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The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I

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Author Topic: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I  (Read 2864 times)
Majir
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« Reply #180 on: October 22, 2009, 01:29:29 pm »

Pray, my teacher, is it meet that thou shouldest show me orally the instruction how to make the Coelbren of the Bards, and the art that ought to belong to it?

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Majir
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« Reply #181 on: October 22, 2009, 01:29:38 pm »

I will show it, by the grace of God,--The Coelbren of the Bards is made with the genial wood of oak plants, split into four parts, that is, of greenwood as thick as a boy's wrist. These are hewn square, that is, into four sides, a cubit in length, their breadth and thickness being equal one to the other, namely the length of a barley corn, which is the third of an inch. After 1



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Majir
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« Reply #182 on: October 22, 2009, 01:29:51 pm »

Footnotes
55:2 p. 54 See Gen. iv.

55:3 The Eastern people have likewise certain traditions respecting Enos which are not recorded in the Holy Bible, such as, that Seth his father declared him sovereign prince and high-priest of mankind, next after himself; that Enos was the first who ordained public alms for the poor, established public tribunals for the administration of justice, and planted, or rather cultivated, the palm tree.

57:1 p. 56 The MS. breaks off abruptly here.

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Majir
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« Reply #183 on: October 22, 2009, 01:30:11 pm »

THE PRIMARY LETTERS.--IMPROVEMENT OF THE ALPHABET.
Before the time of Beli the Great, 2 son of Manogan, there were only ten letters, which were called the ten signs, namely, a, p, c, e, t, i, l, r, o, s. After that m, and n, were invented; and after that four others, and they were made into sixteen by the divulgation, and under the proclamation of country and nation. After the coming of the faith in Christ, two other letters, namely u and d. In the time of king Arthur 3 there were introduced twenty primary letters, as at present, by the counsel of Taliesin, the chief of Bards, and domestic Bard of Urien Rheged. 4 Under the system of the eighteen were arranged O. I. U. which is the

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« Reply #184 on: October 22, 2009, 01:30:20 pm »

p. 58 p. 59

unutterable Name of God; whereas previous to that arrangement it was O. I. O. according to the sixteen. Of the principal signs there are not, to this day, more than twenty letters, or twenty signs. Geraint the Blue Bard appointed twenty-four letters, as it is at present; but the four are auxiliaries. After that, through the argumentative consideration of Bards, and Teachers who were chair Bards, there were brought into use and privilege, by the improvement of the Coelbren, thirty-eight letters on wood; but there are in black and white 1 only the twenty-four signs.

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« Reply #185 on: October 22, 2009, 01:30:29 pm »

Footnotes
57:2 p. 56 He was the father of the celebrated Casswallawn or Cassivelaunus, who opposed the Roman invasion.

57:3 Arthur was elected pendragon of the Britons about A. D, 517, and died A, D. 552.

57:4 p. 57 Several of Taliesin's poems to Urien Rheged are printed in the 1st vol. of the Myvyrian Archaiology.

59:1 p. 58 I e. in writing.



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« Reply #186 on: October 22, 2009, 01:30:42 pm »

PRIMARY CUTTINGS.--IMPROVEMENT OF THE COELBREN.--ITS RESTORATION.
In the early times of the nation of the Cymry letters were called cuttings; and it was after the time of Beli, son of Manogan, that they were called letters. Previously, there were no letters but the primary cuttings, which had been a secret from the age of ages among the Bards of the Isle of Britain, for the
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« Reply #187 on: October 22, 2009, 01:30:58 pm »

preservation of the memorials of country and nation. Beli the Great made them into sixteen, and divulged that arrangement, and appointed that there should never after be a concealment of the sciences of letters, in respect of the arrangement which he made; but he left the ten cuttings a secret.
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« Reply #188 on: October 22, 2009, 01:31:07 pm »

After the coming of the faith in Christ, they were made eighteen; and after that twenty, 2 and such they were kept until the time of Geraint the Blue Bard, who made them twenty-four.

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« Reply #189 on: October 22, 2009, 01:31:17 pm »

They continued such for long ages, even until the time of king Henry the Fifth, 3 who forbade schools, books, and the materials of books for the Cymry. On that account the Cymry were obliged to betake themselves in a body to the Coelbren of the Bards, and to cut and blacken letters on wood



p. 60 p. 61

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« Reply #190 on: October 22, 2009, 01:31:25 pm »

and rods; and every owner of a house and family, that wished to know the sciences of letters and reading, took Bards into his house. And from this was appointed the endowment of land, and tilth, and fold for the Bards. And the Bards became numerous in Cymru, and the knowledge of letters was greater than before the prohibition; where-fore Llawdden the Bard 1 sang:--

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« Reply #191 on: October 22, 2009, 01:31:34 pm »

Beware of being wrong; see and observe--the throw
And course of every privation;
And the adage of this world,
"That is not evil which produces good."
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« Reply #192 on: October 22, 2009, 01:31:41 pm »

That is to say, where there was no school to be had, but an English one, and no teacher but a Saxon, the Cymry would study their own language and sciences more than ever, and they improved and augmented the number of letters and cuttings, until they completed the number, of which they now consist.



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« Reply #193 on: October 22, 2009, 01:31:52 pm »

Footnotes
59:2 p. 58 It may be remarked here that according to one version of the Poem by Taliesin, in which the expression "Saith ugain Ogrfen y sydd yn Awen," occurs, (See Antea p. 48) the word "iaith" is used instead of "Saith," which makes the meaning to be--"the language of twenty letters is in Awen,"--a statement that in some measure bears out that of the text.

59:3 p. 59 A.D. 1412-1122.

61:1 p. 60 Llawdden flourished from about 1440 to 1480.



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« Reply #194 on: October 22, 2009, 01:32:09 pm »

RECOVERY OF THE OLD CYMRAEG.
It was in the time of Owain, son of Maxen Wledig, that the nation of the Cymry recovered their privilege and crown. They took to their primitive mother tongue instead of the Latin, which had well nigh overran the Isle of Britain; and in the Cymraeg they kept the memorials and history and systems of country and nation, restoring to memory the ancient Cymraeg, with its original words and expressions. Because the ancient orthography of the ten primary letters was forgotten and misunderstood, they became lost, and thus arose a
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