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Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean

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dhill757
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« on: June 03, 2007, 10:47:29 pm »



Large red triangles show volcanoes with known or inferred Holocene eruptions; small red triangles mark volcanoes with possible, but uncertain Holocene eruptions or Pleistocene volcanoes with major thermal activity. Yellow triangles distinguish volcanoes of other regions.
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=18
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« Reply #1 on: June 03, 2007, 10:53:50 pm »

Volcanology Highlights

Known eruptions from this large region total 117only Antarctica has lessbut its historical record is relatively long. The largest island group, the Canaries, is reached by favorable winds from Europe and was an important base for early voyages to the new world. In fact, Christopher Columbus recorded a 1492 eruption on Tenerife, just seven weeks before that same logbook carried documentation of a more historic observation. The Azores were also well placed for sailors because of the predominant westerly winds used for return routes to Europe.

The Canaries were mentioned by Pliny around 40 BC, and were often rediscovered in the following centuries. They were claimed by Portugal in 1341, the year of the region's first historical eruption (a somewhat questionable report of activity somewhere on Tenerife), but were awarded to Spain by the Pope 3 years later. They were settled in 1402 and conquest of the indigenous Guanches population was complete by 1496. The Canaries now have the largest population (1.6 million) in the region and, as part of Spain, claim Pico de Teide as that nation's highest point.

A discovery date for the Azores is uncertain, but they appear on a map from 1351 AD. The Portuguese visited in 1427-31 and colonization began in 1445, a year after the first historical eruption. The nine islands now support about 250,000 people, half of them on the island of Sao Miguel.

The Cape Verde islands were discovered by Portugal in 1456 and settled 6 years later. An eruption beginning in 1500 appears to have continued for about 260 years, with behavior similar to that of Italy's Stromboli. Independence from Portugal came in 1975.

Tristan de Cunha was discovered by the Portuguese in 1506 and the islands were much visited by whalers and sealers. They were first inhabited by St. Helenans in the 19th century and annexed by Britain in 1816. The residents were evacuated during the 1961 eruption, but most elected to return within two years and the 1970 population was estimated at 280.

Aside from submarine activity (most of it uncertain) the only other dated eruption in the region is from Norway's Bouvet Island, the most remote in the world. It was discovered in 1739, but its only known eruption was 2,000 years ago (by magnetic dating).

Volcanism in the region is largely caused by hotspots in oceanic crust, and the region has the highest proportion of fissure vent volcanoes (as primary features). Several known volcanoes lie along or near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that separates the Eurasian and African plates from the North and South American plates, but the Canaries and Cape Verdes lie just west of the African continental margin.


http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=18&rpage=highlights
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« Reply #2 on: June 03, 2007, 10:56:21 pm »



Flores

The northern half of the 10 x 15 km wide island of Flores, which lies west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, appears at the margin of this NASA Space Shuttle image. Ponta Delgada lies at the northern tip of the island at the lower left. Several craters seen to the left of the cloud banks at the lower right were formed during eruptions about 2900 years ago that also produced a lava flow that forms the Faja Grande Peninsula below the craters.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS007-E-11252, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).


Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-001
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Radiocarbon
Last Known Eruption: 950 BC 100 years 
Summit Elevation: 914 m 2,999 feet
Latitude: 39.462N  3927'44"N
Longitude: 31.216W 3112'58"W
Flores Island and Corvo Island to its north are located far west of the rest of the Azores islands and are the only two Azorean volcanoes lying west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The 10 x 15 km island of Flores is dotted by numerous pyroclastic cones and craters. Several young phreatomagmatic craters and associated lava flows were erupted during the Holocene, including two about 3000 years ago. The Caldeira Funda de Lajes tuff ring formed about 3150 years ago, accompanied by a lava flow that traveled to the SE, reaching the coast at Lajes. The Caldeira Comprida tuff ring in Caldeira Seca, west-central Flores, erupted about 2900 years ago. It produced a lava flow that traveled NW-ward and reached the coast at Faja Grande. 
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« Reply #3 on: June 03, 2007, 11:01:38 pm »



 Corvo


A 2-km-wide caldera containing several small cinder cones and two shallow lakes is the most prominent feature in this NASA Space Shuttle image with north to the left. Two pyroclastic cones erupted along a N-S-trending fissure outside the caldera fed lava flows that formed a platform that underlies the peninsula at the southern end of the island. The 3.5 x 6 km island of Corvo and its neighbor to the south, Flores (far right), are the only two Azorean volcanoes located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS007-E-11252, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
 Corvo

 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-002
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 718 m 2,356 feet
Latitude: 39.699N  3941'56"N
Longitude: 31.111W 316'39"W
The small 3.5 x 6 km island of Corvo is located at the NW end of the Azores archipelago. Corvo and its neighbor to the south, Flores, are the only two Azorean volcanoes located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. A 2-km-wide caldera centered on the north side of the island is the most prominent feature of Corvo. The caldera floor contains several small cinder cones and two shallow lakes. Two southward-breached pyroclastic cones erupted along a N-S-trending fissure and fed lava flows that formed a platform that underlies the village of Corvo at the southern end of the island. The youngest eruption on Corvo produced a fissure-fed lava flow that reached the sea near Punta Negra. 
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« Reply #4 on: June 03, 2007, 11:04:24 pm »



   
 Fayal

 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-01=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1958   
Summit Elevation: 1043 m 3,422 feet
Latitude: 38.60N  3836'0"N
Longitude: 28.73W 2844'0"W
The island of Fayal, also spelled Faial, is the nearest of the central Azorean islands to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The island is composed of a complex large andesitic-to-trachytic stratovolcano that contains a 2-km-wide summit caldera. Thick deposits of trachytic airfall pumice, pyroclastic flows, and lahars related to formation of the caldera blanket the island. Formation of the steep-walled 500-m-deep caldera was followed by construction of fissure-fed basaltic lava fields and small volcanoes that form a peninsula extending to the west. This area is covered by the youngest volcanic products on the island and has been the source of all historical eruptions. A dramatic submarine eruption at Capelinhos during 1957-58, the best-studied of historical eruptions in the Azores, created a new island that soon merged with the western peninsula. 


Fayal volcano is capped by a 2-km-wide, 500-m-deep summit caldera, seen from its southern rim. A small pyroclastic cone was constructed on the floor of the caldera. Thick airfall-pumice and pyroclastic-flow deposits related to formation of the caldera blanket the island. This event was followed by construction of fissure-fed lava fields and small volcanoes that formed a peninsula extending to the west. A dramatic submarine eruption at Capelinhos during 1957-58 created a new island that soon merged with the western peninsula.

Photo by Rick Wunderman, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).

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« Reply #5 on: June 03, 2007, 11:07:08 pm »



   
Pico stratovolcano occupying the eastern end of Pico Island rises across a strait SE of neighboring Fayal Island (foreground). Pico is superimposed on an older linear volcano with numerous flank cones that forms most of the eastern side of the 48-km-long island. The conical Pico volcano is capped by a 500-m-wide summit crater that is overtopped by a small steep-sided cone visible at the left side of the summit. Historical eruptions have been restricted to the flanks of Pico volcano itself and to the SE-trending rift zone.

Photo by Rick Wunderman, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).



 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-02=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1720   
Summit Elevation: 2351 m 7,713 feet
Latitude: 38.47N  3828'0"N
Longitude: 28.40W 2824'0"W
A prominent 2351-m-high stratovolcano occupying the eastern end of Pico Island is the highest volcano in the Azores. Pico is superimposed on an older linear volcano with numerous flank cones that forms most of the 48-km-long island. The conical, dominantly basaltic Pico volcano is capped by a 500-m-wide summit crater that is overtopped by a small steep-sided cone. Historical eruptions have been restricted to the flanks of Pico volcano and to the SE-trending rift zone, which is dotted by pyroclastic cones. An eruption during 1562-64 from the SE rift zone produced lava flows that reached the northern coast. An eruption from a nearby vent issued lava flows that traveled into the sea on the southern side of the island. A flank eruption from Pico in 1718 fed lava flows that reached both coasts.



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=1802
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« Reply #6 on: June 03, 2007, 11:12:43 pm »



San Jorge

A Space Shuttle image with north to the upper left shows the remarkably linear island of San Jorge (Sao Jorge), which is 54 km long and only 5 km wide. The NW-SE-trending island was formed by fissure-fed eruptions. Historical eruptions in 1580 AD originated from three locations above and to the east of the coastal town of Velas, the small light-colored area along the SW coast (bottom left side), producing lava flows that reached the sea. Submarine eruptions were reported on several occasions from vents off the southern and SW coasts.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS004-E-10891, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).


