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Author Topic: Chicago  (Read 4124 times)
Christa Loecher
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« on: April 26, 2009, 03:39:22 am »


Chicago (pronounced /ʃɨˈkɑːɡoʊ/ or /ʃɨˈkɔːɡoʊ/) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Illinois and, with over 2.8 million residents, the third-most populous city in the United States . The Chicago metropolitan area (commonly referred to as Chicagoland), located adjacent to Lake Michigan, has a population of more than 9.5 million people[1] living in three U.S. states (Illinois, Wisconsin and Indiana) and was the third largest U.S. metropolitan area in 2000[2]. Chicago is 26th by total population and 686th by population density among the world's largest urban areas[3] and one of the largest cities in North America. The World Cities Study Group at Loughborough University rated Chicago as an alpha world city[4].

Chicago was founded in 1833, near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed, and incorporated as a city in 1837. The city became a major transportation and telecommunications hub[5]. in North America. O'Hare International is the second busiest airport in the world. Chicago is also a major business, financial, and industrial center. The city has a notable and famous political culture, is a stronghold of the Democratic Party, and has been home to numerous influential politicians, including the first African-American President of the United States, Barack Obama.
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Christa Loecher
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Posts: 147

« Reply #1 on: April 26, 2009, 03:40:12 am »

As of 2007, the city's attractions, business, and commerce bring 44.2 million visitors annually[6]. Making use of its abundant resources, Chicago has a heritage for hosting major local, regional, national, and international events that include entertainment, politics, commerce, culture, and sports. On June 4, 2008, Chicago was chosen as one of the final four city candidates to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and made it to the shortlist as the only American city.

Globally recognized,[nb 1] Chicago has numerous nicknames. These soubriquets reflect the impressions and opinions about historical and contemporary Chicago. The best known of these are: the "Windy City" for the apparent bluster of Chicagoans about their city; "Chi-Town" ; the " Second City"[nb 2] due to second ranking in many areas as well as Chicago's ongoing intention to be number one[8]; and the "City of Big Shoulders".

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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #2 on: April 26, 2009, 03:41:13 am »

From top left: Chicago Theater, the Sears Tower, the University of Chicago, the skyline from the Museum Campus, Navy Pier, the Field Museum, and Crown Fountain in Millenium Park
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Christa Loecher
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Posts: 147

« Reply #3 on: April 26, 2009, 03:59:36 am »

Municipal Flag of Chicago, Illinois. Flag was adopted in 1917.
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Christa Loecher
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Posts: 147

« Reply #4 on: April 26, 2009, 04:01:02 am »

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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #5 on: April 26, 2009, 04:02:02 am »

Nickname(s): The Windy City, The Second City, Chi-Town, Hog Butcher for the World, City of Big Shoulders, The City That Works,and others found at List of nicknames for Chicago
Motto: Latin: Urbs in Horto (English: City in a Garden), Make No Small Plans, I Will

Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois
Coordinates: 41°52′55″N 87°37′40″W / 41.88194°N 87.62778°W / 41.88194; -87.62778
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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #6 on: April 26, 2009, 04:02:31 am »

Country United States
State Illinois
Counties Cook, DuPage
Settled 1770s
Incorporated March 4, 1837
 - Type Mayor-council government
 - Mayor Richard M. Daley
 - City Council Aldermen[show]
Manuel Flores
Bob Fioretti
Pat Dowell
Toni Preckwinkle
Leslie Hairston
Freddrenna Lyle
Sandi Jackson
Michelle A. Harris
Anthony Beale
John Pope
James Balcer
George Cardenas
Frank Olivo
Ed Burke
Toni Foulkes
Joann Thompson
Latasha Thomas
Lona Lane
Virginia Rugai
Willie Cochran
Howard Brookins Jr.
Ricardo Muñoz
Michael Zalewski
Sharon Denise Dixon.
Daniel Solis
Billy Ocasio
Walter Burnett, Jr
Ed Smith
Isaac Carothers
Ariel Reboyras
Ray Suarez
Scott Waguespack
Richard Mell
Carrie Austin
Rey Colón
William Banks
Emma Mitts
Thomas Allen
Margaret Laurino
Patrick O'Connor
Brian Doherty
Brendan Reilly
Vi Daley
Thomas M. Tunney
Patrick Levar
Helen Shiller
Eugene Schulter
Mary Ann Smith
Joe Moore
Bernard Stone
 - State House Representative[show]
Susana A. Mendoza (D)
Edward J. Acevedo (D)
Luis Arroyo (D)
Cynthia Soto (D)
Kenneth Dunkin (D)
Esther Golar (D)
Karen A. Yarbrough (D)
LaShawn Ford (D)
Arthur L. Turner (D)
Annazette Collins (D)
John A. Fritchey (D)
Sara Feigenholtz (D)
Greg Harris (D)
Harry Osterman (D)
John D'Amico (D)
Joseph M. Lyons (D)
Michael P. McAuliffe (R)
Robert S. Molaro (D)
Michael J. Madigan (D)
Daniel J. Burke (D)
Barbara Flynn Currie (D)
Elga L. Jefferies (D)
Monique D. Davis (D)
Mary E. Flowers (D)
Milton Patterson (D)
Marlow H. Colvin (D)
Constance A. Howard (D)
Kevin Joyce (D)
Maria Antonia Berrios (D)
Richard T. Bradley (D)
Deborah L. Graham(D)
 - State Senate State senators[show]
Antonio Munoz (D)
William Delgado (D)
Mattie Hunter (D)
Kimberly A. Lightford (D)
Rickey R. Hendon (D)
John Cullerton (D)
Heather Steans (D)
Ira Silverstein (D)
Jeffrey Schoenberg (D)
James DeLeo (D)
Louis Viverito (D)
Martin Sandoval (D)
Kwame Raoul (D)
Emil Jones III (D)
James Meeks (D)
Jacqueline Y. Collins (D)
Donne Trotter (D)
Edward Maloney (D)
Iris Martinez (D)
 - U.S. House Representatives[show]
Jan Schakowsky (D)
Bobby Rush (D)
Luis Gutiérrez (D)
Mike Quigley (D)
Danny Davis (D)
Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D)
 - City 237.0 sq mi (606.2 km2)
 - Land 227.2 sq mi (588.3 km2)
 - Water 6.9 sq mi (17.9 km2)  3.0%
 - Urban 2,122.8 sq mi (5,498.1 km2)
 - Metro 10,874 sq mi (28,163 km2)
Elevation 586 ft (179 m)
Population (2007)
 - City 2,836,659 (3rd U.S.)
 - Density 12,649/sq mi (4,816/km2)
 - Urban 8,711,000
 - Metro 9,785,747
 - Demonym Chicagoan
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 312, 773
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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #7 on: April 26, 2009, 04:02:59 am »

First settlers
During the mid-18th century the area was inhabited by a native American tribe known as the Potawatomis, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples. The first known nonindigenous permanent settler in Chicago, Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable,a Haitian, arrived in the 1770s, married a Potawatomi woman, and founded the area’s first trading post. In 1803 the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. The Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi later ceded the land to the United States in the 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were eventually forcibly removed from their land following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of 350. Within seven years it grew to a population of over 4,000. The City of Chicago was incorporated on March 4, 1837. The name "Chicago" is the French rendering of the Miami-Illinois name shikaakwa, meaning “wild leek.”[9][10][11] The sound shikaakwa in Miami-Illinois literally means 'striped skunk', and was a reference to wild leek, or the smell of onions.[10] The name initially applied to the river, but later came to denote the site of the city.

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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #8 on: April 26, 2009, 04:03:31 am »

Infrastructure and regional development

The city began its step toward regional primacy as an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago’s first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, opened in 1838, which also marked the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants abroad. Manufacturing and retail sectors became dominant among Midwestern cities, influencing the American economy, particularly in meatpacking, with the advent of the refrigerated rail car and the regional centrality of the city's Union Stock Yards.[12]

In February 1856, the Chesbrough plan for the building of Chicago's and the United States' first comprehensive sewerage system was approved by the Common Council.[13] The project raised much of central Chicago to a new grade. Untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, thence into Lake Michigan, polluting the primary source of fresh water for the city. The city responded by tunneling two miles (3 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. In 1900, the problem of sewage was largely resolved when Chicago reversed the flow of the river, a process that began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal leading to the Illinois River which joins the Mississippi River.

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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #9 on: April 26, 2009, 04:04:20 am »

Union Station in 1943
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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #10 on: April 26, 2009, 04:04:56 am »

Chicago Fire

After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed a third of the city, including the entire central business district, Chicago experienced rapid rebuilding and growth.[14] During its rebuilding period, Chicago constructed the world's first skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction. Labor conflicts and unrest followed, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886. Concern for social problems among Chicago’s lower classes led Jane Addams to be a co-founder of Hull House in 1889. Programs developed there became a model for the new field of social work. The city also invested in many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities.

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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #11 on: April 26, 2009, 04:05:36 am »

Artist's rendering of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871
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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #12 on: April 26, 2009, 04:06:24 am »

World's Fair

In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world's fairs in history.[15] The University of Chicago was founded in 1892 on the same South Side location. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects Washington and Jackson Parks.
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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #13 on: April 26, 2009, 04:07:06 am »

20th century

The 1920s brought notoriety to Chicago as gangsters, including the notorious Al Capone, battled each other and law enforcement on the city streets during the Prohibition era. The 1920s also saw a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Arriving in the tens of thousands during the Great Migration, the newcomers had an immense cultural impact. It was during this wave that Chicago became a center for jazz, with King Oliver leading the way.[16] In 1933, Mayor Anton Cermak was assassinated while in Miami with President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

In the late summer of 1942, during World War II, Chicago held a practice black-out. According to one witness, "the sirens sounded, the lights went out while airplanes flew overhead to spot violators". After about 30 minutes the beacon on top of the Palmolive Building came back on and the lights were quickly restored.[17]

On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world’s first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project.
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Christa Loecher
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« Reply #14 on: April 26, 2009, 04:07:26 am »

Mayor Richard J. Daley was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. Starting in the 1960s, many residents left the city for the suburbs, taking out the heart of many neighborhoods, leaving impoverished and disadvantaged citizens behind. Structural changes in industry caused heavy losses of jobs for lower skilled workers. In 1966 James Bevel, Martin Luther King Jr., and Al Raby led the Chicago Open Housing Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the movement leaders. Two years later, the city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, including full-scale riots, or in some cases police riots, in city streets. Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (which in 1974 became the world’s tallest building), McCormick Place, and O'Hare Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley's tenure. When he died, Michael Anthony Bilandic was mayor for three years. His loss in a primary election has been attributed to the city’s inability to properly plow city streets during a heavy snowstorm. In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city’s first female mayor, was elected. She popularized the city as a movie location and tourist destination.

In 1983 Harold Washington became the first African American to be elected to the office of mayor, in one of the closest mayoral elections in Chicago. After Washington won the Democratic primary, racial motivations caused a few Democratic alderman and ward committeemen to back the Republican candidate Bernard Epton, who ran on the slogan Before it’s too late, a thinly veiled appeal to fear.[18] Washington’s term in office saw new attention given to poor and minority neighborhoods. His administration reduced the longtime dominance of city contracts and employment by ethnic whites. Washington died in office of a heart attack in 1987, shortly after being elected to a second term. Current mayor Richard M. Daley, son of the late Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. He has led many progressive changes to the city, including improving parks; creating incentives for sustainable development, including green roofs; and major new developments. Since the 1990s, the city has undergone a revitalization in which some lower class neighborhoods have been transformed as new middle class residents have settled in the city. In 2008, the city earned the title of "City of the Year" from GQ for contributions in architecture and literature, a renaissance in the world of politics and downtown's starring role in the Batman movie The Dark Knight.[19]

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