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The Egyptian Book of the Dead

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Author Topic: The Egyptian Book of the Dead  (Read 3317 times)
Josie Linde
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« Reply #15 on: December 21, 2008, 10:01:20 pm »

Selection and arrangement of chapters.

The sections or chapters of the Theban version are a series of separate and distinct compositions, which, like the sections of the pyramid texts, had no fixed order either on coffins or in papyri. Unlike these texts, however, with very few exceptions each composition had a special title and vignette which indicate its purpose. The general selection of the chapters for a papyrus seems to have been left to the individual fancy of the purchaser or scribe, but certain of them were no doubt absolutely necessary for the preservation of the body of the deceased in the tomb, and for the welfare of his soul in its new state of existence. Traditional selections would probably be respected, and recent selections approved by any dominant school of religious thought in Egypt were without doubt accepted.

Change in forms.

While in the period of the pyramid texts the various sections were said or sung by priests, probably assisted by some members of the family of the deceased, the welfare of his soul and body being proclaimed for him as an established fact in the Theban version the hymns and prayers to the gods were put into the mouth of the deceased. As none but the great and wealthy could afford the ceremonies which were performed in the early dynasties, economy was probably the chief cause of this change, which had come about at Thebes as early as the XIIth dynasty. Little by little the ritual portions of the Book of the Dead disappeared, until finally, in the Theban version, the only chapters of this class which remain are the XXIInd, XXIIIrd, CVth, and CLIst.[1] Every chapter and prayer of this version was to be said in the next world, where the words, properly uttered, enabled the deceased to overcome every foe and to attain to the life of the perfected soul which dwelt in a spiritual body in the abode of the blessed.

Theban title of the Book of the Dead.

The common name for the Book of the Dead in the Theban period, and probably also before this date, is per em hru, which words have been variously translated manifested in the light," "coming forth from the day," coming forth by day," "la manifestation au jour," "la manifestation à la lumière," [Kapitel von] der Erscheinung im Lichte," "Erscheinen am Tage," "[Caput] egrediendi in lucem," etc. This name, however, had probably a meaning for the Egyptians which has not yet been rendered in a modern language, and one important idea in connection with the whole work is expressed by another title[2] which calls it "the chapter of making strong (or perfect) the Khu."

[1. See Naville, Todtenbuch (Einleitung), p. 20. On the titles "Book of the Dead" and "Ritual Funéraire" which have been given to these texts, see Lepsius, Todtenbuch, p. 3; De Rougé, Revue Archéologique, N.S., t. i., 1860, pp. 69-100.

2. See Naville, Einleitung, p. 24.]

{p. xxxi}

Continuity of doctrine

In the Theban version the main principles of the Egyptian religion which were held in the times when the pyramid texts were written are maintained, and the views concerning the eternal existence of the soul remain unaltered. Many passages in the work, however, show that modifications and developments in details have taken place, and much that is not met with in the early dynasties appears, so far as we know, for the first time. The vignettes too are additions to the work; but, although they depict scenes in the life beyond the grave, they do not seem to form a connected series, and it is doubtful if they are arranged on any definite plan. A general idea of the contents of this version may be gathered from the following list of chapters[1]:--

Theban version: list of chapters.

Chapter I. Here begin the Chapters of "Coming forth by day," and of the songs of praise and glorifying,[2] and of coming forth from, and going into, the underworld.[3]

Vignette: The funeral procession from the house of the dead to the tomb.

Chapter IB. The Chapter of making the mummy to go into the tuat[4] on the day of the burial.[5]

Vignette: Anubis standing by the bier upon which the mummy of the deceased is laid.

Chapter II. [The Chapter of] coming forth by day and of living after death.

Vignette: A man standing, holding a staff.

Chapter III.* Another Chapter like unto it (i.e., like Chapter II).[6]

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter IV.* Another Chapter of passing along the way over the earth.

This Chapter has no vignette.

[1. The various chapters of the Book of the Dead were numbered by Lepsius in his edition of tile Turin papyrus in 1842. This papyrus, however, is a product of the Ptolemaic period, and contains a number of chapters which are wanting in the Theban version. For convenience, Lepsius' numbers are retained, and the chapters which belong to the Saïte version are indicated by an asterisk. For the hieroglyphic text see Naville, Einleitung, p. 193 ff.

2. Another title reads:--"The Chapter of going in to the divine chiefs of Osiris on the day of the burial, and of going in after coming forth." This chapter had to be recited on the day of the burial.

3. neter xert, the commonest name for the tomb.

4. The Egyptian underworld.

5. sam ta, "the union with the earth."

6. In some papyri Chapters II. and III. are united and have only one title; see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., B1. 6.]

{p. xxxii}

Theban version: list of chapters.

Chapter V. The Chapter of not allowing the deceased to do work in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased kneeling on one knee.

Chapter VI. The Chapter of making ushabtiu figures do work for a man in the underworld.

Vignette: An ushabti figure

Chapter VII. The Chapter of passing over the back of Apep, the evil one.

Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent.

Chapter VIII. Another Chapter of the tuat, and of coming forth by day.

Vignette: The deceased kneeling before a ram.

Chapter IX. The Chapter of passing through the tuat.

Vignette: The deceased kneeling before a ram.

Chapter X. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter XLVIII.)

Chapter XI.* The Chapter of coming forth against his enemies in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XII. Another Chapter of going into, and coming forth from, the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XIII. The Chapter of going into, and of coming forth, from Amentet. This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XIV. The Chapter of driving away shame from the heart of the deceased.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XV. A Hymn of praise to Ra when he riseth in the eastern horizon of heaven.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.

Chapter XVB. 1. A Hymn of praise to Ra when he setteth in the land of life. Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.

Chapter XVB. 2. A Hymn of praise to Ra-Harmachis when he setteth in the western horizon of heaven.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.

Chapter XVB. 3. Another hidden Chapter of the tuat, and of passing through the secret places of the underworld, and of seeing the Disk when he setteth in Amentet.

Vignette: The god or the deceased spearing a serpent.

Chapter XVIA. [No text: being only a vignette.]

{p. xxxiii}

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« Reply #16 on: December 21, 2008, 10:02:07 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

Scene of the worship of the rising sun by mythological beings.

Chapter XVIB. Without title or text.

Vignette: Scene of the worship of the setting sun by mythological beings.

Chapter XVII. Here begin the praises and glorifyings of coming out from, and going into, the underworld in the beautiful Amenta; of coming out by day, and of making transformations and of changing into any form which he pleaseth; of playing at draughts in the seh chamber; and of coming forth in the form of a living soul: to be said by the deceased after his death.

Vignette: The deceased playing at draughts; the deceased adoring the lion-gods of yesterday and to-day; the bier of Osiris with Isis and Nephthys at the foot and head respectively; and a number of mythological beings referred to in the text.

Chapter XVIII. Without title.

Vignette: The deceased adoring the groups of gods belonging to various cities.

Chapter XIX.* The Chapter of the crown(?) of victory.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XX. Without title.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XXI.* The Chapter of giving a mouth to a man in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XXII. The Chapter of giving a mouth to the deceased in the underworld.

Vignette: The guardian of the scales touching the mouth of the deceased.

Chapter XXIII. The Chapter of opening the mouth of the deceased in the underworld.

Vignette: The sem priest touching the mouth of the deceased with the instrument ###.

Chapter XXIV. The Chapter of bringing words of magical power to the deceased in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XXV. The Chapter of causing a man to remember his name in the underworld.

Vignette: A priest holding up ### before the deceased.

Chapter XXVI. The Chapter of giving a heart to the deceased in the underworld.

Vignette: Anubis holding out a heart to the deceased in the underworld.

Chapter XXVII. The Chapter of not allowing the heart of a man to be taken from him in the underworld.

{p. xxxiv}

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« Reply #17 on: December 21, 2008, 10:02:39 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

Vignette: A man tying a heart to the statue of the deceased.[1]

Chapter XXVIII. [The Chapter of] not allowing the heart of a man to be taken from him in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased with his left hand touching the heart upon his breast, kneeling before a demon holding a knife.

Chapter XXIXA. The Chapter of not carrying away the heart of a man in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XXIXB. Another Chapter of a heart of carnelian.

Vignette: The deceased sitting on a chair before his heart, which rests on a stand.

Chapter XXXA. The Chapter of not allowing the heart of a man to be driven away from him in the underworld.

Vignette: A heart.[2]

Chapter XXXB. The Chapter of not allowing the heart of a man to be driven away from him in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased being weighed against his heart in the balance in the presence of Osiris, "the great god, the prince of eternity."

Chapter XXXI. The Chapter of repulsing the crocodile which cometh to carry the magical words ### from a man in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased spearing a crocodile.

Chapter XXXII. [The Chapter of] coming to carry the magical words from a man in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XXXIII. The Chapter of repulsing reptiles of all kinds.

Vignette: The deceased attacking four snakes with a knife in each hand.

Chapter XXXIV. The Chapter of a man not being bitten by a serpent in the hall of the tomb.[3]

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XXXV. The Chapter of not being eaten by worms in the underworld.

[1. Two variants (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 38) show the deceased sitting before his heart, and the deceased presenting his heart to a triad of gods.

2. Or the deceased adoring his heart; see also Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 42.

3 ### amihat.]

{p. xxxv}

Theban version: list of chapters.

Vignette: Three serpents.

Chapter XXXVI. The Chapter of repulsing the tortoise. (apsai).

Vignette: The deceased spearing a beetle.[1]

Chapter XXXVII. The Chapter of repulsing the two merti.

Vignette: Two uræi, which represent the two eyes of Ra.

Chapter XXXVIIIA. The Chapter of living upon the air which is in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased holding a sail, emblematic of air.

Chapter XXXVIIIB. The Chapter of living upon air and of repulsing the two merti.

Vignette: The deceased attacking three serpents, a knife in his right hand and a sail in his left.

Chapter XXXIX. The Chapter of repulsing the serpent in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent.

Chapter XL. The Chapter of repulsing the eater of the ass.

Vignette: The deceased spearing a serpent which is biting the neck of all ass.

Chapter XLI. The Chapter of doing away with the wounding of the eyes in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased holding a knife in the right hand and a roll in the left.

Chapter XLII. [The Chapter] of doing away with slaughter in Suten-henen. Vignette: A man holding a serpent.[2]

Chapter XLIII. The Chapter of not allowing the head of a man to be cut off from him in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XLIV. The Chapter of not dying a second time.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XLV. The Chapter of not seeing corruption.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XLVI. The Chapter of not decaying, and of living in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XLVII. The Chapter of not carrying off the place (or seat) of the throne from a man in the underworld.

[1. Or the deceased holding a knife and staff and standing before ###.

2. For the variant vignettes see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., III. 57.]

{p. xxxvi}

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« Reply #18 on: December 21, 2008, 10:03:25 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XLVIII. [The Chapter of a man coming against] his enemies.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter XLIX.* The Chapter of a man coming forth against his enemies in the underworld.

Vignette: A man standing with a staff in his hand.

Chapter L. The Chapter of not going in to the divine block a second time.

Vignette: A man standing with his back to the block.[1]

Chapter LI. The Chapter of not walking upside down in the underworld.

Vignette: A man standing.

Chapter LII.* The Chapter of not eating filth in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LIII. The Chapter of not allowing a man to eat filth and to drink polluted water in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LIV. The Chapter of giving air in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LV. Another Chapter of giving air.

Vignette: The deceased holding a sail in each hand.[2]

Chapter LVI. The Chapter of snuffing the air in the earth.

Vignette: The deceased kneeling, and holding a sail to his nose.

Chapter LVII. The Chapter of snuffing the air and of gaining the mastery over the waters in the underworld.

Vignette: A man holding a sail, and standing in a running stream.

Chapter LVIII.* The Chapter of snuffing the air and of gaining power over

the water which is in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased holding a sail.

Chapter LIX. The Chapter of snuffing the air and of gaining power over

the water which is in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased standing with his hands extended.

Chapters LX., LXI., LXII. The Chapters of drinking water in the under

world.

[1. Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 21.

2. A variant vignette of Chapters LV. and XXXVIII. represents the deceased being led into the presence of Osiris by Anubis; see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 68.]

{p. xxxvii}

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« Reply #19 on: December 21, 2008, 10:03:52 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

Vignettes: The deceased holding a lotus; the deceased holding his soul in his arms; and the deceased scooping water into his mouth from a pool.

Chapter LXIIIA. The Chapter of drinking water, and of not being burnt with fire.

Vignette: The deceased drinking water from a stream.

Chapter LXIIIB. The Chapter of not being boiled (or scalded) in the water.

Vignette: The deceased standing by the side of two flames.

Chapter LXIV. The Chapter of coming forth by day in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased adoring the disk, which stands on the top of a tree.

Chapter LXV. [The Chapter of] coming forth by day, and of gaining the mastery over foes.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.

Chapter LXVI. [The Chapter of] coming forth by day.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LXVII. The Chapter of opening the doors of the tuat and of coming forth by day.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LXVIII. The Chapter of coming forth by day.

Vignette: The deceased kneeling by the side of a tree before a goddess.[1]

Chapter LXIX. Another Chapter.

Chapter LXX. Another Chapter.

Chapter LXXI. The Chapter of coming forth by day.

Vignette: The deceased with both hands raised in adoration kneeling before the goddess Meh-urt.[2]

Chapter LXXII. The Chapter of coming forth by day and of passing through the hall of the tomb.

Vignette: The deceased adoring three gods.

Chapter LXXIII. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter IX.)

Chapter LXXIV. The Chapter of lifting up the legs and coming forth upon earth.

Vignette: The deceased standing upright.

Chapter LXXV. The Chapter of travelling to Annu (On), and of receiving an abode there.

[1. For the variant vignettes see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. L, Bl. 8o.

2. One of the two variant vignettes shows the deceased in the act of adoring Ra, and in the other the deceased kneels before Ra, Thoth, and Osiris; see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., B1. 83.]

{p. xxxviii}

Theban version: list of chapters.

Vignette: The deceased standing before the door of a tomb.

Chapter LXXVI. The Chapter of [a man] changing into whatsoever form he pleaseth.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LXXVII. The Chapter of changing into a golden hawk.

Vignette: A golden hawk

Chapter LXXVIII. The Chapter of changing into a divine hawk.

Vignette: A hawk.

Chapter LXXIX. The Chapter of being among the company of the gods, and of becoming a prince among the divine powers.

Vignette: The deceased adoring three gods.

Chapter LXXX. The Chapter of changing into a god, and of sending forth light into darkness.

Vignette: A god.

Chapter LXXXIA. The Chapter of changing into a lily.

Vignette: A lily.

Chapter LXXXIB. The Chapter of changing into a lily.

Vignette: The head of the deceased rising out of a lily.

Chapter LXXXII. The Chapter of changing into Ptah, of eating cakes, of drinking ale, of unloosing the body, and of living in Annu (On).

Vignette: The God Ptah in a shrine.

Chapter LXXXIII. The Chapter of changing into a phœnix.

Vignette: A phoenix.

Chapter LXXXIV. The Chapter of changing into a heron.

Vignette: A heron.

Chapter LXXXV. The Chapter of changing into a soul, of not going into

the place of punishment: whosoever knoweth it will never perish.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter LXXXVI. The Chapter of changing into a swallow.

Vignette: A swallow.

Chapter LXXXVII. The Chapter of changing into the serpent Sa-ta.

Vignette: A serpent.

Chapter LXXXVIII. The Chapter of changing into a crocodile.

Vignette: A crocodile.

Chapter LXXXIX. The Chapter of making the soul to be united to its body.

Vignette: The soul visiting the body, which lies on a bier.

{p. xxxix}

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« Reply #20 on: December 21, 2008, 10:04:29 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

Chapter XC. The Chapter of giving memory to a man.

Vignette: A jackal.

Chapter XCI. 'The Chapter of not allowing the soul of a man to be shut in.

Vignette: A soul standing on a pedestal.

Chapter XCII. The Chapter of opening the tomb to the soul and shadow of a man, so that he may come forth and may gain power over his legs.

Vignette: The soul of the deceased flying through the door of the tomb.

Chapter XCIII. The Chapter of not sailing to the east in the underworld.

Vignette: The hands of a buckle grasping the deceased by his left arm.

Chapter XCIV. The Chapter of praying for an ink jar and palette.

Vignette: The deceased sitting before a stand, upon which are an ink jar and palette.

Chapter XCV. The Chapter of being near Thoth.

Vignette: The deceased standing before Thoth.

Chapters XCVI., XCVII. The Chapter of being near Thoth, and of giving . . . . . . .

Vignette: The deceased standing near Thoth.

Chapter XCVIII. [The title of this chapter is incomplete.]

Chapter XCIX. The Chapter of bringing a boat in the underworld.

Vignette: A boat.

Chapter C. The Chapter of making perfect the khu, and of making it to enter into the boat of Ra, together with his divine followers.

Vignette: A boat containing a company of gods.

Chapter CL.* The Chapter of protecting the boat of Ra.

Vignette: The deceased in the boat with Ra.

Chapter CII. The Chapter of going into the boat of Ra.

Vignette: The deceased in the boat with Ra.

Chapter CIII. The Chapter of being in the following of Hathor.

Vignette: The deceased standing behind Hathor.

Chapter CIV. The Chapter of sitting among the great gods.

Vignette: The deceased seated between two gods.

Chapter CV. The Chapter of satisfying the ka.

Vignette: The deceased burning incense before his ka.

Chapter CVI. The Chapter of causing joy each day to a man in Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis).

Vignette: An altar with meat and drink offerings.

Chapter CVII.* The Chapter of going into, and of coming forth from, the

{p. xl}

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« Reply #21 on: December 21, 2008, 10:05:31 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

gate of the gods of the west among the followers of the god, and of knowing the souls of Amentet.

Vignette: Three deities: Ra, Sebek, and Hathor.

Chapter CVIII. The Chapter of knowing the souls of the West.

Vignette: Three deities: Tmu, Sebek, and Hathor.

Chapter CIX. The Chapter of knowing the souls of the East.

Vignette: The deceased making adoration before Ra-Heru-khuti.

Chapter CX. The beginning of the Chapters of the Fields of Peace, and of the Chapters of coming forth by day, and of going into, and of coming forth from, the underworld, and of attaining unto the Fields of Reeds, and of being in the Fields of Peace.

Vignette: The Fields of Peace.

Chapter CXI. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter CVIII.)

Chapter CXII. The Chapter of knowing the souls of Pe.

Vignette: Horus, Mesthi, and Ha-pi.

Chapter CXIII. The Chapter of knowing the souls of Nekhen.

Vignette: Horus, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf.

Chapter CXIV. The Chapter of knowing the souls of Khemennu (Hermopolis).

Vignette: Three ibis-headed gods.

Chapter CXV.* The Chapter of coming forth to heaven, of passing through the hall of the tomb, and of knowing the souls of Annu.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Thoth, Sau and Tmu.

Chapter CXVI. [The Chapter of] knowing the souls of Annu.

Vignette: The deceased adoring three ibis-headed gods.

Chapter CXVII. The Chapter of taking a way in Re-stau.

Vignette: The deceased, holding a staff in his hand, ascending the western hills.

Chapter CXVIII. The Chapter of coming forth from Re-stau.

Vignette: The deceased holding a staff in his left hand.

Chapter CXIX. The Chapter of knowing the name of Osiris, and of going into, and of coming forth from, Re-stau.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Osiris.

Chapter CXX. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter XII.)

Chapter CXXI. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter XIII.)

Chapter CXXII.* The Chapter of the deceased going in after coming forth from the underworld.

{p. xli}

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« Reply #22 on: December 21, 2008, 10:06:02 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

Vignette: The deceased bowing before his tomb, which is on a hill.

Chapter CXXIII. The Chapter of going into the great house (i.e., tomb).

Vignette: The soul of the deceased standing before a tomb.

Chapter CXXIV. The Chapter of going in to the princes of Osiris.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebbsennuf.

Chapter CXXV. The words which are to be uttered by the deceased when he cometh to the hall of Maati, which separateth him from his sins, and which maketh him to see God, the Lord of mankind.

Vignette: The hall of Maati, in which the heart of the deceased is being weighed in a balance in the presence of the great gods.

Chapter CXXVI. [Without title.]

Vignette: A lake of fire, at each corner of which sits an ape.

Chapter CXXVIIA. The book of the praise of the gods of the qerti.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXXVIIB. The Chapter of the words to be spoken on going to the chiefs of Osiris, and of the praise of the gods who are leaders in the tuat.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXXVIII.* The Chapter of praising Osiris.

Vignette: The deceased adoring three deities.

Chapter CXXIX. (This Chapter in now known as Chapter C.)

Chapter CXXX. The Chapter of making perfect the khu.

Vignette: The deceased standing between two boats.

Chapter CXXXI.* The Chapter of making a man go into heaven to the side of Ra.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXXXII. The Chapter of making a man to go round about to see his house.

Vignette: A man standing before a house or tomb.

Chapter CXXXIII. The Chapter of making perfect the khu in the under world in the presence of the great company of the gods.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra, seated in a boat.

Chapter CXXXIV. The Chapter of entering into the boat of Ra, and of being among those who are in his train.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Horus, Hathor.

{p. xlii}

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« Reply #23 on: December 21, 2008, 10:07:10 pm »

Theban version: list of chapters.

Chapter CXXXV.* Another Chapter, which is to be recited at the waxing of the moon [each] month.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXXXVIA. The Chapter of sailing in the boat of Ra.

Vignette: The deceased standing with hands raised in adoration.

Chapter CXXXVIB. The Chapter of sailing in the great boat of Ra, to pass round the fiery orbit of the sun.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXXXVIIA. The Chapter of kindling the fire which is to be made in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXXXVIIB. The Chapter of the deceased kindling the fire.

Vignette: The deceased seated, kindling a flame.

Chapter CXXXVIII. The Chapter of making the deceased to enter into Abydos.

Vignette: The deceased adoring the standard ###.

Chapter CXXXIX. (This Chapter is now known as Chapter CXXIII.)

Chapter CXL.* The Book which is to be recited in the second month of pert, when the utchat is full in the second month of pert.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Anpu, the utchat, and Ra.

Chapters CXLI-CXLIII. The Book which is to be recited by a man for his father and for his son at the festivals of Amentet. It will make him perfect before Ra and before the gods, and he shall dwell with them. It shall be recited on the ninth day of the festival.

Vignette: The deceased making offerings before a god.

Chapter CXLIV. The Chapter of going in.

Vignette: Seven pylons.

Chapter CXLVA. [Without title.]

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXLVB. [The Chapter] of coming forth to the hidden pylons.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXLVI. [The Chapter of] knowing the pylons in the house of Osiris in the Field of Aaru.

Vignette: A series of pylons guarded each by a god.

Chapter CXLVII. [A Chapter] to be recited by the deceased when he cometh to the first hall of Amentet.

{p. xliii}

Theban version: list of chapters.

Vignette: A series of doors, each guarded by a god.

Chapter CXLVIII. [The Chapter] of nourishing the khu in the underworld, and of removing him from every evil thing.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CXLIX. [Without title.]

Vignette: The divisions of the other world.

Chapter CL. [Without title.]

Vignette: Certain divisions of the other world.

Chapter CLI. [Without title.]

Vignette: Scene of the mummy chamber.

Chapter CLIA. [Chapter] of the hands of Anpu, the dweller in the sepulchral chamber, being upon the lord of life (i.e., the mummy).

Vignette: Anubis standing by the bier of the deceased.

Chapter CLIB. The Chapter of the chief of hidden things.

Vignette: A human head.

Chapter CLII. The Chapter of building a house in the earth.

Vignette: The deceased standing by the foundations of his house.

Chapter CLIIIA. The Chapter of coming forth from the net.

Vignette: A net being drawn by a number of men.

CLIIIB. The Chapter of coming forth from the fishing net.

Vignette: Three apes drawing a fishing net.

Chapter CLIV. The Chapter of not allowing the body of a man to decay in the tomb.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLV. The Chapter of a Tet of gold to be placed on the neck of the khu.

Vignette: A Tet.

Chapter CLVI. The Chapter of a buckle of amethyst to be placed on the neck of the khu.

Vignette: A Buckle.

Chapter CLVII*. The Chapter of a vulture of gold to be placed on the neck of the khu.

Vignette: A vulture.

Chapter CLVIII.* The Chapter of a collar of gold to be placed on the neck of the khu.

Vignette: A collar.

{p. xliv}

Theban version: list of chapters.

Chapter CLIX.* The Chapter of a sceptre of mother-of-emerald to be placed on the neck of the khu.

Vignette: A sceptre.

Chapter CLX. [The Chapter] of placing a plaque of mother-of-emerald.

Vignette: A plaque.

Chapter CLXI. The Chapter of the opening of the doors of heaven by Thoth, etc.

Vignette: Thoth opening four doors.

Chapter CLXII.* The Chapter of causing heat to exist under the head of the khu.

Vignette: A cow.

Chapter CLXIII.* The Chapter of not allowing the body of a man to decay in the underworld.

Vignette: Two utchats, and a serpent on legs.

Chapter CLXIV.* Another Chapter.

Vignette: A three-headed goddess, winged, standing between two pigmies.

Chapter CLXV.* The Chapter of arriving in port, of not becoming unseen, and of making the body to germinate, and of satisfying it with the water of heaven.

Vignette: The god Min or Amsu with beetle's body, etc.

Chapter CLXVI. The Chapter of the pillow.

Vignette: A pillow.

Chapter CLXVII. The Chapter of bringing the utchat.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXVIIIA. [Without title.]

Vignette: The boats of the sun, etc.

Chapter CLXVIIIB. [Without title.]

Vignette: Men pouring libations, gods, etc.

Chapter CLXIX. The Chapter of setting up the offering chamber.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXX. The Chapter of the roof of the offering chamber.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXXI. The Chapter of tying the abu.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXXII. Here begin the praises which are to be recited in the underworld.

{p. xlv}

Theban version: list of chapters.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXXIII. Addresses by Horus to his father.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Osiris.

Chapter CLXXIV. The Chapter of causing the khu to come forth from the great gate of heaven.

Vignette: The deceased coming forth from a door.

Chapter CLXXV. The Chapter of not dying a second time in the underworld.

Vignette: The deceased adoring an ibis-headed god.

Chapter CLXXVI. The Chapter of not dying a second time in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXXVII. The Chapter of raising up the khu, and of making the soul to live in the underworld.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXXVIII. The Chapter of raising up the body, of making the eyes to see, of making the ears to hear, of setting firm the head and of giving it its powers.

This Chapter has no Vignette.

Chapter CLXXIX. The Chapter of coming forth from yesterday, of coming forth by day, and of praying with the hands.

This Chapter has no vignette.

Chapter CLXXX. The Chapter of coming forth by day, of praising Ra in Amentet, and of ascribing praise unto those who are in the tuat.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Ra.

Chapter CLXXXI. The Chapter of going in to the divine chiefs of Osiris who are the leaders in the tuat.

Vignette: The deceased adoring Osiris, etc.

Chapter CLXXXII. The Book of stablishing the backbone of Osiris, of giving breath to him whose heart is still, and of the repulse of the enemies of Osiris by Thoth.

Vignette: The deceased lying on a bier in a funeral chest, surrounded by various gods.

Chapter CLXXXIII. A hymn of praise to Osiris; ascribing to him glory, and to Un-nefer adoration.

Vignettes: The deceased, with hands raised in adoration, and the god Thoth.

Chapter CLXXXIV. The Chapter of being with Osiris.

Vignette: The deceased standing by the side of Osiris.

{p. xlvi}

Theban version: list of chapters.

Chapter CLXXXV. The ascription of praise to Osiris, and of adoration to the everlasting lord.

Vignette: The deceased making adoration to Osiris.

Chapter CLXXXVI. A hymn of praise to Hathor, mistress of Amentet, and to Meh-urt.

Vignette: The deceased approaching the mountain of the dead, from which appears the goddess Hathor.

The version akin to the Theban.

