Atlantis Online
September 22, 2017, 03:26:30 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: USA showered by a watery comet ~11,000 years ago, ending the Golden Age of man in America
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050926/mammoth_02.html
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Roman Ruins Survive the Ages Thanks to Volcanic Ash

Pages: [1]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Roman Ruins Survive the Ages Thanks to Volcanic Ash  (Read 221 times)
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« on: May 14, 2009, 09:18:26 am »



iStockPhoto |

 Trajan's Market

Sandy ash produced by a volcano that erupted 456,000 years ago
might have helped Trajan's market, pictured here, survive intact
for nearly 2,000 years, according to new research
« Last Edit: May 14, 2009, 09:26:20 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.

Social Buttons

Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #1 on: May 14, 2009, 09:23:48 am »









                                  Roman Ruins Survive the Ages Thanks to Volcanic Ash






Rossella Lorenzi,
Discovery News
May 13, 2009

-- Sandy ash produced by a volcano that erupted 456,000 years ago might have helped a huge ancient Roman complex survive intact for nearly 2,000 years despite three earthquakes, according to research presented last week in Rome.

X-ray analysis of a wall sample from the Trajan's Market ruins in Rome showed that the mortars used by ancient Romans contained stratlingite, a mineral known to strengthen modern cements.

"It is the first time that stratlingite is recognized in ancient mortars," Lucrezia Ungaro, the Trajan Forum archaeological chief, told Discovery News. "This is amazing, and shows the technical expertise of Roman builders."

Including a semicircular set of halls arranged on three levels, the "Market" complex is traditionally attributed to Apollodorus of Damascus, a Syrian architect who worked primarily for the Emperor Trajan. A gifted and innovative designer, Apollodorus is credited with most of the Imperial buildings, including the Forum of Trajan and Trajan's column.

Dating to 113 A.D., the enormous complex is no longer believed to be the world's first shopping mall, but rather a sort of "multi-functional center" with administrative buildings for Trajan, who ruled from 98 to 117 A.D.

Amazingly, the huge complex survived three devastating earthquakes -- in 443 A.D., 1349 and 1703.

"Although the presence of the high-quality stratlinglite cements does not ensure protection from concrete cracking and failure from earthquake ground shaking, it shows the very well bonded nature of the wall concrete," Marie Jackson, of Northern Arizona University's department of history, told Discovery News.

Jackson co-authored the research with Barry Scheetz, professor of materials, civil and nuclear engineering at Pennsylvania State University, and volcanologist Fabrizio Marra of Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #2 on: May 14, 2009, 09:25:36 am »








According to the researchers, the Roman builders took great care in selecting a mortar to hold walls together. They knew the diverse material properties of the rocks, and developed concretes that employed granular volcanic ash and chunks of various volcanic rocks.

To find the ash they turned to the material erupted from the Alban Hills volcano some 456,000 years ago. The area features three pozzolanic (cement-like) deposits, known as Pozzolane Rosse, Pozzolane Nere and Pozzolanelle.

"Of these, the type that makes a harsh, grating, rasping noise when rubbed vigorously in the hand is best," the ancient Roman writer and architect Vitruvius wrote in his De Architectura, a 10-volume treatise on architecture.

Indeed, when rubbed between the hands, Pozzolane Rosse, the volcanic ash identified in the Trajan Market sample, crackles.

The recipe for a robust concrete worked very well.

"The mortar was very well compacted; the ratio of lime, pozzolanic volcanic ash and water was carefully controlled," Jackson said.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Related Links:



Rome's Talking Statues

HowStuffWorks.com: Geography of Rome
« Last Edit: May 14, 2009, 09:26:58 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Pages: [1]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum | Buy traffic for your forum/website
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines