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MYTHS OF CRETE & PRE-HELLENIC EUROPE

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Author Topic: MYTHS OF CRETE & PRE-HELLENIC EUROPE  (Read 5648 times)
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« Reply #720 on: February 27, 2010, 12:10:15 pm »

the theory that Labyrinth is derived from Labrys, "the axe". Professor Maspero shows that in Egyptian "a town neterit is 'a divine town'; an arm neteri is 'a divine arm'". He adds that "neteri is employed metaphorically in Egyptian as is 'divine' in French". 1
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« Reply #721 on: February 27, 2010, 12:10:25 pm »

Votive axes, too small for use, have been found in Cretan graves and sanctuaries. The earliest form was the single flat axe: the double-headed axe was first made after copper came into use. Mosso gives interesting particulars regarding votive axes found on the Continent. Some of these are of a friable sandstone, and could have served no practical purpose. 2 Small axes, which were pierced for suspension, were used as charms in Malta and elsewhere. The sacred axe survives to the present day in the Congo.
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« Reply #722 on: February 27, 2010, 12:10:37 pm »

Footnotes

293:1 Diodorus Siculus, V. 77.

293:2 Herodotus, II, 52.

295:1 Theog., V, 477.

295:2 V, 170.

295:3 Ant. Rom., II, 61.

295:4 Dial. Mar., XV, 3.

297:1 Annual of the British School at Athens, VI, 96.
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« Reply #723 on: February 27, 2010, 12:10:47 pm »

298:1 Annual of the British School at Athens, VI, p. 101.

301:1 The Palaces of Crete and their Builders, pp. 200-1.

302:1 Palaces of Crete and their Builders, A. Mosso, pp. 201, 202.

303:1 The Gods of the Egyptians, E. Wallis Budge, Vol. I, pp. 156, 157

304:1 King's Babylonian Religion, p. 166.

304:2 Babylonian Myth and Legend, p. 177.

305:1 Jastrow's Religious Belief in Babylonia and Assyria, p. 88.

305:2 Indian Myth and Legend, p. 10.

305:3 Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, A. Wiedemann, p. 290.
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« Reply #724 on: February 27, 2010, 12:11:00 pm »

306:1 Budge's Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. II, p. 122.

306:2 Egyptian Myth and Legend, pp. 53 et seq.

308:1 "Mycenæan Tree and Pillar Cult and its Mediterranean Relations". in The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. XXI, pp. 99 et seq.

308:2 Teutonic Myth and Legend, pp. 289 et seq.

309:1 The Gods of the Egyptians, Vol. I, p. 205.

310:1 Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt, J. H. Breasted, p. 116.

310:2 Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. XXI, p. 135 et seq.
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« Reply #725 on: February 27, 2010, 12:11:10 pm »

311:1 "Vana Parva" section (Roy's translation), p. 127.

311:2 Indian Myth and Legend, pp. 256 and 381.

311:3 The Gods of the Egyptians, E. Wallis Budge, Vol. I, pp. 63 et seq.

311:4 Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archæology, Vol. XXI, pp. 310, 311.

312:1 Etudes de Mythologie et d'Archéologie Egyptiennes, Tome II, p. 215.

312:2 The Dawn of Mediterranean Civilization, pp. 132 et seq.
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« Reply #726 on: February 27, 2010, 12:11:55 pm »

p. 313
CHAPTER XIV
Decline of Crete and Rise of Greece

Contemporary Rulers of Crete, Egypt, and Babylon--Crete in the Age of Abraham--Political Changes in Western Asia--Inter--state Struggles in Crete--Relations of Palace Kings with Small Towns--Egyptian Labyrinth and Cretan Palaces--The Rise of the Hittites--Their Raid on Babylon--Fall of Knossos--Lycian Tradition of Royal Rivals--Hyksos in Egypt--Hyksos Relic in Crete--Introduction of the Horse--Cretan Culture in the Cyclades and on Greek Mainland--The Golden Age of Minos--Eighteenth Dynasty Wars of Egypt--The Cause of Racial Movements--Overthrow of Minoan Power--Crete's Trade with Egypt and Western Europe--Egyptian Beads in English Bronze-age Grave--The Tin Trade of Cornwall--Pelasgian and Achæan Conquerors--Last Period of Cretan Civilization--Prehistoric Dynasties of Greece--The Northern Conquerors--Sea-raid on Egypt--The Homeric Siege of Troy--Dorian Anarchy--Ionia the Culture Cradle of Historic Greece.
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« Reply #727 on: February 27, 2010, 12:12:06 pm »

CRETE'S Early Minoan Age embraces roughly about six hundred years, from 2800 B.C. till 2200 B.C. During its third period Troy II was destroyed by fire. In Egypt the Sixth Dynasty Kings, which included Pepi I and Pepi II, reigned over a powerful kingdom for a century and a half, and then followed an obscure period of three centuries, during which rival States struggled for supremacy. In the end the princely family of Thebes rose into prominence and established the Eleventh Dynasty. Babylonia was similarly divided into petty kingdoms. About 2650 B.C. the northern Semitic State of Akkad became powerful under Sargon 1, who was reputed to be of miraculous birth and to have been rescued as a babe from an ark

p. 314
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« Reply #728 on: February 27, 2010, 12:12:16 pm »

which was set adrift on the River Euphrates. 1 His son, Naram Sin, erected the famous stele which depicts him winning a victory over a pigtailed people in a wooded and mountainous country. He flourished about the is beginning of Crete's Early Minoan II Period, and, like his father, proclaimed himself "King of the Four Quarters". It is possible
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« Reply #729 on: February 27, 2010, 12:12:27 pm »

that both these monarchs penetrated Syria and Palestine. They appear to have held sway over part of Elam and Sumeria. Towards the close of the Early Minoan II Period, Gudea was patesi of the Sumerian city of Lagash and traded with Syria. The power of Akkad appears to have been shattered by an invasion of the Gutium from the north. After these invaders were expelled, dynasties flourished in the Sumerian cities of Erech, Ur, and Isin. Thereafter the Amorite migration culminated in the rise of the Hammurabi Dynasty at Babylon.
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« Reply #730 on: February 27, 2010, 12:12:39 pm »

Some authorities believe that the Herakleopolite Kings of Egypt of the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties were descendants of foreign conquerors who entered through the eastern Delta and destroyed the mummies of the great Pyramid Kings of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties. This is possible, but the evidence is of so slight a character that any conclusions drawn from it cannot be regarded as definite.
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« Reply #731 on: February 27, 2010, 12:12:48 pm »

When we reach Crete's Middle Minoan Period (2200-2 100 B.C.) a new Age begins to dawn over the ancient world. The Theban Kings of the Eleventh Dynasty establish their sway over the whole of Egypt. In Babylonia the Sumerian power suffers decline, and two sets of invaders, the Amorites in the north and the Elamites in the south, wage a determined struggle for

p. 315
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« Reply #732 on: February 27, 2010, 12:13:00 pm »

supremacy. This is roughly the Age of Abraham, whose migration from Sumeria northward through Mesopotamia into Palestine appears to have been one of the results of the ethnic disturbances waged in his native land.
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« Reply #733 on: February 27, 2010, 12:13:08 pm »

Troy has fallen, and invaders from Thrace have penetrated eastward through Anatolia to constitute an element in the Muski-Phrygian blend. The Hittites are powerful in Cappadocia, and are extending their sway into northern Syria.

Of special interest is the Biblical reference to the battle of four kings against five.
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« Reply #734 on: February 27, 2010, 12:13:18 pm »

"And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel King of Shinar, Arioch King of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer King of Elam, and Tidal King of Nations; that these made war with Bera King of Sodom, and with Birsha King of Gomorrah, Shinab King of Admah, and Shemeber King of Zeboiim, and the King of Bela, which is Zoar." 1
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