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The Second Crusade

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Panita Ristau
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« on: March 15, 2009, 12:50:39 am »

The Second Crusade (11471149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year.

Edessa was the first of the Crusader states to have been founded during the First Crusade (10951099), and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other important European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe and were somewhat hindered by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus; after crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and, in 1148, participated in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately lead to the fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century.

The only success came outside of the Mediterranean, where Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders, on the way by ship to the Holy Land, fortuitously stopped and helped the Portuguese in the capture of Lisbon in 1147.

Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, the first of the Northern Crusades began with the intent of forcibly converting pagan tribes to Christianity, and these crusades would go on for centuries.

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Panita Ristau
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« Reply #1 on: March 15, 2009, 12:53:11 am »



The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c.1140), was the proximate cause of the Second Crusade.
Date 1145-1149
Location Iberia, Near East (Anatolia, Levant, Palestine), Egypt
Result Decisive Muslim Seljuk victory.
Failure to recreate County of Edessa. Increased hostilities between Crusader States and the Muslim empires. Portuguese conquest of Lisbon, collapse of Almoravids, and rise Almohads. Peace treaty between Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks. Increased tension between Byzantine Empire and the Crusaders. Beginning of Crusader advances into Egypt.
Territorial
changes Status quo ante bellum
 
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Panita Ristau
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« Reply #2 on: March 15, 2009, 12:53:58 am »

Background: the fall of Edessa

After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101 there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. A fourth, the County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Edessa was the most northerly of these, and also the weakest and least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131. His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, but in 1143 both the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus and the King of Jerusalem Fulk of Anjou died. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Count of Tripoli and the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, the Seljuk Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, had added Aleppo to his rule in 1128. Aleppo was the key to power in Syria, contested between the rulers of Mosul and Damascus. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the city in 1129. Damascus, ruled by the Burid Dynasty, later allied with King Fulk when Zengi besieged the city in 1139 and 1140; the alliance was negotiated by the chronicler Usamah ibn Munqidh.[citation needed]

In late 1144, Joscelin II allied with the Ortoqids and marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid Kara Aslan against Aleppo. Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, which fell to him after a month on 24 December 1144. Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured or sold to the Byzantines. Zengi himself was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, "the victorious king". He did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Events in Mosul compelled him to return home, and he once again set his sights on Damascus. However, he was assassinated by a slave in 1146 and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din.[3]

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« Reply #3 on: March 15, 2009, 12:55:59 am »

The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.



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« Reply #4 on: March 15, 2009, 12:56:25 am »

The County of Edessa was the first of the crusader states to be established during and after the First Crusade. It was also the most northerly, the weakest, and the least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131. His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, but in 1143 both the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus and the King of Jerusalem Fulk of Anjou died. John II was succeeded by his son Manuel I Comnenus, who had to deal with consolidating power at home against his elder brothers, while Fulk was succeeded by his wife Melisende and his son Baldwin III. Joscelin had also quarreled with Raymond II of Tripoli and Raymond of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies.

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« Reply #5 on: March 15, 2009, 12:56:44 am »

The siege
In 1144, Joscelin was able to make an alliance with Kara Aslan, the Ortoqid ruler of Diyarbakır, against the growing power and influence of Zengi. Joscelin marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support Kara Aslan against Aleppo. Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, arriving on November 28. The city had been warned of his arrival and was prepared for a siege, but there was little they could do while Joscelin and the army were elsewhere.

The defense of the city was led by the Latin Archbishop Hugh II, the Armenian Bishop John, and the Jacobite Bishop Basil. John and Basil ensured that none of the native Christians would desert to Zengi. When Joscelin heard of the siege he took the army to Turbessel, knowing that he could never dislodge Zengi without help from the other crusader states. In Jerusalem, Queen Melisende responded to Joscelin's appeal by sending an army led by Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly, and Elinand of Bures. Raymond of Antioch ignored the call for help, as his army was already occupied against the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia.

Zengi surrounded the entire city, realizing that there was no army defending it. He built siege engines and began to mine the walls, while his forces were joined by Kurdish and Turcoman reinforcements. The inhabitants of Edessa resisted as much as they could, but had no experience in siege warfare; the city’s numerous towers remained unmanned. They also had no knowledge of counter-mining, and part of the wall near the Gate of the Hours collapsed on December 24. Zengi's troops rushed into the city, killing all those who were unable to flee to the Citadel of Maniaces. Thousands more were suffocated or trampled to death in the panic, including Archbishop Hugh. Zengi ordered his men to stop the massacre, although all the Latin prisoners that he had taken were executed; the native Christians were allowed to live freely. The citadel was handed over on December 26. One of Zengi’s commanders, Zayn ad-Din Ali Kutchuk, was appointed governor, while Bishop Basil, apparently willing to give his loyalty to whoever ruled the city, was recognized as leader of the Christian population.

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« Reply #6 on: March 15, 2009, 12:57:04 am »

Aftermath
In January of 1145 Zengi captured Saruj and besieged Birejik, but the army of Jerusalem had finally arrived and joined with Joscelin. Zengi also heard of trouble in Mosul, and rushed back to take control. There, he was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, the victorious king. He did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county to the west of the Euphrates from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured by the Muslims or sold to the Byzantines.

Zengi was assassinated by a slave in 1146 while besieging Qalat Jabar, and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din. Joscelin attempted to take back Edessa following Zengi's murder, and recaptured all but the citadel in October of 1146. However, he had no help from the other crusader states, and his poorly planned expedition was driven out of Edessa by Nur ad-Din in November. This time, the entire population was exiled, and the city was left deserted.

By this time, news of the fall of Edessa reached Europe in 1145, and Pope Eugene III was already organizing the Second Crusade. This crusade was led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, but by 1148 it had ended in disaster, and Edessa was never recovered.

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« Reply #7 on: March 15, 2009, 12:58:33 am »

Quantum praedecessores

The news of the fall of Edessa was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early in 1145, and then by embassies from Antioch, Jerusalem, and Armenia. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on 1 December of that year, calling for a second crusade. Hugh also told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states: this is the first documented mention of Prester John. Eugene did not control Rome and lived instead at Viterbo, but nevertheless the crusade was meant to be more organized and centrally controlled than the First Crusade: certain preachers would be approved by the pope, the armies would be led by the strongest kings of Europe, and a route would be planned beforehand. The initial response to the new crusade bull was poor, and it in fact had to be reissued when it was clear that Louis VII would be taking part in the expedition. Louis VII of France had also been considering a new expedition independently of the Pope, which he announced to his Christmas court at Bourges in 1145. It is debatable whether Louis was planning a crusade of his own or in fact a pilgrimage, as he wanted to fulfil a vow made by his brother Philip to go to the Holy Land, as he had been prevented by death. It is probable that Louis had made this decision independently of hearing about Quantum Praedecessores. In any case, Abbot Suger and other nobles were not in favour of Louis' plans, as he would potentially be gone from the kingdom for several years. Louis consulted Bernard of Clairvaux, who referred him back to Eugene. Now Louis would have definitely heard about the papal bull, and Eugene enthusiastically supported Louis' crusade. The bull was reissued on 1 March 1146, and Eugene authorized Bernard to preach the news throughout France.
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« Reply #8 on: March 15, 2009, 01:01:35 am »

Quantum praedecessores

Quantum praedecessores is a papal bull issued on December 1, 1145, by Pope Eugenius III, calling for a Second Crusade. It was the first papal bull issued with a crusade as its subject.

The bull was issued in response to the fall of Edessa, in December of 1144. Pilgrims from the east had brought news of the fall of Edessa to Europe throughout 1145, and embassies from the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Armenia soon arrived directly at the papal court at Viterbo. Hugh, Bishop of Jabala, one of the dioceses of Jerusalem, was among those who delivered the news.

As with most papal bulls, it had no specific title, and has come to be known by its opening words; in Latin the first sentence read "Quantum praedecessores nostri Romani pontifices pro liberatione Orientalis Ecclesiae laboraverunt, antiquorum relatione didicimus, et in gestis eorum scriptum reperimus" – in English, "How much our predecessors the Roman pontiffs did labour for the deliverance of the oriental church, we have learned from the accounts of the ancients and have found it written in their acts."

The bull, issued at Vetralla, briefly recounted the acts of the First Crusade, and lamented the loss of Edessa, Mesopotamia, one of the oldest Christian cities. The bull was addressed directly to Louis VII of France and his subjects, and promised the remission of sins for all those who took the cross, as well as ecclesiastical protection for their families and possessions, just as Pope Urban II had done before the First Crusade. Those who completed the crusade, or died along the way, were offered full absolution.

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« Reply #9 on: March 15, 2009, 01:01:49 am »

Louis was already preparing a crusade of his own, independent of Eugenius' bull, and it appears that Louis may have at first ignored the bull completely. It is possible that the embassies from the east had visited Louis as well. However, in consultation with the preacher Bernard of Clairvaux, Louis eventually sought Eugenius' blessing, and Louis' crusade enjoyed full papal support. The bull was reissued on March 1, 1146, and Bernard began to preach the crusade throughout France and later in Germany as well, where he persuaded Conrad III to participate.

It is interesting to note that, although this is the first papal bull calling for a crusade, the Papacy was largely absent from the rest of the expedition. The First Crusade had no such bull – support was gathered at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and spread quickly through popular preaching. Urban II was seen as the leader of the crusade, through his legates, such as Adhemar of Le Puy. By the mid-12th century, papal power had dwindled somewhat, and Rome was controlled by the Commune of Rome. Although there were papal legates accompanying the crusade, the expedition was controlled by Louis and Conrad, not a religious leader.

The crusade was mostly destroyed during its march through Anatolia. Louis and Conrad later joined with the army of Jerusalem at the unsuccessful Siege of Damascus in 1148.

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« Reply #10 on: March 15, 2009, 01:03:12 am »

Medieval Sourcebook:
Eugene III: Summons to A Crusade, Dec 1, 1154



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In 1146, the Crusade principality of Edessa fell to the resurgent Muslims. As a result, Pope Eugene II called for a new crusade - the Second. He was enthusiastically supported in this call by his mentor, St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

Bishop Eugene, servant of the servants of God, to his most beloved son in Christ, Louis, the illustrious king of the French, and to his beloved sons, the princes, and to all the faithful ones of God who are established throughout Gaul,-greeting and apostolic benediction.

How much our predecessors the Roman pontiffs did labour for the deliverance of the oriental church, we have learned from the accounts of the ancients and have found it written in their acts. For our predecessor of blessed memory, pope Urban, did sound, as it were, a celestial trump and did take care to arouse for its deliverance the sons of the holy Roman church from the different parts of the earth. At his voice, indeed, those beyond the mountain and especially the bravest and strongest warriors of the French kingdom, and also those of Italy, inflamed by the ardour of love did come together, and, congregating a very great army, not without much shedding of their own blood, the divine aid being with them, did free from the filth of the pagans that city where our Saviour willed to suffer for us, and where He left His glorious sepulchre to us as a memorial of His passion, -and many others which, avoiding prolixity, we refrain from mentioning.

Which, by the grace of God, and the zeal of your fathers, who at intervals of time have striven to the extent of their power to defend them and to spread the name of Christ in those parts, have been retained by the Christians up to this day; and other cities of the infidels have by them been manfully stormed. But now, our sins and those of the people themselves requiring it, a thing which we can not relate without great grief and wailing, the city of Edessa which in our tongue is called Rohais,-which also, as is said, once when the whole land in the east was held by the pagans, alone by herself served God under the power of the Christians-has been taken and many, of the castles of the Christians occupied by them (the pagans). The archbishop, moreover, of this same city, together with his clergy and many other Christians, have there been slain, and the relics of the saints have been given over to the trampling under foot of the infidels, and dispersed. Whereby how great a danger threatens the church of God and the whole of Christianity, we both know ourselves and do not believe it to be hid from your prudence. For it is known that it will be the greatest proof of nobility and probity, if those things which the bravery of your fathers acquired be bravely defended by you the sons. But if it should happen otherwise, which God forbid, the valour of the fathers will be found to have diminished in the case the of the sons.

