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THE PALERMO STONE: Egypt's First History Book

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Bianca
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« on: February 19, 2009, 09:20:06 pm »

             







The largest fragment of the Royal Annals, the Palermo Stone, and the recent collation of a fragment in Cairo Museum



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(12 - 18 February 2009,
issue #934)
 
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« Reply #1 on: February 19, 2009, 09:25:25 pm »








                                                  Egypt's first history book






Al Ahram Weekly
(12 - 18 February 2009,
issue #934)

The historical importance of the Palermo Stone has long been overshadowed by the famous Rosetta Stone, but Jill Kamil says it is now being reconsidered as a legitimate historical record of ancient Egypt.
 
The historical importance of the Palermo Stone has long been overshadowed by the famous Rosetta Stone, but Jill Kamil says it is now being reconsidered as a legitimate historical record of ancient Egypt

The so-called Palermo Stone is the largest and best preserved fragment of a rectangular slab of basalt known as the Royal Annals of ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. Its origin is unknown, but it may have come from a temple or another important building.

The stone has been in Palermo in Sicily -- hence its name -- since 1866, and is now in the Museo Archaeologico. Other fragments of the same slab appeared on the market between 1895 and 1963, and are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and the Petrie Museum at University College London.

The extract from the Royal Annals, the "King List" of predynastic rulers, is in the upper register of the Palermo Stone. It is followed by the annuals of the kingdom of Egypt from its inception up to the kings of the Fifth Dynasty. Below each name, the years are named by important events, most of a ritual nature, and the height of the Nile inundation is noted at the bottom.

Some 13 major studies have been undertaken on the fragments of the stone, and ever since the first was published by Heinrich Schöfer in 1902 scholars have been divided as to how to interpret the implications of the text. Some have insisted that the predynastic kings listed on the stone indeed existed, although no further evidence had yet come to light. Others held the view that their inclusion on a King List was only of ideological value -- which is to say, in order to show that before the unification of the Two Lands of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer/Menes there was chaos. Disorder before order. Strange to say, outside of scholarly circles, the stone was not widely known. Or maybe not so strange in view of the fact that the stone was in fragments and of no artistic value.

Now, however, we know the truth at last, because archaeologists have identified as many as 15 predynastic kings listed on the Palermo Stone. They were real. They existed. And the Palermo Stone, with its apparently cryptic series of notations, can be given its historical worth.
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« Reply #2 on: February 19, 2009, 09:32:34 pm »










Some 13 major studies have been undertaken on the fragments of the stone, and ever since the first was published by Heinrich Schöfer in 1902 scholars have been divided as to how to interpret the implications of the text. Some have insisted that the predynastic kings listed on the stone indeed existed, although no further evidence had yet come to light. Others held the view that their inclusion on a King List was only of ideological value -- which is to say, in order to show that before the unification of the Two Lands of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer/Menes there was chaos. Disorder before order. Strange to say, outside of scholarly circles, the stone was not widely known. Or maybe not so strange in view of the fact that the stone was in fragments and of no artistic value.

Now, however, we know the truth at last, because archaeologists have identified as many as 15 predynastic kings listed on the Palermo Stone. They were real. They existed. And the Palermo Stone, with its apparently cryptic series of notations, can be given its historical worth.

The stone reveals that the earliest kings, before the beginning of the historic period, travelled widely and with some regularity. It also records that, in the Early Dynastic periods, which is to say between 2890 and 2686 BC, copper smelting was already taking place and statues in this medium were being fashioned. Also that military campaigns carried out in Nubia resulted in the capture of 7,000 slaves and 200,000 head of cattle. There were quarrying expeditions to the turquoise mines of Sinai; and 80,000 measures of myrrh, 6,000 units of electrum, 2,900 units of wood, and 23,020 measures of unguent were imported from Punt on the coast of modern Somalia. This was no primitive struggling community on the threshold of civilisation. This was an already established society that was forging its own character and establishing an identity.

When Toby Wilkinson of the University of Cambridge, author of Early Dynastic Egypt, presented a paper on the Palermo Stone at the International Egyptology Conference held in London in December 2000, he resuscitated interest in the stone. In fact, it is astonishing that in this day and age of computer technology, he was the first scholar to bring together and examine all seven fragments of the stone as a whole. He cited early arguments for and against the significance of the text, and concluded that it was carved for display purposes (somewhat like the Rosetta Stone) to register an ancestor cult, and to chart an unbroken line of succession up to the reign of the Fifth-Dynasty king Sneferu, which came at a great peak of prosperity; a period when great monuments were built and when no fewer than 40 ships brought wood from an unknown region outside the country.

In its original form the Royal Annals must have measured more than two metres long and half a metre wide. It was divided into two registers, with the top register subdivided into departments that chronicled the names of predynastic kings along with regnal years and important events in their reigns, followed by notations of such events as the flooding of the Nile, the biennial cattle count, cult ceremonies, taxation, sculpture, buildings and warfare. It listed hundreds of rulers. It is the oldest surviving historical text of ancient Egypt and the basis of subsequent histories and chronologies.

Some kings explicitly recorded that Egyptian deities came into being simultaneously with their visit. The god Sheshat, for example, was associated with an activity known as "stretching the cord" (probably referring to measuring out areas for sacred buildings or shrines). Others lay the foundations of buildings that were called "throne of the gods". Such activities were regarded as sufficiently important to serve as reference points and were expressed in such specific terms as "the birth of Anubis", "the birth of Min" and the "birth" of other gods associated with fertility and male potency such as Min of Coptos, and Heryshef who was usually represented in the form of a ram.
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« Reply #3 on: February 19, 2009, 09:34:05 pm »









Until now, such notations had little meaning for us. But today's scholars know so much more about the formative period of the Egyptian civilisation that we can reconsider at least 21 of the 30-odd entries on the Palermo Stone, especially those that relate to the fashioning of images of gods by kings, because archaeological evidence supports the idea of uniform cult centre development; that is to say, excavations carried out at some of the earliest settlement sites reveal uniformity. A common feature, for example, is that all sacred enclosures were kept apart from the eyes of the public and surrounded by a wall. Another is the finds of votive offerings, crudely-baked clay objects sometimes numbering hundreds, probably made by local artisans for simple people who wished to make offerings to the god. Indeed, uniformity can clearly be seen in the gods themselves. Whether in human form, or a human body with animal, bird, reptile, or insect heads, they remained archetypes to which future generations had recourse.

Interestingly enough, the gods remained vague characters throughout Egyptian history, later described in terms such as "he of Ombos" (Set), "he of Edfu" (Horus), "she of Sais" (Neith), and "he of Qift" (Coptos). In other words, no single one was more important than the others. Prayers and hymns addressed to them differed only in epithets and attributes. It was clearly the place, not the god, that mattered, with the place being chosen for its strategic position.

The cult centre of the vulture-goddess Nekhbet, for example, was on the east bank of the Nile at Nekheb (modern Al-Kab), which gave access to the mineral-rich Eastern Desert with its deposits of copper, agate, and jasper. That of Pe (Buto) in the Nile Delta was a departure point for trade with the Near East. And Coptos (Qift) was almost opposite the mouth of Wadi Hammamat, the shortest route to the Red Sea and the gold-bearing veins of the Eastern Desert.

The creation of images and establishment of cult centres mentioned on the Palermo Stone is also mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (inscribed on the walls of the kings who ruled towards the end of the Old Kingdom), and in the so-called Memphite Drama (a text which survived in a late copy and which is also explicit on the creation of cults, the establishment of shrines, and the making of divine statues with distinctive ensigns representing a plant, bird or animal distinctive to a community, and made "of every wood, every stone, every clay"). Apart from being identified with the king, they served at the popular level. Early Egyptians came to believe that the statue in the shrine held the key to a good crop, health, and fertility, and they made pious gestures that were not much different from today's offerings and prayers to the shrines of Christian saints and Muslim sheikhs. Gestures of devotion are a time honoured practice which clearly has its roots in the most ancient past.
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« Reply #4 on: February 19, 2009, 09:36:03 pm »










This is what is so fascinating about Wilkinson's studies on the Palermo Stone. The material achievements of a unified state depended on the resources of the land, and on trade, and there is every indication that its administration was mapped out early on. The creation of cult centres not only neutralised the differences between the various settlements of Upper and Lower Egypt, but it created a strong bond between the people of all walks of society. And, more important, when the king attended the "birth" days of the gods and made royal endowments in the form of bread and cakes, oxen and other cattle, geese and other birds, and jars of beer and wine, the occasion of his visit was accompanied by annual celebrations which involved the slaughter of sacrificial animals in his honour. These offerings, having once lain on the altar of the shrine and fulfilled their religious function, were taken by the "servants of the god", which is to say the priests who maintained the shrines and the statues of gods within them, and the balance was distributed to the people, the laity.

The construction of buildings for the royal cult seems to have been the most important project in each king's reign, absorbing much of the court's revenue. The concept that the gods and the king had mutual claims on one another must have been strong, but there was always the risk of resistance and when this happened the king, it appears, denied the performance of the cult. In the Pyramid Texts (many of which date to predynastic times, like those that include phrases referring to a time when the dead were laid to rest in simple sand pits and when desert animals were prone to desecrate bodies), are utterances in which the king emphasises that he has power over the gods, that he "bestows power and takes away power, and that there are none that shall escape".

The effect of such a threat on a community, which already has a strong identity, and the "servants of god" attending shrines, can well be imagined. It amounted to a threat of annihilation and the loss of prestige. According to Herodotus, a tradition survived that Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, closed temples in the land. Among his remembered designations from early times were "Horus fights", "Horus seizes", and "Horus decapitates". And, on an ivory label found at Abydos dating to the reign of the First-Dynasty king Den, the king is shown in a pose that was to become classic: smiting an enemy with a raised club.

Did the king of Egypt, having recognised places that gave access to the natural resources, and those from neighbouring lands; and who built shrines to the gods as recorded on the Palermo Stone, come to share a common feature with the leaders of many early societies? Was he a warlord?

EVIDENCE on seal impressions and pottery of the Early Dynastic Period reveal images of Pharaohs engaged in various ritual activities, and some of the accompanying texts refer to statues made of gold and copper. This image is from the fifth register of the Palermo Stone and refers to a copper statue made in the reign of Khesekhemwy, or his successor of the same name. Here is written evidence that copper statuary was created long before the well-known images of Pepi I and Merenre found in the temple of Hierakonpolis and now in the Egyptian Museum. The kings are sometimes shown wearing the Red Crown, sometimes the White -- as here depicted. Some show the king walking, some striding.

 


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« Reply #5 on: February 26, 2009, 08:34:05 am »










                                                     T H E   P A L E R M O   S T O N E





The Palermo Stone is a large fragment of a stela called the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. It contains the clearest inscriptions of the records of the pharaohs of the first dynasty through the fifth dynasty.

This fragment resides in the Salinas Regional Archaeological Museum in Palermo, Italy, from which it derives its name. The term Palermo Stone sometimes is applied incorrectly in reference to the entire Royal Annals, which includes it and other fragments located in Cairo and London museums, that have never been in Palermo.

The Royal Annals is the correct name for the fragmentary ancient Egyptian stela comprised of black basalt that was engraved toward the end of the fifth dynasty during the twenty-fifth century B.C. It lists the ruling pharaohs of ancient Egypt, once Lower Egypt (near the Nile River Delta) in the north and Upper Egypt (extending from the middle of contemporary Egypt to the southern border with Nubia) were united. Both regions had rulers for many years without documentation, since there is archaeological evidence of prehistorical human occupation of these areas that reaches back as far as eight thousand years, but this engraved stone is the earliest formal documentation found to date. Its records begin with several thousands of years of rulers—presumed by many as mythical—predating the rise of the deity, Horus, who according to the stela then conferred the role of pharaoh to the first human listed, Menes. He is given credit for the unification on the stela.  A pharaoh was not only a ruler, but was considered to become a deity upon death and a religious leader while alive. Narmer is thought to be another name for that first recorded pharaoh, but it might be the name of the next.

The engravings on the stela go on to list the names of the pharaohs who ruled the united Egypt up until the early fifth dynasty, the time of the pharaoh, Neferirkare Kakai, although the original stela may have recorded events after his reign on portions that have been lost. Those pharaohs listed became historical by being recorded in this manner and surviving long enough to be recorded further and compared with other records of the culture that have survived.
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« Reply #6 on: February 26, 2009, 08:37:20 am »



A fragment of the Royal Annals, on display at the Petrie Museum, London, which is inscribed with part of the Khasekhemwy register and at the top with a sign from the Snefru register









The original stone was inscribed on both sides with what probably is the earliest known Egyptian historical text, often referred to as the "Royal Annals" or "Old Kingdom Annals". The stela originally was about 2.1 metres tall by 60 centimetres wide, but has broken into a number of pieces, many of which are missing. The original location of this stela is unknown, but a portion of it has been found at an archaeological site in Memphis.

The Palermo Stone fragment first entered a museum collection in 1866  as part of the permanent collection of the Palermo Archaeological Museum.

Other pieces of the stela are in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and the Petrie Museum in London.  Unfortunately, most of the information on the stone concerning the first and second dynasties has not survived.

The ancient historian, Manetho, may have used the whole stella to construct his dynastic chronology, which he wrote in the third century B.C.  He was Egyptian, and his topics dealt with Egyptian matters, but he wrote in Greek for the Ptolemaic period, when Egypt was occupied by Greeks who conquered and ruled Egypt with the intent to retain its cultural heritage.

They founded a new dynasty, composed of Greeks, without native Egyptian rulers. Many Greek terms and ideas were used to interpret the old culture for the contemporary Greek Empire, however, and there is a distinct difference in cultural aspects after that date. Parallels to Greek religion and history were drawn to enhance the origins of Greek culture.

Efforts were made to translate ancient historical data into Greek because the two earlier writing systems of Egypt were not known by those in the greater Greek empire, many of whom traveled to Egypt to study the ancient culture and to trade in its products.
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« Reply #7 on: February 26, 2009, 08:43:22 am »










This largest fragment of the stela has been in Palermo since 1866, although unrecognized for its importance.

It was discovered there by a visiting French archaeologist in 1895 and its contents first published in 1902 by Heinrich Schäfer.

It is currently in the collection of the Palermo Archaeological Museum in Sicily.

There are other sizeable pieces in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, one discovered in 1910 and another purchased on the antiquities market as recently as 1963, and in the museum of University College London that was given by Sir Flinders Petrie.

The original engraved stela must have been about 2.2 m long, 0.61 m wide and 6.5 cm thick, but most of it now is missing. There is no surviving information about its provenance, although another fragment of the stela was excavated at Memphis.



The stela is a hieroglyphic list—formatted as a table, or outline, of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt before and after Menes, with regnal years and notations of events up until the time it was created, likely sometime during, or up until, the fifth dynasty since that is when its chronology ends.

It also tabulates such information as the height of the flooding Nile, the Inundation for some pharaohs (see nilometer), and information on the festivals (such as Sed festivals), taxation, sculpture, buildings, and warfare for some.

Many lists that exist from later dates, such as the Turin Canon (13th century BC) and the Karnak List of Kings, identify Menes (c. 3100 or 3000) as the first king of the first dynasty and credit him with unifying Egypt.

However, the Palermo stone, which is substantially older, lists rulers who predate Menes.

It seems to indicate that the unification of Egypt occurred earlier than Menes's rule and that he simply reunited the nation after a period of fragmentation.

The works of Manetho indicate that he used the information contained on this stone as a source for his documentation of the history of Ancient Egypt.

Scholars are divided on how to interpret the implications of the stela. Some believe the earlier pharaohs existed historically, while others believe that their inclusion in the list has only ideological value (i.e., there must have been disorder before order).
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« Reply #8 on: February 26, 2009, 08:46:12 am »











Translations and Monographs



A partial and dated English translation of this text can be found in J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. I sections 76-167.

A picture of the so-called annals fragment of the stela that the Palermo stone belonged to, with translations of the hieroglyphs.

A reconstruction of the Palermo stone and its assorted fragments by J.D. Degreef






References



^ Shaw, Ian and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p.218. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1995. ISBN 0-8109-9096-2

^ O'Neill, John P. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. p.349. Yale University Press. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1999. ISBN 0-87099-907-9
 
^ Shaw, Ian and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p.218. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1995. ISBN 0-8109-9096-2

^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2003, ISBN 0192804588, p.4

^ Brass, Mikey. The Antiquity of Man: Palermo Stone.

^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2003, ISBN 0192804588, p.5
St. John, Michael, 2003. The Palermo Stone : An Arithmetical View (London: University Museum London).

Wilkinson, Tony A. H., 2000. Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, (New York: Columbia University Press). [ISBN 0-7103-0667-9]






See also



List of pharaohs






External links



The Palermo Stone

Extract of a lecture given by T.A.H. Wilkinson, University College London 2000



retrieved from

wikipedia.org
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« Reply #9 on: February 26, 2009, 08:59:00 am »



Palermo Stone,

partial record of King Den of the first dynasty, ca 2950 BC.

The text reads from right to left; each block is introduced with a 'year glyph,' the curved line at the right edge of each year's record.

The lower register records the height of the Nile at flood time.

A few hieroglyphs stand for whole words; the rest represent sounds.



(1) Striking the bedouin.

(2) Appearance of the power (king) of Upper and Lower Egypt; Sed festival.

(3) Counting of the people (of the four directions).

(4) Second feast of Djet.

(5) Plan of a temple called "Thrones of the Gods," feast of Sokar.
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« Reply #10 on: February 26, 2009, 09:04:40 am »










The Palermo Stone
The orbital period of Mars (its synodic period), as seen from Earth, was probably about one and a half years to two years. This implies a considerably different orbit for Mars that today, although even today Earth passes by Mars every two years. But in the period directly after 3114 BC, Earth was on considerably smaller orbit, and Mars on a larger orbit extending to the region of the asteroid belts. [note 9]

Since Mars is about twice the diameter of the Moon, to appear the same size as the full Moon, Mars would have to approach within 500,000 miles of the Earth -- 250,000 miles beyond the Moon. To appear as one half the size as the full Moon, Mars would have to approach only to within 1,000,000 miles of the Earth. Mars would show as a red disk in the south sky at night. After Earth passed Mars, Mars would have disappeared from view for most of the next two years. A similar display would have happened when Mars periodically approached closer to the Earth's orbit and sat on his mountain seat.


 
                                              T H E   P A L E R M O   S T O N E







The Palermo Stone records the yearly appearances and visits of Mars. The Palermo Stone is a carved basalt block from the Fifth Dynasty (ca 2550 BC) of the Old Kingdom, unfortunately shattered and badly worn, and reduced to seven small fragments. The Palermo Stone records the Gods, the "Followers of Horus," and the pharaohs of the first five dynasties, in that order. For each of the pharaohs there is a catalog of years, with each year named after an important event, for example, "The Year of the Cattle Count."

There are some six distinct events which are recorded repeatedly on the fragments we have -- plus military excursions into the region adjacent to the delta, the acquisition of desirable materials like honey or lumber, the building of ships, plans for new temples, and other mundane activities. The frequently recorded events (for which years are named) are..



"The Appearance of the King of Upper Egypt"

"The Appearance of the King of Lower Egypt"

"The Followers of Horus"

"Union of the Two Lands" followed by

"The Circumambulation of the Wall"

"The Counting of Cattle"

The "Counting of Cattle" at later dates is often recorded as "The 'nth' Counting of Cattle." The height of the Nile at flood time was also recorded for each year.



The year-names listed above should actually be translated somewhat differently, for archaeologists have rendered the original phrasing into terms more familiar to us. "The Appearance of the King of Upper Egypt" should read as "The Appearance of the King of the Upper Land" or even as "The Appearance of the Power of the Upper Land." The Egyptians called their country "The Land;" the Greeks called it "Egypt."

The "appearances" of the King of the Upper Land or the Lower Land happen regularly every two years, although not always at exactly two year intervals. At times we read of both events happening in the same year. Interspersed at two year intervals is the year-name "The Followers of Horus."

What exactly are these events? Archaeologists have suggested that the "appearances" were visitations of the pharaoh to the delta (Lower Egypt) and up-river (Upper Egypt), perhaps as celebrations or as gift giving opportunities. That is, "appearances" were made by the pharaoh to the two separate sections of the country. The pharaoh otherwise resided at Memphis, the city at the apex of the delta, and thus exactly between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Memphis had been founded by the first king of the First Dynasty. Memphis controlled traffic between Lower and Upper Egypt, and in effect constituted the 'unification' of Egypt.

Similarly the "Union of the Two Lands" was thought to be a celebration of peace (after another rebellion had been squashed), done with a walk (some original texts are translated to "race") around the outer walls of Memphis. Memphis had massive walls in antiquity to keep the Nile from flooding the city. Memphis was known as "White Walls."

The "Union of the Two Lands" with the "Circumambulation of the Wall" is always shown as the first year-label for a pharaoh. It might be suggested that the "circumambulation" is the Sed festival. It might also be suggested (and I suspect this) that the pharaoh was replaced when Mars again showed up near Earth.
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« Reply #11 on: February 26, 2009, 09:05:42 am »



A cattle count of large and small animals, and other activities.
Scene from the Narmer Macehead, ca 3050 BC.









A scene depicted on the Narmer Macehead (ca 3050 BC), shows Narmer's name tag on the upper left. On the top right is a depiction of the temple at Buto in the delta. Three running figures between triple lunates are suggested as representing a Sed Festival. The lunates are boundary markers. Poles carried by four figures at the top are supposedly the standards of four of the nomes of Lower Egypt. From other sources it is clear that these are the "Followers of Horus" instead. An animal counts are shown at the bottom. The seated figure with his arms up in the air denotes a 'million.'

The "The Cattle Count" has drawn archaeologists' remarks to the effect that this must have been a complete fiction, based on the actual numbers listed on some predynastic objects, like the macehead described above, showing, for example, 400,000 cattle, 1,422,000 goats, and 120,000 bound captives. One million eight hundred and twenty two thousand herd animals exceeds what the population of Egypt, estimated at well under a million people at this time (probably 500,000 to 800,000), could have managed or supported. One hundred and twenty thousand captives would have represents twenty percent of the estimated population of Egypt. The rounded numbers of the count also suggest estimates rather than actual counts. But I think we are not dealing with animals and captives here.
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« Reply #12 on: February 26, 2009, 09:08:20 am »



Mars and Earth on intersecting orbits with four or five follower asteroids in the same orbit as Mars. Six still exist today. The debris in the wake of Mars may represent the cattle.









Lastly (on the Palermo Stone) we have the "Followers of Horus." Most texts simply avoid mention of the "Followers of Horus" for no one can even imagine what that year-name could mean.


What I suggest is that these entries record celestial displays of close passages of Mars. However, it is not the Mars we know today, but rather an assembly consisting of the planet Mars and other objects. I suggest that Mars was followed (and probably preceded) by a huge cloud of debris consisting of millions of rock fragments of asteroids, and followed, probably at a somewhat greater distance, by a number of larger asteroids. [note 10]

Later descriptions in the 8th century BC suggest that Mars was still accompanied by hundreds or thousands of asteroid-like bodies. We have only limited clues that these existed, and no indication of the number, the sizes, or the exact location with respect to the planet. And, located some distance away along the orbit of Mars, there followed some four or five larger asteroids. [note 11]

Gary Gilligan, in "An Ancient World in Chaos" (2008), demonstrates that with very few exceptions, the hundreds of battles that Egypt fought over a 3000 year period, always led by the Pharaoh and always won by the Egyptians, never happened on Earth, but were observed to have happen in the skies. He point out that of the complete lack of archaeological evidence for any battles. For example, at the Battle of Kadesh in ca 1287 BC, probably the most famous battle of antiquity, 20,000 Egyptians engaged 40,000 Hittites. Yet not one bone or war artifact has been found despite the inscriptions by Ramesses II telling of tens of thousands of dead soldiers (nor, for that matter, has Kadesh been found).

Similarly at Megiddo, where some 34 battles were supposedly fought, including 18 by Tuthmose III (1479 - 1425 BC). "Yet," Gilligan writes, "no corroboratory archaeological evidence exists." [note 12a]

"To put this into some kind of context, Megiddo is a location where hundreds of thousands of soldiers engaged in numerous battles over a period of 3,000 years -- i.e. thousands of chariots, battle axes, spears, bows and arrows, the carnage, dead soldiers, etc, etc, and yet no archaeological evidence remains to corroborate them as ever taking place - nothing. We have an abundance of written documentation but -- NO CRIME SCENE! This despite the fact that archaeologists have been digging there for decades."



-- Gary Gilligan [http://www.gks.uk.com]





http://saturniancosmology.org/noah.php
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« Reply #14 on: February 26, 2009, 09:20:42 am »





http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/egipto/fingerprintgods/fingerprintgods12.htm
« Last Edit: February 26, 2009, 09:26:38 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
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