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Christmas in Ritual and Tradition

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Erika Zimney
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« Reply #270 on: December 18, 2009, 02:04:13 am »

In England some use of candles on this festival continued long after the Reformation. In 1628 the Bishop of Durham gave serious offence by sticking up wax candles in his cathedral at the Purification; “the number of all the candles burnt that evening was two hundred and twenty, besides sixteen torches; sixty of p. 354 those burning tapers and torches standing upon and near the high Altar.” 17-68 Ripon Cathedral, as late as the eighteenth century, was brilliantly illuminated with candles on the Sunday before the festival. 17-69 And, to come to domestic customs, at Lyme Regis in Dorsetshire the person who bought the wood-ashes of a family used to send a present of a large candle at Candlemas. It was lighted at night, and round it there was festive drinking until its going out gave the signal for retirement to rest. 17-70

There are other British Candlemas customs connected with fire. In the western isles of Scotland, says an early eighteenth-century writer, “as Candlemas Day comes round, the mistress and servants of each family taking a sheaf of oats, dress it up in woman's apparel, and after putting it in a large basket, beside which a wooden club is placed, they cry three times, ‘Briid is come! Briid is welcome!’ This they do just before going to bed, and as soon as they rise in the morning, they look among the ashes, expecting to see the impression of Briid's club there, which if they do, they reckon it a true presage of a good crop and prosperous year, and the contrary they take as an ill-omen.” 17-71 Sir Laurence Gomme regards this as an illustration of belief in a house-spirit whose residence is the hearth and whose element is the ever-burning sacred flame. He also considers the Lyme Regis custom mentioned above to be a modernized relic of the sacred hearth-fire. 17-72
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Erika Zimney
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« Reply #271 on: December 18, 2009, 02:04:36 am »

Again, the feast of the Purification was the time to kindle a “brand” preserved from the Christmas log. Herrick's Candlemas lines may be recalled:—
“Kindle the Christmas brand, and then
Till sunne-set let it burne;
Which quencht, then lay it up agen,
Till Christmas next returne.
Part must be kept wherewith to teend
The Christmas Log next yeare;
And where ‘tis safely kept, the Fiend
Can do no mischiefe there.” 17-73

p. 355 Candlemas Eve was the moment for the last farewells to Christmas; Herrick sings:—
“End now the White Loafe and the Pye,
And let all sports with Christmas dye,”

and
“Down with the Rosemary and Bayes,
Down with the Misleto;
Instead of Holly, now up-raise
The greener Box for show.
The Holly hitherto did sway;
Let Box now domineere
Until the dancing Easter Day,
Or Easter's Eve appeare.” 17-74

An old Shropshire servant, Miss Burne tells us, was wont, when she took down the holly and ivy on Candlemas Eve, to put snow-drops in their place. 17-75 We may see in this replacing of the winter evergreens by the delicate white flowers a hint that by Candlemas the worst of the winter is over and gone; Earth has begun to deck herself with blossoms, and spring, however feebly, has begun. With Candlemas we, like the older English countryfolk, may take our leave of Christmas.

p. 356 p. 357
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« Reply #272 on: December 18, 2009, 02:05:12 am »

CONCLUSION

The reader who has had patience to persevere will by now have gained some idea of the manner in which Christmas is, and has been, kept throughout Europe. We have traced the evolution of the festival, seen it take its rise soon after the victory of the Catholic doctrine of Christ's person at Nicea, and spread from Rome to every quarter of the Empire, not as a folk-festival but as an ecclesiastical holy-day. We have seen the Church condemn with horror the relics of pagan feasts which clung round the same season of the year; then, as time went on, we have found the two elements, pagan and Christian, mingling in some degree, the pagan losing most of its serious meaning, and continuing mainly as ritual performed for the sake of use and wont or as a jovial tradition, the Christian becoming humanized, the skeleton of dogma clothed with warm flesh and blood.

We have considered, as represented in poetry and liturgy, the strictly ecclesiastical festival, the commemoration of the Nativity as the beginning of man's redemption. We have seen how in the carols, the cult of the presepio, and the religious drama, the Birth of the King of Glory in the stable at midwinter has presented itself in concrete form to the popular mind, calling up a host of human emotions, a crowd of quaint and beautiful fancies. Lastly we have noted the survival, in the most varied degrees of transformation, of things which are alien to Christianity and in some cases seem to go back to very primitive stages of thought and feeling. An antique reverence for the plant-world may lie, as we have seen, beneath the familiar institution of the Christmas-tree, some sort of animal-worship may be at the bottom of the p. 358 beast-masks common at winter festivals, survivals of sacrifice may linger in Christmas feasting, and in the family gatherings round the hearth may be preserved a dim memory of ancient domestic rites.
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« Reply #273 on: December 18, 2009, 02:07:57 am »

Christmas, indeed, regarded in all its aspects, is a microcosm of European religion. It reflects almost every phase of thought and feeling from crude magic and superstition to the speculative mysticism of Eckhart, from mere delight in physical indulgence to the exquisite spirituality and tenderness of St. Francis. Ascetic and bon-vivant, mystic and materialist, learned and simple, noble and peasant, all have found something in it of which to lay hold. It is a river into which have flowed tributaries from every side, from Oriental religion, from Greek and Roman civilization, from Celtic, Teutonic, Slav, and probably pre-Aryan, society, mingling their waters so that it is often hard to discover the far-away springs.

We have seen how the Reformation broke up the great mediaeval synthesis of paganism and Christianity, how the extremer forms of Protestantism aimed at completely destroying Christmas, and how the general tendency of modern civilization, with its scientific spirit, its popular education, its railways, its concentration of the people in great cities, has been to root out traditional beliefs and customs both Christian and pagan, so that if we would seek for relics of the old things we must go to the regions of Europe that are least industrially and intellectually “advanced.” Yet amongst the most sceptical and “enlightened” of moderns there is generally a large residuum of tradition. “Emotionally,” it has been said, “we are hundreds of thousands of years old; rationally we are embryos” 18-1 ; and many people who deem themselves “emancipated” are willing for once in the year to plunge into the stream of tradition, merge themselves in inherited social custom, and give way to sentiments and impressions which in their more reflective moments they spurn. Most men are ready at Christmas to put themselves into an instinctive rather than a rational attitude, to drink of the springs of wonder, and return in some degree to earlier, less intellectual stages of human development—to become in fact children again.

p. 359 Many elements enter into the modern Christmas. There is the delight of its warmth and brightness and comfort against the bleak midwinter. A peculiar charm of the northern Christmas lies in the thought of the cold barred out, the home made a warm, gay place in contrast with the cheerless world outside. There is the physical pleasure of “good cheer,” of plentiful eating and drinking, joined to, and partly resulting in, a sense of goodwill and expansive kindliness towards the world at large, a temporary feeling of the brotherhood of man, a desire that the poor may for once in the year “have a good time.” Here perhaps we may trace the influence of the Saturnalia, with its dreams of the age of gold, its exaltation of them of low degree. Mixed with a little sentimental Christianity this is the Christmas of Dickens—the Christmas which he largely helped to perpetuate in England.
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« Reply #274 on: December 18, 2009, 02:08:59 am »

Each nation, naturally, has fashioned its own Christmas. The English have made it a season of solid material comfort, of good-fellowship and “charity,” with a slight flavour of soothing religion. The modern French, sceptical and pagan, make little of Christmas, and concentrate upon the secular celebration of the jour de l'an. For the Scandinavians Christmas is above all a time of sport, recreation, good living, and social gaiety in the midst of a season when little outdoor work can be done and night almost swallows up day. The Germans, sentimental and childlike, have produced a Christmas that is a very Paradise for children and at which the old delight to play at being young again around the Tree. For the Italians Christmas is centred upon the cult of the Bambino, so fitted to their dramatic instincts, their love of display, their strong parental affection. (How much of the sentiment that surrounds the presepio is, though religiously heightened, akin to the delight of a child in its doll!) If the Germans may be called the good, industrious, sentimental children of Europe, making the most of simple things, the Italians are the lively, passionate, impulsive children, loving gay clothes and finery; and the contrast shows in their keeping of Christmas.

The modern Christmas is above all things a children's feast, and the elders who join in it put themselves upon their children's p. 360 level. We have noted how ritual acts, once performed with serious purpose, tend to become games for youngsters, and have seen many an example of this process in the sports and mummeries kept up by the elder folk for the benefit of the children. We have seen too how the radiant figure of the Christ Child has become a gift-bringer for the little ones. At no time in the world's history has so much been made of children as to-day, and because Christmas is their feast its lustre continues unabated in an age upon which dogmatic Christianity has largely lost its hold, which laughs at the pagan superstitions of its forefathers. Christmas is the feast of beginnings, of instinctive, happy childhood; the Christian idea of the Immortal Babe renewing weary, stained humanity, blends with the thought of the New Year, with its hope and promise, laid in the cradle of Time.

p. 361 p. 362 p. 363

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« Reply #275 on: December 18, 2009, 02:09:41 am »

NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Bibliographical details are given with the first reference to each authority, and the titles and authors’ names are there printed in heavy type. The particulars are repeated in the notes to Part II. when authorities are referred to again.

CHAPTER I.—INTRODUCTION

 1-1  G. K. Chesterton in “The Daily News,” Dec. 26, 1903.

 1-2  Ibid. Dec. 23, 1911.

 1-3  Cf. J. E. Harrison, “Themis: a Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion” (Cambridge, 1912), 139, 184.

 1-4  Or plural Weihnachten. The name Weihnachten was applied in five different ways in mediaeval Germany: (1) to Dec. 25, (2) to Dec. 25-8, (3) to the whole Christmas week, (4) to Dec. 25 to Jan. 6, (5) to the whole time from Christmas to the Octave of the Epiphany. G. Bilfinger, “Das germanische Julfest” (Stuttgart, 1901), 39.

 1-5  A. Tille, “Die Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht” (Leipsic, 1893), 22. [Referred to as “D. W.”]

 1-6  H. Usener, “Das Weihnachtsfest” (Kap. i., bis. iii. 2nd Edition, Bonn, 1911), 273 f.

 1-7  L. Duchesne, “Christian Worship: its Origin and Evolution” (Eng. Trans., Revised Edition, London, 1912), 257 f.

 1-8  J. Hastings, “Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics” (Edinburgh, 1910), iii. 601 f.

 1-9  E. K. Chambers, “The Mediaeval Stage” (Oxford, 1903), i. 244. [Referred to as “M. S.”]

 1-10  A. Tille, “Yule and Christmas: their Place in the Germanic Year” (London, 1899), 122. [Referred to as “Y. & C.”]

 1-11  Ibid. 164.

 1-12  Tille, “D. W.,” 21.

 1-13  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 203.

 1-14  K. Lake in Hastings's “Encyclopædia” and in “The Guardian,” Dec. 29, 1911; F. C. Conybeare, Preface to “The Key of Truth, a Manual of the Paulician Church of Armenia” (Oxford, 1898), clii. f.; Usener, 18 f.

 1-15  Usener, 27 f.

 1-16  Ibid. 31; J. E. Harrison, “Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion” (Cambridge, 1903), 550.

 1-17  Harrison, “Prolegomena,” 402 f., 524 f., 550.p. 364

 1-18  Lake, and G. Rietschel, “Weihnachten in Kirche, Kunst and Volksleben” (Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1902), 10.

 1-19  Conybeare, lxxviii.

 1-20  A. Lupi, “Dissertazioni, lettere ed altre operette” (Faenza, 1785), i. 219 f., mentioned in article “Nativity” in T. K. Cheyne's “Encyclopædia Biblica” (London, 1902), iii. 3346.

 1-21  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 234.

 1-22  Ibid. i. 235; F. Cumont, “The Monuments of Mithra” (Eng. Trans., London, 1903), 190.

 1-23  G. Negri, “Julian the Apostate” (Eng. Trans., London, 1905), i. 240 f.

 1-24  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 235.

 1-25  Duchesne, “Christian Worship,” 265.

 1-26  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 146.
PART I.—THE CHRISTIAN FEAST
CHAPTER II.—CHRISTMAS POETRY (I)

 2-1  See especially for Latin, German, and English hymnody J. Julian, “A Dictionary of Hymnology” (New Edition, London, 1907), and the Historical Edition of “Hymns Ancient and Modern” (London, 1909).

 2-2  H. C. Beeching, “A Book of Christmas Verse” (London, 1895), 3.

 2-3  Beeching, 8.

 2-4  A. Gastoué, “Noël” (Paris, 1907), 38.

 2-5  R. W. Church, “St. Anselm” (London, 1870), 6.

 2-6  Ibid. 3 f.

 2-7  W. R. W. Stephens, “The English Church from the Norman Conquest to the Accession of Edward I.” (London, 1901), 309.

 2-8  W. Sandys, “Christmastide: its History, Festivities, and Carols” (London, n.d.), 216; E. Rickert, “Ancient English Carols. MCCCC-MDCC” (London, 1910), 133.

 2-9  For the Franciscan influence on poetry and art see: Vernon Lee, “Renaissance Fancies and Studies” (London, 1895); H. Thode, “Franz von Assisi und die Anfänge der Kunst der Renaissance in Italien” (Berlin, 1885); A. Macdonell, “Sons of Francis” (London, 1902); J. A. Symonds, “The Renaissance in Italy. Italian Literature,” Part I. (New Edition, London, 1898).

 2-10  Thomas of Celano, “Lives of St. Francis” (Eng. Trans. by A. G. Ferrers Howell, London, 1908), 84.

 2-11  P. Robinson, “Writings of St. Francis” (London, 1906), 175.

 2-12  “Le poesie spirituali del B. Jacopone da Todi,” con annotationi di Fra Francesco Tresatti (Venice, 1617), 266.

 2-13  Ibid. 275.

 2-14  Ibid. 867.

