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Atlantis Under Antarctica?

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Stacy Dohm
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« on: June 08, 2009, 01:55:11 am »

Atlantis Under Antarctica?

02.12.2002    


After WW II, scientists started to pay close attention to the issue of a supposedly once-existing civilization in Antarctica. The hypothesis is confirmed by some medieval maps and research of paleogeologists and glaciologists.
In January of 1820, Lieutenant of Russian Empire Fleet Mikhail Lazarev discovered a new continent. In the beginning of 20th century, a Russian encyclopaedia, while adducing the approximate square milage of south pole continent, reported that it was insufficiently explored and there was no flora and fauna. The author of the article also mentioned the richness of the algae and sea life.

Twenty years later, the director of the Istanbul National Museum, Khalil Edkhem, was sorting out a library of the Byzantine emperors in an old palace. He found an ancient map made on gazelle skin. On the map, there were the shores of western and southern Africa, as well as the northern shores of Antarctica. Khalil could not believe hiseyes: the shores of the Queen Mod Land, to the south of the 70th parallel, was free of ice. An ancient cartographer marked a mountain chain there. The name of the cartographer was known: an admiral of the Ottoman Empire fleet, Piri Reis, who lived in the first half of 16th century.

The map’s authenticity was without doubt. Graphology examinations of the notes on the margin confirmed that they belonged to the admiral.

In 1949, a combined British and Swedish expedition conducted intensive seismic measurements of the South Pole through the ice cap. According to the commander of 8th Technical Investigation Squadron of the US Armed Force Strategic Command, Colonel Harold Olmayer, “ the geographical details of the bottom part of the map (the shore of Antarctica) correspond with the results of the seismic measurements. We cannot correlate these data with the supposed level of geography in 1513.”
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Stacy Dohm
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« Reply #1 on: June 08, 2009, 01:55:32 am »

In his notes on the map’s margin, made in the early 16th century, Piri Reis explained that he was not responsible for the cartography and that the map was based on earlier sources. Some of these “earlier sources” belong to his contemporaries (for example, to Christopher Columbus), while others could be dated to the 4th century B. C. Not later, because one of these sources belonged to Alexander the Great.

Of course, professional historians who specialize in ancient history could say the following: “This is only one more hypothesis. What about documentary and, what is more desirable, trust-worthy sources? The opinion of the Turkish admiral and notes on a margin… You know, it is too disputable!”

Therefore, I would like to present the position of the late historian and professor of Keene College in New Hampshire, USA, Charles H. Hapgood. In the late 1959, he found in the Washington Congressional Library a map created by Orontheus Phynius in 1531. Orontheus Phynius depicted Antarctica with mountains and rivers, without glaciers. The relief of the continent’s center was not marked, which, according to Hapgood, could mean that there had been an ice cap in that area.

In the early 1960s, Phynius’ map was studied by Doctor Richard Stratchen of the Massachusetts Technology Institute together with Hapgood. Both scientists concluded that Phynius had indeed depicted Antarctica free of ice. The characteristics depicted were very close to the information that was obtained in 1958 by specialists from different countries

Gerard Cremer, known in the world as Mercator, also trusted Orontheus’ evidence. He included the Phynius map into his atlas, in which several maps of Antarctica by Mercator himself were also included. There is one interesting feature: on Mercator’s map of 1569, the west shore of South America is pictured less accurately than on the earlier map of Mercator from 1538. The reasons for this contradiction are the following: while working at the earlier map, the cartographer of 16th century proceeded from ancient sources, which were not kept for our time, and while working at the later map, he proceeded from observations of the first Spanish explorers to South America. Gerard Mercato’s mistake can be excused. In the 16th century, there were no precise methods to measure longitude: as a rule, an error could have been hundreds of kilometers!

Finally, we come to Philippe Boiche, full member of the French Academy of Science. In 1737, he published his map of Antarctica. Boiche presented a precise picture of Antarctica of the time when the continent was free of ice. On his map, the under-ice topography of the continent is presented, about which our civilization had no clear idea until 1958. Moreover, based on now-lost sources, the French academician depicted in the middle of the South Pole a body of water dividing it into two sub-continents, which were situated to the west and to the east from the line, where the Trans-Antarctic Mountains are now marked. According to the investigation in the framework of International Geophysical Year (1958), Antarctic is in fact an archipelago of large islands covered with 1.5-kilometers of ice.
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« Reply #2 on: June 08, 2009, 01:55:52 am »

Medieval maps show Antarctica without an ice cap or partially covered with ice. The precision of the 16th century cartographers was very high and even surprising. Their data surpassed the technical possibilities even of the late Middle Ages (for example, the determination of the longitude of a relief within one minute). This level was reached by mankind in the late 18th century, while in some cases, the 20th.

Scientists cannot comment on the high scientific level of medieval cartography. Information from almost 2000-year-old primary sources is supposed to be not well-founded.

Orthodox geology claimed that the age of the Antarctica ice cap was at least 25 million years; however, recently, it has been reduced to six million years

Therefore, we should notice the following feature of the Reis map: the shore of the continent was free of ice. On the Phynius map, made 18 years after the Reis map, there is an ice cap around the South Pole within the limits of 80th and the 75th parallels. Two hundred years later, academician Boiche depicted Antarctica with glaciers.

The conclusion is obvious: we can see the process of the spreading of glaciers on the southern continent.

In 1949, Admiral Baird’s expedition bore holes into the Ross Sea in three spots, where Orontheus Phynius marked river-beds. In the cuts, fine-grained layers were found, obviously brought to the sea with rivers, whose sources were situated in temperate latitudes (i.e. free of glaciers).

While using the nuclear dating method of doctor U. Oury from the Karnegy Institute in Washington, scientists discovered that Antarctica’s rivers, which were sources of fine-dyspersated deposits, were flowing as depicted on the Phynius map, about 6,000 years ago. About 4000 years B. C., glacial sediments started to accumulate on the bottom of Ross Sea. Kernels show that before this, there was a long warm period.

Therefore, the maps of Reis, Phynius, and Mercator present Antarctica when the ancient Egyptian and Shumer civilizations were newborn. This point of view is excluded by almost all professional historians and could be regarded as an operating hypothesis that cannot be verified. Any historian would say that there were no civilization of the kind in the late 5th millenium B. C. According to Doctor Jacob Hock from Illinois University, the deposits in-question could be 6 to 12 thousand years old.
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« Reply #3 on: June 08, 2009, 01:56:35 am »

In September 1991, US and Egyptian archaeologists discovered at a distance of 13 km from Nile River, in Abidos, 12 large boats that belonged to Pharaohs of First Dynasty. The age of the boats is about 5,000 years. They are believed to be the most ancient vessels in the world, the leader of the expedition, D. O’Connor far, the find is estimated to be aimed for religious rites.

According to Herodotus, ancient Egyptians tracked stars more than 10,000 years ago. This statement of the “father of history” is supposed to be esoteric and, therefore, not true. However, land nations seldom produced astronomers. The fact that ancient Egyptians were interested in astronomy may indicate that they inherited some knowledge from an unknown civilization of navigators.

Workers of US technical intelligence determined the projection center of the Piri Reis map, whose data belongs to 4000 year B. C. The projection center was supposedly situated near today’s Cairo. At that time, according to most historians, all then-existing nations were at a very low level of development.

Between the 5th and 10th milleniums B. C., there was a civilization on Earth that possessed great knowledge in the field of navigation, cartography, and astronomy, which was no less advanced than that that of the 18th century.

This civilization preceded our civilization, and it was not an extraterrestrial one. Its age could be several thousands years, while its location was probably on the northern shore of the most southern continent, or archipelago: Antarctica. Later, this civilization may have resettled to the north-east of Africa.

The reason for the death of the civilization was the covering of Antarctica with glaciers. This process started no earlier not than in 10th millenium B. C. It cannot be excluded that there were also large-scale floods, which were regular and cause long-term local deluges (this is confirmed by archaeologists). These disasters could have destroyed most of the civilization’s cultural objects. However, some fragments might be found in the future under the thickness of ice. It can also be assumed that the survivors of Antarctica kept and handed down knowledge to the ancient Egyptians.

Therefore, if there will ever be an extensive exploration of Antarctica, mankind will most likely be surprised with the results.

