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Andy Worthington: Who Authorized The Torture of Abu Zubaydah?

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Author Topic: Andy Worthington: Who Authorized The Torture of Abu Zubaydah?  (Read 22 times)
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« on: April 24, 2009, 01:14:29 pm »

The torture of Abu Zubaydah before August 2002

Zubaydah was severely wounded during his capture in Faisalabad, Pakistan, to the extent that, as President Bush explained in a press conference in September 2006, shortly after Zubaydah and 13 other "high-value detainees" had been transferred to Guantánamo from secret CIA prisons, "he survived only because of the medical care arranged by the CIA." We don't know if there is any truth to the allegation, made by Ron Suskind in his 2006 book The One Percent Doctrine, that medication was only administered in exchange for his cooperation (it seems likely, but has been officially denied), but we do know, from James Risen's book State of War, that when CIA director George Tenet told the President that Zubaydah had been put on pain medication to deal with the injuries he sustained during capture, Bush asked Tenet, "Who authorized putting him on pain medication?" which prompted Risen to wonder whether the President was "implicitly encouraging" Tenet to order the harsh treatment of a prisoner "without the paper trail that would have come from a written presidential authorization."

We also know that, shortly after his capture, Zubaydah was flown to Thailand, to a secret underground prison provided by the Thai government, where, as a New York Times article in September 2006 explained, "he was stripped, held in an icy room and jarred by earsplittingly loud music -- the genesis of practices later adopted by some within the military, and widely used by the Central Intelligence Agency in handling prominent terrorism suspects at secret overseas prisons."

The details of his treatment, "based on accounts by former and current law enforcement and intelligence officials," were even more shocking. We have become somewhat inured, over the years, to stories of prisoners deprived of sleep for disturbing long periods of time, in which the use of loud, non-stop music -- in this case, the Red Hot Chili Peppers -- played an integral part.

This in itself is unacceptable, as the use of music is not simply a matter of being forced to listen to the same song over and over again at ear-splitting volume, but is, instead, a component in a program of sleep deprivation and isolation designed to provoke a complete mental breakdown. One of the major reference points for the CIA in the 1950s, when it was deeply involved in investigating the efficacy of psychological torture techniques, was research conducted by Donald Hebb, a Canadian psychologist, who discovered that, "if subjects are confined without light, odor, sound, or any fixed references of time and place, very deep breakdowns can be provoked," and that, within just 48 hours, those held in what he termed "perceptual isolation" can be reduced to semi-psychotic states.

However, while some interpretation and empathy is required to understand the impact on Abu Zubaydah of his profound isolation in this period, in which, as the Times also reported, he was largely cut off from all human interaction, only occasionally punctuated by an interrogator entering his cell, saying, "You know what I want," and then leaving, there is no denying the visceral impact of the following description. "At times, Mr. Zubaydah, still weak from his wounds, was stripped and placed in a cell without a bunk or blankets," the Times explained. "He stood or lay on the bare floor, sometimes with air-conditioning adjusted so that, one official said, Mr. Zubaydah seemed to turn blue" (emphasis added).

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