We exhort therefore all of you in God, we ask and command, and, for the remission of sins enjoin: that those who are of God, and, above all, the greater men and the nobles do manfully gird themselves; and that you strive so to oppose the multitude of the infidels, who rejoice at the time in a victory gained over us, and so to defend the oriental church -freed from their tyranny by so great an outpouring of the blood of your fathers, as we have said, - and to snatch many thousands of your captive brothers from their hands,- that the dignity of the Christian name may be increased in your time, and that your valour which is praised throughout the whole world, may remain intact and unshaken. May that good Matthias be an example to you, who, to preserve the laws of his fathers, did not in the least doubt to expose himself with his sons and relations to death, and to leave whatever he possessed in the world; and who at length, by the help of the divine aid, after many labours however, did, as well as his progeny, manfully triumph over his enemies.

We, moreover, providing with paternal solicitude for your tranquillity and for the destitution of that same church, do grant and confirm by the authority conceded to us of God, to those who by the promptings of devotion do decide to undertake and to carry through so holy and so necessary a work and labour, that remission of sins which our aforesaid predecessor pope Urban did institute; and do decree that their wives and sons, their goods also and possessions shall remain under the protection of our selves and of the archbishops, bishops and other prelates of the church of God. By the apostolic authority, moreover, we forbid that, in the case of any thing, which they possessed in peace, when they took the cross, any suit be brought hereafter until most certain news has been obtained concerning their return or their death. Moreover since those who war for the Lord should by no means prepare themselves with precious garments, nor with provision for their personal appearance, nor with dogs or hawks , other things which portend licentiousness: we exhort your prudence in the Lord that those who have decided to undertake so holy a work shall not strive after these things, but shall show zeal and diligence with all their strength in the matter of arms, horses and other things with which they may fight the infidels. But those who are oppressed by debt and begin so holy a journey with a pure heart, shall not pay interest for the time past, and if they or n t others for them are bound by an oath or pledge i ' he matter of interest, we absolve them by apostolic authority. It is allowed to them also when their relations, being warned, or the lords to whose fee they belong, are either unwilling or unable to advance them the money, to freely pledge without any reclamation, their lands or other possessions to churches, or ecclesiastical persons, or to any other of the faithful. According to the institution of our aforesaid predecessor, by the authority of almighty God and by that of St. Peter the chief of the apostles, conceded to us by God, we grant such remission and absolution of sins, that he who shall devoutly begin so sacred a journey and shall accomplish it, or shall die during it, shall obtain absolution for all his sins which with a humble and contrite heart he shall confess, and shall receive the fruit of eternal retribution from the Remunerator of all.

Given at Vetralle on the Calends of December.


from Doeberl, Monumenta Germania Selecta, Vol 4, p. 40, trans in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 333-336




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
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(c)Paul Halsall Mar 1996
halsall@murray.fordham.edu
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/eugene3-2cde.html
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« Reply #11 on: March 15, 2009, 01:04:41 am »

XLVIII. Ad Ludovicum regem Galliarum.--De expeditione in Terram Sanctam suscipienda (7) (Anno 1145, Dec. 1.)[MANSI, Concil., XXI, 626.]

[p. 1064A]

EUGENIUS episcopus, servus servorum Dei, charissimo filio LUDOVICO illustri et glorios Francorum regi, et dilectis filiis principibus, et universi Dei fidelibus per Galliam constitutis, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

Quantum praedecessores nostri Romani pontifices pro liberatione Orientalis Ecclesiae laboraverunt, antiquorum relatione didicimus, et in gestis eorum scriptum reperimus. Praedecessor etenim noster felicis
[p. 1064B]
memoriae papa Urbanus tanquam tuba intonuit, et ad ipsius deliberationem sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae filios de diversis mundi partibus sollicitare curavit. Ad ipsius siquidem vocem, Ultramontani, et praecipue Francorum regni fortissimi et strenui bellatores, et illi etiam de Italia, charitatis ardore succensi convenerunt, ut maximo congregato exercitu, non sine magna proprii sanguinis effusione, divino eos auxilio comitante, civitatem illam, in qua Salvator noster pro nobis pati voluit, et gloriosum ipsius sepulcrum passionis suae nobis memoriale dimisit, et quamplures alias, quas prolixitatem vitantes memorare supersedemus, a paganorum spurcitia liberarent. Quae per gratiam Dei et patrum vestrorum studium, qui per intervalla temporum eas defendere,
[p. 1064C]
et Christianum nomen in partibus illis dilatare pro viribus studuerunt, usque ad nostra tempora a Christianis detentae sunt, et aliae urbes infidelium ab ipsis viriliter expugnatae.