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« Reply #4 on: June 08, 2009, 03:26:57 pm »

Mountain range as big as Alps discovered under Antarctic ice

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/antarctica/5442820/Mountain-range-as-big-as-Alps-discovered-under-Antarctic-ice.html

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« Reply #5 on: June 08, 2009, 03:49:01 pm »

http://www.flem-ath.com/homepage.htm
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« Reply #6 on: October 15, 2009, 03:15:25 am »

The cores were taken by Dr. Jack Hough of the Univ. of Illinois during the Byrd expedition of 1947-1948.  They were taken to the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. and dated by the ionium method of radioactive dating by Dr. W.D. Urry.  The saples were taken from three different locations.  70 deg. 17' S 178 deg. 15' W 2,990 M deep, 69 deg. 12' S 180 deg. S. at 3,130 M. deep, 68 deg. 26' S 179 deg. 15'W at 3,292 M. deep.

The fine-grained sediment that was found is the sort that is carried by rivers from ice-free continents.  Also during the Byrd expedition of 1935 geologists made a rich discovery of fossils on the sides of Mount Weaver (Lat. 86 deg. 58'S) which included leaf and stem impressions and fossilized wood.  In 1952 they identified two species of a tree fern called Glossopteris once common to southern continents (Africa, South America and Australia.)

Core samples taken from the Ross Sea during the Byrd expedition of 1947-1948 shows glacial marine sediment from the present to 6000 years ago.  From 6,000 to 15,000 the sediment is fine-grained suggests an absence of ice from the area.  Then there is a zone fine-grained sediment from 30,000 to 40,000 years ago, again suggesting that the area was ice free.  From 40,000 to 133,550 years ago there are two zones of coarse and two zones of medium-grained texture.  While compare the three samples two of them shows that the end of the temperate period and beginning of the most recent glacial period started 6,000 years ago and the third just 1,000 years after that.  So you see Nikas Antarctica has had very recent period of temperate climate.  This is why and many others believe that Antarctica is the sight of the lost city.
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« Reply #7 on: October 16, 2009, 10:50:32 am »

Ice core heats up Antarctica.

A U.S. drilling crew in Antarctica has pulled up a 554-meter-long ice core packed with information about how the climate has behaved over the last 20,000 to 30,000 years. The success of this project sets the stage for American researchers to embark on Verb 1. embark on - get off the ground; "Who started this company?"; "We embarked on an exciting enterprise"; "I start my day with a good breakfast"; "We began the new semester"; "The afternoon session begins at 4 PM"; "The blood shed started when the partisans  a much more ambitious deep-drilling project in Antarctica within the next several years.

The team drilled in McMurdo Dome, located about 150 kilometers west of the main U.S. research camp in Antarctica. The researchers hope to use the ice core to help decipher how the Ross Ice Shelf and local glaciers have advanced and receded over the millennia. Analysis of the core can also address questions about global climate change, says project leader Pieter M. Grootes of the University of Washington in Seattle.

The crew at McMurdo Dome used the same drill that had recently bored a 3,200-meter-deep hole in Greenland. That ice core, reaching back 250,000 years, revealed that Earth has a naturally unstable climate- a finding Grootes and others hope to confirm in the future by drilling a deep core in Antarctica.


http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Ice+core+heats+up+Antarctica.-a014909340
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« Reply #8 on: October 16, 2009, 11:33:34 pm »

Good idea resurecting this thread, Robert.  Here is a satellite image of a structure under the ice of Antarctica that I have been wondering about for years.  It is a screen image from a 1999 documentary entitled "Search fpr Atlantis:"



You can see it fits the decription of Plato's capital city of Atlantis to a tee.
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« Reply #9 on: October 17, 2009, 12:01:09 am »