Palæography.

The version akin to was in vogue from the XXth to the XXVIth dynasty, i.e., about B.C. 1200-550, and was, like the Theban, usually written upon papyrus. The chapters have no fixed order, and are written in lines in the hieratic character; the rubrics, catchwords, and certain names, like that of Apep, are in red. The vignettes are roughly traced in black outline, and are without ornament; but at the ends of the best papyri well-painted scenes, in which the deceased is depicted making adoration to Ra or Horus, are frequently found. The names and titles of the deceased are written in perpendicular rows of hieroglyphics. The character of the handwriting changes in different periods: in the papyrus of the Princess Nesi-Khonsu (about B.C. 1000) it is bold and clear, and much resembles the handsome style of that found in the great Harris papyrus;[1] but within a hundred years, apparently, the fine flowing style disappears, and the writing becomes much smaller and is somewhat cramped; the process of reduction in size continues until the XXVIth dynasty, about B.C. 550, when the small and coarsely written characters are frequently difficult to decipher. The papyri upon which such texts are written vary in length from three to about thirty feet, and in width from nine to eighteen inches; as we approach the period of the XXVIth dynasty the texture becomes coarser and the material is darker in colour. The Theban papyri of this period are lighter in colour than those found in the north of Egypt and are less brittle; they certainly suffer less in unrolling.

[1. The Books of the Dead written in the hieroglyphic and hieratic characters which belong to the period of the rule of the priest-kings of the brotherhood of Amen form a class by themselves, and have relatively little in common with the older versions. A remarkable example of this class is the papyrus of Nesi-Khonsu which M. Maspero published (Les Momies Royales de Déir el-baharî, p. 600 f.). The text is divided into paragraphs, which contain neither prayers nor hymns but a veritable contract between the god Amen-Ra and the princess Nesi-Khonsu. After the list of the names and titles of Amen-Ra with which it begins follow eleven sections wherein the god declares in legal phraseology that he hath deified the princess in Amenta and in Neter-khert; that he hath deified her soul and her body in order that neither may be destroyed; that he hath made her divine like every god and goddess; and that he hath decreed that whatever is necessary for her in her new existence shall be done for her, even as it is done for every other god and goddess.]

{p. xlvii}

The Saïte and Ptolemaic version.

Palæography.

The Saïte and Ptolemaic version was in vogue from the period of the XXVIth dynasty, about B.C. 550, to probably the end of the rule of the Ptolemies over Egypt. The chapters have a fixed and definite order, and it seems that a careful revision of the whole work was carried out, and that several alterations of an important nature were made in it. A number of chapters which are not found in older papyri appear during this period; but these are not necessarily new inventions, for, as the kings of the XXVIth dynasty are renowned for having revived the arts and sciences and literature of the earliest dynasties, it is quite possible that many or most of the additional chapters are nothing more than new editions of extracts from older works. Many copies of this version were written by scribes who did not understand what they were copying, and omissions of signs, words, and even whole passages are very common; in papyri of the Ptolemaic period it is impossible to read many passages without the help of texts of earlier periods. The papyri of this period vary in colour from a light to a dark brown, and consist usually of layers composed of strips of the plant measuring about 2 inches in width and 14½ to 16 inches in length. Fine examples of Books of the Dead of this version vary in length from about 24½ feet (B.M. No. 10,479, written for the utcheb Heru, the son of the utcheb Tchehra) to 60 feet. Hieroglyphic texts are written in black, in perpendicular rows between rules, and hieratic texts in horizontal lines; both the hieroglyphics and the hieratic characters lack the boldness of the writing of the Theban period, and exhibit the characteristics of a conventional hand. The titles of the chapters, catchwords, the words ### which introduce a variant reading, etc., are sometimes written in red. The vignettes are usually traced in black outline, and form a kind of continuous border above the text. In good papyri, however, the scene forming the XVIth Chapter, the scene of the Fields of Peace (Chapter CX.), the judgment scene (Chapter CXXV.), the vignette of Chapter CXLVIII., the scene forming Chapter CLI. (the sepulchral chamber), and the vignette of Chapter CLXI., fill the whole width of the inscribed portion of the papyrus, and are painted in somewhat crude colours. In some papyri the disk on the head of the hawk of Horus is covered with gold leaf, instead of being painted red as is usual in older papyri. In the Græco-Roman period both texts and vignettes are very carelessly executed, and it is evident that they were written and drawn by ignorant workmen in the quickest and most careless way possible. In this period also certain passages of the text were copied in hieratic and Demotic upon small pieces of papyri which were buried with portions of the bodies of the dead, and upon narrow bandages of coarse linen in which they were swathed.

{p. xlviii}

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« Reply #24 on: December 21, 2008, 10:09:10 pm »

THE LEGEND OF OSIRIS.

The main features of the Egyptian religion constant.

The chief features of the Egyptian religion remained unchanged from the Vth and VIth dynasties down to the period when the Egyptians embraced Christianity, after the preaching of St. Mark the Apostle in Alexandria, A.D. 69, so firmly had the early beliefs taken possession of the Egyptian mind; and the Christians in Egypt, or Copts as they are commonly called, the racial descendants of the ancient Egyptians, seem never to have succeeded in divesting themselves of the superstitious and weird mythological conceptions which they inherited from their heathen ancestors. It is not necessary here to repeat the proofs, of this fact which M. Amélineau has brought together,[1] or to adduce evidence from the lives of the saints, martyrs and ascetics; but it is of interest to note in passing that the translators of the New Testament into Coptic rendered the Greek {Greek a!'dhs} by ###, amenti, the name which the ancient Egyptians gave to the abode of man after death,[3] and that the Copts peopled it with beings whose prototypes are found on the ancient monuments.

Persistence of the legend of Osiris and the belief in the resurrection.

The chief gods mentioned in the pyramid texts are identical with those whose names are given on tomb, coffin and papyrus in the latest dynasties; and if the names of the great cosmic gods, such as Ptah and Khnemu, are of rare occurrence, it should be remembered that the gods of the dead must naturally occupy the chief place in this literature which concerns the dead. Furthermore, we find that the doctrine of eternal life and of the resurrection of a glorified or transformed body, based upon the ancient story of the resurrection of Osiris after a cruel death and horrible mutilation, inflicted by the powers of evil, was the same in all periods, and that the legends of the most ancient times were accepted without material alteration or addition in the texts of the later dynasties.

[1. Le Christianisme chez les anciens Coptes, in Revue des Religions, t, xiv., Paris, 1886, PP, 308-45

2. I.e., ###.

3. See St. Matthew xi., 23; Acts ii., 27, etc.]

{p. xlix}

Plutarch's version of the legend.

The story of Osiris is nowhere found in a connected form in Egyptian literature, but everywhere, and in texts of all periods, the life, sufferings, death and resurrection of Osiris are accepted as facts universally admitted. Greek writers have preserved in their works traditions concerning this god, and to Plutarch in particular we owe an important version of the legend as current in his day. It is clear that in some points he errs, but this was excusable in dealing with a series of traditions already some four thousand years old.[1] According to this writer the goddess Rhea [Nut], the wife of Helios [Ra], was beloved by Kronos [Seb]. When Helios discovered the intrigue, he cursed his wife and declared that she should not be delivered of her child in any month or in any year. Then the god Hermes, who also loved Rhea, played at tables with Selene and won from her the seventieth part of each day of the year, which, added together, made five whole days. These he joined to the three hundred and sixty days of which the year then consisted.[2] Upon the first of these five days was Osiris brought forth;[3] and at the moment of his birth a voice was heard to proclaim that the lord of creation was born. In course of time he became king of Egypt, and devoted himself to civilizing his subjects and to teaching them the craft of the husbandman; he established a code of laws and bade men worship the gods. Having made Egypt peaceful and flourishing, he set out to instruct the other nations of the world. During his absence his wife Isis so well ruled the state that Typhon [Set], the evil one, could do no harm to the realm of Osiris. When Osiris came again, Typhon plotted with seventy-two comrades, and with Aso, the queen of Ethiopia, to slay him; and secretly got the measure of the body of Osiris, and made ready a fair chest, which was brought into his banqueting hall when Osiris was present together with other guests. By a ruse Osiris was induced to lie down in the chest, which was immediately closed by Typhon and his fellow conspirators, who conveyed it to the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile.[4] These things happened on the seventeenth day of

[1. For the text see De Iside et Osiride, ed. Didot (Scripta Moralia, t. iii., pp. 429-69), § xii. ff.

2. The days are called in hieroglyphics ###, "the five additional days of the year," e?pago'menai!hme'rai pe'nte; see Brugsch, Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegytiacarum, Abt. ii. (Kalendarische Inschriften), Leipzig, 1883, pp. 479, 480; Brugsch, Aegyptologie, p. 361 Chabas, Le Cálendrier, Paris (no date), p. 99 ff.

3. Osiris was born on the first day, Horus on the second, Set on the third, Isis on the fourth, and Nephthys on the fifth; the first, third, and fifth of these days were considered unlucky by the Egyptians.

4. The mouths of the Nile are discussed and described by Strabo, XVII., i., 18 (ed. Didot, p. 681) and by Diodorus, I., 33, 7 (ed. Didot, p. 26).]

