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the First Crusade

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Rachel Dearth
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« Reply #195 on: March 02, 2009, 06:04:44 am »

Legacy

Alexius I had stabilized the Byzantine Empire and overcome a dangerous crisis, inaugurating a century of imperial prosperity and success. He had also profoundly altered the nature of the Byzantine government. By seeking close alliances with powerful noble families, Alexius put an end to the tradition of imperial exclusivity and coopted most of the nobility into his extended family and, through it, his government. This measure, which was intended to diminish opposition, was paralleled by the introduction of new courtly dignities, like that of panhypersebastos given to Nicephorus Bryennius, or that of sebastokrator given to the emperor's brother Isaac Comnenus. Although this policy met with initial success, it gradually undermined the relative effectiveness of imperial bureaucracy by placing family connections over merit. Alexius' policy of integration of the nobility bore the fruit of continuity: every Byzantine emperor who reigned after Alexius I Comnenus was related to him by either descent or marriage.

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« Reply #196 on: March 02, 2009, 06:05:16 am »

Family

By his marriage with Irene Ducaena, Alexius I had the following children:

Anna Komnene, who married the Caesar Nicephorus Bryennius.
Maria Komnene, who married (1) Gregory Gabras and (2) Nicephorus Euphorbenos Katakalon.
John II Komnenos, who succeeded as emperor.
Andronikos Comnenus, sebastokratōr.
Isaac Comnenus, sebastokratōr.
Eudocia Komnene, who married Michael Iasites.
Theodora Komnene, who married (1) Constantine Kourtikes and (2) Constantine Angelos. By him she was the grandmother of Emperors Isaac II Angelos and Alexios III Angelos.
Manuel Komnenos.
Zoe Komnene.
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« Reply #197 on: March 02, 2009, 06:05:56 am »

Tatikios

Tatikios or Taticius (died after 1099) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus. His name is also rendered as Tetigus, Tatizius, Tatitius, Tatic, or Tetig.

His father was a "Saracen", probably meaning a Turk,[1] who was captured by Alexius' father John Comnenus and served as a slave in the imperial household. Tatikios and Alexius grew up together, and he is described as an oikogenes of Alexius (that is, "from the same house").

In 1078, before Alexius was emperor, he accompanied Alexius in battle against his rival Basilacius, and discovered Basilacius' plans for an ambush. When Alexius became emperor in 1081 he held the office of Grand Primicerius in the imperial household. Later that year he commanded the "Turks living around Ochrida", perhaps Hungarians[2] at the Battle of Dyrrhachium against Robert Guiscard.

In 1086 he was sent to Nicaea in an attempt to recapture it from the Seljuks; he was forced to retreat when he learned that Seljuk reinforcements were on their way. Alexius sent him back with naval assistance from Manuel Boutoumites, but although he was able to defeat Abul-Kasim, the governor of the city, in Bithynia, but could not recapture the city. At the end of the year he was recalled and sent to fight the Pechenegs, who were assisting the heretical Manichaeans revolt against Alexius, near Philippopolis. In 1087 he commanded the Byzantine right wing in the Battle of Drista against the Pechenegs, and in 1090 he defeated a small force of 300 Pechenegs while leading the Archontopouloi tagma against them.

In early 1094, he was placed in charge of guarding Alexius' tent at Pentegostis. Here he discovered the plot of Nicephorus Diogenes, son of the former emperor Romanus IV Diogenes, to kill the emperor. Nicephorus was an old friend of Alexius and Tatikios and Alexius was reluctant to punish him, but it was clear that Nicephorus was ambitious for the throne. He was exiled and was eventually blinded. Later in 1094, he attended the synod of Blachernae which condemned Bishop Leo of Chalcedon, presumably in some function of security. In the records of this synod Tatikos is given the court title of protoproedros.[3]

In 1095 Tatikios accompanied Alexius in the campaign against the Cumans. In 1096 he defended Constantinople from reckless Crusaders who attacked the city after their arrival. In 1097, with Tzitas and 2000 peltasts, Alexius sent him to Nicaea to assist the Crusaders in their siege of the city. Crusade chronicler Albert of Aix says that he acted as an envoy between the Turks and the crusaders, but according to the more reliable Anna Comnena, he was working with Boutoumites to negotiate the surrender of the city without the Crusaders' knowledge. This caused a deep rift between the Latins and Greeks.

However, Tatikios was ordered to accompany the Crusaders across Anatolia, both as a guide and also to ensure that any captured territory was returned to the Empire. After leaving Nicaea, the Crusaders split into two groups. Tatikios accompanied the Norman (under Guiscard's son Bohemund of Taranto, Bohemund's nephew Tancred, and Robert of Normandy) and Flemish (under Robert of Flanders) contingents. The Gesta Francorum records that he frequently warned the Crusaders of the ferocity of the Turks.

During the siege of Antioch, Raymond of Aguilers writes that he advised the Crusaders to disperse and capture the surrounding countryside before attacking the city itself, which would also help them avoid a famine (this advice was ignored). In February of 1098 he left the siege; according to Anna, who probably talked to Tatikios personally or had access to his reports, Tatikios was informed by Bohemund that the other Crusaders mistrusted him and had threatened his life. Bohemund, on the other hand, spread the rumour that Tatikios was a coward and a traitor, and had fled the army never intending to return, despite his promises to bring back reinforcements from Constantinople. This is the account preserved in contemporary crusader chronicles, who refer to him as a great enemy and a liar (periurio manet et manebit, according to the Gesta Francorum); Anna's account, of course, may be influenced by her deep prejudice against Bohemund, a long-standing enemy of her father.

In April of 1099 Tatikios and the Norman mercenary Landulf were made admirals and placed in charge of a fleet sent from Constantinople to confront a Pisan fleet on its way to assist the Crusaders, which had been pillaging the coasts of the Empire. This fleet, equipped with Greek fire, ended up roaming off the coast of Cilicia and Syria, and came into conflict with the Pisans and later the Genoese in the following years.

The Crusade chroniclers mention that Tatikios had a mutilated nose; mutilation of the face was a common Byzantine punishment for traitors but this does not appear to be the case in this instance. According to Guibert of Nogent he had a prosthetic gold nose as a replacement. Contrary to the Crusaders' opinions of him, Anna describes him as "a valiant fighter, a man who kept his head under combat conditions," and "a clever orator and a powerful man of action." Anna also tells the story that Tatikios and Alexius were playing polo when the general was thrown from his horse and landed on the emperor. Alexius injured his knee in the incident and was thereafter afflicted by gout. Anna does not mention the date of this incident; it is an aside in her account of Alexius' campaigns against the Turks around 1110.

There is no record of the dates of Tatikios' birth or death. Although the office of Grand Primicerius was usually held by a eunuch, Tatikios seems to have had descendants who were members of a powerful noble family in the 12th century, including another general under Manuel I Comnenus.

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« Reply #198 on: March 02, 2009, 06:09:48 am »

Constantine I, Prince of Armenia

Constantine I (Armenian: Կոստանդին Ա, Western Armenian transliteration: Gosdantin or Kostantine; died January 24, 1102) succeeded his father Roupen I as Prince of Armenian Cilicia in 1095.

He began his reign by capturing the castle of Vahka on the upper Seyhoun River, allowing him to tax goods traveling from Ayas to the interior. Throughout his reign, he continued to expand his control over Cilicia. Upon the arrival of the First Crusade, he supplied the Crusaders with provisions and other aid, and was rewarded with the titles of Count and Baron. He had four children:

Beatrice, married Joscelin I of Edessa.
Thoros I (d. 1129), succeeded him.
Levon I (d. 1140)
an unnamed daughter, married Gabriel of Melitene
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« Reply #199 on: March 02, 2009, 06:10:30 am »

Commanders

Kilij Arslan I

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Crusade
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« Reply #200 on: March 02, 2009, 08:22:42 pm »

Yaghi-Siyan

Yaghi-Siyan (died June 2, 1098) was the governor of Antioch during the First Crusade.