Antarctic ice anomaly could be man-made structure 12,000 years old
Posted by Dorenob at 01:16, 19 Jul 2005
A spy satellite image of Antarctica reveals an "anomaly" two miles beneath the ice that could be a man-made structure, according to Congressional investigators who are demanding release of the image from the Pentagon. The explosive revelation about the anomaly, located at the epicenter of recent seismic activity in East Antarctica, prompted an immediate denial from the Defense Department and feverish speculation among members of the international intelligence and archeological communities."If it's something the U.S. military has constructed down there, then they're violating the international Antarctic Treaty," said an aide to Nicole Fontaine, the European Parliament's French president who in the past has accused the U.S. of spying on European citizens.
Read more here: http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/
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« Reply #10 on: October 17, 2009, 08:53:52 am »

Thank you Helios, is the documentary the same one that was hosted by Ted Dansen?  If so, I've been looking for it for a few years but didn't know the name of it.  Do you have anymore links with more satellite images of the anomaly?  I would appreciate it greatly if you do.
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« Reply #11 on: October 17, 2009, 04:29:16 pm »

It is the same Ted Danson documentary.  The History Channel sells it but is charging its typical high price for it:

http://shop.history.com/detail.php?p=66806

Last I checked, the satellite inage isn't anywhere on the internet (except here)  Mine is actually a screen capture from the documentary, which says very little about it. Maybe someone else would care to search again?  It doesn't have anything to do with talk of a film crew/Russians/anomaly article that you will also find when searching, that was publicity for some fictional book that uses the whole Atlantis/Antarctica idea as a premise.
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« Reply #12 on: October 18, 2009, 12:33:22 am »

 :)Well it seems I've found where you're posting on this topic, Robert0', LOL.  So I'll paraphrase what I've said a little, here in this more appropriate thread.  THere's lots of "rumours" and spectulation about this frozen continent, shrouded in secrecy.  There are other rumours about a structure under what was apparently a lake, now under tons of ice as well.  Hopefully the core samples will shed a little light on the history of not only this mysterious polar region, but on the entire controversial topic of "global warming" and former world climate changes.  As I mentioned earlier, I am not a "fan" of the concepts of either "global warming" or of "ice ages" owning to the reason that neither of thisee "scientific" theories fit all the evidence at hand.  But mankind is uneasy with theories of sudden catastophic changes, unless of course they are so remotely placed in the past that it does not seem to reflect heavily on our immediate future.  Even as a child I was secptical of the supposed causes of ice ages, none of which made any sense to me, then or now.  But one very unpopular theory, which has been dismissed by science as "impossible" is gaining attention once again with the advent of thectonic plate theory as a mechanism. 
This cataclysmic theory of which I'm speaking is the concept of "Pole Shift".  Previoulsy the shifting of the poles was thought to be an impossibility by our science, despite the fact the there is a multitude of geological evidence to support it.  However with the acceptance of thectonic plate theory, science now has a mechanism to explain how that might be possible.  This new slant on "Pole Shift" is that the poles themsleves do not shift, but the crust of the tectonic plates on the surface of the molten core of the planet "slide" and thus "shift" the position of the land that llies over the poles.  It's actually a nute point in my mind, because either way, what was once at the poles is suddnely no longer at the poles. 

Now I'm not a big proponent of this continent at the South Pole having once been Atlantis, exactly, but I strongly believe that this same continent was perhaps once even located in a tropical hemisphere, and then over night relocating to the South Pole.  My biggest problem with it as having been  Atlantis is that is not submerged, unless you consider the glaciers as water in a solid form, LOL.  But I'm almost certain that if it is ever escavated, that we will find evidence of a civilization under all that ice.  And there are legends of other civilizations, that were once advanced and tropical, and now located in the frozen reaches of the planet.  Ever hear of Hyperbolia?   (not sure of the spelling on that, but it's a Greek myth, although in the myth I think it's supposed to be in the extreem North, not South). 

I'll look for some information to post on Hyperbolia and also on the "flash frozen" wolly mamoths in Siberia.  As I mentioned elsewhere, supposedly the Explorer Club memebers all ate meat from a Wolly Mamoth found frozen in Siberia and buttercups and tropical vegetation was found in it's mouth and stomach.  Apparently the poor bease was grazing in a pleasant tropical meadow, when suddenly it was "flash frozen" and was found some 10,000 years later under the ice in Siberia.  "Global Warming" and the slowly advancing glaciers fo the "Ice Ages" simply do not account for this evidence.  However the therory of "Pole Shift" explains it quite nicely, 

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« Reply #13 on: October 18, 2009, 01:22:51 am »

Hyperborea.