{p. l}

Plutarch's version.

the month Hathor,[1] when Osiris was in the twenty-eighth year either of his reign or of his age. The first to know of what had happened were the Pans and Satyrs, who dwelt hard by Panopolis; and finally the news was brought to Isis at Coptos, whereupon she cut off a lock of hair[2] and put on mourning apparel. She then set out in deep grief to find her husband's body, and in the course of her wanderings she discovered that Osiris had been united with her sister Nephthys, and that Anubis, the offspring of the union, had been exposed by his mother as soon as born. Isis tracked him by the help of dogs, and bred him up to be her guard and attendant. Soon after she learned that the chest had been carried by the sea to Byblos, where it had been gently laid by the waves among the branches of a tamarisk tree ({Greek e?pei'khj tini`}), which in a very short time had grown to a magnificent size and had enclosed the chest within its trunk. The king of the country, admiring the tree, cut it down and made a pillar for the roof of his house of that part which contained the body of Osiris. When Isis heard of this she went to Byblos, and, gaining admittance to the palace through the report of the royal maidens, she was made nurse to one of the king's sons, Instead of nursing the child in the ordinary way, Isis gave him her finger to suck, and each night she put him into the fire to consume his mortal parts, changing herself the while into a swallow and bemoaning her fate. But the queen once happened to see her son in flames, and cried out, and thus deprived him of immortality. Then Isis told the queen her story and begged for the pillar which supported the roof. This she cut open, and took out the chest and her husband's body,[3] and her lamentations were so terrible that one of the royal children died of fright. She then brought the

[1. In the Calendar in the fourth Sallier papyrus (No. 10,184) this day is marked triply unlucky, and it is said that great lamentation by Isis and Nephthys took place for Un-nefer (Osiris) thereon. See Chabas, Le Calendrier, p. 50. Here we have Plutarch's statement supported by documentary evidence. Some very interesting details concerning the festivals of Osiris in the month Choiak are given by Loret in Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. 43 ff; t. iv., p. 21 ff.; and t. v., p. 85 ff. The various mysteries which took place thereat are minutely described.

2 On the cutting of the hair as a sign of mourning, see W. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites, p. 395; and for other beliefs about the hair see Tylor, Primitive Culture, vo1. ii., p. 364, and Fraser, Golden Bough, pp. 193-208.

3 The story continues that Isis then wrapped the pillar in fine linen and anointed it with oil, and restored it to the queen. Plutarch adds that the piece of wood is, to this day, preserved in the temple of Isis, and worshipped by the people of Byblos. Prof. Robertson Smith suggests (Religion of the Semites, p. 175) that the rite of draping and anointing a sacred stump supplies the answer to the unsolved question of the nature of the ritual practices connected with the Ashera. That some sort of drapery belonged to the Ashera is clear from 2 Kings xxiii., 7. See also Tylor, Primitive Culture, vol. ii., p. 150; and Fraser, Golden Bough, vol. i., p. 304 ff.]

{p. li}

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« Reply #25 on: December 21, 2008, 10:09:51 pm »

Plutarch's version.

chest by ship to Egypt, where she opened it and embraced the body of her husband, weeping bitterly. Then she sought her son Horus in Buto, in Lower Egypt, first having hidden the chest in a secret place. But Typhon, one night hunting by the light of the moon, found the chest, and, recognizing the body, tore it into fourteen pieces, which he scattered up and down throughout the land. When Isis heard of this she took a boat made of papyrus[1]--a plant abhorred by crocodiles--and sailing about she gathered the fragments of Osiris's body.[2] Wherever she found one, there she built a tomb. But now Horus had grown up, and being encouraged to the use of arms by Osiris, who returned from the other world, he went out to do battle with Typhon, the murderer of his father. The fight lasted many days, and Typhon was made captive. But Isis, to whom the care of the prisoner was given, so far from aiding her son Horus, set Typhon at liberty. Horus in his rage tore from her head the royal diadem; but Thoth gave her a helmet in the shape of a cow's head. In two other battles fought between Horus and Typhon, Horus was the victor.[3]

Identity of the deceased with Osiris.

This is the story of the sufferings and death of Osiris as told by Plutarch. Osiris was the god through whose sufferings and death the Egyptian hoped that his body might rise again in some transformed or glorified shape, and to him who had conquered death and had become the king of the other world the Egyptian appealed in prayer for eternal life through his victory and power. In every funeral inscription known to us, from the pyramid texts down to the roughly written prayers upon coffins of the Roman period, what is done for Osiris is done also for the deceased, the state and condition of Osiris are the state and condition of

[1. The ark of "bulrushes" was, no doubt, intended to preserve the child Moses from crocodiles.

2. {Greek Mo'non de` tw^n merw^u tou^ O?si'ridos th`n I?^sin ou`x e`urei^n to` ai?doi^n e`uðu`s ga`r ei's to`n potamo`n r!ifh^nai kai` geu'sasðai to'n te lepidwto`n au`tou^ kai` to`n fa'gron kai` to`n o?ksu'rugxon. k.t.l.}. By the festival celebrated by the Egyptians in honour of the model of the lost member of Osiris, we are probably to understand the public performance of the ceremony of "setting up the Tet in Tattu", which we know took place on the last day of the month Choiak; see Loret, Les Fêtes d'Osiris au mois de Khoiak (Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 32, § 87); Plutarch, De Iside, § xviii.

3. An account of the battle is also given in the IVth Sallier papyrus, wherein we are told that it took place on the 26th day of the month Thoth. Horus and Set fought in the form of two men, but they afterwards changed themselves into two bears, and they passed three days and three nights in this form. Victory inclined now to one side, and now to the other, and the heart of Isis suffered bitterly. When Horus saw that she loosed the fetters which he had laid upon Set, he became like a "raging panther of the south with fury," and she fled before him; but he pursued her, and cut off her head, which Thoth transformed by his words of magical power and set upon her body again in the form of that of a cow. In the calendars the 26th day of Thoth was marked triply deadly. See Chabas, Le Calendrier, p. 28 ff.]

{p. lii}

the deceased; in a word, the deceased is identified with Osiris. If Osiris liveth for ever, the deceased will live for ever; if Osiris dieth, then will the deceased perish.[1]

[1. The origin of Plutarch's story of the death of Osiris, and the Egyptian conception of his nature and attributes, may be gathered from the following very remarkable hymn. (The text is given by Ledrain, Les Monuments Égyptiens de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1879, pll. xxi-xxvii. A French translation of it was published, with notes, by Chabas, in Revue Archéologique, Paris, 1857, t. xiv., p. 65 ff.; and an English version was given in Records of the Past, 1st series, vol. iv., p. 99 ff. The stele upon which it is found belongs to the early part of the XVIIIth dynasty, by which is meant the period before the reign of Amenophis IV.; this is proved by the fact that the name of the god Amen has been cut out of it, an act of vandalism which can only have been perpetrated in the fanatical reign of Amenophis IV.):

Hymn to Osiris.

"(1) Hail to thee, Osiris, lord of eternity, king of the gods, thou who hast many names, thou disposer of created things, thou who hast hidden forms in the temples, thou sacred one, thou KA who dwellest in Tattu, thou mighty (2) one in Sekhem, thou lord to whom invocations are made in Anti, thou who art over the offerings in Annu, thou lord who makest inquisition in two-fold right and truth, thou hidden soul, the lord of Qerert, thou who disposest affairs in the city of the White Wall, thou soul of Ra, thou very body of Ra who restest in (3) Suten-henen, thou to whom adorations are made in the region of Nart, thou who makest the soul to rise, thou lord of the Great House in Khemennu, thou mighty of terror in Shas-hetep, thou lord of eternity, thou chief of Abtu, thou who sittest upon thy throne in Ta-tchesert, thou whose name is established in the mouths of (4) men, thou unformed matter of the world, thou god Tum, thou who providest with food the ka's who are with the company of the gods, thou perfect khu among khu's, thou provider of the waters of Nu, thou giver of the wind, thou producer of the wind of the evening from thy nostrils for the satisfaction of thy heart. Thou makest (5) plants to grow at thy desire, thou givest birth to . . . . . . . ; to thee are obedient the stars in the heights, and thou openest the mighty gates. Thou art the lord to whom hymns of praise are sung in the southern heaven, and unto thee are adorations paid in the northern heaven. The never setting stars (6) are before thy face, and they are thy thrones, even as also are those that never rest. An offering cometh to thee by the command of Seb. The company of the gods adoreth thee, the stars of the tuat bow to the earth in adoration before thee, [all] domains pay homage to thee, and the ends of the earth offer entreaty and supplication. When those who are among the holy ones (7) see thee they tremble at thee, and the whole world giveth praise unto thee when it meeteth thy majesty. Thou art a glorious sahu among the sahu's, upon thee hath dignity been conferred, thy dominion is eternal, O thou beautiful Form of the company of the gods; thou gracious one who art beloved by him that (Cool seeth thee. Thou settest thy fear in all the world, and through love for thee all proclaim thy name before that of all other gods. Unto thee are offerings made by all mankind, O thou lord to whom commemorations are made, both in heaven and in earth. Many are the shouts of joy that rise to thee at the Uak
  • festival, and cries of delight ascend to thee from the (9) whole world with one voice. Thou art the chief and prince of thy brethren, thou art the prince of the company of the gods, thou stablishest right and truth everywhere, thou placest thy son upon thy throne, thou art the object of praise of thy father Seb, and of the love of thy mother Nut. Thou art exceeding mighty, thou overthrowest those who oppose thee, thou art mighty of hand, and thou slaughterest thine (10) enemy. Thou settest thy fear in thy foe, thou removest his boundaries, thy heart is fixed, and thy feet are watchful. Thou art the heir of Seb and the sovereign of all the earth;
[* This festival took place on the 17th and 18th days of the month Thoth; see Brugsch, Kalendarische Inschriften, p. 235.]

{footnote page liii}

Seb hath seen thy glorious power, and hath commanded thee to direct the (11) universe for ever and ever by thy hand.

"Thou hast made this earth by thy hand, and the waters thereof, and the wind thereof, the herb thereof, all the cattle thereof, all the winged fowl thereof, all the fish thereof, all the creeping things thereof, and all the four-footed beasts thereof. (12) O thou son of Nut, the whole world is gratified when thou ascendest thy father's throne like Ra. Thou shinest in the horizon, thou sendest forth thy light into the darkness, thou makest the darkness light with thy double plume, and thou floodest the world with light like the (13) Disk at break of day. Thy diadem pierceth heaven and becometh a brother unto the stars, O thou form of every god. Thou art gracious in command and in speech, thou art the favoured one of the great company of the gods, and thou art the greatly beloved one of the lesser company of the gods.

"Thy sister put forth her protecting power for thee, she scattered abroad those who were her enemies, (14) she drove back evil hap, she pronounced mighty words of power, she made cunning her tongue, and her words failed not. The glorious Isis was perfect in command and in speech, and she avenged her brother. She sought him without ceasing, (15) she wandered round and round the earth uttering cries of pain, and she rested
  • not until she had found him. She overshadowed him with her feathers, she made wind with her wings, and she uttered cries at the burial of her brother. (16) She raised up the prostrate form of him whose heart was still, she took from. him of his essence, she conceived and brought forth a child,
  • she suckled it in secret (?) and none knew the place thereof; and the arm of the child hath waxed strong in the great house of Seb. (17) The company of the gods rejoiceth and is glad at the coming of Osiris's son Horus, and firm of heart and triumphant is the son of Isis, the heir of Osiris."[++]
[*. Literally, "she alighted not,"; the whole passage here justifies Plutarch's statement (De Iside Osiride, 16) concerning Isis: {Greek Au?th`n de` genome'nhn xelido'na tu~j ki'oni peripi'tesðai kai` ðrhnei~n}.

+. Compare Plutarch, op. cit., §19: {Greek T`hn d' I?'sin th`n teleuth`n e`ks O?si'ridos suggenome'nou tekei~n h?li'to'mhnon kai` a?sðenh~ toi~s ka'twðen gui'ois to`n A?rpokra'thn}.

++. The remainder of the hymn refers to Horus.]]

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Osiris invested with the attributes of Ra.

Later in the XVIIIth, or early in the XIXth dynasty, we find Osiris called "the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who traverseth millions of years in the duration of his life, the firstborn son of the womb of Nut, begotten of Seb, the prince of gods and men, the god of gods, the king of kings, the lord of lords, the prince of princes, the governor of the world, from the womb of Nut, whose existence is for everlasting,[1] Unnefer of many forms and of many attributes, Tmu in Annu, the lord of Akert,[2] the only one, the lord of the land on each side of the celestial Nile."[3]

In the XXVIth dynasty and later there grew up a class of literature

[1. For the text see the papyrus of Ani, pl. ii., and pl. xxxvi., 1. 2.

2. I.e., the underworld.

3. neb atebui; see Ani, pl. xix., 1. 9.]

{p. liv}

Osiris the god of the resurrection.

represented by such works as "The Book of Respirations,"[1] "The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys,"[2] "The Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys,"[3] "The Litanies of Seker,"[4] and the like, the hymns and prayers of which are addressed to Osiris rather as the god of the dead and type of the resurrection[5] than as the successor of the great cosmic god Tmu-Ra. He is called "the soul that liveth again,"[6] "the being who becometh a child again," "the firstborn son of unformed matter, the lord of multitudes of aspects and forms, the lord of time and bestower of years, the lord of life for all eternity."[7] He is the "giver of life from the beginning;"[8] "life springs up to us from his destruction,"[9] and the germ which proceeds from him engenders life in both the dead and the living.[10]

[1. ###. The text of this work, transcribed into hieroglyphics, was published, with a Latin translation, by Brugsch, under the title, Sai an Sinsin sive Aber Metempsychosis veterum Aegyptiorum, Berlin, 1851; and an English translation of the same work, but made from a Paris MS., was given by p. J. de Horrack in Records of the Past, 1st series, vol., iv., p. 121 ff. See also Birch, Facsimiles of Two Papyri, London, 1863, p. 3; Devéria, Catalogue des MSS. Égyptiens, Paris, 1874, pp. 130 ff., where several copies of this work are described.

2. The hieratic text of this work is published with a French translation by p. J. de Horrack, Les Lamentations d'Isis et de Nephthys, Paris, 1886.

3. A hieroglyphic transcript of these works, with an English translation, was given in Archælogia, vol. iii., London, 1891.

4. What Devéria says with reference to the Book of Respirations applies to the whole class: "Toutefois, on remarque dans cet écrit une tendance à la doctrine de la résurrection du corps plus marquée que dans les compositions antérieures" (Catalogue, p. 13).

5. ###. Festival Songs, iv., 33.

6. ###. Ibid., viii., 21, ix., 8.

7. Litanies of Seker, col. xviii.

8. ###. Festival Songs, vi., 1.

9. ###. Ibid., iii., 18.

10. ###. Ibid., ix., 26.]

{p. lv}


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« Reply #26 on: December 21, 2008, 10:11:13 pm »

THE DOCTRINE OF ETERNAL LIFE.

Egyptian belief in a future life.

The doctrine of eternal life in the VIth dynasty.

The ideas and beliefs which the Egyptians held in reference to a future existence are not readily to be defined, owing to the many difficulties in translating religious texts and in harmonizing the statements made in different works of different periods. Some confusion of details also seems to have existed in the minds of the Egyptians themselves, which cannot be cleared up until the literature of the subject has been further studied and until more texts have been published. That the Egyptians believed in a future life of some kind is certain; and the doctrine of eternal existence is the leading feature of their religion, and is enunciated with the utmost clearness in all periods. Whether this belief had its origin at Annu, the chief city of the worship of the sun-god, is not certain, but is very probable; for already in the pyramid texts we find the idea of everlasting life associated with the sun's existence, and Pepi I. is said to be "the Giver of life, stability, power, health, and all joy of heart, like the Sun, living for ever."[1] The sun rose each day in renewed strength and vigour, and the renewal of youth in a future life was the aim and object of every Egyptian believer. To this end all the religious literature of Egypt was composed. Let us take the following extracts from texts of the VIth dynasty as illustrations:--

1. ha Unas an sem-nek as met-th sem-nek anxet

Hail Unas, not hast thou gone, behold, [as] one dead, thou hast gone [as] one living

hems her xent Ausar.

to sit upon the throne of Osiris.[2]

[1. ### Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 167 (1. 65).

2. Recueil Travaux, t. iii., p. 201 (1. 206). The context runs "Thy Sceptre is in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto the living ones. The Mekes and Nehbet sceptres are in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto those whose abodes are secret."]

{p. lvi}

2. O Ra-Tum i-nek sa-k i-nek Unas . . . . . . sa-k pu en

O Ra-Turn, cometh to thee thy son, cometh to thee Unas . . . . . thy son is this of

t'et-k en t'etta

thy body for ever.[1]

3. Tem sa-k pu penen Ausar ta-nek set'eb-f anx-f anx-f

O Turn, thy son is this Osiris; thou hast given his sustenance and he liveth; he liveth,

anx Unas pen an mit-f an mit Unas pen

and liveth Unas this; not dieth he, not dieth Unas this.[2]

4. hetep Unas em anx em Amenta

Setteth Unas in life in Amenta.[3]

5. au am-nef saa en neter neb ahau pa neheh t'er-f

He[4] hath eaten the knowledge of god every, [his] existence is for all eternity

pa t'etta em sah-f pen en merer-f ari-f mest'et'-f

and to everlasting in his sah[5] this; what he willeth he doeth, [what] he hateth

an ari-nef

not doth he do.[6]

[1. Recueil Travaux, t. iii., p. 208 (ll. 232, 233).

2. Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. 209 (l. 240)

3. Ibid., t. iv., p. 50 (l. 445). The allusion here is to the setting of the sun.

4. I.e., Unas.

5. See page lix.

6. Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 61 (ll. 520, 521).]

{p. lvii}

6. anx anx an mit-k

Live life, not shalt thou die.[1]

The doctrine of eternal life in the XVIIIth dynasty.

In the papyrus of Ani the deceased is represented as having come to a place remote and far away, where there is neither air to breathe nor water to drink, but where he holds converse with Tmu. In answer to his question, "How long have I to live?"[2], the great god of Annu answers:--

auk er heh en heh aha en heh

Thou shalt exist for millions of millions of years, a period of millions of years.

In the LXXXIVth Chapter, as given in the same papyrus, the infinite duration of the past and future existence of the soul, as well as its divine nature, is proclaimed by Ani in the words:--

nuk Su paut ba-a pu neter ba-a pu heh

I am Shu [the god] of unformed matter. My soul is God, my soul is eternity.[3]

When the deceased identifies himself with Shu, he makes the period of his existence coeval with that of Tmu-Ra, i.e., he existed before Osiris and the other gods of his company. These two passages prove the identity of the belief in eternal life in the XVIIIth dynasty with that in the Vth and VIth dynasties.

But while we have this evidence of the Egyptian belief in eternal life, we are nowhere told that man's corruptible body will rise again; indeed, the following extracts show that the idea prevailed that the body lay in the earth while the soul or spirit lived in heaven.

1. ba ar pet sat ar ta

Soul to heaven, body to earth.[4] (Vth dynasty.)

[1. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 170 (Pepi, 1. 85).

2. ###. Plate XIX., l. 16 (Book of the Dead, Chapter CLXXV.).

3. Plate XXVIII., 1. 15.

4 Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 71 (l. 582).]

{p. lvii}

2. mu-k er pet xa-k er ta

Thy essence is in heaven, thy body to earth.[1] (VIth dynasty.)

3. pet xer ba-k ta xeri tut-k

Heaven hath thy soul, earth hath thy body.[2] (Ptolemaic period.)

Constancy in the belief in the resurrection.

There is, however, no doubt that from first to last the Egyptians firmly believed that besides the soul there was some other element of the man that would rise again. The preservation of the corruptible body too was in some way connected with the life in the world to come, and its preservation was necessary to ensure eternal life; otherwise the prayers recited to this end would have been futile, and the time honoured custom of mummifying the dead would have had no meaning. The never ending existence of the soul is asserted in a passage quoted above without reference to Osiris; but the frequent mention of the uniting of his bones, and of the gathering together of his members,[3] and the doing away with all corruption from his body, seems to show that the pious Egyptian connected these things with the resurrection of his own body in some form, and he argued that what had been done for him who was proclaimed to be giver and source of life must be necessary for mortal man.

The khat or physical body.

The physical body of man considered as a whole was called khat, a word which seems to be connected with the idea of something which is liable to decay. The word is also applied to the mummified body in the tomb, as we know from the words "My body (khat) is buried."[4] Such a body was attributed to the god Osiris;" in the CLXIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead "his great

[1. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 43 (l. 304).

2. Horrack, Lamentations d'Isis et de Nephthys, Paris, 1866, p. 6.

3. Already in the pyramid texts we have "Rise up, O thou Teta! Thou hast received thy head, thou hast knitted together thy bones, thou hast collected thy members." Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 40 (1. 287).

3. Book of the Dead, Chapter LXXXVI., 1. 11.

4. Papyrus of Ani, pl. vii., 1. 28, and pl. xix., 1. 8.]

{p. lix}

divine body rested in Annu."[1] In this respect the god and the deceased were on an equality. As we have seen above, the body neither leaves the tomb nor reappears on earth; yet its preservation was necessary. Thus the deceased addresses Tmu[2]: "Hail to thee, O my father Osiris, I have come and I have embalmed this my flesh so that my body may not decay. I am whole, even as my father Khepera was whole, who is to me the type of that which passeth not away. Come then, O Form, and give breath unto me, O lord of breath, O thou who art greater than thy compeers. Stablish thou me, and form thou me, O thou who art lord of the grave. Grant thou to me to endure for ever, even as thou didst grant unto thy father Tmu to endure; and his body neither passed away nor decayed. I have not done that which is hateful unto thee, nay, I have spoken that which thy ka loveth: repulse thou me not, and cast thou me not behind thee, O Tmu, to decay, even as thou doest unto every god and unto every goddess and unto every beast and creeping thing which perisheth when his soul hath gone forth from him after his death, and which falleth in pieces after his decay . . . . . Homage to thee, O my father Osiris, thy flesh suffered no decay, there were no worms in thee, thou didst not crumble away, thou didst not wither away, thou didst not become corruption and worms; and I myself am Khepera, I shall possess my flesh for ever and ever, I shall not decay, I shall not crumble away, I shall not wither away, I shall not become corruption."

The sahu or spiritual body.

But the body does not lie in the tomb inoperative, for by the prayers and ceremonies on the day of burial it is endowed with the power of changing into a sahu, or spiritual body. Thus we have such phrases as, "I germinate like the plants,"[3] "My flesh germinateth,"[4] "I exist, I exist, I live, I live, I germinate, I germinate,"[5] "thy soul liveth, thy body germinateth by the command of Ra

[1. ###. Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 77,1. 7.

2. This chapter was found inscribed upon one of the linen wrappings of the mummy of Thothmes III., and a copy of the text is given by Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. L, Bl. 179); for a later version see Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 75, where many interesting variants occur.

3. ###. Chapter LXXXIII., 3.

4. ###. Chapter LXIV., 1. 49. (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 76.)

5. ###. Chapter CLIV. (Lepsius, Todtenbuch, 75.)]

{p. lx}

himself without diminution, and without defect, like unto Ra for ever and ever."[1] The word sahu though at times written with the determinative of a mummy lying on a bier like khat, "body," indicates a body which has obtained a degree of knowledge[2] and power and glory whereby it becomes henceforth lasting and incorruptible. The body which has become a sahu has the power of associating with the soul and of holding converse with it. In this form it can ascend into heaven and dwell with the gods, and with the sahu of the gods, and with the souls of the righteous. In the pyramid texts we have these passages:--

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« Reply #27 on: December 21, 2008, 10:12:00 pm »

1. Thes-thu Teta pu un-thu aaa peh-tha hems-k

Rise up thou Teti, this. Stand up thou mighty one being strong. Sit thou

xent neteru ari-k ennu ari en Ausar em Het-aa amt Annu

with the gods, do thou that which did Osiris in the great house in Annu.

sesep-nek sah-k an t'er ret-k em pet an

Thou hast received thy sah, not shall be fettered thy foot in heaven, not

xesef-k em ta

shalt thou be turned back upon earth.[3]

2. anet' hra-k Teta em hru-k pen aha tha xeft Ra

Hail to thee, Teta, on this thy day [when] thou art standing before Ra [as]

[1. Brugsch, Liber Metempsychosis, p. 22.

2. Compare Coptic ###, "magister."

3. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 36 (1. 271). From line 143 of the same text it would seem that a man had more than one sahu, for the words "all thy sahu," occur. This may, however, be only a plural of majesty.]

{p. lxi}

per-f em aabt t'eba-tha em sah-k pen am baiu

he cometh from the cast, [when] thou art endued with this thy sah among the souls.[1]

3. ahau pa neheh t'er-f pa t'etta em sah-f

[His] duration of life is eternity, his limit of life is everlastingness in his sah.[2]

4. nuk sah em ba-f

I am a sah with his soul.[3]

In the late edition of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius the deceased is said to " look upon his body and to rest upon his sahu,"[4] and souls are said "to enter into their sahu";[5] and a passage extant both in this and the older Theban edition makes the deceased to receive the sahu of the god Osiris.[6] But that Egyptian writers at times confused the khat with the sahu is clear from a passage in the Book of Respirations, where it is said, "Hail Osiris, thy name endureth, thy body is stablished, thy sahu germinateth";[7] in other texts the word "germinate" is applied only to the natural body.

The ab or heart.

In close connection with the natural and spiritual bodies stood the heart, or rather that part of it which was the seat of the power of life and the fountain of good and evil thoughts. And in addition to the natural and spiritual bodies, man also bad an abstract individuality or personality endowed with all his characteristic attributes. This abstract personality had an absolutely independent existence. It could move freely from place to place, separating itself from, or uniting itself to,

[1. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 59 (l. 384).

2. Ibid., t. iv., p. 61 (1. 521).

3. Book of the Dead, Chapter I.XXVIII., 1. 14.

4. ###. Chapter LXXXIX., 1. 6.

5. Ibid., 1. 5.

6. ###. Chapter CXXX., 1. 38 (ed. Naville).

7. ###. See Brugsch, Liber Metempsychosis, p. 15.]

{p. lxii}

The ka or double.

the body at will, and also enjoying life with the gods in heaven.This was the ka,[1] a word which at times conveys the meanings of its Coptic equivalent {Coptic kw}, and of {Greek ei?'dwlon}, image, genius, double, character, disposition, and mental attributes. The funeral offerings of meat, cakes, ale, wine, unguents, etc., were intended for the ka; the scent of the burnt incense was grateful to it. The ka dwelt in the man's statue just as the ka of a god inhabited the statue of the god. In this respect the ka seems to be identical with the sekhem or image. In the remotest times the tombs had special chambers wherein the ka was worshipped and received offerings. The priesthood numbered among its body an order of men who bore the name of "priests of the ka and who performed services in honour of the ka in the "ka chapel".

In the text of Unas the deceased is said to be "happy with his ka"[2] in the next world, and his ka is joined unto his body in "the great dwelling"; [3] his body

[1. The first scholar who seriously examined the meaning of the word was Dr. Birch, who collected several examples of the use and discussed them in his Mèmoire sur une Patère Égyptienne du Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1858, p. 59 ff. (Extrait du t. xxiv. des Mémoires de la Société impériale des Antiquaires de France). Dr. Birch translated the word by être, personne, emblème, divin, génie, principe, esprit. In September, 1878, V. Maspero explained to the Members of the Congress of Lyons the views which he held concerning this word, and which he had for the past five years been teaching in the Collège de France, and said, "le ka est une sorte de double de la personne humaine d'une matière moins grossière que la matière dont est formé le corps, mais qu'il fallait nourrir et entretenir comme le corps lui-même; ce double vivait dans le tombeau des offrandes qu'on faisait aux fêtes canoniques, et aujourd'hui encore un grand nombre des génies de la tradition populaire égyptienne ne sent que des doubles, devenus démons au moment de la conversion des fellahs an christianisme, puis à l'islamisme." These views were repeated by him at the Sorbonne in February, 1879. See Comptes Rendus du Congrès provincial des Orientalistes, Lyons, 1878, t. i., pp. 235-263; Revue Scientifique de la France et de l'Étranger, 2e série, 8e année, No. 35, March, 1879, pp. 816-820; Bulletin de l'Association Scientifique de France, No. 594, 1879, t. xxiii., p. 373-384; Maspero, Études de Mythologie et d'Archéologie, t. i., pp. 1, 35, 126. In March, 1879, Mr. Renouf read a paper entitled "On the true sense of an important Egyptian word" (Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. vi., London, 1979, pp. 494-508), in which he arrived at conclusions similar to those of M. Maspero; and in September of the same year M. Maspero again treated the subject in Recueil de Travaux, t. i., p. 152 f. The various shades of meaning in the word have been discussed subsequently by Brugsch, Wörterbuch (Suppl.), pp. 997, 1230; Dümichen, Der Grabpalast des Patuamenap, Abt. i., p. 10; Bergmann, Der Sarkophag des Panehemisis (in Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, Vienna, 1883, p. 5); Wiedemann, Die Religion der alten Aegypter, p. 126.

2. ###, l. 472.

3. ###, l. 482.]

{p. lxiii}

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« Reply #28 on: December 21, 2008, 10:12:36 pm »

having been buried in the lowest chamber, "his ka cometh forth to him."[1] Of Pepi I. it is said:--

ai su ka-k hems ka-k am ta hena-k at ur

Washed is thy ka, sitteth thy ka [and] it eateth bread with thee unceasingly

en t'et t'etta

forever.'[2]

aha uab-k uab ka-k uab ba-k uab sexem-k

Thou art pure, thy ka is pure, thy soul is pure, thy form is pure.[3]

The ka, as we have seen, could eat food, and it was necessary to provide food for it. In the XIIth dynasty and in later periods the gods are entreated to grant meat and drink to the ka of the deceased; and it seems as if the Egyptians thought that the future welfare of the spiritual body depended upon the maintenance of a constant supply of sepulchral offerings. When circumstances rendered it impossible to continue the material supply of food, the ka fed upon the offerings painted on the walls of the tomb, which were transformed into suitable nourishment by means of the prayers of the living. When there were neither material offerings nor painted similitudes to feed upon, it seems as if the ka must have perished; but the texts are not definite on this point.

A prayer of the ka.

The following is a specimen of the ka's petition for food written in the XVIIIth dynasty:--

"May the gods grant that I go into and come forth from my tomb, may the Majesty refresh its shade, may I drink water from my cistern every day, may all my limbs grow, may Hapi give unto me bread and flowers of all kinds in their season, may I pass over my estate every day without, ceasing, may my soul

[1. ###. l. 483.

2. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. x 66, 1. 67.

3 Ibid., 1. 112.]

{p. lxiv}

alight upon the branches of the groves which I have planted, may I make myself cool beneath my sycamores, may I eat the bread which they provide. May I have my mouth that I may speak therewith like the followers of Horus, may I come forth to heaven, may I descend to earth, may I never be shut out upon the road, may there never be done unto me that which my soul abhorreth, let not my soul be imprisoned, but may I be among the venerable and favoured ones, may I plough my lands in the Field of Aaru, may I arrive at the Field of Peace, may one come out to me with vessels of ale and cakes and bread of the lords of eternity, may I receive meat from the altars of the great, I the ka of the prophet Amsu."[1]

The ba or soul.

To that part of man which beyond all doubt was believed to enjoy an eternal existence in heaven in a state of glory, the Egyptians gave the name ba, a word which means something like "sublime," "noble," and which has always hitherto been translated by "soul." The ba is not incorporeal, for although it dwells in the ka, and is in some respects, like the heart, the principle of life in man, still it possesses both substance and form: in form it is depicted as a human-headed hawk, and in nature and substance it is stated to be exceedingly refined or ethereal. It revisited the body in the tomb and re-animated it, and conversed with it; it could take upon itself any shape that it pleased; and it had the power of passing into heaven and of dwelling with the perfected souls there. It was eternal. As the ba was closely associated with the ka, it partook of the funeral offerings, and in one aspect of its existence at least it was liable to decay if not properly and sufficiently nourished. In the pyramid texts the permanent dwelling place of the ba or soul is heaven with the gods, whose life it shares

1. sek Unas per em hru pen em aru maa en

Behold Unas cometh forth on day this in the form exact of

ba anx

a soul living.[2]

[1. See Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., vol. vi., pp. 307, 308.

2. Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 52 (l. 455).]

{p. lxv}

2. ba-sen met Unas

Their soul[1] is in Unas.[2]

3. aha ba-k emma neteru

Standeth thy soul among the gods.[3]

4. ha Pepi pu i-nek maat Heru metu-s thu

Hail, Pepi this! cometh to thee the eye of Horus, it speaketh with thee.

i-nek ba-k am neteru

Cometh to thee thy soul which is among the gods.[4]

5. uab ba-k am neteru

Pure is thy soul among the gods.[5]

6. anx Ausar anx ba din Netat anx Pepi pen

As liveth Osiris, and as liveth the soul in Netat, so liveth Pepi this.[6]

7. ta-s baiu-k Pepi pen xent paut neteru em

It[7] placeth thy soul Pepi this among the greater and lesser cycles of the gods in

tut arat am-tha hat-k

the form of the uræi [which] are on thy brow.[8]

[1. I.e., the soul of the gods.

2 Recueil de Travaux, t. iv., p. 61 (l. 522).

3 Recueil de Travaux, t. v-, p. 55 (l. 350), and see Pepi I., ll. 19, 20.

4 Ibid., t. v., p. 16o (l. 13). 5 Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 175 0. 113).

6 Ibid., t. v., p. 183 (l. 166).

7 I.e., the Eye of Horus.

8 Ibid., t. v., p. 184 (l. 167).]

{p. lxvi}

8. ha Pepi pen ba-k baiu Annu as ba-k baiu

Behold Pepi this, thy soul is the soul of Annu; behold thy soul is the soul

Nexen as ba-k baiu Pe as ba-k seb anx as

of Nekhen; behold thy soul is the soul of Pe; behold thy soul is a star living, behold,

xent senu-f

among its brethren.[1]

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« Reply #29 on: December 21, 2008, 10:13:41 pm »

The khaibit or shadow.

In connection with the ka and ba must be mentioned the khaibit or shadow of the man, which the Egyptians regarded as a part of the human economy. It may be compared with the {Greek skia'} and umbra of the Greeks and Romans. It was supposed to have an entirely independent existence and to be able to separate itself from the body; it was free to move wherever it pleased, and, like the ka and ba, it partook of the funeral offerings in the tomb, which it visited at will. The mention of the shade, whether of a god or man, in the pyramid texts is unfrequent, and it is not easy to ascertain what views were held concerning it; but from the passage in the text of Unas,[2] where it is mentioned together with the souls and spirits and bones of the gods, it is evident that already at that early date its position in relation to man was well defined. From the collection of illustrations which Dr. Birch appended to his paper On the Shade or Shadow of the Dead,[3] it is quite clear that in later times at least the shadow was always associated with the soul and was believed to be always near it; and this view is

[1. Recueil de Travaux, t. v., p. 184 (l. 168).

2. Recueil de Travaux, p.62 (l. 523).

3. See Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. viii., p. 386-97.]

{p. lxvii}

supported by a passage in the XCIInd Chapter of the Book of the Dead,[1] where it is said:--

em xena ba-a sauti xaibit-a un uat

Let not be shut in my soul, let not be fettered my shadow, let be opened the way

en ba-d en xaibit-a maa-f neter aa

for my soul and for my shadow, may it see the great god.

And again, in the LXXXIXth Chapter the deceased says:--

maa-a ba-a xaibit-a

May I look upon my soul and my shadow.[2]

the khu or intelligence.

Another important and apparently eternal part of man was the khu, which, judging from the meaning of the word, may be defined as a "shining" or translucent, intangible casing or covering of the body, which is frequently depicted in the form of a mummy. For want of a better word khu has often been translated "shining one," "glorious," "intelligence," and the like, but in certain cases it may be tolerably well rendered by "spirit." The pyramid texts show us that the khu's of the gods lived in heaven, and thither wended the khu of a man as soon as ever the prayers said over the dead body enabled it to do so. Thus it is said, "Unas standeth with the khu's,"[3] and one of the gods is asked to "give him his sceptre among the khu's; "[4] when the souls of the gods enter into Unas, their khu's are with and round about him.[6] To king Teta it is said:--

[1. Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 104, ll. 7, 8.

2. Ibid., Bd. I., Bl. 101.

3. Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. x 88 (1. 71).

4. Ibid., t. iii., p. 215 (l. 274).

5. Ibid., t iv., p. 61 (1. 522).]

{p. lxviii}

nehem-nef maat-f maf er ta-nef nek seba-k

He[1] hath plucked his eye from himself, he hath given it unto thee to strengthen thee

am-s sexem-k am-s xent xu

therewith, that thou mayest prevail with it among the khu's.[2]

And again, when the god Khent-mennut-f has transported the king to heaven, the god Seb, who rejoices to meet him, is said to give him both hands and welcome him as a brother and to nurse him and to place him among the imperishable khu's.[1] In the XCIInd Chapter the deceased is made to pray for the liberation of his soul, shadow, and khu from the bondage of the tomb, and for deliverance from those "whose dwellings are hidden, who fetter the souls, who fetter souls and khu's cc and who shut in the shadows of the dead";[4] and in the XC Ist Chapter[5] is a formula specially prepared to enable the khu to pass from the tomb to the domains where Ra and Hathor dwell.

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