He was a Turkish slave of the Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I, who had captured Antioch in 1085 and appointed Yaghi-Siyan governor around 1090. Malik Shah died in 1092, and his successor Tutush I granted Yaghi-Siyan more territory around Manbij and Turbessel. When Tutush died in 1095, his nephews, Ridwan and Duqaq, fought for control of Syria, claiming Aleppo and Damascus respectively. Ridwan's claim to Aleppo was opposed by an alliance of Yaghi-Siyan, Ilghazi, and Duqaq. Yaghi-Siyan disliked Ridwan's tutor Janah ad-Dawla more than he disliked Ridwan himself, and thus allied with Duqaq instead. Ridwan and his allies attacked Yaghi-Siyan's territory, and then besieged Damascus when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist Antioch. In 1097 Ridwan quarrelled with Janah ad-Dawla, and Yaghi-Siyan became more amenable to an alliance. This was completed by marrying his daughter to Ridwan. The two were about to attack Shaizar when news of the crusade arrived, and all parties retreated to their own territories to prepare for the coming attacks.

Despite the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was left alone to fight the crusaders with only his personal army in Antioch. To prepare for a siege, he exiled many of the Greek Orthodox and Armenian Orthodox Christians, whom he considered untrustworthy. He imprisoned the Greek Patriarch, John the Oxite, and converted the Cathedral of St. Peter into a stable. The Syrian Orthodox Christians were generally left alone, as Yaghi-Siyan considered them to be more loyal to him, as enemies of the Greeks and Armenians. Over the winter of 1097-1098, Antioch was besieged by the Crusaders, and Yaghi-Siyan and his son Shams ad-Dawla sought help from Duqaq. He frequently sent out sorties against the Christian camp, and attacked foraging parties further afield. Yaghi-Siyan knew from his informants that there were dissensions among the Christians; both Raymond IV of Toulouse and Bohemund of Taranto wanted the city for themselves. While Bohemund was away foraging on December 29, 1097, Raymond attacked but was pushed back by Yaghi-Siyan's troops. On December 30, reinforcements from Duqaq were defeated by Bohemund's foraging party, and retreated to Homs.

Yaghi-Siyan then turned to Ridwan for assistance. In February Ridwan's army was also defeated; while the crusader army was away from the city fighting Ridwan, Yaghi-Siyan marched out to attack the foot-soldiers left behind to defend the camp, but he too was pushed back when the victorious crusaders returned. In March Yaghi-Siyan ambushed the crusaders who were bringing wood and other material back from the port of St. Simeon; when the crusader camp at Antioch heard that Raymond and Bohemund had been killed, there was mass confusion, and Yaghi-Siyan attacked the rest of the army under Godfrey of Bouillon. Bohemund and Raymond soon returned however, and Yaghi-Siyan was once more pushed back into the city.

This time the governor turned to Kerbogha of Mosul for help. The crusaders knew they had to take the city before Kerbogha's reinforcements arrived. Bohemund secretly negotiated with one of Yaghi-Siyan's guards, an Armenian named Firuz, who agreed to betray the city. On the night of June 2, 1098, the crusaders entered the city; Yaghi-Siyan fled with his bodyguard, while his son stayed behind to defend the citadel. During his escape, Yaghi-Siyan fell from his horse, and as his guards found it impossible to bring the injured governor with them, they left him on the ground and rode away without him. He was found by an Armenian who cut off his head and sent it as a gift to Bohemund.

Antioch was claimed by Bohemund and Raymond, with Raymond stationed in Yaghi-Siyan's residence and Bohemund in the citadel when it was captured from Shams ad-Dawla the next week. Their quarrel delayed the crusade for many months.

The crusaders recorded Yaghi-Siyan's name in various forms in Latin, including Acxianus, Gratianus, and Cassianus; the residence claimed by Raymond was known as the palatium Cassiani.

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« Reply #201 on: March 02, 2009, 08:24:31 pm »

Kerbogha

Kerbogha (Arabic: كربغا, Turkish: Kürboğa) was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. [1]

Biography

He was a Turk who owed his success to his military talent.[2] In 1098, when he heard that the Crusaders had besieged Antioch, he gathered his troops and marched to relieve the city. By the time he arrived, around June 5-9, the Crusaders had been in possession of the city since 3rd June. They were not able to restock the city before Kerbogha, in turn, was besieging the Crusaders in the city.

During the siege, Peter the Hermit was sent as emissary to Kerbogha by the Christian princes in the city, to suggest that the parties settle all differences by duel. Presumably feeling his position secure, Kerbogha did not see this course of action as being in his interest and he declined.

During the siege, inside the city, Peter Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the Holy Lance through a vision. This discovery re-energized the Christian army. At the same time, disagreements and infighting broke out within the Atabeg's army. Kerbogha's mighty army was actually made up of levies from Baghdad and Persia, Palestine and Damascus, and the internal quarrels amongst the Emirs took precedence over any unity against the Franks. The only thing that united his allies was a common fear of Kerbogha's real goal was the conquest of all their lands. If Antioch fell, he would be invincible.[3]

On 28th June, when Bohemond, the leader of the Christian army decided to attack, the Emirs decided to humble Kerbogha and they abandoned him at the critical moment. Kerbogha was taken by surprise because the information he had received was of a weak, disorganized Christian army. Instead, he found himself facing a motivated, unified Christian army so large that Kerbogha's strategy of dividing his own forces was ineffective.[4] He had to retreat, and returned to Mosul a broken man.

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« Reply #202 on: March 02, 2009, 08:25:21 pm »

Duqaq

Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (died June 8, 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104.

Duqaq was a son of the Seljuk ruler of Syria, Tutush I, and Khatun Safwat al-Mulk, He was the brother of Radwan. When their father died in 1095, Radwan claimed Syria for himself, and Duqaq initially inherited territory in the Jezirah and lived with his brother in Aleppo. However, he soon rebelled and seized control of Damascus, throwing Syria into near anarchy and civil war. Duqaq had the support of Yaghi-Siyan of Antioch, who had no quarrel with Radwan but disliked Radwan's atabeg Janah ad-Dawla; joining Yaghi-Siyan and Duqaq was Ilghazi, governor of Jerusalem. Radwan allied with Ilghazi's brother Sokman.

Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarrelled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Hims from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade.

Over the winter of 1097-1098, Antioch was besieged by the Crusaders, and Yaghi-Siyan and his son Shams ad-Dawla sought help from Duqaq. On December 30, 1097, reinforcements from Duqaq were defeated by the foraging party of Bohemund of Taranto, and Duqaq retreated to Homs. Duqaq later joined Kerbogha of Mosul to attack the crusaders after they had occupied Antioch in June of 1098, but during the battle, Duqaq's line deserted and Kerbogha was defeated. While occupied in Syria, Duqaq's possessions in the Jezirah were seized by some rebellious vassals; in 1099 he recaptured Diyarbakr.

In 1100 Duqaq ambushed Baldwin I of Edessa at Nahr al-Kalb, outside Beirut, while the latter was on his way to Jerusalem to succeed his brother Godfrey of Bouillon as king. Baldwin's men held a narrow pass and Duqaq's troops were not able to break through; Baldwin was victorious and continued on to Jerusalem.

In 1103 Duqaq captured Homs when Janah ad-Dawla, Radwan's former atabeg, was assassinated. Duqaq fell sick in 1104, and on the advice of his mother, appointed his own atabeg Toghtekin as atabeg to his young son Tutush II. Duqaq died on June 8 of that year. Toghtegin soon overthrew Duqaq's dynasty to establish the Burid dynasty, which would rule Damascus for the next half-century.

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« Reply #203 on: March 02, 2009, 08:26:35 pm »

Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan

Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan or Rudwan; died December 10, 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Aleppo from 1095 to 1113.

He was the son of Tutush I and brother of Duqaq, but was raised by his tutor (atabeg) Janah ad-Dawla al-Husain. When Tutush died in 1096, Radwan inherited his Syrian possessions and ruled from Aleppo, though Janah ad-Dawla was in charge of actual governance. Duqaq soon revolted against his brother and took control of Damascus, throwing Syria into almost chaos and anarchy. Duqaq had the support of Yaghi-Siyan of Antioch, who had no quarrel with Radwan but disliked Janah ad-Dawla; joining Yaghi-Siyan and Duqaq was Ilghazi, governor of Jerusalem. Radwan allied with Ilghazi's brother Sokman.

Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarrelled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Hims from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade.

In 1103 Janah ad-Dawla was murdered by an Assassin named al-Hakim al-Munajjim, one of the members of the entourage of Radwan. This was the first appearance of the Assassins in Syria. Upon Duqaq's death in 1104, two weak rulers followed him in Damascus and Radwan probably captured the city the same year. The throne remained in Aleppo, however. In 1105 he assisted in the defense of Tripoli, which was being attacked by the crusaders. That same year, Tancred, Prince of Galilee, regent of the Principality of Antioch, defeated him in the Battle of Artah and briefly threatened Aleppo itself. Radwan and Tancred frequently came into conflict, until Tancred reduced Aleppo to a tributary state in 1111. The qadi of Aleppo, Ibn al-Khashshab, travelled to Baghdad to meet with the Abbasid caliph when Radwan was unwilling to pursue war with Tancred. Ibn al-Khashshab succeeded in having Mawdud of Mosul sent to Aleppo's aid, but Radwan was also antagonistic to his Muslim neighbours, even when they tried to help him against the crusaders; Mawdud was soon murdered by the Hashshashin, possibly with Radwan's approval.

Upon his death on December 10, 1113, Radwan was succeeded by his teenaged son Alp Arslan al-Akhras, under the regency of Lulu and ibn al-Khashshab. Lulu did not continue Radwan's policy of support for the Hashshashin, and had them all expelled or killed, although this left Aleppo without any powerful allies. The city fell into near chaos, and soon came under the control of Sulaiman, Ilghazi's son, who had married Radwan's daughter. Ibn al-Khashshab was murdered by the Hashshashin in 1125. In 1128 the city was united with Mosul by the atabeg of the latter, Zengi.

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« Reply #204 on: March 02, 2009, 08:27:54 pm »

Danishmend Gazi

Danishmend Gazi, full name Gümüştekin Danishmend Ahmed Gazi or Danishmend Taylu (died 1104), was the founder of the Beylik of Danishmends. After the Turkish advance into Anatolia that followed the Battle of Manzikert, his dynasty controlled the north-central regions in Anatolia.

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« Reply #205 on: March 02, 2009, 08:30:41 pm »



A map of Anatolia before the Siege of Nicaea in 1097, also showing the location of the Battle of Manzikert, 1071.
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« Reply #206 on: March 02, 2009, 08:32:04 pm »

Life

The defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert allowed the Turks, including forces loyal to Danishmend Gazi, to occupy nearly all of Anatolia. Danishmend Gazi and his forces took as their lands central Anatolia, conquering the cities of Neocaesarea, Tokat, Sivas, and Euchaita.

During the First Crusade, he was directly on the path of the advancing crusaders. On the losing side at the Battle of Dorylaeum in 1097, he scored a success in capturing Bohemond I of Antioch in 1100. He continued campaigning, extending southwards and capturing Malatya (Melitene) in 1103 (see Battle of Melitene).

He was succeeded by his son Emir Gazi Gümüştekin [1].

A tomb attributed to him is found in Niksar [2].

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« Reply #207 on: March 02, 2009, 08:33:03 pm »



Danishmend Melik Mehmed Gazi Tomb in Kayseri
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« Reply #208 on: March 02, 2009, 08:34:04 pm »

The Danishmendname

Danishmend Gazi is the central figure in the Danishmendnâme, a Turkish language epic romance. In this work, events from the life of Danishmend Gazi are blended with the legendary exploits of the 8th century Arab warrior Sidi Battal Gazi and of the Persian hero Abu Muslim.

The legends that compose Danishmendnâme were compiled from Turkish oral tradition for the first time by order of the Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad I, a century after Danishmend's death. The final form that reached our day is a compendium that was put together under the instructions of the early 15th century Ottoman sultan Murad II
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« Reply #209 on: March 02, 2009, 08:34:46 pm »

Dynasty and titles

Danishmend Gazi is sometimes also referred to by the title Melik meaning "King", which was actually bestowed upon his grandson in 1134 by the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad and was sometimes used retrospectively by contemporaries and historiographers to refer also to Danishmend Gazi. The other title, Gazi, denotes a warrior.

There is also some confusion on his name and divergence among names used by scholars. He had the same name as his son, Gümüştekin. The father is often referred to shortly as Danishmend Gazi, while his son is called Emir Gazi, without mentioning the name Gümüştekin common to both. Furthermore, the Danishmend dynasty is also cited as having a family tie to the Seljuk dynasty although the explanations differ.

Preceded by
Founder Melik of Danishmends
1071–1104 Succeeded by
Emir Gazi Gümüshtigin
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