In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived far to the north of Thrace.

Check R. Cedric Leonard's work for the bit about the mammoths dying suddenly. Quest For Atlantis. http://www.atlantisquest.com/
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« Reply #14 on: October 19, 2009, 01:20:49 am »

I found this while searcing other threads pertaining to Antarctica being the sight for Atlantis.

ATLANTIS IN ANTARCTICA?
by
J. Douglas Kenyon


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the not-too-distant future, Atlantis-seeking archeologists may have to trade in their sun hats and scuba gear for snow goggles and parkas.

If a rapidly growing body of opinion proves correct, instead of the bottom of the ocean, the next great arena of exploration for the fabled lost continent could be the frozen wastelands at the bottom of the Earth. And before scoffing too vigorously, backers of North Atlantic, Aegean and other candidates would be well advised to give the new arguments for Atlantis in Antarctica a fair hearing.

Already enlisted in the ranks of those who take the notion very seriously are such luminaries as John Anthony West and Graham Hancock. Founded on a scientific theory developed by the late Dr. Charles Hapgood in close interaction with no less a personage than Albert Einstein, the idea appears robust enough to withstand the most virulent of attacks expected from the guardians of scientific orthodoxy. At any rate, it will not take a wholesale melting of the icecap to settle the question. A few properly directed satellite pictures and the appropriate seismic surveys could quickly make it clear if, indeed, advanced civilization has ever flourished on the lands beneath the ice.

Leading the charge of those betting that such evidence will soon be forthcoming are Canadian researchers Rand and Rose Flem-Ath, the authors of When the Sky Fell, just out in a new U.S. edition (St. Martin's Press, New York). Previously published in Canada, the book contains the couple's painstaking synthesis of Hapgood's theory of earth crust displacement and their own ground-breaking discoveries. The result has already won many converts. Graham Hancock believes the Flem-Aths have provided the first truly satisfactory answer to the question of just what happened to Plato's giant lost continent. Since devoting a chapter in his best-selling Fingerprints of the Gods to the work of the Flem-Aths, Hancock continues to opine in media appearances about the importance of their Antarctic theories. John Anthony West provides an afterword to the new edition of When the Sky Fell (Colin Wilson writes the introduction). Flem-Ath himself discussed his ideas on the February NBC Special, The Mysterious Origins of Man.

To get to the bottom of all the excitement, if not the planet, Atlantis Rising recently cornered Rand Flem-Ath at his home on Vancouver Island in British Columbia.

The author has not forgotten how his own interest in Atlantis began. In the summer of 1966, while waiting for an interview for a librarian's position in Victoria, British Columbia, he was working on a screenplay involving marooned aliens hibernating in ice on Earth for 10,000 years. Suddenly, on the radio, came pop singer Donovan's hit Hail Atlantis. Hey, that's a good idea. he thought. I wanted ice, so I thought, Now where can I have ice and an island continent? and I thought of Antarctica.

Later, researching the idea, he read everything he could find on Atlantis, including Plato's famous account in Criteas and Timeaus where Egyptian priests described Atlantis, its features, location, history and demise to the Greek lawgiver Solon. At first the story didn't work for Flem-Ath, but that changed later when he made a startling discovery, unmistakable similarities between two obscure but remarkable maps.

A 1665 map by Jesuit scholar Athenasius Kircher, copied from much older sources, seemed to have placed Atlantis in the north Atlantic but strangely, had put north at the bottom of the page apparently forcing study upside down. The 1513 Piri Ri'is map, also copied from much more ancient sources, demonstrated that an ice age civilization had sufficient geographic knowledge to accurately map Antarctica's coast as it existed beneath an ice cap many millennia old (as pointed out by Charles Hapgood in Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Age). What seemed obvious to Flem-Ath was that both maps depicted the same land mass.

Suddenly Antarctic Atlantis stopped being a science fiction story. The revelation had dawned that it might be something that could have been real. Further study of Plato yielded even more clues. I noticed that the description is from Atlantis, he recalls. Soon, armed with a U.S. Navy map of the world, as seen from the South Pole, he discovered a new way of understanding Plato's story and a new way of looking at Kircher's map. Viewed from this southern perspective, all of the world's oceans appear as parts of one great ocean, or, as what is described in Plato as the real ocean and the lands beyond as a whole opposite continent. Sitting in the middle of that great ocean, at the very navel of the world is Antarctica. Suddenly, it was possible to understand Kircher's map, as drawn, with north at the top, Africa and Madagascar to the left and the tip of South America on the right.

The term Atlantic Ocean, Flem-Ath soon realized, had meant something quite different in Plato's time than it has since the age of exploration. To the ancients, it included all of the world's oceans. The idea becomes clearer, when one remembers from Greek mythology that Atlas (a name closely related to Atlantis and Atlantic) held the entire world on his shoulders.

The whole opposite continent, which surrounded the real ocean in Plato's account, consisted of South America, North America, Africa, Europe and Asia fused together in the Atlantean world view as though they were one continuous land mass. And in fact, these five continents were at the time (9,600 B.C.) one landmass in the geographic sense.

Flem-Ath would render Plato's account to read: Long ago the World Ocean was navigated beyond the Straits of Gibraltar by sailors from an island larger than North Africa and the Middle East combined. After leaving Antarctica you would encounter the Antarctic archipelago (islands currently under ice) and from them you would reach the World Continent which encircles the World Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea is very small compared to the World Ocean and could even be called a bay. But beyond the Mediterranean Sea is a World Ocean which is encircled by one continuous landmass.

A common mistake in most readings of Plato, Flem-Ath believes, is the inappropriate attempt to interpret the ancient account in the light of modern concepts. Another example, is the familiar reference to the Pillars of Hercules, beyond which, Atlantis was said to reside. While it is true that the term sometimes referred to the Straits of Gibralter, another, equally valid interpretation is that it meant the limits of the known world.

For Flem-Ath, the world as seen from Antarctica matched perfectly the ancient Egyptian's account of the world as seen from Atlantis. The ancient geography was in fact far more advanced than our own, which made sense if Atlantis was, as Plato argued, an advanced civilization.

Platonic theories notwithstanding, the most difficult challenge, explaining how Atlantis might have become Antarctica, remained. How could land, now covered with thousands of feet of ice, have once supported any kind of human habitation, to say nothing of a great civilization on the scale described by Plato? For the Flem-Aths, the answer, it turned out, had already been worked out, thoroughly, convincingly and published in the Yale Scientific Journal in the mid 1950s.

In his theory of earth crust displacement, Professor Charles Hapgood had, citing vast climatalogical, paleontological, and anthropological evidence, argued that the entire outer shell of the Earth, over its inner layers periodically shifts, bringing about major climatic changes. The climatic zones (polar, temperate and tropical) remain the same because the sun still shines from the same angle in the sky, but as the outer shell shifts, it moves through those zones. From the perspective of Earth's population, it seems as though the sky is falling. In reality the earth's crust is shifting to another location. Some lands move toward the tropics. Others shift, with the same movement, toward the poles. While yet others escape great changes in latitude. The consequences of such a movement is, of course, catastrophic. Throughout the world, massive earthquakes shake the land and enormous tidal waves batter the continental shelves. As old ice caps forsake the polar zones, they melt, raising sea levels higher and higher. Everywhere, and by whatever means, people seek higher ground to avoid an ocean in upheaval.

The Flem-Aths corresponded with Hapgood from 1977 until his death in the early '80s and though he differed with them about the location of Atlantis (his candidate was the Rocks of Saint Peter and Saint Paul) he praised their scientific efforts to buttress his theory. In the summer of 1995, Flem-Ath was allowed to read Hapgood's voluminous correspondence (170 pages) with Albert Einstein and to discover a much more direct collaboration between the two than has been previously supposed.

Upon first hearing of the research, in correspondence from Hapgood, Einstein responded very impressive...have the impression that your hypothesis is correct. Subsequently Einstein raised numerous questions which Hapgood answered with such thoroughness that Einstein was eventually persuaded to write a glowing foreword for Hapgood's book Earth's Shifting Crust: A Key to Some Basic Problems of Earth Science (1958 by Pantheon Books, New York).

Earth crust displacement is not mutually exclusive with the now widely accepted theory of continental drift. According to Flem-Ath they share one assumption, that the outer crust is mobile in relation to the interior, but in plate tectonics the movement is extremely slow. Earth crust displacement suggests that over long periods of time, approximately 41,000 years, certain forces build toward a breaking point. Among the factors at work: a massive buildup of ice at the poles, distorting the weight of the crust; the tilt of the Earth's axis which changes by over three degrees every 41,000 years (not to be confused with the wobble which causes the precession of equinoxes); and the proximity of the Earth to the Sun which also varies over thousands of years.

One of the common mistakes, says Flem-Ath, is to think of the continents and the oceans as being separate, but really, the fact that there's water on certain parts of the plates is irrelevant. What we have in plate tectonics are a series of plates which are moving very gradually in relationship to each other. But what we have in earth crust displacement is all of the plates are considered as one single unit as part of the outer shell of the earth which changes place relative to the interior of the earth.

The theory, says Flem-Ath, offers elegant explanations for such phenomena as the rapid extinction of the Mammoths in Siberia, the near universal presence of cataclysmic myths among primitive people, and many geographic and geological anomalies left unexplained by any other theory. Most of the evidence usually cited to support the idea of ice ages serves earth crust displacement even better. Under the latter, some parts of the planet are always in an ice age when others are not. As lands change latitudes, they move either into or out of an ice age. The same change that put western Antarctica in the ice box also quick-froze Siberia but thawed out much of North America.

While many establishment geologists insist that the Antarctic ice cap is much older that the 11,600 years indicated by Plato, Flem-Ath points out that the core sampling on which most of the dating is based is taken from Greater Antarctica which was indeed under ice, even during the time of Atlantis. The suggestion here is that a movement of about 30 degrees or about 2,000 miles occurred within a relatively short span of time. Before such a movement, the Palmer peninsula of Lesser Antarctica (the part closest to South America whose sovereignty is presently disputed by Chile, Argentina and Great Britain) would have projected an area the size of western Europe beyond the Antarctic circle into temperate latitudes reaching as far as Mediterranean-like climes. In the meantime Greater Antarctica would have remained under ice in the Antarctic circle.

An area such as that described by Plato, says Flem-Ath would be the size of Pennsylvania, with a city comparable to modern-day London. Not a bad target for satellite photography. Concentric circles or other large geometric features should be easily discernible through the ice.

Flem-Ath believes that in most areas, Plato should be taken at his word, though he does suspect that there may have been some fabrications in the story. The war between the Atlanteans and the Greeks, for example, he believes may have been cooked up to please the local audience. In regard to the scale of Atlantean achievement, however, he takes Plato quite seriously and is very impressed. The engineering feats described, says Flem-Ath, would have required incredible skill, moreso than even what we have today. As for the notion that Plato's numbers should be scaled down by a factor of ten, a frequent argument used to support claims that Atlantis was really the Minoan civilization in the Aegean, he doesn't buy it. A factor of 10 error might be understandable when you are using Arabic numbers, with a difference between 100 and 1000 of one decimal place, but in Egyptian numbering, the difference between the two numbers is unmistakable. For him the argument is similar to the one for a North Atlantic location, in which a modern concept has been inappropriate-ly superimposed upon an ancient one.

So far Flem-Ath's ideas have been largely ignored by the scientific establishment, but he believes that at least Hapgood's arguments may be getting close to some kind of acceptance. Quite often new ideas take about 50 years to be absorbed, he says, and we're getting close to the time.

If, in fact, satellite photography and seismic surveys produce the indications that Flem-Ath expects, what next? The ice in the region that we are talking about is relatively shallow, he says, less than half a kilometer and once we've pinpointed the area, it should be relatively easy to sink a shaft and find something.

That something could be among the finest and most dramatic artifacts ever discovered, quick-frozen and stored undisturbed for almost 12,000 years.

A prospect hot enough to melt the hearts of even the most hardened skeptics? We shall see.



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"The day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the Supreme Being as His father, in the womb of a virgin will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter."     Letter to John Adams, April 11, 1823 -Thomas Jefferson
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