
01900-10-09October 9, 1900 12:28 Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA 57.1 -153.5  7.7 MS USG
Report Spam   Logged
Illyria
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 1119



« Reply #62 on: July 02, 2009, 01:35:26 pm »

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_earthquakes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earthquakes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters_by_death_toll#Earthquakes
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: 1 2 3 4 [5]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum | Buy traffic for your forum/website
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy