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Report of the 9/11 Commission

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Author Topic: Report of the 9/11 Commission  (Read 3128 times)
Drifter
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« Reply #1365 on: September 08, 2009, 12:17:44 am »

51. See GAO report,"Aviation Security:Additional Actions Needed to Meet Domestic and International Challenges," Jan. 27, 1994; GAO report,"Aviation Security: Urgent Issues Need to Be Addressed," Sept. 11, 1996; GAO report,"Aviation Security: Slow Progress in Addressing Long-Standing Screener Performance Problems," Mar. 16, 2000; GAO report,"Aviation Security: Long-Standing Problems Impair Airport Screeners' Performance," June 28, 2000; testimony of Kenneth M. Mead, DOT Inspector General, Joint Hearing on Actions Needed to Improve Aviation Security before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, Sept. 25, 2001. On rules regulating access to security sensitive areas of commercial airports, see FAA regulations,"Airport Security," 14 C.F.R. § 107; FAA report, "Air Carrier Standard Security Program," May 2001.

52.The FAA maintained formal agreements with the CIA, FBI, Department of State, Department of Defense, and NSA to receive data of interest as outlined in the agreement. In addition, the FAA posted liaisons with the CIA, FBI, and Department of State to facilitate the flow of intelligence and threat information. See Claudio Manno interview (Oct. 1, 2003); Matt K. interview (Feb. 13, 2004). FAA civil aviation security officials reported that the agency's intelligence watch received about 200 pieces of intelligence per day. See Claudio Manno interview (Oct. 1, 2003). The analysis regarding the passage of FBI information was based on a review of the FAA's Intelligence Case Files.The FBI analyst who worked on the 1998 tasking indicated that the information was shared with the FAA liaison to the Bureau, but the liaison did not recall having seen it. Cathal Flynn interview (Sept. 9, 2003); Matt K. interview (Feb. 13, 2004).
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« Reply #1366 on: September 08, 2009, 12:17:54 am »

53. Regarding intelligence reports, the Daily Intelligence Summary (DIS) prepared by the FAA's Office of Civil Aviation Intelligence was reviewed first by an assistant to Acting Deputy Administrator Belger, who would inform him of any information that she felt merited his attention. Belger in turn would determine whether the information needed to be raised with Administrator Garvey. Garvey told us that she maintained an open door policy and counted on her security staff to keep her informed on any pressing issues. Jane Garvey interview (Oct. 21, 2003); Monte Belger interview (Nov. 24, 2003); Cathal Flynn interview (Sept. 9, 2003); Shirley Miller interview (Mar. 30, 2004); Claudio Manno interview (Oct. 1, 2003). Regarding the intelligence unit, see Nicholas Grant interview (May 26, 2004); Claudio Manno interview (Oct. 1, 2003); Mike Canavan interview (Nov. 4, 2003); Alexander T. Wells, Commercial Aviation Safety (McGraw-Hill, 2001), p. 308.
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« Reply #1367 on: September 08, 2009, 12:18:10 am »

54. On the threat to civil aviation, see Lee Longmire interview (Oct. 28, 2003). On CAPPS, also known as CAPS (Computer Assisted Profiling System), see FAA security directive,"Threat to Air Carriers," SD 97-01, Oct. 27, 1997. The profile was derived from information on the Passenger Name Record and did not include factors such as race, creed, color, or national origin. In addition to those chosen by the algorithm, a number of other passengers were selected at random, both to address concerns about discrimination and to deter terrorists from figuring out the algorithm and gaming the system. On no-fly lists, see FAA security directive, "Threat to U.S. Air Carriers," SD 95, Apr. 24, 2000. Some of the individuals on the no-fly list were in U.S. custody as of 9/11. See Kevin G. Hall,Alfonso Chardy, and Juan O.Tamayo,"Mix-Up Almost Permitted Deportation of Men Suspected of Terrorist Activities," Miami Herald, Sept. 19, 2001; FAA security directive, "Threat to U.S. Aircraft Operators," SD 108-1, Aug. 28, 2001. On the Gore Commission, see Final Report of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, Feb. 12, 1997, p. 28. On the TIPOFF database (used to screen visa applicants and persons seeking permission to enter the United States against the names of known or suspected terrorists), see DOS cable, State 182167, "Fighting Terrorism:Visas Viper Procedures," Oct. 19, 2001. Finally, on the watchlist, officials told us that large lists were difficult to implement, particularly when they weren't accompanied by numeric data such as date of birth that would enable an air carrier to distinguish the terrorist from others around the world who had his or her name. In addition, the U.S. intelligence community was required to approve the "no-fly" listing of an individual in order to protect sources and methods. Matt Kormann interview (Feb. 13, 2004).
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« Reply #1368 on: September 08, 2009, 12:18:22 am »