 2-15  “Stabat Mater speciosa,” trans. and ed. by J. M. Neale (London, 1866).p. 365

 2-16  For German Christmas poetry see, besides Julian: Hoffmann von Fallersleben, “Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luthers Zeit” (2nd Edition, Hanover, 1854); P. Wackernagel, “Das deutsche Kirchenlied” (Leipsic, 1867); and C. Winkworth, “Christian Singers of Germany” (London, n.d.).

 2-17  R. M. Jones, “Studies in Mystical Religion” (London, 1909), 235, 237.

 2-18  “Meister Eckharts Schriften und Predigten,” edited by H. Buttner (Leipsic, 1903), i. 44.

 2-19  Translation by C. Winkworth, “Christian Singers,” 84. German text in Wackernagel, ii. 302 f.

 2-20  “Deutsches Weihnachtsbuch” (Hamburg-Grossborstel, 1907), 125.

 2-21  “A Compendious Book of Godly and Spiritual Songs,” reprinted from the Edition of 1567 by A. F. Mitchell (Edinburgh and London, 1897), 53. This translation is abridged and Protestantized. The mediaeval German text, which is partly addressed to the Virgin, is given in Hoffmann von Fallersleben, “In Dulci Jubilo” (Hanover, 1854), 46. For the music see G. R. Woodward, “The Cowley Carol Book” (New Edition, London, 1909), 20 f. [a work peculiarly rich in old German airs].

 2-22  K. Weinhold, “Weihnacht-Spiele und Lieder aus Süddeutschland und Schlesien” (2nd Edition, Vienna, 1875), 385.

 2-23  Ibid. 396. [For help in the translation of German dialect I am indebted to Dr. M. A. Mügge.]

 2-24  Ibid. 400.

 2-25  Ibid. 417.

 2-26  E. K. Chambers, essay on “Some Aspects of Mediæval Lyric” in “Early English Lyrics,” chosen by E. K. Chambers and F. Sidgwick (London, 1907), 290. [Twenty-five of Awdlay's carols were printed by Messrs. Chambers and Sidgwick in “The Modern Language Review” (Cambridge), Oct., 1910, and Jan., 1911.]

 2-27  Ibid. 293.

 2-28  Quoted by J. J. Jusserand, “A Literary History of the English People” (2nd Edition, London, 1907), i. 218.

 2-29  Rickert, 6; Beeching, 13.

 2-30  No. lv. in Chambers and Sidgwick, “Early English Lyrics.”

 2-31  No. lix., ibid.

 2-32  No. lxi., ibid.

 2-33  No. lxx., ibid.

 2-34  No. lxvii., ibid.

 2-35  No. lxiii., ibid.

 2-36  Rickert, 67.
CHAPTER III.—CHRISTMAS POETRY (II)

 3-1  Noël Hervé, “Les Noëls français” (Niort, 1905), Gastoué, 57 f.; G. Gregory Smith, “The Transition Period” (Edinburgh and London, 1900), 217.

 3-2  Gregory Smith, 217.

 3-3  H. Lemeignen, “Vieux Noëls composés en l'honneur de la Naissance de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ” (Nantes, 1876), iii. 2 f.

 3-4  Ibid. i. 10, 11.

 3-5  Ibid. ii. 93, 95.

 3-6  Hervé, 46.

 3-7  Lemeignen, i. 55.p. 366

 3-8  Lemeignen, i. 29.

 3-9  “Les Vieux Noëls,” in “Nouvelle Bibliothèque Populaire” (published by Henri Gautier, 55 Quai des Grands Augustins, Paris).

 3-10  Lemeignen, i. 93.

 3-11  H. J. L. J. Massé, “A Book Of Old Carols” (London, 1910), i. 21.

 3-12  Hervé, 86.

 3-13  Lemeignen, i. 71.

 3-14  “Hymns Ancient and Modern” (Historical Edition), 79. Translation is No. 58 in Ordinary Edition.

 3-15  Hervé, 132.

 3-16  A great number of these villancicos and romances may be found in Justo de Sancha, “Romancero y Cancionero Sagrados” (Madrid, 1855, vol. 35 of Rivadeneyra's Library of Spanish Authors), and there are some good examples in J. N. Böhl de Faber, “Rimas Antiguas Castellanas” (Hamburg, 1823).

 3-17  Böhl de Faber, ii. 36.

 3-18  F. Caballero, “Elia y La Noche de Navidad” (Leipsic, 1864), 210.

 3-19  A. de Gubernatis, “Storia Comparata degli Usi Natalizi” (Milan, 1878), 90.

 3-20  These three verses are taken from Countess Martinengo-Cesaresco's charming translation of the poem, in her “Essays in the Study of Folk-Songs” (London, 1886), 304 f.

 3-21  Martinengo, “Folk-Songs,” 302 f.

 3-22  Latin text in Tille, “D. W.,” 311; Italian game in De Gubernatis, 93.

 3-23  Hervé, 115 f.

 3-24  W. Hone, “The Ancient Mysteries Described” (London, 1823), 103.

 3-25  Ibid. 103.

 3-26  See Note 11.

 3-27  D. Hyde, “Religious Songs of Connacht” (London, 1906), ii. 225 f.

 3-28  “The Vineyard” (London), Dec., 1910, 144.

 3-29  “Deutsches Weihnachtsbuch,” 120 f.
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« Reply #276 on: December 18, 2009, 02:10:04 am »

3-30  “A Compendious Book of Godly and Spiritual Songs,” 49 f. (spelling here modernized); Rickert, 82 f.

 3-31  “Deutsches Weihnachtsbuch,” 123, and most German Protestant hymnbooks.

 3-32  Translation by Miles Coverdale, in Rickert, 192 f.

 3-33  No. 5 in Paulus Gerhardt, “Geistliche Lieder,” ed. by P. Wackernagel and W. Tümpel (9th Edition, Gütersloh, 1907).

 3-34  Translation by C. Winkworth in “Lyra Germanica” (New Edition, London, 1869), ii. 13 f.

 3-35  “Deutsches Weihnachtsbuch,” 128 f.

 3-36  Translation (last verse altered) in “The British Herald” (London), Sept., 1866, 329.

 3-37  “Christmas Carols New and Old,” the words edited by H. R. Bramley, the music edited by Sir John Stainer (London, n.d.).

 3-38  Beeching, 27 f.

 3-39  Ibid. 67.

 3-40  Ibid. 49.

 3-41  Ibid. 76.

 3-42  Ibid. 48.

 3-43  Ibid. 45.

 3-44  Ibid. 42 f.p. 367

 3-45  Beeching, 85 f.

 3-46  Selwyn Image, “Poems and Carols” (London, 1894), 25.

 3-47  G. K. Chesterton in “The Commonwealth” (London), Dec., 1902, 353.
CHAPTER IV.—CHRISTMAS IN LITURGY AND POPULAR DEVOTION

 4-1  Translation, “Creator of the starry height,” in “Hymns A. and M.” (Ordinary Edition), No. 45.

 4-2  J. Dowden, “The Church Year and Kalendar” (Cambridge, 1910), 76 f.

 4-3  “Rational ou Manuel des divins Offices de Guillaume Durand, Évèque de Mende au treizième siècle,” traduit par M. C. Barthélemy (Paris, 1854), iii. 155 f.

 4-4  See translation of the Great O's in “The English Hymnal,” No. 734.

 4-5  Barthélemy, iii. 220 f.

 4-6  D. Rock, “The Church of Our Fathers” (London, 1853), vol. iii. pt. ii. 214.

 4-7  J. K. Huysmans, “L'Oblat” (Paris, 1903), 194.

 4-8  Gastoué, 44 f.

 4-9  E. G. C. F. Atchley, “Ordo Romanus Primus” (London, 1905), 71.

 4-10  “The Pilgrimage of S. Silvia of Aquitaine” (Eng. Trans. by J. H. Bernard, London, 1891), 50 f.

 4-11  S. D. Ferriman in “The Daily News,” Dec. 25, 1911.

 4-12  G. Bonaccorsi, “Il Natale: appunti d'esegesi e di storia” (Rome, 1903), 73.

 4-13  Gastoué, 41 f.

 4-14  Bonaccorsi, 75.

 4-15  H. Malleson and M. A. R. Tuker, “Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome” (London, 1897), pt. ii. 211.

 4-16  Th. Bentzon, “Christmas In France” in “The Century Magazine” (New York), Dec., 1901, 170 f.

 4-17  L. von Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben” (Stuttgart, 1909), 232.

 4-18  M. J. Quin, “A Visit to Spain” (2nd Edition, London, 1824), 126 f.

 4-19  “Madrid in 1835,” by a Resident Officer (London, 1836), i. 395 f.

 4-20  W. S. Walsh, “Curiosities of Popular Customs” (London, 1898), 237.

 4-21  G. Pitrè, “Spettacoli e feste popolari siciliane” (Palermo, 1880), 444.

 4-22  Tille, “D. W.,” 70 f.
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« Reply #277 on: December 18, 2009, 02:10:27 am »

 4-23  F. H. Woods, “Sweden and Norway” (London, 1882), 209; L. Lloyd, “Peasant Life in Sweden” (London, 1870), 201 f.

 4-24  J. E. Vaux, “Church Folklore” (London, 1894), 222 f.

 4-25  M. Trevelyan, “Folk-Lore and Folk-Stories of Wales” (London, 1909), 28.

 4-26  Vaux, 262 f.

 4-27  R. F. Littledale, “Offices from the Service-Books of the Holy Eastern Church” (London, 1863), 174 f.

 4-28  [Sir] A. J. Evans, “Christmas and Ancestor Worship in the Black Mountain,” in “Macmillan's Magazine” (London), vol. xliii., 1881, 228.

 4-29  Duchesne, 273.

 4-30  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 245.

 4-31  “The Roman Breviary,” translated by John, Marquess of Bute (New Edition Edinburgh and London, 1908), 186.

 4-32  See announcement in “The Roman Mail” in Jan., 1912.p. 368

 4-33  Mary Hamilton, “Greek Saints and their Festivals” (London, 1910), 113 f.

 4-34  H. Holloway, “An Eastern Epiphany Service” in “Pax” (the Magazine of the Caldey Island Benedictines), Dec., 1910.

 4-35  Hamilton, 119 f.

 4-36  Holloway, as above.

 4-37  F. H. E. Palmer, “Russian Life in Town and Country” (London, 1901), 176 f.

 4-38  Thomas of Celano, trans. by Howell, 82 f.

 4-39  Countess Martinengo-Cesaresco, “Puer Parvulus” in “The Outdoor Life in the Greek and Roman Poets” (London, 1911), 248.

 4-40  Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 41.

 4-41  Bonaccorsi, 85; Usener, 298.

 4-42  Usener, 290.

 4-43  Ibid. 295, 299.

 4-44  Rietschel, 55.

 4-45  Ibid. 56 f.

 4-46  Ibid. 60.

 4-47  Ibid. 69 f.; Tille, “D. W.,” 59 f.

 4-48  Music from Trier “Gesangbuch” (1911), No. 18, where a very much weakened text is given. Text from Weinhold, 114. Another form of the air is given in “The Cowley Carol Book,” No. 36.

 4-49  Text and music in Massé, i. 6.

 4-50  Tille, “D. W.,” 60.

 4-51  Ibid. 61 f.

 4-52  Ibid. 63.

 4-53  Thomas Naogeorgus, “The Popish Kingdome,” Englyshed by Barnabe Googe, 1570 (ed. by R. C. Hope, London, 1880), 45.

 4-54  Tille, “D. W.,” 68.

 4-55  Ibid. 68.

 4-56  Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben,” 235.

 4-57  Ibid. 235.

 4-58  Tille, “D. W.,” 64.

 4-59  Rietschel, 75.

 4-60  Martinengo, “Outdoor Life,” 249.

 4-61  Lady Morgan, “Italy” (New Edition, London, 1821), iii. 72.

 4-62  Matilde Serao, “La Madonna e i Santi” (Naples, 1902), 223 f.

 4-63  L. Caico, “Sicilian Ways and Days” (London, 1910), 192 f.

 4-64  Information kindly given to the author by Mrs. C. G. Crump.

 4-65  Information derived by the author from a resident in Messina.

 4-66  Serao, see Note 62.

 4-67  W. H. D. Rouse, “Religious Tableaux in Italian Churches,” in “Folk-Lore” (London), vol. v., 1894, 6 f.

 4-68  Morgan, iii. 76 f.

 4-69  Bonaccorsi, 45 f.

 4-70  A. J. C. Hare, “Walks in Rome” (11th Edition, London, 1883), 157.

 4-71  Martinengo, “Outdoor Life,” 253; Bonaccorsi, 110 f.; R. Ellis Roberts, “A Roman Pilgrimage” (London, 1911), 185 f.

 4-72  H. J. Rose, “Untrodden Spain” (London, 1875), 276.

 4-73  See Note 18 to Chapter III.p. 369

 4-74  T. F. Thiselton Dyer, “British Popular Customs” (London, 1876), 464.

 4-75  Vaux, 216.

 4-76  Dyer, 464.

 4-77  Cf. Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 120.
CHAPTER V.—CHRISTMAS DRAMA

 5-1  This account of the mediaeval Christmas drama owes much to Chambers, “The Mediaeval Stage,” especially chaps. xviii. to xx., and to W. Creizenach, “Geschichte des neueren Dramas” (Halle a/S., 1893), vol. i., bks. ii.-iv. See also: Karl Pearson, essay on “The German Passion Play” in “The Chances of Death, and other Studies in Evolution” (London, 1897), ii. 246 f.; E. Du Méril, “Origines latines du théâtre moderne” (Paris, 1849); L. Petit de Julleville, “Histoire du théâtre en France au moyen âge. I. Les Mystères” (Paris, 1880); and other works cited later.

 5-2  Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 8 f.