Nunc autem nostris et ipsius populi peccatis exigentibus, quod sine magno dolore et gemitu proferre non possumus, Edessa civitas, quae nostra lingua Rohais dicitur; quae etiam, ut fertur, cum quondam in Oriente tota terra a paganis detineretur, ipsa sola sub Christianorum potestate Domino serviebat, ab inimicis crucis Christi capta est, et multa Christianorum castella ab ipsis occupata. Ipsius quoque civitatis archiepiscopus cum clericis suis, et multi alii Christiani, ibidem interfecti sunt;
[p. 1064D]
et sanctorum reliquiae in infidelium conculcationem datae sunt et dispersae. In quo quantum Ecclesiae Dei et toti Christianitati periculum immineat, et nos cognoscimus, et prudentiam vestram latere non credimus. Maximum namque nobilitatis et probitatis indicium fore cognoscitur, si ea quae patrum strenuitas acquisivit, a vobis filiis strenue defendantur. Verumtamen si, quod absit! secus contigerit, patrum fortitudo in filiis imminuta probatur.

Universitatem itaque vestram in Domino commonemus, rogamus, atque praecipimus, et in peccatorum
[p. 1065A]
remissionem injungimus, ut qui Dei sunt, et maxime potentiores et nobiles, viriliter accingantur, infidelium multitudini, quae fere semper victoria super nos adepta laetatur (Cool , sic occurrere, et Ecclesiam Orientalem tanta patrum vestrorum, ut praediximus, sanguinis effusione ab eorum tyrannide liberatam, ita defendere, et multa captivorum millia confratrum nostrorum de ipsorum manibus eripere studeatis, ut Christiani nominis dignitas vestro tempore augeatur, et vestra fortitudo, quae per universum mundum laudatur, integra et illibata servetur. Sit vobis etiam in exemplum bonus ille Mathathias, qui pro paternis legibus conservandis seipsum cum filiis et parentibus suis morti exponere, et quidquid in mundo possidebat relinquere nullatenus
[p. 1065B]
dubitavit: atque tandem, divino cooperante auxilio, per multos tamen labores tam ipse quam sua progenies de inimicis viriliter triumphavit.

Nos autem, vestrorum quieti et ejusdem ecclesiae destitutioni paterna sollicitudine providentes, illis qui tam sanctum tamque pernecessarium opus et laborem devotionis intuitu suscipere et perficere decreverint, illam peccatorum remissionem quam praefatus praedecessor noster papa Urbanus institnit, auctoritate nobis a Deo concessa concedimus et confirmamus; atque uxores et filios eorum, bona quoque et possessiones, sub sanctae Ecclesiae, nostra etiam et archiepiscoporum, episcoporum et aliorum praelatorum Ecclesiae Dei protectione manere
[p. 1065C]
decernimus.

Auctoritate etiam apostolica prohibemus ut de omnibus quae, cum crucem acceperint, quiete possederint, ulla deinceps quaestio moveatur, donec de ipsorum reditu vel obitu certissime cognoscatur.

Praeterea, quoniam illi qui Domino militant nequaquam in vestibus pretiosis, nec cultu formae, nec canibus, vel accipitribus, vel aliis, quae portendant lasciviam, debent intendere, prudentiam vestram in Domino commonemus, ut qui tam sanctum opus incipere decreverint, nullatenus in vestibus variis aut grisiis, sive in armis aureis vel argenteis intendant, sed in talibus armis (9) , equis, et caeteris quibus infideles expugnent, totis viribus studium et diligentiam adhibeant.


[p. 1065D]
Quicunque vero aere premuntur alieno, et tam sanctum iter puro corde incoeperint, de praeterito usuras non solvant; et si ipsi, vel alii pro eis occasione usurarum astricti sunt, sacramento vel fide apostolica eos auctoritate absolvimus.

Liceat eis etiam terras, sive caeteras possessiones suas, postquam commoniti propinqui sive domini, ad quorum feudum pertinent, pecuniam commodare aut noluerint, aut non valuerint, ecclesiis, vel personis ecclesiasticis, vel aliis quoque fidelibus libere sine ulla reclamatione impignorare.

Peccatorum remissionem et absolutionem, juxta praefati praedecessoris nostri institutionem, omnipotentis
[p. 1066A]
Dei et beati Petri apostolorum principis auctoritate nobis a Deo concessa, talem concedimus, ut qui tam sanctum iter devote incoeperit et perfecerit, sive ibidem mortuus fuerit, de omnibus peccatis suis, de quibus corde contrito et humiliato confessionem susceperit, absolutionem obtineat, et sempiternae retributionis fructum ab omnium remuneratore percipiat.

Datum Vetrallae, Kalendis Decembris.

http://colet.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/getobject_?c.4603:1:1:46./projects/artflb/databases/efts/PLD/IMAGE1/
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« Reply #12 on: March 15, 2009, 01:07:34 am »



St Bernard in stained glass. Upper Rhine, ca. 1450.
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« Reply #13 on: March 15, 2009, 01:10:00 am »

Bernard of Clairvaux

The Pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade.[4] A parliament was convoked at Vezelay in Burgundy in 1146, and Bernard preached before the assembly on March 31st. Louis VII of France, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross. Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. At Speyer,Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard.[5] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise.

For all his overmastering zeal, Bernard was by nature neither a bigot nor a persecutor. As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. Bernard, the Archbishop of Cologne and the Archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks, and so Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problem and quiet the mobs. Bernard then found Rudolf in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[6]

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Panita Ristau
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« Reply #14 on: March 15, 2009, 01:12:30 am »

Wendish Crusade

When the Second Crusade was called, many south Germans volunteered to crusade in the Holy Land. The north German Saxons were reluctant. They told St Bernard of their desire to campaign against the Slavs at a Reichstag meeting in Frankfurt on 13 March 1147. Approving of the Saxons' plan, Eugenius issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 13 April. This bull stated that there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different crusaders. Those who volunteered to crusade against the Slavs were primarily Danes, Saxons, and Poles,[7] although there were also some Bohemians.[8] The Papal legate, Anselm of Havelberg, was placed in overall command. The campaign itself was led by Saxon families such as the Ascanians, Wettin, and Schauenburgers.[9]

Upset by German participation in the crusade, the Obotrites preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders in late summer 1147. After expelling the Obodrites from Christian territory, the crusaders targeted the Obodrite fort at Dobin and the Liutizian fort at Demmin. The forces attacking Dobin included those of the Danes Canute V and Sweyn III, Adalbert II, Archbishop of Bremen, and Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony. When some crusaders advocated ravaging the countryside, others objected by asking, "Is not the land we are devastating our land, and the people we are fighting our people?"[10] The Saxon army under Henry the Lion withdrew after the pagan chief, Niklot, agreed to have Dobin's garrison undergo baptism. After an unsuccessful siege of Demmin, a contingent of crusaders was diverted by the margraves to attack Pomerania instead. They reached the already Christian city Stettin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed after meeting with Bishop Albert of Pomerania and Prince Ratibor I of Pomerania. According to Bernard of Clairvaux, the goal of the crusade was to battle the pagan Slavs "until such a time as, by God's help, they shall either be converted or deleted".[11] However, the crusade failed to achieve the conversion of most of the Wends. The Saxons achieved largely token conversions at Dobin, as the Slavs resorted to their pagan beliefs once the Christian armies dispersed. Albert of Pomerania explained, "If they had come to strengthen the Christian faith ... they should do so be preaching, not by arms".[12]

By the end of the crusade, the countryside of Mecklenburg and Pomerania was plundered and depopulated with much bloodshed, especially by the troops of Henry the Lion.[13] This was to help bring about more Christian victories in the future decades. The Slavic inhabitants also lost much of their methods of production, limiting their resistance in the future.[14]

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