55. On selectees, see James Padgett interview (Oct. 7, 2003).Their bags were either screened for explosives or held off their flight until they were confirmed to be aboard. See FAA security directive, "Threat to Air Carriers," SD 97-01 Oct. 27, 1997. Under the previous noncomputerized profiling system, selectees were subject to secondary screening of their carry-on belongings, and checked baggage. See FAA security directive,"Threat to Air Carriers," SD 96-05,Aug. 19, 1996.

56. FAA report, "Air Carrier Standard Security Program," May 2001; FAA regulations,"Screening of Passengers and Property," 14 C.F.R. § 108.9 (1999); Leo Boivin interview (Sept. 17, 2003).

57."Knives with blades under 4 inches, such as Swiss Army Knives, scout knives, pocket utility knives, etc. may be allowed to enter the sterile area. However, some knives with blades under 4 inches could be considered by a reasonable person to be a 'menacing knife' and/or may be illegal under local law and should not be allowed to enter the sterile area." See FAA regulations,Air Carriers Checkpoint Operations Guide,Aug. 1999; see also Air Transport Association Regional Airlines Association report,"Checkpoint Operations Guide,"Aug. 1999; Cathal Flynn interview (Sept. 9, 2003); Lee Longmire interview (Oct. 28, 2003); Leo Boivin interview (Sept. 17, 2003). A 1994 FAA assessment of the threat to civil aviation in the United States stated that "system vulnerabilities also exist with respect to hijackings . . . aircraft can be hijacked with either fake weapons or hoax explosive devices. Cabin crew or passengers can also be threatened with objects such as short blade knives, which are allowable on board aircraft." See FAA report,"The Threat to U.S. Civil Aviation in the United States," Sept. 1994.

58. On random and continuous screening, see Janet Riffe interview (Feb. 26, 2004); FAA report,"Air Carrier Standard Security Program," May 2001. On the 9/11 hijackers, see Intelligence report, interrogation of Ramzi Binalshibh, Oct. 1, 2002; FAA records, Intelligence Case File 98-96.

59. Courtney Tucker interview (June 3, 2004); Kenneth Mead prepared statement, May 22, 2003. Some air carrier officials, however, enjoyed a strong reputation for leadership in aviation security, including United Airlines' Ed Soliday. Bruce Butterworth interview (Sept. 29, 2003); Cathal Flynn interview (Sept. 9, 2003); Steven Jenkins interview (Feb. 24, 2004).

60. Mike Morse interview (Sept. 15, 2003). Regarding training, see FAA report,"Air Carrier Standard Security Program," May 2001.
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« Reply #1369 on: September 08, 2009, 12:18:37 am »

61. On a hardened cockpit door making little difference, see Tim Ahern interview (Oct. 8, 2004). For regulations governing the doors, see FAA regulations,"Miscellaneous Equipment" (emergency exit), 14 C.F.R. § 121.313 (2001); FAA regulations,"Closing and locking of flight crew compartment door,"14 C.F.R. § 121.587 (2001). Also compromising cockpit security was the use of common locks (one key fit the cockpits of all Boeing aircraft) and the absence of procedures to properly manage and safeguard cockpit keys. Michael Woodward interview (Jan. 25, 2004). For the quote on reinforced cockpit doors, see Byron Okada,"Air Rage Prompts Call for Safety Measures: The FAA Is Expected to Release a Report Today," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Jan. 10, 2001, p. 1.

62. James Underwood interview (Sept. 17, 2004); Mike Canavan interview (Nov. 4, 2003).

63. Jane Garvey interview (Oct. 21, 2003).

64.As defined by statute, covert action "means an activity or activities of the United States Government to influence political, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly, but does not include-(1) activities the primary purpose of which is to acquire intelligence[.]" 50 U.S.C. § 413b(e). Executive Order 12333, titled "United States Intelligence Activities," terms covert action "special activities," defined as "activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities[.]" E.O. 12333 § 3.4(h). Pursuant to that order, the CIA has primary responsibility for covert action; another nonmilitary agency may conduct covert action only if the president determines that it "is more likely to achieve a particular objective." Ibid. § 1.8(e).

65. See 50 U.S.C. § 401a(4).
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« Reply #1370 on: September 08, 2009, 12:18:50 am »

66. DCI report,"National Foreign Intelligence Program Historical Data FY 1985 to FY 2003," Feb. 11, 2004.

67. For quote, see Joint Inquiry testimony of Michael Hayden, June 18, 2002; see also Michael Hayden interview (Dec. 10, 2003).

68. Michael Hayden interview (Dec. 10, 2003).

69. For the CIA's early years, see John Ranelagh, The Agency:The Rise and Decline of the CIA (Simon & Schuster, 1986). For the Agency's more recent history, see Robert M. Gates, From the Shadows:The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War (Simon & Schuster, 1996).

70. Regarding the dissolution of the OSS and creation of the CIG, see Michael Warner, Central Intelligence: Origin and Evolution (Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2001); Executive Order 9621, "Termination of the Office of Strategic Services and Disposition of its Functions," Sept. 20, 1945; "Presidential Directive on Coordination of Foreign Intelligence Activities," Jan. 22, 1946 (11 Fed. Reg. 1337, 1339).

71. Regarding fears of creating a U.S. Gestapo, see Amy Zegart, Flawed by Design:The Evolution of the CIA, JCS and NSC (Stanford Univ. Press, 1999), p. 268, n. 6.

72. National Security Act of 1947, Pub. L. No. 80-253, § 102(d)(3), codified at 50 U.S.C. § 403-3(d)(1).

73. On plausible deniability, see, e.g., Ranelagh, The Agency, pp. 341-345; Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: Four Who Dared:The Early Years of the CIA (Simon & Schuster, 1995), pp. 230-235.

74. James Pavitt interview (Jan. 8, 2004).

75. Steve Kappes interview (May 7, 2004); James Pavitt interview (Jan. 8, 2004).

76. Jami Miscik interview (Aug. 29, 2003).

77. Mary McCarthy, Fritz Ermarth, and Charles Allen briefing (Aug. 14, 2003).

78. See Tom Mangold, Cold Warrior: James Jesus Angleton, the CIA's Master Spy Hunter (Simon & Schuster, 1991).

79. Ruth David interview (June 10, 2003).

80. "According to the 2002 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System statistics, American colleges granted only six degrees in Arabic in the survey year." Joint Inquiry report (unclassified version), p. 344.

81. Leo Hazelwood interview (Aug. 25, 2003); Duane Clarridge interview (Sept. 16, 2003).
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« Reply #1371 on: September 08, 2009, 12:19:01 am »

82. Charles Allen interview (Sept. 22, 2003); Duane Clarridge interview (Sept. 16, 2003); David Carey interview (Oct. 31, 2003); Leo Hazelwood interview (Aug. 25, 2003); John Helgerson interview (Sept. 5, 2003); Robert Vickers interview (Sept. 17, 2003); CIA Inspector General report, "The Agency's Counterterrorism Effort," Oct. 1994.

83. Cofer Black testimony,Apr. 13, 2004.

84. James Pavitt interview (Jan. 8, 2004).

85. George Tenet testimony, Mar. 24, 2004; George Tenet testimony, Apr. 14, 2004.

86. Richard Armitage interview (Jan. 12, 2004).

87. See Dana Priest, The Mission:Waging War and Keeping Peace with America's Military (W.W. Norton, 2003).

88. Michael Sheehan interview (Dec. 16, 2003).
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« Reply #1372 on: September 08, 2009, 12:19:14 am »

89. See DOS report, Bureau of Consular Affairs,"1990 Report of the Visa Office," Oct. 1991; DOS Inspector General report, "Review of the Visa-Issuing Process; Phase I: Circumstances Surrounding the Issuance of Visas to Sheik Omar Ahmed Ali Abdel Rahman," Mar. 1994; Mary Ryan interviews (Sept. 29, 2003; Oct. 9, 2003); DOS briefing materials, presentation on consular systems delivered to the Information Resources Management Program Board, Apr. 26, 1995; DOS report, "History of the Department of State During the Clinton Presidency (1993-2001)," undated (online at www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/pubs/c6059.htm); Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Pub. L. No. 103-236 (1994), § 140(a).

90. See Gordon N. Lederman, Reorganizing the Joint Chiefs of Staff:The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 (Greenwood, 1999).

91.William Cohen interview (Feb. 5, 2004); John Hamre interview (Dec. 9, 2003); Hugh Shelton interview (Dec. 5, 2004); Cohen Group meeting (Dec. 12, 2003).

92. See Monterey Institute of International Studies report, "Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Domestic Preparedness and WMD Civil Support Teams," Oct. 2001 (online at http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/120city.htm); National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Pub. L. No. 104-201, 110 Stat. 2422 (1996); DOD report,"Domestic Preparedness Program in the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction," May 1, 1997 (online at www.defenselink.mil/pubs/domestic/toc.html).

93. John Hamre interview (Dec. 9, 2003); Henry Allen Holmes interview (Nov. 10, 2003); Brian Sheridan interview (Feb. 25, 2004).

94. Charles Allen interview (Jan. 27, 2004).

95. Commission analysis of U.S. counterterrorism strategy from 1968 to 1993.
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« Reply #1373 on: September 08, 2009, 12:19:35 am »

96. President Reagan, "Remarks at the Annual Convention of the American Bar Association," July 8, 1985 (online at www.reagan.utexas.edu/resource/speeches/1985/70885a.htm).

97. See Report of the President's Special Review Board (Tower Commission) (GPO, 1987); Theodore Draper, A Very Thin Line:The Iran-Contra Affairs (Simon & Schuster, 1991).

98. James Pavitt interview (Jan. 8, 2004).

99. President Clinton,"Address to the Nation on the Strike on Iraqi Intelligence Headquarters," June 26, 1993.

100. President Clinton, "Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union," Jan. 24, 1995; President Clinton,"Message to the Congress Transmitting Proposed Legislation To Combat Terrorism," Feb. 9, 1995; President Clinton, "Message to the Congress Transmitting Proposed Legislation To Combat Terrorism," May 3, 1995.

101. Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-39,"U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism," June 21, 1995.

102. President Clinton,"Remarks by the President in a Congressional Meeting," July 29, 1996.

103. President Clinton, "Remarks Announcing the Second Term National Security Team and an Exchange With Reporters," Dec. 5, 1996.

104. Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-62,"Protection Against Unconventional Threats to the Homeland and Americans Overseas," May 22, 1998; Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-63,"Critical Infrastructure Protection," May 22, 1998.

105. President Clinton, "Commencement Address at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland," May 22, 1998.

106. See Ernest R. May,"Intelligence: Backing into the Future," Foreign Affairs, Summer 1992.

107. For Congress's domestic orientation, see Lee H. Hamilton, How Congress Works and Why You Should Care (Indiana Univ. Press, 2004), pp.18-19. For presidential focus prior to 9/11, see President Clinton, "Commencement Address at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland," May 22, 1998; President Clinton,"Keep-ing America Secure for the 21st Century," Jan. 22, 1999.
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« Reply #1374 on: September 08, 2009, 12:19:54 am »

108. Hamilton, How Congress Works, p. 17. Our review of the classified schedules of authorization from 1995 to 2001 found that Congress generally supported the top line requests made by the administration for intelligence, never reducing it by more than 2 or 3 percent; however, the congressional oversight committees did reallocate the administration's requests significantly, sometimes increasing programs like counterterrorism that they believed were being underfunded. On the intelligence budget, see George Tenet prepared statement, Mar. 24, 2004, pp. 23-26. The DCI added that frustrations with getting additional funding requests arose mainly from the administration. See ibid.

109. Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress, Final Report, Dec. 1993; "Contract with America," 1994; Statement of Rep. Saxby Chambliss, Hearing on Intelligence Gaps in Counterterrorism before the Special Oversight Panel on Terrorism of the House Armed Services Committee, Sept. 5, 2002.

110. Hamilton, How Congress Works, p. 106; Richard Durbin interview (Apr. 27, 2004); Dianne Feinstein interview (June 1, 2004); Peter Hoekstra interview (June 2, 2004); Chris Shays interview (June 2, 2004); Dana Priest, "Congressional Oversight of Intelligence Criticized," Washington Post, Apr. 27, 2004, p. A1. For Tenet quote, see George Tenet testimony, Mar. 24, 2004.

111. For neglect of airline security, see Commission analysis of the Congressional Daily Digest and the Congressional Record using the search term "aviation security." See also FAA briefing materials, "FAA Hearing/Briefing Activity Prior to September 11, 2001," undated. For the focus on the Southwest border, see Commission analysis of the hearing records of the subcommittees on immigration of the House and Senate Judiciary committees from 1993 through 2001. On restricting the FBI's appropriations, see Robert Dies interview (Feb. 4, 2004); Stephen Col-gate interview (May 19, 2004). On sanctions on Pakistan, see Strobe Talbott interview (Jan. 15, 2004); Karl Inderfurth interview (Feb. 18, 2004); Christina Rocca interview (Jan. 29, 2004). On the lack of time for oversight, see Hamilton, How Congress Works, p. 112; see also Center for Strategic and International Studies meeting (July 23, 2003); Jay Rockefeller meeting (Oct. 16, 2003). On the Senate Appropriations Committee, the long-serving Chair (Ted Stevens) and Ranking Minority Member (Daniel Inouye) of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee conduct at least weekly oversight sessions of the intelligence community, always behind closed doors, the effectiveness of which we cannot judge.
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« Reply #1375 on: September 08, 2009, 12:20:05 am »

112. Although some members of the House sought the creation of a Select Committee on Terrorism in the beginning of 2001, the Speaker asked the intelligence ccommittee to set up a terrorism working group instead. Under Rep. Saxby Chambliss and Rep. Jane Harman, it held several briefings before 9/11 and became a subcommittee of the Intelligence Committee immediately afterward.

113. Rep. Christopher Shays of Connecticut, chairman of the National Security Subcommittee of the Government Reform Committee, held 12 wide-ranging hearings on terrorism between 1999 and July 2001, with special attention on domestic preparedness and response to terrorist attack.Though the intelligence oversight panels' work was largely secret, the intelligence community's annual worldwide threat testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence was public testimony (typically followed by a closed session). From 1997 through 2001, the threat of terrorism rose on the priority list from third (1997-1998) to second (1999-2000) to first in 2001. See Commission analysis of congressional hearings on terrorism.

114. Congress created three commissions in 1998. One, chaired jointly by former senators Gary Hart and Warren Rudman, examined national security challenges for the twenty-first century.This commission included stark warnings about possible domestic terrorist attacks and recommended a new institution devoted to identifying and defending vulnerabilities in homeland security. See Phase III Report of the U.S. Commission on National Secu-rity/21st Century,"Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change," Feb. 15, 2001.A second, chaired by former governor James G. Gilmore of Virginia, studied domestic preparedness to cope with attacks using weapons of mass destruction and presented five reports. See, e.g., Fifth Annual Report to the President and the Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruc-tion,"Forging America's New Normalcy: Securing our Homeland, Preserving our Liberty," Dec. 15, 2003.The third, chaired by L. Paul Bremer, the former State Department counterterrorism coordinator, with vice chair Maurice Sonnenberg, a member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, focused specifically on terrorist threats and what could be done to prepare for them. See Report of the National Commission on Terrorism,"Coun-tering the Threat of International Terrorism," June 2000.
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« Reply #1376 on: September 08, 2009, 12:20:26 am »

4 Responses to Al Qaeda's Initial Assaults

1. On financing of Egyptian terrorists, see Intelligence report, Sudanese links to Egypt's Gama'at al-Islamiya and training of Egyptians, July 14, 1993; Intelligence report, funding by Bin Ladin of Gama'at al-Islamiya by Bin Ladin and composition of its Sudanese wing, July 22, 1993. On aid to Yemeni terrorists, see DOS memo, attached to Bin Ladin "Viper" file,Aug. 28, 1993. CTC documents describing Bin Ladin as an "extremist financier" include Intelligence report, Bin Ladin links to materials related to WMD, Mar. 20, 1997; Intelligence report, Bin Ladin's financial support to Egyptian, Algerian, and Libyan extremists, June 17, 1997.

2. Richard Clarke interview (Dec. 18. 2003). Of the 200 people at the Center, the new Bin Ladin unit had about 12. Mike interview (Dec. 11, 2003). Staffing of the UBL unit had risen to 40-50 employees by Sept. 11, 2001, out of about 390 CTC employees. Richard interview (Dec. 11, 2003); CIA response to Commission questions for the record, Jan. 21, 2004.

3. On Fadl, see, e.g., Intelligence reports on historical background of Bin Ladin's army (Nov. 26, 1996;Apr. 18, 1997); on the structure of al Qaeda and leadership composition (Dec. 18, 1996; Dec. 19, 1996; Dec. 19, 1996); on roles and responsibilities of the organizational component (Dec. 19, 1996); on objectives and direction (Jan. 8, 1997; Jan. 27, 1997); on the financial infrastructure and networks (Dec. 30, 1996; Jan. 3, 1997); on connections and collaboration with other terrorist groups and supporters (Jan 8, 1997; Jan. 31, 1997; Jan 31, 1997; Feb. 7, 1997); on activities in Somalia (Apr. 30, 1997); on Bin Ladin's efforts to acquire WMD materials (Mar. 18, 1997). On the other walk-in source, see CIA cable, Jan. 3, 1997. Material from the Nairobi cell was introduced into evidence during the testimony of FBI Special Agent Daniel Coleman, United States v. Usama Bin Laden, No. S(7) 98 Cr. 1023 (S.D. N.Y.), Feb. 21, 2001 (transcript pp. 1078-1088, 1096-1102).
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« Reply #1377 on: September 08, 2009, 12:20:42 am »

4. Mike interview (Dec. 11, 2003).

5. Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror (Random House, 2002), pp. 269-270; Mike interview (Dec. 11, 2003); Richard Clarke interview (Dec. 18, 2003); George Tenet interview (Jan. 22, 2004).

6. On Sudanese discussions with Saudi officials, see Frank interview (Mar. 18, 2004); Ron interview (Mar. 18, 2004).Timothy Carney believed the Saudis told Sudan that they did not want Bin Ladin.Timothy Carney interview (Dec. 4, 2003).

7. The CIA official who held one-on-one discussions with Erwa said that Erwa never offered to expel Bin Ladin to the United States or render him to another country. Mark interview (May 12, 2004). For Carney's instructions and the lack of a U.S. indictment, see Timothy Carney interview (Dec. 4, 2003). On the indictment issue and the supposed Sudanese offer to give up Bin Ladin, see Samuel Berger interview (Jan. 14, 2004).

In early May 1996, the CIA received intelligence that Bin Ladin might be leaving Sudan.Though this reporting was described as "very spotty," it would have been passed along to the DCI's office because of high concern about Bin Ladin at the time. But it did not lead to plans for a U.S. operation to snatch Bin Ladin, because there was no indictment against him. Ron interview (Mar. 18, 2004); Frank interview (Mar. 18, 2004). It appears, however, that if another country had been willing to imprison Bin Ladin, the CIA might have tried to work out a scenario for apprehending him. CIA cable, May 8, 1996.The Sudanese government did not notify the United States that Bin Ladin had left the country until about two days after his departure. DOS cable, Nairobi 07020, "Sudan: Foreign Minister on Developments," May 21, 1996.
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« Reply #1378 on: September 08, 2009, 12:20:58 am »

President Clinton, in a February 2002 speech to the Long Island Association, said that the United States did not accept a Sudanese offer and take Bin Ladin because there was no indictment. President Clinton speech to the Long Island Association, Feb. 15, 2002 (videotape of speech). But the President told us that he had "misspoken" and was, wrongly, recounting a number of press stories he had read. After reviewing this matter in preparation for his Commission meeting, President Clinton told us that Sudan never offered to turn Bin Ladin over to the United States. President Clinton meeting (Apr. 8, 2004). Berger told us that he saw no chance that Sudan would have handed Bin Ladin over and also noted that in 1996, the U.S. government still did not know of any al Qaeda attacks on U.S. citizens. Samuel Berger interview (Jan. 14, 2004).

Alleged Sudanese offers to cooperate on counterterrorism have been the subject of much recent controversy. After repeatedly demanding that Sudan stop supporting terrorist groups, in 1993 the U.S. government designated the country a state sponsor of terrorism. Diplomatic discussions continued but had little impact on Sudanese support for terrorism or on other issues, such as human rights. In the fall of 1995, the United States conducted a Sudan policy review and, supported by a vocal segment of Congress, the White House sought to pressure and isolate the Sudanese. Susan Rice interview (Jan. 9, 2004).

After Bin Ladin left Sudan in May 1996, some State Department officials, including Ambassador Carney, criticized the NSC's hard-line policy, which he felt provided no "carrots" for Sudanese moderates to cooperate on counterterrorism. He also faulted the NSC for not reopening the U.S. embassy in Khartoum (closed in early 1996) when security concerns there were reevaluated. State's Sudan desk officer agreed, noting that the embassy was an excellent vehicle for gathering information on terrorists.According to one State official, NSC policymakers' views were too firmly set to engage and test the Sudanese on counterterrorism.Timothy Carney interview (Dec. 4, 2003); David Shinn interview (Aug. 29, 2003); Stephen Schwartz interview (Dec. 30, 2003).
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« Reply #1379 on: September 08, 2009, 12:21:12 am »

But supporters of the tough line, such as the NSC's Susan Rice, argued that any conciliatory statements from Khartoum belied its unhelpful actions. For example, she noted, though Sudan did eventually expel Bin Ladin, his al Qaeda network retained a presence in the country. Susan Rice interview (Jan. 9, 2004). In addition, the CIA's Africa Division, whose operatives had engaged the Sudanese on counterterrorism in early 1996, would conclude that "there is no indication that Sudanese involvement with terrorism has decreased in the past year."They saw the Sudanese gestures toward cooperating as "tactical retreats" aimed at deceiving Washington in hopes of having sanctions removed. CIA memo,Walter to Acting DCI, "Africa Division's Recommendations Regarding Sudan," Dec. 17, 1996.The CIA official who ran the Sudanese portfolio and met with the Sudanese on numerous occasions told us the Sudanese were not going to deliver, and the perceived moderates "were just flat-out lying." Mark interview (May 12, 2004).

In February 1997, the Sudanese sent letters to President Clinton and Secretary of State Albright, extending an invitation for a U.S. counterterrorism inspection mission to visit Sudan.The Sudanese also used private U.S. citizens to pass along offers to cooperate. Mansoor Ijaz interview (May 7, 2004); Janet McElligot interview (Oct. 20, 2003). But these offers were dismissed because the NSC viewed Sudan as all talk and little action. U.S. officials also feared that the Sudanese would exploit any positive American responses, including trips to the region by U.S. officials, for their own political purposes. See Joint Inquiry interview of David Williams, June 26, 2002.Today, Sudan is still listed as a state sponsor of terrorism.

8. Mike interview (Dec. 11, 2003). On local contacts, see Gary Schroen interview (Mar. 3, 2004). On "Jeff 's" views, see CIA memo,"DCI Talking Points Regarding Operations Against Usama Bin Ladin,"Aug. 25, 1997.

9. See Joint Inquiry briefing by Mike, Sept. 12, 2002. For briefings to the NSC, see NSC email, Clarke to Berger, "Threat Warning: Usama bin Ladin," Mar. 7, 1998; Mary McCarthy interview (Dec. 8, 2003); CIA memos, summary of weekly Berger/Tenet meeting, May 1, 1998.

10. CIA memos, summary of weekly Berger/Tenet meeting, May 1, 1998.

11. Karl Inderfurth interview (Feb. 18, 2004).

12. Peter Tomsen interview (Oct. 8, 2003).

13. For State Department officials' views, see Strobe Talbott interview (Jan. 15, 2004); Karl Inderfurth interview (Feb. 18, 2004).
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