 5-3  Ibid. ii. 11.

 5-4  Du Méril, 147.

 5-5  Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 52.

 5-6  Text in Du Méril, 153 f.

 5-7  Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 44.

 5-8  Ibid. ii. 52 f.

 5-9  On the English plays see: Chambers, “M. S.,” chaps. xx. and xxi.; A. W. Ward, “A History of English Dramatic Literature” (London, 1875), vol. i. chap. i.; Creizenach, vol. i.; K. L. Bates, “The English Religious Drama” (London, 1893).

 5-10  Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 129, 131, 139.

 5-11  “Ludus Coventriae,” ed. by J. O. Halliwell (London, 1841), 146 f.

 5-12  “York Plays,” ed. by L. Toulmin Smith (Oxford, 1885), 114 f.

 5-13  “The Chester Plays,” ed. by T. Wright (London, 1843), 137.

 5-14  Ibid. 138.

 5-15  Ibid. 143.

 5-16  “The Towneley Plays,” ed. by George England, with Introduction by A. W. Pollard (London, 1897). The first Shepherds’ Play is on p. 100 f., the second on p. 116 f.

 5-17  Text from Chambers and Sidgwick, “Early English Lyrics,” 124 f.

 5-18  Text in T. Sharp, “A Dissertation on the Pageants or Dramatic Mysteries anciently performed at Coventry” (Coventry, 1825).

 5-19  Petit de Julleville, ii. 36 f and 431 f.

 5-20  Ibid. ii. 620 f.; “Les marguerites de la Marguerite des princesses,” ed. from the edition of 1547 by F. Frank (Paris, 1873), ii. 1 f.

 5-21  Petit de Julleville, i. 441.

 5-22  Ibid. i. 455. Text in Lemeignen, ii. 1 f.

 5-23  Petit de Julleville, i. 79 f.

 5-24  P. Sébillot, “Coutumes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne” (Paris, 1886), 177.

 5-25  Martinengo, “Folk-Songs,” xxxiii. f. In her essay, “Puer Parvulus,” in “The Outdoor Life,” 260 f., the Countess gives a charming description of a somewhat similar Piedmontese play.

 5-26  Barthélemy, iii. 411 f.p. 370

 5-27  Rietschel, 88 f.; O. von Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, “Das festliche Jahr” (2nd Edition, Leipsic, 1898), 439 f.

 5-28  Rietschel, 92 f.

 5-29  An interesting book on popular Christmas plays is F. Vogt, “Die schlesischen Weihnachtspiele” (Leipsic, 1901).

 5-30  Weinhold, 94.

 5-31  Ibid. 95 f.

 5-32  Ibid. 100 f.

 5-33  Ibid. 96 f.

 5-34  See Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 91 f.; Symonds, “Renaissance,” iv. 242, 272 f.; A. d'Ancona, “Origini del Teatro italiano” (Florence, 1877), i. 87 f.

 5-35  D'Ancona, “Origini,” i. 126 f.

 5-36  A. d'Ancona, “Sacre Rappresentazioni dei secoli xiv, xv e xvi” (Florence, 1872), i. 191 f.

 5-37  Ibid. i. 192.

 5-38  Latin original quoted by D'Ancona, “Origini,” i. 91, and Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 93.

 5-39  Creizenach, i. 347.

 5-40  J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, “A History of Spanish Literature” (London, 1898), 113.

 5-41  Juan del Encina, “Teatro Completo” (Madrid, 1893), 3 f., 137 f.

 5-42  See G. Ticknor, “History of Spanish Literature” (6th American Edition, Boston, 1888), ii. 283 f.

 5-43  Ibid. ii. 208.

 5-44  “Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari” (Palermo and Turin), vol. xxi., 1902, 381.

 5-45  Pitrè, 448.

 5-46  Fernan Caballero, “Elia y La Noche de Navidad,” 222 f.

 5-47  Lloyd, 213 f.

 5-48  H. F. Feilberg, “Jul” (Copenhagen, 1904), ii. 242 f.

 5-49  E. Cortet, “Essai sur les fêtes religieuses” (Paris, 1867), 38.

 5-50  Sébillot, 215.

 5-51  Feilberg, ii. 250; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 31 f.; T. Stratilesco, “From Carpathian to Pindus: Pictures of Roumanian Country Life” (London, 1906), 195 f.; E. van Norman, “Poland: the Knight among Nations” (London and New York, 3rd Edition, n.d.), 302; S. Graham, “A Vagabond in the Caucasus. With some Notes of his Experiences among the Russians” (London, 1910), 28.

 5-52  Translation in Karl Hase, “Miracle Plays and Sacred Dramas” (Eng. Trans., London, 1880), 9; German text in Weinhold, 132.

 5-53  Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben,” 247 f.

 5-54  Graham, 28.

 5-55  Stratilesco, 195 f.

 5-56  Ibid. 355 f.

 5-57  Van Norman, 302.

 5-58  Cortet, 42.

 5-59  Barthélemy, iii. 411 f.

 5-60  Madame Calderon de la Barca, “Life in Mexico” (London, 1843), 237 f.
POSTSCRIPT

 6-1  E. Underhill, “Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man's Spiritual Consciousness” (London, 1911), 305.p. 371
PART II.—PAGAN SURVIVALS
CHAPTER VI.—PRE-CHRISTIAN WINTER FESTIVALS

 7-1  Karl Pearson, essay on “Woman as Witch” in “The Chances of Death and other Studies in Evolution” (London, 1897), ii. 16.

 7-2  Cf. J. G. Frazer, “The Dying God” (London, 1911), 269.

 7-3  J. A. MacCulloch, “The Religion of the Ancient Celts” (Edinburgh, 1911), 278.

 7-4  Frazer, “Dying God,” 266.

 7-5  E. Anwyl, “Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times” (London, 1906), 1 f.

 7-6  Ibid. 20; cf. E. K. Chambers, “The Mediaeval Stage” (Oxford, 1903), i. 100 f. [Referred to as “M. S.”]

 7-7  W. Robertson Smith, “Lectures on the Religion of the Semites” (New Edition, London, 1894), 16.

 7-8  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 236; W. W. Fowler, “The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic” (London, 1899), 272.

 7-9  “The Works of Lucian of Samosata” (Eng. Trans. by H. W. and F. G. Fowler, Oxford, 1905), iv. 108 f.

 7-10  John Brand, “Observations on Popular Antiquities” (New Edition, with the Additions of Sir Henry Ellis, London, Chatto & Windus, 1900), 283.

 7-11  “Works of Lucian,” iv. 114 f.

 7-12  Ibid. iv. 109.

 7-13  J. G. Frazer, “The Golden Bough” (2nd Edition, London, 1900), iii. 138 f., and “The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kingship” (London, 1911), ii. 310 f.

 7-14  W. W. Fowler, “The Religious Experience of the Roman People” (London, 1911), 107, 112.

 7-15  Fowler, “Roman Festivals,” 268, and “Religious Experience,” 107; C. Bailey, “The Religion of Ancient Rome” (London, 1907), 70.

 7-16  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 237 f.; Fowler, “Roman Festivals,” 278.

 7-17  Quoted from “Libanii Opera,” ed. by Reiske, i. 256 f., by G. Bilfinger, “Das germanische Julfest” (vol. ii. of “Untersuchungen über die Zeitrechnung der alten Germanen,” Stuttgart, 1901), 41 f.

 7-18  “Libanii Opera,” iv. 1053 f., quoted by Bilfinger, 43 f.

 7-19  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 237 f., 258.

 7-20  A. Tille, “Yule and Christmas” (London, 1899), 96. [Referred to as “Y. & C.”]

 7-21  J. C. Lawson, “Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion” (Cambridge, 1910), 221 f. Cf. M. Hamilton, “Greek Saints and their Festivals” (London, 1910), 98.

 7-22  Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 290 f.

 7-23  Latin text in Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 297 f.

 7-24  Ibid. i. 245.

 7-25  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 88 f.; Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 303 f.p. 372

 7-26  Tille, “Y. & C.,” throughout; Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 288 f.; Chantepie de la Saussaye, “The Religion of the Ancient Teutons” (Boston, 1902), 382. Cf. O. Schrader, in Hastings's “Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics” (Edinburgh, 1909), ii. 47 f.

 7-27  MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 258 f. Cf. Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 228, 234.

 7-28  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 203.

 7-29  [Sir] A. J. Evans, “Christmas and Ancestor Worship in the Black Mountain,” in “Macmillan's Magazine” (London), vol. xliii., 1881, 363.

 7-30  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 247.

 7-31  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 64.

 7-32  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 232.

 7-33  Ibid. i. 130; W. Robertson Smith, 213 f.

 7-34  Frazer, “Dying God,” 129 f.

 7-35  See N. W. Thomas in “Folk-Lore” (London), vol. xi., 1900, 227 f.

 7-36  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 132 f.

 7-37  W. Robertson Smith, 437 f.

 7-38  J. E. Harrison, “Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion” (Cambridge, 1912), 67. Cf. E. F. Ames, “The Psychology of Religious Experience” (London and Boston, 1910), 95 f.

 7-39  Harrison, “Themis,” 137.

 7-40  Ibid. 110.

 7-41  S. Reinach, “Cultes, mythes, et religions” (Paris, 1905), i. 93. For the theory that totems were originally food-objects, see Ames, 118 f.

 7-42  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 133.

 7-43  Ibid. i. 105 f., 144.

 7-44  Harrison, “Themis,” 507.

 7-45  W. Robertson Smith, 255.

 7-46  Bede, “Historia Ecclesiastica,” lib. i. cap. 30. Latin text in Bede's Works, edited by J. A. Giles (London, 1843), vol. ii. p. 142.

 7-47  Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 143.

 7-48  Jerome, “Comm. in Isaiam,” lxv. 11. Latin text in Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 294.

 7-49  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 266.

 7-50  Latin text in Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 306.

 7-51  Bede, “De Temporum Ratione,” cap. 15, quoted by Chambers, i. 231. See also Tille, “Y. & C.,” 152 f., and Bilfinger, 131, for other views.

 7-52  Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 70 f.

 7-53  See Frazer, “Magic Art,” i. 52.

 7-54  Cf. Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 300 f.

 7-55  Latin text in H. Usener, “Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen,” part ii. (Bonn, 1889), 43 f. See also A. Tille, “Die Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht” (Leipsic, 1893), 44 f. [Referred to as “D. W.”]

 7-56  Philip Stubbs, “Anatomie Of Abuses” (Reprint of 3rd Edition of 1585, edited by W. B. Turnbull, London, 1836), 205.

 7-57  Quoted by J. Ashton, “A righte Merrie Christmasse!!” (London, n.d.), 26 f.

 7-58  Ibid. 27 f.p. 373
CHAPTER VII.—ALL HALLOW TIDE TO MARTINMAS

 8-1  R. Chambers, “The Book Of Days” (London, n.d.), ii. 538 [referred to as “B. D.”]; T. F. Thiselton Dyer, “British Popular Customs” (London, 1876), 396 f.

 8-2  [Sir] J. Rhys, “Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as illustrated by Celtic Heathendom” (London, 1888), 514, “Celtic Folklore: Welsh and Manx” (Oxford, 1901), i. 321.

 8-3  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 57 f.

 8-4  Rhys, “Celtic Folklore,” i. 315 f.

 8-5  J. Dowden, “The Church Year and Kalendar” (Cambridge, 1910), 23 f.

 8-6  Cf. J. G. Frazer, “Adonis, Attis, Osiris” (2nd Edition, London, 1907), 315 f.

 8-7  E. B. Tylor, “Primitive Culture” (3rd Edition, London, 1891), ii. 38.

 8-8  Frazer, “Adonis,” 310.

 8-9  Ibid. 312 f.

 8-10  P. Sébillot, “Coutumes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne” (Paris, 1886), 206.

 8-11  L. von Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben” (Stuttgart, 1909), 193.

 8-12  Frazer, “Adonis,” 315.

 8-13  G. Pitrè, “Spettacoli e feste popolari siciliane” (Palermo, 1880), 393 f. Cf. H. F. Feilberg, “Jul” (Copenhagen, 1904), i. 67.

 8-14  “Notes and Queries” (London), 3rd Series, vol. i. 446; Dyer, 408.

 8-15  Frazer, “Adonis,” 250.

 8-16  Dyer, 405 f.

 8-17  Notes and Queries, 1st Series, vol. iv. 381; Dyer, 407.

 8-18  C. S. Burne and G. F. Jackson, “Shropshire Folk-Lore” (London, 1883), 383.

 8-19  Ibid. 381 f.

 8-20  Quoted by Dyer, 410.

 8-21  O. von Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, “Das festliche Jahr der germanischen Völker” (2nd Edition, Leipsic, 1898), 390.

 8-22  “Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari” (Palermo), vol. viii. 574.

 8-23  Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben,” 189 f.

 8-24  Frazer, “Adonis,” 303 f.

 8-25  Ibid. 306 f.

 8-26  Evans, 363 f.

 8-27  Dyer, 394.

 8-28  Ibid. 398.

 8-29  Ibid. 394. Cf. Chambers, “B. D.,” ii. 519 f.

 8-30  Dyer, 395.

 8-31  Ibid. 399.

 8-32  Ibid. 397 f.
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 8-33  S. O. Addy, “Household Tales, with other Traditional Remains. Collected in the Counties of Lincoln, Derby, and Nottingham” (London and Sheffield, 1895), 82.

 8-34  Ibid. 85.

 8-35  W. Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders” (2nd Edition, London, 1879), 101.

 8-36  Dyer, 399.

 8-37  Ibid. 403.p. 374

 8-38  Rhys, “Celtic Folklore,” i. 321, “Celtic Heathendom,” 514.

 8-39  Rhys, “Celtic Folklore,” i. 328.

 8-40  MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 259, 261.

 8-41  Rhys, “Celtic Heathendom,” 515.

 8-42  Ibid. 515.

 8-43  Ibid. 515, “Celtic Folklore,” i. 225.

 8-44  MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 262.

 8-45  Brand, 211.

 8-46  Dyer, 402.

 8-47  Ibid. 394 f.

 8-48  Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 299 f.

 8-49  Burne and Jackson, 389.

 8-50  Dyer, 409.

 8-51  J. Grimm, “Teutonic Mythology” (Eng. Trans. by J. S. Stallybrass, London, 1880-8), i. 47.

 8-52  K. Weinhold, “Weihnacht-Spiele und Lieder aus Süddeutschland und Schlesien” (Vienna, 1875), 6.

 8-53  U. Jahn, “Die deutschen Opfergebräuche bei Ackerbau und Viehzucht” (Breslau, 1884), 262.

 8-54  Ibid. 262.

 8-55  Weinhold, 6.

 8-56  Dyer, 472.

 8-57  Notes and Queries, 1st Series, vol. i. 173; Dyer, 486.

 8-58  Weinhold, 7.

 8-59  Ibid. 10.

 8-60  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 449.

 8-61  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 166.

 8-62  Dyer, 480.

 8-63  Feilberg, ii. 228 f.

 8-64  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 393.

 8-65  Tacitus, “Annales,” lib. i. cap. 50, quoted by Tille, “Y. & C.,” 25.

 8-66  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 26.

 8-67  Ibid. 52.

 8-68  Ibid. 27.

 8-69  Brand, 216 f.

 8-70  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 401 f. For German Martinmas feasting, see also Jahn, 229 f.

 8-71  Grimm, iv. 1838, for Danish custom; Jahn, 235 f., for German.

 8-72  “The Folk-Lore Record” (London), vol. iv., 1881, 107; Dyer, 420.

 8-73  MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 260.

 8-74  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 403.

 8-75  Jahn, 246 f.

 8-76  Ibid. 246; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 403.

 8-77  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 34 f.

 8-78  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 404; Jahn, 250.

 8-79  Jahn, 247.

 8-80  Angela Nardo-Cibele in Archivio trad. pop., vol. v. 238 f., for Venetia; Pitrè, 411 f., for Sicily.

 8-81  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 405.p. 375

 8-82  Jahn, 240.

 8-83  Ibid. 241 f.

 8-84  Ibid. 241.

 8-85  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 404.

 8-86  Weinhold, 7.

 8-87  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 268; Weinhold, 7; Tille, “D. W.,” 25.

 8-88  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, illustration facing p. 406.

 8-89  Ibid. 405.

 8-90  Ibid. 404.

 8-91  Ibid. 410; Tille, “D. W.,” 26 f.; W. Mannhardt, “Der Baumkultus der Germanen und ihrer Nachbarstämme” (Berlin, 1875. Vol. i. of “Wald- und Feldkulte”), 273.

 8-92  Cf. Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 303, and Reinach, i. 180.

 8-93  Archivio trad. pop., vol. v. 238 f., 358 f.

 8-94  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 274.
CHAPTER VIII.—ST. CLEMENT TO ST. THOMAS

 9-1  Dyer, 423.

 9-2  Notes and Queries, 1st Series, vol. viii. 618; Dyer, 425.

 9-3  Brand, 222 f.

 9-4  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 97.

 9-5  Notes and Queries, 3rd Series, vol. iv. 492; Dyer, 423.

 9-6  Dyer, 425.

 9-7  Brand, 222.

 9-8  Ibid. 223.

 9-9  Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, vol. v. 47; Dyer, 427.

 9-10  Dyer, 426 f.

 9-11  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 415.

 9-12  J. N. Raphael in “The Daily Express,” Nov. 28, 1911.

 9-13  Dyer, 430.

 9-14  Ibid. 429.

 9-15  Tille, “D. W.,” 148.

 9-16  B. Thorpe, “Northern Mythology” (London, 1852), iii. 143.

 9-17  Ibid. iii. 144.

 9-18  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 416 f. Cf. Grimm, iv. 1800.

 9-19  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 417. Cf. Thorpe, iii. 145.

 9-20  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 418.

 9-21  Thorpe, iii. 145.

 9-22  F. S. Krauss, “Sitte und Brauch der Südslaven” (Vienna, 1885), 179.

 9-23  T. Stratilesco, “From Carpathian to Pindus: Pictures of Roumanian Country Life” (London, 1906), 189.

 9-24  Ibid. 188 f.

 9-25  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 416.

 9-26  Ibid. 420 f.

 9-27  Ibid. 425.p. 376

 9-28  Thomas Naogeorgus, “The Popish Kingdome,” Englyshed by Barnabe Googe, 1570 (ed. by R. C. Hope, London, 1880), 44.

 9-29  G. F. Abbott, “Macedonian Folklore” (Cambridge, 1903), 76.

 9-30  P. M. Hough, “Dutch Life in Town and Country” (London, 1901), 96.

 9-31  Cf. Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 90, and also the Epiphany noise-makings described in the present volume.

 9-32  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 426.

 9-33  Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben,” 218 f.

 9-34  Tille, “D. W.,” 30.

 9-35  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 370.

 9-36  Hamilton, 30. Cf. article on St. Nicholas by Professor Anichkof in Folk-Lore, vol. v., 1894, 108 f.

 9-37  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 428 f.

 9-38  Tille, “D. W.,” 35 f.; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 430.

 9-39  Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben,” 209 f.

 9-40  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 430.

 9-41  Weinhold, 9.

 9-42  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 326.

 9-43  Weinhold, 9.

 9-44  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 431 f.

 9-45  Hörmann, “Tiroler Volksleben,” 212 f.

 9-46  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 433.

 9-47  Ibid. 433.

 9-48  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 369.

 9-49  W. S. Walsh, “Curiosities of Popular Customs” (London, 1898), 753 f. Cf. Chambers, “B. D.,” ii. 664.

 9-50  Feilberg, i. 165, 170.

 9-51  Ibid. i. 169 f.

 9-52  Ibid. i. 171.

 9-53  L. Caico, “Sicilian Ways and Days” (London, 1910), 188 f.

 9-54  Feilberg, i. 168.

 9-55  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 434.
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 9-56  Ibid. 434 f.

 9-57  Grimm, iv. 1867.

 9-58  Feilberg, i. 108 f.

 9-59  Ibid. i. 111.

 9-60  N. W. Thomas in Folk-Lore, vol. xi., 1900, 252.

 9-61  Ashton, 52.

 9-62  Dyer, 72 f.

 9-63  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 436 f.

 9-64  Ibid. 437.

 9-65  Ibid. 438.

 9-66  Ibid. 439.

 9-67  Dyer, 439.

 9-68  Ibid. 438 f.; Chambers, “B. D.,” ii. 724.

 9-69  Abbott, 81.

 9-70  Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, vol. v. 35; Dyer, 439.p. 377
CHAPTER IX.—CHRISTMAS EVE AND THE TWELVE DAYS

 10-1  Tille, “D. W.,” 32 f.

 10-2  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 446.

 10-3  Ibid. 448.

 10-4  Ibid. 449.

 10-5  Ibid. 448; Weinhold, 8 f.

 10-6  Evans, 229.

 10-7  Weinhold, 8.

 10-8  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 116.

 10-9  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 444 f.

 10-10  Ibid. 442 f.

 10-11  Ibid. 444.

 10-12  W. R. S. Ralston, “Songs of the Russian People” (1st Edition, London, 1872), 186 f.

 10-13  Sébillot, 216.

 10-14  Walsh, 232.

 10-15  Burne and Jackson, 406; Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 311; Sir Edgar MacCulloch, “Guernsey Folk Lore” (London, 1903), 34; Thorpe, ii. 272.

 10-16  Walsh, 232.

 10-17  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 311.

 10-18  MacCulloch, “Guernsey Folk Lore,” 34 f. Cf. for Germany, Grimm, iv. 1779, 1809.

 10-19  Grimm, iv. 1840.

 10-20  Ralston, 201.

 10-21  A. Le Braz, “La Légende de la Mort chez les Bretons armoricains” (Paris, 1902), i. 114 f.

 10-22  Thorpe, ii. 89.

 10-23  Lloyd, 171.

 10-24  Feilberg, ii. 7 f.

 10-25  Ibid. ii. 14.

 10-26  Bilfinger, 52.

 10-27  Feilberg, ii. 3 f.

 10-28  Ibid. ii. 20 f.

 10-29  A. F. M. Ferryman, “In the Northman's Land” (London, 1896), 112.

 10-30  Feilberg, ii. 64.

 10-31  Grimm, iv. 1781, 1783, 1793, 1818.

 10-32  Krauss, 181.

 10-33  Accounts of the carols used in Little Russia are given by Mr. Ralston, 186 f., while those sung by the Roumanians are described by Mlle. Stratilesco, 192 f., and those customary in Dalmatia by Sir A. J. Evans, 224 f.

 10-34  Ralston, 193.

 10-35  Stratilesco, 192.

 10-36  Ralston, 197.

 10-37  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 244.

 10-38  Shakespeare, “Hamlet,” Act I. Sc. 1.

 10-39  Bilfinger, 37 f.

 10-40  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 132.p. 378

 10-41  Tylor, i. 362.

 10-42  W. Golther, “Handbuch der germanischen Mythologie” (Leipsic, 1895), 283 f.

 10-43  Tille, “D. W.,” 173.

 10-44  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 132.

 10-45  MacCulloch, “Guernsey Folk Lore,” 33 f.

 10-46  Burne and Jackson, 396 f., 403.

 10-47  R. T. Hampson, “Medii Aevi Kalendarium” (London, 1841), i. 90.

 10-48  Grimm, iv. 1836; Thorpe, ii. 272.

 10-49  Burne and Jackson, 405.

 10-50  Ibid. 405; MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 166.

 10-51  E. H. Meyer, “Mythologie der Germanen” (Strassburg, 1903), 424; Golther, 491; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 22 f.

 10-52  Golther, 493.

 10-53  Meyer, 425 f.

 10-54  Ibid. 425 f.

 10-55  Grimm, iii. 925 f.

 10-56  Ibid. i. 268, 275 f.

 10-57  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 22.

 10-58  Grimm, i. 275; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 23.

 10-59  Ibid. 23.

 10-60  Meyer, 425; Grimm, i. 281.

 10-61  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 21.

 10-62  Golther, 493.

 10-63  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 24.

 10-64  Grimm, i. 274.

 10-65  Meyer, 428.

 10-66  R. H. Busk, “The Valleys of Tirol” (London, 1874), 116.

 10-67  Ibid. 118.

 10-68  Ibid. 417.

 10-69  The details given about the Kallikantzaroi are taken, unless otherwise stated, from Lawson, 190 f.

 10-70  Abbott, 74.

 10-71  Hamilton, 108 f.

 10-72  Ibid. 109.

 10-73  Abbott, 218.

 10-74  Ibid. 73 f.

 10-75  Meyer, 85 f.

 10-76  G. Henderson, “Survivals of Belief among the Celts” (Glasgow, 1911), 178.

 10-77  Ibid. 177.

 10-78  F. H. E. Palmer, “Russian Life In Town and Country” (London, 1901), 178.
CHAPTER X.—THE YULE LOG

 11-1  Evans, 221 f.; Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 224 f. Cf. the account of the Servian Christmas in Chedo Mijatovitch, “Servia and the Servians” (London, 1908), 98 f.

 11-2  Same sources.p. 379

 11-3  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 236.

 11-4  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 208.

 11-5  Ibid. ii. 232.

 11-6  Evans, 219, 295, and 357.

 11-7  Ibid. 222.

 11-8  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 237.

 11-9  Cf. Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 233.

 11-10  Ibid. ii. 365 f.

 11-11  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 226 f.

 11-12  “Memoirs of Mistral” (Eng. Trans. by C. E. Maud, London, 1907), 29 f.

 11-13  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 226 f.

 11-14  Sébillot, 218.

 11-15  A. de Gubernatis, “Storia Comparata degli Usi Natalizi” (Milan, 1878), 112.

 11-16  C. Casati in Archivio trad. pop., vol. vi. 168 f.

 11-17  Jahn, 253.

 11-18  Ibid. 254.

 11-19  Ibid. 257.

 11-20  Brand, 245; Dyer, 466.

 11-21  [Sir] G. L. Gomme, “Folk Lore Relics of Early Village Life” (London 1883), 99.

 11-22  Ashton, 111.

 11-23  Burne and Jackson, 402.

 11-24  Ibid. 398 f.

 11-25  Notes and Queries, 1st Series, vol. iv. 309; Dyer, 446 f.

 11-26  “The Gentleman's Magazine,” 1790, 719.

 11-27  Hampson, i. 109.

 11-28  Feilberg, i. 118 f.

 11-29  Ibid. i. 146.

 11-30  Ibid. ii. 66 f.
CHAPTER XI.—THE CHRISTMAS-TREE, DECORATIONS, AND GIFTS

 12-1  I. A. R. Wylie, “My German Year” (London, 1910), 68.

 12-2  Mrs. A. Sidgwick, “Home Life in Germany” (London, 1908), 176.

 12-3  Tille, “D. W.,” 258. For the history and associations of the Christmas-tree see also E. M. Kronfeld, “Der Weihnachtsbaum” (Oldenburg, 1906).

 12-4  Tille, “D. W.,” 259.

 12-5  Ibid. 261.

 12-6  Ibid. 261 f.

 12-7  G. Rietschel, “Weihnachten in Kirche, Kunst und Volksleben” (Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1902), 153.

 12-8  Ibid., 153.

 12-9  Tille, “D. W.,” 270.

 12-10  Rietschel, 151.

 12-11  Ibid. 151.

 12-12  Tille, “D. W.,” 267.p. 380

 12-13  Dyer, 442; E. M. Leather, “The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire” (London, 1912), 90.

 12-14  Rietschel, 154.

 12-15  Ashton, 189.

 12-16  Ibid. 190.

 12-17  Tille, “D. W.,” 271.

 12-18  Ibid. 272.

 12-19  Ibid. 277; Rietschel, 254.

 12-20  Information supplied by the Rev. E. W. Lummis, who a few years ago was a pastor in the Münsterthal.

 12-21  L. Macdonald in “The Pall Mall Gazette” (London), Dec. 28, 1911.

 12-22  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 174.

 12-23  Ibid. 175 f.

 12-24  Rietschel, 141.

 12-25  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 175.

 12-26  Ibid. 172 f.; Chambers, “B. D.,” ii. 759.

 12-27  Latin text in Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 290.

 12-28  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 244.

 12-29  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 65.

 12-30  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 244.

 12-31  Ibid. 241; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 18.

 12-32  Lloyd, 168.

 12-33  Dyer, 35.

 12-34  W. F. Dawson, “Christmas: its Origin and Associations” (London, 1902), 325.

 12-35  Harrison, “Themis,” 321.

 12-36  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 55 f.

 12-37  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 48.

 12-38  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 242 f.

 12-39  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 251.

 12-40  Latin text, ibid. ii. 300.

 12-41  J. Stow, “A Survay of London,” edited by Henry Morley (London, 1893), 123.

 12-42  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 251.

 12-43  Grimm, iii. 1206; Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 327; MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 162, 205.

 12-44  MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 162 f.

 12-45  Grimm, iii. 1206.

 12-46  Burne and Jackson, 246; Laisnel de la Salle, “Croyances et légendes du centre de la France” (Paris, 1875), i. 58.

 12-47  Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 451 f.
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« Reply #280 on: December 18, 2009, 02:12:08 am »

 9-56  Ibid. 434 f.

 9-57  Grimm, iv. 1867.

 9-58  Feilberg, i. 108 f.

 9-59  Ibid. i. 111.

 9-60  N. W. Thomas in Folk-Lore, vol. xi., 1900, 252.

 9-61  Ashton, 52.

 9-62  Dyer, 72 f.

 9-63  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 436 f.

 9-64  Ibid. 437.

 9-65  Ibid. 438.

 9-66  Ibid. 439.

 9-67  Dyer, 439.

 9-68  Ibid. 438 f.; Chambers, “B. D.,” ii. 724.

 9-69  Abbott, 81.

 9-70  Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, vol. v. 35; Dyer, 439.p. 377
CHAPTER IX.—CHRISTMAS EVE AND THE TWELVE DAYS

 10-1  Tille, “D. W.,” 32 f.

 10-2  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 446.

 10-3  Ibid. 448.

 10-4  Ibid. 449.

 10-5  Ibid. 448; Weinhold, 8 f.

 10-6  Evans, 229.

 10-7  Weinhold, 8.

 10-8  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 116.

 10-9  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 444 f.

 10-10  Ibid. 442 f.

 10-11  Ibid. 444.

 10-12  W. R. S. Ralston, “Songs of the Russian People” (1st Edition, London, 1872), 186 f.

 10-13  Sébillot, 216.

 10-14  Walsh, 232.

 10-15  Burne and Jackson, 406; Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 311; Sir Edgar MacCulloch, “Guernsey Folk Lore” (London, 1903), 34; Thorpe, ii. 272.

 10-16  Walsh, 232.

 10-17  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 311.

 10-18  MacCulloch, “Guernsey Folk Lore,” 34 f. Cf. for Germany, Grimm, iv. 1779, 1809.

 10-19  Grimm, iv. 1840.

 10-20  Ralston, 201.

 10-21  A. Le Braz, “La Légende de la Mort chez les Bretons armoricains” (Paris, 1902), i. 114 f.

 10-22  Thorpe, ii. 89.

 10-23  Lloyd, 171.

 10-24  Feilberg, ii. 7 f.

 10-25  Ibid. ii. 14.

 10-26  Bilfinger, 52.

 10-27  Feilberg, ii. 3 f.

 10-28  Ibid. ii. 20 f.

 10-29  A. F. M. Ferryman, “In the Northman's Land” (London, 1896), 112.

 10-30  Feilberg, ii. 64.

 10-31  Grimm, iv. 1781, 1783, 1793, 1818.

 10-32  Krauss, 181.

 10-33  Accounts of the carols used in Little Russia are given by Mr. Ralston, 186 f., while those sung by the Roumanians are described by Mlle. Stratilesco, 192 f., and those customary in Dalmatia by Sir A. J. Evans, 224 f.

 10-34  Ralston, 193.

 10-35  Stratilesco, 192.

 10-36  Ralston, 197.

 10-37  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 244.

 10-38  Shakespeare, “Hamlet,” Act I. Sc. 1.

 10-39  Bilfinger, 37 f.

 10-40  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 132.p. 378

 10-41  Tylor, i. 362.

 10-42  W. Golther, “Handbuch der germanischen Mythologie” (Leipsic, 1895), 283 f.

 10-43  Tille, “D. W.,” 173.

 10-44  Henderson, “Folk Lore of the Northern Counties,” 132.

 10-45  MacCulloch, “Guernsey Folk Lore,” 33 f.

 10-46  Burne and Jackson, 396 f., 403.

 10-47  R. T. Hampson, “Medii Aevi Kalendarium” (London, 1841), i. 90.

 10-48  Grimm, iv. 1836; Thorpe, ii. 272.

 10-49  Burne and Jackson, 405.

 10-50  Ibid. 405; MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 166.

 10-51  E. H. Meyer, “Mythologie der Germanen” (Strassburg, 1903), 424; Golther, 491; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 22 f.

 10-52  Golther, 493.

 10-53  Meyer, 425 f.

 10-54  Ibid. 425 f.

 10-55  Grimm, iii. 925 f.

 10-56  Ibid. i. 268, 275 f.

 10-57  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 22.

 10-58  Grimm, i. 275; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 23.

 10-59  Ibid. 23.

 10-60  Meyer, 425; Grimm, i. 281.

 10-61  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 21.

 10-62  Golther, 493.

 10-63  Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 24.

 10-64  Grimm, i. 274.

 10-65  Meyer, 428.

 10-66  R. H. Busk, “The Valleys of Tirol” (London, 1874), 116.

 10-67  Ibid. 118.

 10-68  Ibid. 417.

 10-69  The details given about the Kallikantzaroi are taken, unless otherwise stated, from Lawson, 190 f.

 10-70  Abbott, 74.

 10-71  Hamilton, 108 f.

 10-72  Ibid. 109.

 10-73  Abbott, 218.

 10-74  Ibid. 73 f.

 10-75  Meyer, 85 f.

 10-76  G. Henderson, “Survivals of Belief among the Celts” (Glasgow, 1911), 178.

 10-77  Ibid. 177.

 10-78  F. H. E. Palmer, “Russian Life In Town and Country” (London, 1901), 178.
CHAPTER X.—THE YULE LOG

 11-1  Evans, 221 f.; Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 224 f. Cf. the account of the Servian Christmas in Chedo Mijatovitch, “Servia and the Servians” (London, 1908), 98 f.

 11-2  Same sources.p. 379

 11-3  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 236.

 11-4  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 208.

 11-5  Ibid. ii. 232.

 11-6  Evans, 219, 295, and 357.

 11-7  Ibid. 222.

 11-8  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 237.

 11-9  Cf. Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 233.

 11-10  Ibid. ii. 365 f.

 11-11  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 226 f.

 11-12  “Memoirs of Mistral” (Eng. Trans. by C. E. Maud, London, 1907), 29 f.

 11-13  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 226 f.

 11-14  Sébillot, 218.

 11-15  A. de Gubernatis, “Storia Comparata degli Usi Natalizi” (Milan, 1878), 112.

 11-16  C. Casati in Archivio trad. pop., vol. vi. 168 f.

 11-17  Jahn, 253.

 11-18  Ibid. 254.

 11-19  Ibid. 257.

 11-20  Brand, 245; Dyer, 466.

 11-21  [Sir] G. L. Gomme, “Folk Lore Relics of Early Village Life” (London 1883), 99.

 11-22  Ashton, 111.

 11-23  Burne and Jackson, 402.

 11-24  Ibid. 398 f.

 11-25  Notes and Queries, 1st Series, vol. iv. 309; Dyer, 446 f.

 11-26  “The Gentleman's Magazine,” 1790, 719.

 11-27  Hampson, i. 109.

 11-28  Feilberg, i. 118 f.

 11-29  Ibid. i. 146.

 11-30  Ibid. ii. 66 f.
CHAPTER XI.—THE CHRISTMAS-TREE, DECORATIONS, AND GIFTS

 12-1  I. A. R. Wylie, “My German Year” (London, 1910), 68.

 12-2  Mrs. A. Sidgwick, “Home Life in Germany” (London, 1908), 176.

 12-3  Tille, “D. W.,” 258. For the history and associations of the Christmas-tree see also E. M. Kronfeld, “Der Weihnachtsbaum” (Oldenburg, 1906).

 12-4  Tille, “D. W.,” 259.

 12-5  Ibid. 261.

 12-6  Ibid. 261 f.

 12-7  G. Rietschel, “Weihnachten in Kirche, Kunst und Volksleben” (Bielefeld and Leipsic, 1902), 153.

 12-8  Ibid., 153.

 12-9  Tille, “D. W.,” 270.

 12-10  Rietschel, 151.

 12-11  Ibid. 151.

 12-12  Tille, “D. W.,” 267.p. 380

 12-13  Dyer, 442; E. M. Leather, “The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire” (London, 1912), 90.

 12-14  Rietschel, 154.

 12-15  Ashton, 189.

 12-16  Ibid. 190.

 12-17  Tille, “D. W.,” 271.

 12-18  Ibid. 272.

 12-19  Ibid. 277; Rietschel, 254.

 12-20  Information supplied by the Rev. E. W. Lummis, who a few years ago was a pastor in the Münsterthal.

 12-21  L. Macdonald in “The Pall Mall Gazette” (London), Dec. 28, 1911.

 12-22  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 174.

 12-23  Ibid. 175 f.

 12-24  Rietschel, 141.

 12-25  Tille, “Y. & C.,” 175.

 12-26  Ibid. 172 f.; Chambers, “B. D.,” ii. 759.

 12-27  Latin text in Chambers, “M. S.,” ii. 290.

 12-28  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 244.

 12-29  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 65.

 12-30  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 244.

 12-31  Ibid. 241; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, 18.

 12-32  Lloyd, 168.

 12-33  Dyer, 35.

 12-34  W. F. Dawson, “Christmas: its Origin and Associations” (London, 1902), 325.

 12-35  Harrison, “Themis,” 321.

 12-36  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 55 f.

 12-37  Frazer, “Magic Art,” ii. 48.

 12-38  Mannhardt, “Baumkultus,” 242 f.

 12-39  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 251.

 12-40  Latin text, ibid. ii. 300.

 12-41  J. Stow, “A Survay of London,” edited by Henry Morley (London, 1893), 123.

 12-42  Chambers, “M. S.,” i. 251.

 12-43  Grimm, iii. 1206; Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 327; MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 162, 205.

 12-44  MacCulloch, “Religion of the Ancient Celts,” 162 f.

 12-45  Grimm, iii. 1206.

 12-46  Burne and Jackson, 246; Laisnel de la Salle, “Croyances et légendes du centre de la France” (Paris, 1875), i. 58.

 12-47  Frazer, “Golden Bough,” iii. 451 f.
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« Reply #281 on: December 18, 2009, 02:12:41 am »

CONCLUSION

 18-1  E. Clodd in Presidential Address to the Folk-Lore Society, 1894. See Folk-Lore, vol. vi., 1895, 77.p. 388

p. 389 p. 390 p. 391
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« Reply #282 on: December 18, 2009, 02:13:36 am »

INDEX

    * Abbots Bromley, horn-dance at,  201
    * Abruzzi, All Souls’ Eve in,  192;
          o “new water” in,  333
    * “Adam,” drama,  127
    * Adam and Eve, their Day,  271
    * Adam of St. Victor,  33
    * “Adeste, fideles,”  63
    * Advent,  90;
          o “Advent images,”  118;
          o Klöpfelnächte,  216
    * Alexandria, pagan rites at,  20
    * All Saints’ Day, and the cult of the dead,  173,  189
    * All Souls’ Day, and the cult of the dead,  173,  181,  189
    * Alsace, Christkind in,  230;
          o New Year's “May” in,  269
    * Alsso of Brĕvnov,  183
    * Ambrose, St.,  31
    * Amburbale,  353
    * Amiens, Feast of Fools at,  305
    * Anatolius, St., hymn of,  100
    * Ancestor-worship,  181,  253,  290,  341
    * Andrew, St., his Day,  173,  213,  277
    * Animals, carol of,  69;
          o ox and ass at the Nativity,  155;
          o cult of,  174;
          o masks of,  175,  199;
          o on Christmas Eve,  233;
          o specially fed at Christmas,  289;
          o wassailing,  346
    * Ansbach, Martinmas in,  206
    * Antwerp, soul-cakes at,  194;
          o St. Martin at,  206;
          o St. Thomas's Day at,  224
    * Apples, customs with,  195,  207,  278
    * Ara Coeli, Rome,  115
    * Ardennes, St. Thomas's Day in,  224
    * Armenian Church, Epiphany in,  22
    * Artemis and St. Nicholas,  218
    * Aryan and pre-Aryan customs,  163
    * Aschenklas,  219,  231
    * Ashes, superstition about,  258
    * Ass, Prose of the,  304
    * Athens, New Year in,  331
    * Aubrey, J.,  308
    * Augury,  182,  195,  214,  225,  237,  321
    * Augustine, St. (of Canterbury),  21,  179
    * Aurelian,  23
    * Austria, Christmas poetry in,  45;
          o Christmas drama in,  143;
          o soul-cakes in,  194;
          o St. Nicholas in,  218;
          o St. Lucia's Eve in,  223;
          o St. Thomas's Eve in,  225;
          o Frau Perchta, etc., in,  241,  342;
          o Sylvester in,  274.
          o See also Bohemia, Carinthia, Styria, Tyrol
    * Awdlay, John,  47

    * Bach, J. S.,  73
    * Baden, All Souls’ Eve in,  192
    * Balder,  273
    * Baptism of Christ, celebrated at Epiphany,  20,  101
    * Barbara, St., her festival,  268
    * Bari, festival of St. Nicholas at,  221
    * Barring out the master,  224
    * Bartel,  219
    * Basil, St., his festival,  331
    * Basilidians,  21
    * Basle, Council of,  305
    * Bavaria, St. Martin's rod in,  207;
          o Christmas-trees in,  266;
          o sacrificial feast in,  286;
          o St. John's wine in,  314
    * Beauvais, Feast of the Ass at,  305
    * Bede, Venerable,  181,  203p. 392
    * Bees on Christmas Eve,  234
    * Befana,  244,  278,  343
    * Belethus, Johannes,  302
    * Belgium, All Souls’ Eve in,  192,  194;
          o St. Hubert's Day in,  202;
          o Martinmas in,  204;
          o St. Catherine's Day in,  213;
          o St. Nicholas in,  219;
          o St. Thomas's Day in,  224
    * Bentzon, Madame Th.,  96
    * Berchta. See Perchta
    * Berlin, pyramids in,  266;
          o biscuits in,  288
    * Bernard, St., of Clairvaux,  33
    * Berry, cake customs in,  287,  339
    * Bethlehem, Christmas at,  94,  107
    * Biggar, bonfires at,  327
    * Bilfinger, Dr. G.,  172
    * Birds fed at Christmas,  289
    * Blindman's buff,  293
    * Boar's head,  284,  348
    * Bohemia, the “star” in,  152;
          o fifteenth-century Christmas customs in,  183;
          o St. Andrew's Eve in,  215;
          o St. Thomas's Eve in,  224
    * Boniface, St.,  171
    * Boy Bishop,  212,  306;
          o connection with St. Nicholas,  220,  307
    * “Breast-strip” rites,  328
    * Breviary, the Roman,  90
    * Briid,  354
    * Brimo,  21
    * Brittany, Herod play in,  141;
          o Magi actors in,  151;
          o All Souls’ Eve in,  191;
          o Christmas Eve superstitions in,  233,  236;
          o Christmas log in,  256;
          o New Year in,  323;
          o aguillanneuf in,  330;
          o weather superstition in,  332
    * Brixen, cradle-rocking at,  111
    * Brixlegg, Christmas play at,  143 f.
    * Bromfield, Cumberland, barring out the master at,  224
    * Brough, Westmoreland, Twelfth Night tree at,  270
    * Brunnen, Epiphany at,  341
    * Budelfrau,  220
    * Burchardus of Worms,  181
    * Burford, Christmas holly at,  275
    * Burghead, “Clavie” at,  327
    * Burns, Robert,  197
    * “Bush, burning the,”  346
    * Buzebergt,  220
    * Byrom, John,  84

    * Caballero, Fernan,  66,  117,  151
    * Caesarius of Arles,  170,  181
    * Cakes, “feasten,”  177;
          o soul,  192;
          o St. Hubert's,  202;
          o Martin's horns,  204;
          o Christmas,  287,  289;
          o Twelfth Night,  337,  346;
          o St. Basil's,  341
    * Calabrian minstrels,  112
    * Calamy,  185
    * Caligula,  168
    * Callander, Hallowe'en at,  198
    * Cambridge, St. Clement's Day at,  212
    * Canada, Christmas Eve superstition in,  234
    * Candlemas,  350,  352
    * Candles, on St. Lucia's Day,  212;
          o Yule,  258
    * Cards, Christmas,  279
    * Carinthia, St. Stephen's Day in,  312
    * Carnival,  300,  349
    * Carols, meaning of the word,  47;
          o English sacred,  47,  76,  84;
          o Welsh,  69;
          o Irish,  69;
          o Highland,  70
    * Catholicism and Christmas,  27,  186
    * Celtic New Year,  172,  189,  195,  203,  321
    * Centaurs,  247
    * Cereal sacraments,  177.
          o See also Cakes
    * Chambers, Mr. E. K.,  5,  125,  299,  302,  348
    * Charlemagne, coronation of,  96
    * Charms, New Year,  182,  195,  321
    * Cheshire, Old Hob in,  199;
          o poultry specially fed at Christmas,  289
    * Chester plays,  128,  133
    * Chesterton, Mr. G. K.,  85
    * Childermas,  315
    * Children's festivals,  205,  218,  223,  359
    * China, New Year in,  324
    * Chios, Christmas rhamna in,  270
    * Christkind as gift-bringer,  205,  230,  277
    * Christmas, pagan and Christian elements in,  18,  161,  357;
          o names of,  20;
          o establishment of,  20;p. 393
          o its connection with earlier festivals,  20;
          o becomes humanized,  25,  34;
          o in poetry,  31;
          o liturgical aspects of,  89;
          o in popular devotion,  104;
          o in drama,  121;
          o its human appeal,  155,  357;
          o attracts customs from other festivals,  173,  226,  277,  284;
          o decorations,  178,  272;
          o feasting,  178,  283;
          o presents,  276;
          o masking customs,  297;
          o log, see Yule Log
    * Christmas Eve,  229;
          o superstitions about the supernatural,  233;
          o log customs,  251;
          o fish supper on,  286
    * Christmas-tree,  168,  178,  263;
          o its origin,  267
    * Christpuppe,  231
    * Chrysostom,  269
    * Church, Dean,  34
    * Circumcision, Feast of,  101,  302.
          o See also New Year's Day
    * Clement, St., his Day,  211
    * Cleobury Mortimer, curfew at,  258
    * Clermont, shepherd play at,  141
    * Coffin, Charles,  64
    * Communion, sacrificial,  174
    * “Comte d'Alsinoys,”  56,  58
    * Cornwall, Hallowe'en custom in,  196;
          o blackbird pie in,  293;
          o Childermas in,  315
    * Coventry plays,  128,  130,  138
    * Cradle-rocking,  108
    * Crashaw,  79
    * Crib, Christmas,  105,  113;
          o possible survivals in England,  118,  274
    * Crimmitschau,  112
    * Crivoscian customs,  231,  253,  276,  346
    * Croatia, St. Andrew's Eve in,  215;
          o Christmas log customs in,  251
    * Cronia,  166

    * Dalmatia, Yule log customs in,  252
    * Dancing,  47,  293,  298,  302
    * Daniel, Jean,  56,  58
    * Dannhauer, J. K.,  265
    * Dasius, St.,  167
    * Dead, feasts of the,  173,  180,  189,  235,  240,  253,  341
    * Decorations, evergreen,  168,  178,  350,  355
    * Denisot, Nicholas,  56,  58
    * Denmark, “star-singing” in,  151;
          o animal masks in,  202;
          o Martinmas goose in,  203;
          o St. Lucia's Eve in,  223;
          o St. Thomas's Day in,  223;
          o Christmas Eve superstitions in,  235;
          o Yule candles in,  259;
          o Christmas-tree in,  267;
          o pig's head eaten in,  286;
          o Yule-bishop in,  308
    * Derbyshire, “kissing-bunch” in,  274;
          o Plough Monday in,  352
    * Devil, and beast masks,  202;
          o and flax,  240
    * Devon, “Yeth hounds” in,  240;
          o “ashton ****” in,  258;
          o wassailing fruit-trees in,  345
    * Dew, Christmas,  288
    * Dickens, Charles,  359
    * Dinan, Herod play at,  141
    * Dionysus, as child-god,  21;
          o winter festivals of,  169,  331
    * Dorstone, Hallowe'en at,  197
    * Drama, Christmas, in Latin,  121;
          o in English,  128;
          o in French,  128,  138;
          o in Spanish,  128,  148;
          o in German,  143;
          o in Italian,  147,  150;
          o survivals of,  150;
          o St. Nicholas plays,  220,  232;
          o pagan folk-drama,  298
    * Drinking customs,  36,  204,  285,  314,  327
    * Druids and mistletoe,  273
    * Duchesne, Monsignor,  20,  24
    * Durham, Candlemas at,  353
    * Düsseldorf, Martinmas at,  206
    * Dyzemas,  315

    * Eckhart,  42,  157
    * Edinburgh, New Year in,  325
    * Eiresione,  270
    * Encina, Juan del,  149
    * England, Christmas poetry in,  47,  76;
          o Midnight Mass in,  99;
          o possible survivals of the Christmas crib in,  118,  274;
          o the Nativity in the miracle cycles,  128;
          o “souling” in,  192;
          o Hallowe'en in,  195;
          o Guy Fawkes Day in,  198;
          o animal masks in,  199;p. 394
          o Martinmas in,  203;
          o St. Clement's Day in,  211;
          o St. Catherine's Day in,  212;
          o St. Andrew's Day in,  213;
          o St. Thomas's Day in,  225;
          o Christmas Eve superstitions in,  234;
          o Yule log in,  257;
          o Yule candle in,  259;
          o pyramids and Christmas-trees in,  266,  270;
          o the Holy Thorn in,  268;
          o evergreen decorations in,  272;
          o Christmas boxes in,  279;
          o Christmas fare in,  283;
          o sacrificial survivals and Christmas games in,  292;
          o mummers and sword-dancers in,  297;
          o Feast of Fools in,  305;
          o Boy Bishop in,  220,  306;
          o St. Stephen's Day in,  292,  311;
          o Holy Innocents’ Day in,  315;
          o New Year's Day in,  321,  332;
          o Epiphany customs in,  337,  345;
          o Candlemas in,  350,  353;
          o Rock Day in,  351;
          o Plough Monday in,  352
    * Ephraem Syrus,  31,  239
    * Epiphanius,  21
    * Epiphany, early history of the festival,  20;
          o in the Roman Church,  101;
          o in the Greek Church,  102;
          o Blessing of the Waters at,  102,  244,  246,  344;
          o Italian religious ceremonies at,  116;
          o in drama,  125;
          o old German name for,  243;
          o folk customs on,  293;
          o Twelfth Night cakes and kings,  337;
          o expulsion of evils,  341;
          o the Befana and the Magi,  343;
          o wassailing,  345;
          o “Haxey Hood,”  347;
          o farewells to Christmas,  349
    * Erzgebirge, Christmas plays in,  144,  232;
          o St. John's tree in,  269;
          o pfeffern in,  316
    * Eschenloh, berchten at,  342
    * Esthonians, All Souls’ Day among,  191
    * Ethelred, laws of,  21
    * Etzendorf, St. Martin's rod at,  207
    * Evans, Sir Arthur,  253
    * Eves, importance of for festival customs,  196
    * Expulsion rites,  104,  181,  217,  327,  341,  344

    * Fabriano, Gentile da,  148
    * Fare, Christmas,  283
    * Feasting, connected with sacrifice,  178,  284;
          o at Martinmas,  202;
          o at Christmas,  283;
          o at New Year,  321;
          o at Epiphany,  337
    * Feien,  231
    * Feilberg, Dr. H. F.,  6,  236,  313
    * Festivals, origin and purpose of,  17;
          o relation of pagan and Christian,  19,  169
    * Fire, not given out at Christmas or New Year,  170,  257;
          o bonfires,  182,  198,  204,  327,  346;
          o new fire lit,  198;
          o Christmas log and ancestor-worship,  251;
          o the Yule log and candle in western Europe,  254;
          o Candlemas fires and lights,  352
    * “First-foots,”  208,  252,  323
    * Fish eaten on Christmas Eve,  287
    * Flagellants,  146
    * Flamma, Galvano,  147
    * Fletcher, Giles,  82
    * Florence, Nativity plays at,  147;
          o Befana at,  343
    * Fools, Feast of,  180,  302
    * Football,  349
    * Fowler, Dr. W. Warde,  167
    * France, Christmas poetry in,  55;
          o Midnight Mass in,  96;
          o Christmas drama in,  124,  138;
          o All Souls’ Eve in,  191;
          o Christmas Eve superstitions in,  234;
          o Christmas log in,  254;
          o Christmas-tree in,  267;
          o Harvest May in,  271;
          o presents brought by le petit Jésus,  278;
          o Christmas cakes in,  287;
          o Feast of Fools in,  302;
          o Boy Bishop in,  308;
          o Innocents’ Day in,  316;
          o New Year in,  322;
          o aguillanneuf in,  329;
          o Epiphany in,  339,  344,  349;
          o Candlemas candles in,  353
    * Francis, St. (of Assisi), and Christmas,  36,  105,  157,  289
    * Frazer, Dr. J. G.,  6,  167,  180,  182,  199,  276,  288,  324
    * Frick, Frau,  241
    * Frigg,  241
    * Friuli, All Souls’ Day in,  194
    * Frumenty,  285

    * Games, Christmas,  293p. 395
    * Gaude, Frau,  241
    * Gautier, Théophile,  64
    * Gay,  196
    * Geese-dancers,  299
    * Genealogy, chanting of the,  93
    * George, St., in mummers’ plays,  299
    * Gerhardt, Paul,  73
    * Germanicus,  202
    * Germany, Christmas established in,  21;
          o Christmas poetry in Catholic,  42;
          o Protestant hymns in,  70;
          o Christmas services in,  98;
          o the crib and Kindelwiegen in,  107;
          o Christmas drama in,  143;
          o “star-singing” in,  152;
          o Roman customs in,  171;
          o pre-Christian New Year in,  171;
          o soul-cakes in,  194;
          o the Schimmel and other animal masks in,  199;
          o Martinmas customs in,  202;
          o St. Andrew's Eve in,  214;
          o St. Nicholas in,  218,  229;
          o St. Thomas's Eve in,  225;
          o Christmas Eve in,  229,  237;
          o Twelve Days superstitions in,  240;
          o Frau Berchta, etc., in,  241;
          o werewolves in,  246;
          o Christmas log in,  256;
          o Christmas-tree in,  263,  359;
          o Harvest May in,  271;
          o Christmas presents in,  277;
          o Christmas fare in,  286;
          o sacrificial relics in,  292;
          o St. Stephen's Day in,  312,  315;
          o St. John's Day in,  314;
          o Holy Innocents’ Day in,  316;
          o New Year in,  322,  332
    * Gilmorton, “Christmas Vase” at,  118
    * Glastonbury thorns,  268
    * “Gloria in excelsis,”  91,  94
    * Goethe,  266
    * Goliards,  49,  128
    * Gomme, Sir Laurence,  257,  354
    * Goose, Martinmas,  203;
          o Christmas,  284
    * Gozzoli, Benozzo,  148
    * Grampus,  219
    * Greece, Epiphany ceremonies in,  102,  244,  344;
          o winter festivals of Dionysus in,  169,  245;
          o Kallikantzaroi in,  244,  257;
          o Christmas log in,  257,  344;
          o rhamna in Chios,  270;
          o “Christ's Loaves” in,  290;
          o folk-plays in,  300;
          o New Year in,  331,  333
    * Greek Church, Epiphany in,  22,  102;
          o Christmas in,  22,  99;
          o Advent in,  90
    * Gregorie,  315
    * Gregory III.,  107
    * Gregory the Great, letter to Mellitus,  179,  203
    * Guernsey, Christmas superstitions in,  234,  240;
          o oguinane in,  330
    * Guisers,  297
    * Guy Fawkes Day,  182,  198

    * Habergaiss,  201
    * Habersack,  201
    * Hakon the Good,  21,  172
    * Hallowe'en,  182,  195
    * Hampstead, Guy Fawkes Day at,  199
    * Hans Trapp,  230
    * Hardy, Mr. Thomas,  48,  234
    * Harke, Frau,  241
    * Harrison, Miss Jane,  21,  176,  325
    * “Haxey Hood,”  347
    * Herbert, George,  81
    * Herefordshire, Hallowe'en in,  197;
          o pyramids in,  266;
          o Holy Thorn in,  269;
          o New Year water in,  332;
          o Epiphany and New Year ceremonies in,  346
    * Herod plays,  126,  129,  141,  153
    * Herrick,  81,  257,  338,  345,  354
    * Hertfordshire, pyramids in,  266
    * Hindu New Year,  322
    * Höfler, Dr.,  288
    * Hogmanay,  328
    * Holda, Frau,  241
    * Holland, the “star” in,  152;
          o Martinmas in,  204;
          o Rommelpot in,  217;
          o St. Nicholas in,  219;
          o St. Thomas's Day in,  225
    * Holly,  272,  275
    * Holy Innocents’ Day,  127,  302,  306,  315
    * Horn-cakes,  202,  204
    * Hornchurch, boar's head at,  348
    * Horn-dance,  201
    * Horse, as a sacrificial animal,  200;
          o hobby-horse, hodening, and the Schimmel,  199;
          o customs on St. Stephen's Day,  311p. 396 
    * Howison,  234
    * Hubert, St., his Day,  202
    * Hunt, Leigh,  337
    * Huysmans, J. K.,  93
    * Hymns, Latin,  31,  42

    * Iceland, “Yule host” in,  240
    * Image, Prof. Selwyn,  85
    * “In dulci jubilo,”  44
    * Incense used for purification,  183,  225,  244,  327
    * Ireland, Christmas carols in,  69;
          o All Souls’ Eve in,  192;
          o Hallowe'en customs in,  197;
          o Martinmas slaughter in,  203;
          o “hunting of the wren” in,  292;
          o Holy Innocents’ Day in,  315;
          o Epiphany in,  350
    * Italy, Christmas poetry in,  36,  67;
          o presepio in,  105,  112,  359;
          o Christmas drama in,  146,  152;
          o All Souls’ in,  192,  194;
          o Martinmas in,  204;
          o Christmas log in,  256;
          o Santa Lucia in,  278;
          o Christmas fare in,  287,  289;
          o Epiphany in,  343
    * Ivy,  272,  275

    * Jacopone da Todi,  36,  39,  146
    * James, St., Gospel of,  124
    * Jerome, St.,  181
    * Jerusalem, Christmas at,  22,  94
    * John, St., Evangelist, his Day,  302,  314
    * Johnson, Lionel,  85
    * Johnson, Richard,  301
    * Jonson, Ben,  298
    * Julebuk,  202
    * Julian the Apostate,  23
    * Julklapp,  278

    * Kalends of January, the Roman festival,  24,  165,  167,  200,  269;
          o made a fast,  101,  170.
          o See also New Year's Day
    * Kallikantzaroi,  244
    * Kindelwiegen,  108
    * King of the Bean,  180,  338
    * “Kissing-bunch,”  274
    * Kissling, K. G.,  266
    * Klapperbock,  201
    * Klaubauf,  219
    * Klöpfelnächte,  216
    * Knecht Ruprecht,  220,  231
    * Kore,  21
    * Krampus,  219

    * Labruguière, Epiphany in,  342
    * Lake, Prof. K.,  20,  24
    * La Monnoye,  62
    * Lancashire, Hallowe'en in,  198
    * Latin Christmas poetry,  31,  42,  63,  68
    * Lawson, Mr. J. C.,  247,  301
    * Lead-pouring,  215,  237,  332
    * Leather, Mrs.,  269,  346
    * Le Moigne, Lucas,  56
    * Libanius,  168,  269
    * Liberius, Pope,  107,  352
    * Lima, Christmas Eve at,  98
    * Lithuania, feast of the dead in,  195;
          o New Year's Eve in,  332
    * Log customs. See Yule log
    * Lombardy, Christmas log in,  256
    * London, Greek Epiphany ceremonies in,  103;
          o Italian Christmas in,  116,  291;
          o Christmas in, under Puritans,  185;
          o German Christmas in,  265;
          o Boy Bishop in,  306;
          o New Year in,  322,  327
    * Lord Mayor's day,  202
    * Lord of Misrule,  298
    * Lorraine, cake customs in,  287,  339
    * Lucia, St., her festival,  221,  268
    * Lucian,  166
    * Ludlow, Guy Fawkes Day at,  199
    * Lullabies,  51,  67,  83,  109
    * Luther, Martin,  70,  265
    * Lyme Regis, Candlemas at,  354

    * Macedonia, Christmas Eve in,  217;
          o New Year's Eve in,  226,  330,  332;
          o Kallikantzaroi in,  245;
          o folk-play in,  300;
          o Epiphany in,  344
    * Macée, Claude,  141
    * Madrid,  97,  153,  343
    * Magi in drama,  125,  128,  151;
          o as present-bringers,  343
    * Magic,  163
    * Man, Isle of, carol-singing in,  99;
          o Hollantide in,  189,  198,  321;p. 397
          o Fynnodderee in,  246;
          o “hunting of the wren” in,  292
    * Mana,  176
    * Mannhardt, W.,  252,  313
    * Marguerite of Navarre,  141
    * Marseilles, “pastorals” at,  141
    * Martin of Braga,  272
    * Martin I., Pope,  203
    * Martinengo-Cesaresco, Countess,  106,  112,  142
    * Martinmas, an old winter festival,  173,  182,  200,  202;
          o its feasting customs,  202;
          o its bonfires,  204;
          o St. Martin as gift-bringer, and his relation to St. Nicholas,  205,  218,  277
    * Masking customs,  169,  175,  199,  206,  219,  230,  245,  297,  304,  352
    * Mass, Midnight,  94;
          o the three Christmas Masses,  94
    * Mechlin, Martinmas at,  206
    * Mellitus, Abbot,  179
    * Mexico, Christmas drama in,  154
    * Michaelmas,  173
    * Milan, Epiphany play at,  147
    * Milton,  82
    * Mince-pies,  284
    * Minnesingers,  36
    * “Misterio de los Reyes Magos,”  128
    * Mistletoe,  272,  276
    * Mistral, Frédéric,  255
    * Mithra,  23
    * Modranicht,  181
    * Monasticism and Christmas,  34
    * Mont-St.-Michel, Epiphany king at,  340
    * Montenegro, Christmas log customs in,  252
    * Morgan, Lady,  114
    * Morris, William,  85
    * Morris-dancers,  299
    * Mouthe, “De fructu” at,  288
    * Mummers’ plays,  297
    * Munich, Bavarian National Museum at,  107;
          o Christmas-tree at,  267;
          o St. Stephen's Day at,  312
    * Murillo,  65
    * Mythology, in relation to ritual,  164,  176
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« Reply #283 on: December 18, 2009, 02:13:53 am »

    *  Naogeorgus,  111,  217,  353
    * Naples, zampognari at,  112;
          o presepio at,  113;
          o Christmas plays at,  150;
          o Epiphany at,  343
    * Natalis Invicti,  23,  165
    * New Year's Day, in Roman Empire,  24,  167,  276;
          o opposed in character to Christmas,  25;
          o Teutonic and Celtic,  25,  171,  189,  202;
          o Slav,  173;
          o January 1 made a fast,  101,  170;
          o customs attracted to January 1,  173,  189,  200,  321;
          o fire not given out,  170,  257;
          o charms, omens, and other customs,  182,  321;
          o presents,  168,  276;
          o mistletoe connected with,  276
    * Nicea, Council of,  22
    * Nicholas, St., his Day related to Martinmas,  173,  207,  277;
          o as patron of boys,  218,  220,
          o of sailors,  218,  221;
          o his festival,  218;
          o on Christmas Eve,  229
    * Noël, origin of the name,  22;
          o the French carol,  55
    * Normandy, “star-singing” in,  151;
          o Innocents’ Day in,  316;
          o Epiphany in,  349
    * Northamptonshire, St. Catherine's and St. Andrew's Days in,  213;
          o Dyzemas in,  315
    * Northumberland, holly in,  275
    * Norway, Christmas established in,  21;
          o “star-singing” in,  151;
          o pre-Christian Yule festival in,  172;
          o animal masks in,  202;
          o Christmas Eve superstitions in,  235;
          o Yule candles in,  259
    * Notker,  32
    * Nottinghamshire, Hallowe'en customs in,  196;
          o Christmas cake and wassail-bowl in,  285
    * Nuremberg, Epiphany at,  342
    * Nuts, customs with,  195,  207

    * “O's,” Great,  92
    * Oak as a sacred tree,  254
    * Oberufer, Christmas play at,  143,  272
    * Ocaña, F. de,  65
    * Oesel, “Yule Boar” in,  288
    * Old Hob,  199p. 398
    * Otfrid of Weissenburg,  42
    * Oxford, boars head at,  284

    * Palmer, Mr. F. H. E.,  104
    * Parcae,  181
    * Paris, Christmas in,  98;
          o All Souls’ Eve in,  191;
          o St. Catherine's Day in,  213;
          o Christmas-tree in,  267;
          o New Year in,  277;
          o Feast of Fools in,  302
    * Paschal, Françoise,  61
    * Pasquier, Étienne,  339
    * Pearson, Dr. Karl,  161
    * Pellegrin, Abbé,  63
    * Pelzmärte,  206,  217
    * Perchta,  181,  241,  342
    * Perun,  254
    * Peterborough, St. Catherine's Day at,  213
    * Philocalian Calendar,  20
    * Pifferari,  112
    * Pillersee, Advent mummeries at,  218
    * Pliny,  273
    * Plough Monday,  300
    * Plum-pudding,  284
    * Plygain,  99
    * Poland, the “star” in,  152;
          o puppet-shows in,  153;
          o werewolves in,  246;
          o Christmas straw in,  276;
          o Christmas wafers in,  291
    * Polaznik,  231,  252,  323
    * Presents, at the Roman Kalends,  168,  276;
          o on All Souls’ Eve,  192;
          o at Martinmas,  205;
          o on St. Nicholas's Day,  218;
          o at Christmas,  183,  230,  277;
          o at New Year and other seasons,  277;
          o at Epiphany,  343
    * Presepio. See Crib
    * “Prophetae,”  127
    * Protestantism, effects of, on Christmas,  27,  70,  111,  138,  141,  185,  229
    * Provence, remains of Christmas drama in,  141,  154;
          o Christmas log in,  255;
          o Magi in,  344
    * Prudentius,  32
    * Puppet-plays,  153 f.
    * Purification, feast of the. See Candlemas
    * Puritans, their attitude towards Christmas,  77,  180,  184,  298
    * Pyramids,  266

    * Quainton, blossoming thorn at,  268

    * “Raging host,”  240,  242
    * Ragusa, Christmas log customs at,  252
    * Ramsgate, hodening at,  200
    * Rauchnächte,  225,  327
    * Rhys, Sir John,  189,  321,  325
    * Ripon, St. Clement's Day at,  212;
          o Yule candles at,  259;
          o Candlemas at,  354
    * Risano, Christmas log customs at,  252
    * Rolle, Richard,  48
    * Rome, Christmas established in,  20;
          o pagan winter festivals in,  23,  165;
          o Christmas services and customs in,  95,  112,  289;
          o mediaeval New Year quête in,  331
    * Rossetti, Christina,  85
    * Rouen, religious plays at,  124,  138
    * Roumania, the “star” in,  152;
          o Christmas drama in,  153;
          o St. Andrew's Eve in,  215;
          o Christmas songs in,  238;
          o Christmas fare in,  287,  291;
          o New Year in,  330;
          o Epiphany in,  342
    * Russia, Epiphany ceremonies in,  104,  246;
          o the “star” in,  152;
          o Christmas Eve in,  232,  237;
          o fire superstitions in,  253;
          o Christmas fare in,  287,  291;
          o Christmas games in,  294;
          o mummers in,  302;
          o New Year in,  333

    * Saboly,  62
    * Sacrifice, theories of,  174;
          o connected with festivals,  178;
          o survivals of,  199,  283,  292,  328,  347
    * Salers, Christmas king at,  340
    * Samhain,  172,  204
    * Sant’ Andrea della Valle, Rome,  102
    * Santa Klaus,  220
    * Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome,  95,  107,  114
    * Saturnalia,  24,  113,  165,  180,  359
    * Schiller,  266
    * Schimmel and Schimmelreiter,  199,  206,  231
    * Schoolboys’ festival,  223.
          o See also Boy Bishop
    * Scotland, Christmas carols in,  70;
          o Hallowe'en customs in,  197;
          o sowens eaten in,  285;
          o “first-foot” in,  325;
          o other New Year customs in,  326,  332;
          o Candlemas in,  354p. 399 
    * Sedulius, Coelius,  32
    * Sequences,  32
    * Serao, Matilde,  113
    * Serbs, Christmas customs of,  251,  341
    * Shakespeare,  239,  298
    * Shepherds in Christmas drama,  123,  132,  139
    * Shropshire, soul-cakes in,  192;
          o Guy Fawkes Day at Ludlow,  199;
          o Twelve Days superstitions in,  240,  258;
          o Christmas Brand in,  258;
          o Christmas decorations in,  275,  355;
          o “wigs” in,  285;
          o cattle specially fed at Christmas,  289;
          o morris-dancers in,  299;
          o New Year in,  324;
          o Candlemas in,  355
    * Sicily, Midnight Mass in,  98;
          o Christmas novena in,  112;
          o Christmas procession at Messina,  113;
          o Christmas plays in,  150;
          o All Souls’ Eve in,  192;
          o Martinmas in,  204;
          o St. Lucia's Eve in,  222;
          o presents in,  278;
          o Candlemas candles in,  353
    * Sidgwick, Mr. F.,  6,  77
    * Sidgwick, Mrs. Alfred,  264
    * Silesia, Schimmel in,  200;
          o Martinmas in,  206;
          o Christmas Eve in,  232;
          o animals specially fed at Christmas,  289
    * Slav New Year,  172;
          o Christmas songs and customs,  237,  251,  290,  341.
          o See also Bohemia, Crivoscia, Poland, Russia
    * Smith, W. Robertson,  164,  175,  178
    * Somersetshire wassailing,  345
    * Soul cakes,  192
    * South America, Christmas in,  98
    * Southwell,  79
    * Sowens eaten,  285,  325
    * Spain, Christmas poetry in,  65;
          o Midnight Mass in,  97,  117;
          o the crib in,  117;
          o Christmas drama in,  128,  148,  153;
          o turron in,  291;
          o Epiphany in,  343
    * Spervogel,  42
    * Spinning, during Twelve Days,  240
    * Staffordshire, St. Clement's Day in,  211
    * “Star-singing,”  151
    * “Stella,”  125,  129
    * Stephen, St., his festival,  292,  302,  311
    * Stephens, Dean,  35
    * Stow's “Survay,”  272
    * Strasburg, early Christmas-trees at,  265
    * Strenae,  168,  277
    * Stubbes, Philip,  184,  298
    * Styles, Old and New,  268
    * Styria, Habergaiss in,  201;
          o Perchta in,  243;
          o St. John's wine in,  315
    * Sun, the, December  25 as festival of,  23;
          o Yule not connected with,  171;
          o sun-charms,  182,  198,  252,  254
    * Suso,  44
    * Sussex, squirrel-hunting in,  214;
          o tipteerers in,  298;
          o wassailing fruit-trees in,  345
    * Swabia, Pelzmärte in,  206,  217
    * Sweden, Christmas service in,  99;
          o “star-singing” in,  151;
          o animal masks in,  202;
          o St. Lucia's Day in,  221;
          o Christmas Eve superstitions in,  235;
          o Yule log in,  257;
          o Yule candles in,  259;
          o Christmas-trees in,  267,  270;
          o Yule straw in,  276;
          o Christmas presents in,  278;
          o pig's head eaten in,  286;
          o dances in,  293;
          o St. Stephen's Day in,  312,  315;
          o “St. Knut's Day” in,  351
    * Swinburne,  84
    * Swine as sacrificial animal,  284,  286
    * Switzerland, St. Nicholas in,  218;
          o Christmas-tree in,  267;
          o birds fed at Christmas,  289
    * Sword-dance,  294,  299
    * Sylvesterabend,  274,  322

    * Tacitus,  200,  299
    * Tate, Nahum,  84
    * Tauler,  43
    * Teme valley, “first-footing” in,  324
    * Tenby, Plygain at,  99;
          o St. Clement's Day at,  212
    * Tersteegen, Gerhard,  75
    * Tertullian,  269
    * Teutonic New Year,  171,  189,  202
    * Thomas of Celano,  38
    * Thomas, Mr. N. W.,  293
    * Thomas, St., his festival,  223
    * “Thomassin’,”  226
    * Thurston, Mr. Edgar,  322
    * Tieck,  266p. 400
    * Tille, Dr. A.,  5,  110,  169,  172,  231,  268
    * Tipteerers,  298
    * Tolstoy's “War and Peace,”  302
    * Tomte Gubbe,  236
    * Tonquin, feast of the dead in,  195
    * Totemism,  175
    * Tours, Council of,  21,  101,  239
    * Towneley plays,  128,  134
    * Trees, sacred,  177,  254,  269;
          o flowering at Christmas,  268;
          o Christian symbols,  271
    * Trest, Epiphany at,  344
    * Trolls on Christmas Eve,  235
    * Troppau, Christmas Eve at,  232
    * Troubadours,  36
    * Tübingen, cradle-rocking at,  111
    * Tuscany, Christmas log in,  256
    * Tutilo of St. Gall,  123
    * Twelfth Night. See Epiphany
    * Twelve Days, declared a festal tide,  21,  239;
          o variously reckoned,  239;
          o supernatural visitors on,  239
    * Tylor, Dr. E. B.,  191
    * Tynan, Katharine,  85
    * Tyrol, Midnight Mass in,  97;
          o the crib in,  107;
          o cradle-rocking in,  111;
          o Christmas drama in,  143;
          o “star-singing” in,  152;
          o All Souls in,  191,  194;
          o Klöpfelnächte in,  218;
          o St. Nicholas in,  220;
          o St. Lucia in,  223;
          o Christmas Eve in,  236,  346;
          o Berchta in,  243;
          o customs with fruit-trees in,  268;
          o Christmas pie in,  290,  345;
          o St. Stephen's Day in,  311;
          o St. John's Day in,  314;
          o Epiphany in,  337;
          o Carnival in,  349;
          o Purification candles in,  353

    * Ubeda, J. L. de,  65
    * Uist, South, “breast-strip” in,  328
    * United States, Santa Klaus in,  220;
          o New Year in,  323
    * Usedom,  201
    * Usener, H.,  20,  107

    * Valdivielso, J. de,  65
    * Vampires,  215,  245
    * Vaughan, Henry,  81
    * Vega, Lope de,  149
    * Vegetation-cults,  177
    * Venetia, Martinmas in,  204,  207
    * Vessel-cup,  118
    * Villazopeque,  148
    * Vosges mountains, All Souls’ Eve in,  191

    * Wales, Christmas carols in,  69;
          o Plygain in,  99;
          o soul-cakes in,  193;
          o Hallowe'en in,  189,  196;
          o the “Mari Llwyd” in,  201;
          o “new water” carol in,  333;
          o Christmas football in,  349
    * Warnsdorf, St. Nicholas play at,  220
    * Wassail-bowl,  193,  285
    * Water, New Year,  332
    * Watts, Isaac,  83
    * Weather, ideas about,  203,  332
    * Weihnacht, origin of the name,  20
    * Werewolves,  246
    * Wesley, Charles,  84
    * Westermarck, Dr. E.,  176
    * Westphalia, St. Thomas's Day in,  225
    * Whipping customs,  207,  315,  330
    * “Wild hunt,”  239
    * Wine, Martinmas,  204;
          o St. John's and St. Stephen's,  314
    * “Wish hounds,”  240
    * Wither, George,  83
    * Woden,  200,  206,  208,  231,  240
    * Women, their clothes worn by men at folk-festivals,  178,  301,  304;
          o unlucky at New Year,  324
    * Woolwich, St. Clement's and St. Catherine's Days at,  212
    * Worcestershire. St. Clement's Day in,  212;
          o New Year in,  324
    * Wormesley, Holy Thorn at,  269
    * Wren, hunting of,  292
    * Wylie, Miss I. A. R.,  263

    * “Yeth hounds,”  240
    * York Minster, mistletoe at,  273;
          o Boy Bishop at,  307
    * York plays,  128,  131
    * Yorkshire, possible survival of the crib in,  118;
          o frumenty, ale posset, and Yule cakes in,  285;
          o “lucky bird” in,  325
    * Ypres, St. Martin at,  206
    * Yule, origin of the name,  25,  171
    * “Yule Boar,”  288
    * Yule log,  180,  245,  251,  344,  354

    * Zacharias, Pope,  171

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« Reply #284 on: December 18, 2009, 02:14:45 am »

FOOTNOTES

 1 For an explanation of the small numerals in the text see Preface.

[transcriber's Note: In this edition the numerals are enclosed in , so they will not be confused with footnotes.]

 2 “Christianity,” as here used, will stand for the system of orthodoxy which had been fixed in its main outlines when the festival of Christmas took its rise. The relation of the orthodox creed to historical fact need not concern us here, nor need we for the purposes of this study attempt to distinguish between the Christianity of Jesus and ecclesiastical accretions around his teaching.

 3 Whether the Nativity had previously been celebrated at Rome on January 6 is a matter of controversy; the affirmative view was maintained by Usener in his monograph on Christmas, 1-6 the negative by Monsignor Duchesne. 1-7 A very minute, cautious, and balanced study of both arguments is to be found in Professor Kirsopp Lake's article on Christmas in Hastings's “Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics,” 1-8 and a short article was contributed by the same writer to The Guardian, December 29, 1911. Professor Lake, on the whole, inclines to Usener's view. The early history of the festival is also treated by Father Cyril Martindale in “The Catholic Encyclopædia” (article “Christmas”).

 4 Usener says 354, Duchesne 336.

 5 The eastern father, Epiphanius (fourth century), gives a strange account of a heathen, or perhaps in reality a Gnostic, rite held at Alexandria on the night of January 5-6. In the temple of Kore—the Maiden—he tells us, worshippers spent the night in singing and flute-playing, and at ****-crow brought up from a subterranean sanctuary a wooden image seated naked on a litter. It had the sign of the cross upon it in gold in five places—the forehead, the hands, and the knees. This image was carried seven times round the central hall of the temple with flute-playing, drumming, and hymns, and then taken back to the underground chamber. In explanation of these strange actions it was said: “To-day, at this hour, hath Kore (the Maiden) borne the Æon.” 1-15 Can there be a connection between this festival and the Eleusinian mysteries? In the latter there was a nocturnal celebration with many lights burning, and the cry went forth, “Holy Brimo (the Maiden) hath borne a sacred child, Brimos.” 1-16 The details given by Miss Harrison in her “Prolegomena” of the worship of the child Dionysus 1-17 are of extraordinary interest, and a minute comparison of this cult with that of the Christ Child might lead to remarkable results.

 6 Mithraism resembled Christianity in its monotheistic tendencies, its sacraments, its comparatively high morality, its doctrine of an Intercessor and Redeemer, and its vivid belief in a future life and judgment to come. Moreover Sunday was its holy-day dedicated to the Sun.

 7 This is the explanation adopted by most scholars (cf. Chambers, “M. S.,” i., 241-2). Duchesne suggests as an explanation of the choice of December 25 the fact that a tradition fixed the Passion of Christ on March 25. The same date, he thinks, would have been assigned to His Conception in order to make the years of His life complete, and the Birth would come naturally nine months after the Conception. He, however, “would not venture to say, in regard to the 25th of December, that the coincidence of the Sol novus exercised no direct or indirect influence on the ecclesiastical decision arrived at in regard to the matter.” 1-25 Professor Lake also, in his article in Hastings's “Encyclopædia,” seeks to account for the selection of December 25 without any deliberate competition with the Natalis Invicti. He points out that the Birth of Christ was fixed at the vernal equinox by certain early chronologists, on the strength of an elaborate and fantastic calculation based on Scriptural data, and connecting the Incarnation with the Creation, and that when the Incarnation came to be viewed as beginning at the Conception instead of the Birth, the latter would naturally be placed nine months later.

 8 Cf. chap. xviii. of Dr. Yrjö Hirn's “The Sacred Shrine” (London, 1912). Dr. Hirn finds a solitary anticipation of the Franciscan treatment of the Nativity in the Christmas hymns of the fourth-century eastern poet, Ephraem Syrus.

 9 No. 55 in “Hymns Ancient and Modern” (Ordinary Edition).

 10 No. 56 in “Hymns Ancient and Modern” (Ordinary Edition).

 11
“Come rejoicing,
Faithful men, with rapture singing
Alleluya!
Monarch's Monarch,
From a holy maiden springing,
Mighty wonder!
Angel of the Counsel here,
Sun from star, he doth appear,
Born of maiden:
He a sun who knows no night,
She a star whose paler light
Fadeth never.”

(Translation in “The English Hymnal,” No. 22.)

 12
“Lords, by Christmas and the host
Of this mansion hear my toast—
Drink it well—
Each must drain his cup of wine,
And I the first will toss off mine:
Thus I advise.
Here then I bid you all Wassail,
Cursed be he who will not say, Drinkhail! ”
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