 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-03=
Volcano Type: Fissure vent
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1907   
Summit Elevation: 1053 m 3,455 feet
Latitude: 38.65N  3839'0"N
Longitude: 28.08W 285'0"W
The remarkably linear island of San Jorge (Sao Jorge) is 54 km long and only 5 km wide. It was formed by fissure-fed eruptions beginning in the eastern part of the island. The western two-thirds of dominantly basaltic San Jorge contains youthful, fissure-fed lava flows resembling those on neighboring Pico Island. Subaerial lava flows issued from three locations above the south-central coast during 1580, producing lava flows that reached the sea. In 1808 a series of explosions took place from vents along the south-central crest of the island; one of these fed a lava flow that also reached the southern coast. Submarine eruptions were reported on several occasions from vents off the southern and SW coasts. 
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« Reply #7 on: June 03, 2007, 11:19:08 pm »



   Graciosa 

The small 4 x 8 km island of Graciosa is seen in this NASA Space Shuttle image with north to the upper left. Cloud banks partially obscure the SE end of the island, which contains a small 0.9 x 1.6 km caldera with active fumaroles. Scoria cones are found over much of the island, and several widely spaced NE-SW-trending fissures fed a youthful lava field that forms the NW end of the island.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS004-E-10893, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).


 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-04=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 402 m 1,319 feet
Latitude: 39.02N  391'0"N
Longitude: 27.97W 2758'0"W
The SE end of Graciosa, the northernmost of the central Azorean islands, contains a small 0.9 x 1.6 km caldera with active fumaroles. The 402-m-high SE caldera rim is the high point of the small 4 x 8 km island. The caldera has been the source of eruptions producing significant tephra falls, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and lava flows. An important fumarole field is located in a volcanic cave inside the caldera, and a submarine fumarole occurs off the NW coast of Graciosa. Scoria cones erupted along several widely spaced NE-SW-trending fissures fed a youthful lava field that forms the NW end of the island. The most recent eruption from Pico Tomao, NW of the caldera, produced a lava flow that reached the eastern coast NW of the village of Praia. 
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« Reply #8 on: June 03, 2007, 11:32:34 pm »



   Terceira 



Terceira Island, seen here from the Space Shuttle, contains four stratovolcanoes constructed along a prominent ESE-WNW-trending fissure zone cutting across the island. The summit caldera of Santa Barbara, the westernmost volcano (and the only one active during historical time) is the dark-colored area at the left. Cinco Picos caldera can be faintly seen at the center, with the broad Guilherme Moniz caldera at the right. Historical eruptions have taken place from the rift zone and offshore vents.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS004-E-10890, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).



 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-05=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcanoes
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2000   
Summit Elevation: 1023 m 3,356 feet
Latitude: 38.73N  3844'0"N
Longitude: 27.32W 2719'0"W
Terceira Island contains four stratovolcanoes constructed along a prominent ESE-WNW-trending fissure zone that cuts across the island. Historically active Santa Barbara volcano at the western end of the island is truncated by two calderas. The youngest of these formed about 15,000 years ago. Comenditic lava domes fill and surround the caldera. Pico Alto lies north of the fissure zone in the north-central part of the island and contains a Pleistocene caldera largely filled by lava domes and lava flows. Guilherme Moniz caldera lies along the fissure zone immediately to the south, and 7-km-wide Cinquio Picos caldera at the SE end of the island is the largest in the Azores. Historical eruptions have occurred from Pico Alto, the fissure zone between Pico Alto and Santa Barbara, and from submarine vents west of Santa Barbara. Most Holocene eruptions have produced basaltic-to-rhyolitic lava flows from the fissure zone transecting the island.
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« Reply #9 on: June 03, 2007, 11:36:04 pm »



   Don Joao de Castro Bank

Two unusual-looking flank craters are visible in this side-viewing sonar perspective of the NW flank of Don Joao de Castro Bank in the Azores taken by U.S. Navy submarine NR-1. The two craters are 90 x 45 m wide. The left-hand and younger crater displays a floor consisting of a chilled lava lake with polygonal surface fractures. The right-hand crater is much less distinct because its surface is obscured by tephra deposits. The line at the right is the center track line of the sonar image.

U. S. Navy image courtesy of Rick Wunderman, 2003 (Smithsonian Institution).

Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-07=
Volcano Type: Submarine volcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1720   
Summit Elevation: -14 m - 46 feet
Latitude: 38.23N  3814'0"N
Longitude: 26.63W 2638'0"W
Don Joao de Castro Bank is a large submarine volcano that rises to within 14 m of the sea surface roughly halfway between Terceira and San Miguel Islands. A submarine eruption during December 1720 produced an ephemeral island that attained a length of 1.5 km and an altitude of about 250 m before it was eroded beneath the sea surface two years later. The volcano (also spelled Dom Joao de Castro) was named after the Portuguese hydrographic survey vessel that surveyed the bank in 1941. Two youthful parasitic craters, one tephra covered and the other sediment free, are located on the NW flank. The submarine volcano has an impressive fumarole field and remains seismically active. 
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« Reply #10 on: June 03, 2007, 11:39:43 pm »



   Sete Cidades


A small peninsula juts into Lagoa Azul ("Blue Lake"), one of two lakes partially filling the summit caldera on Sete Cidades volcano at the western end of Sao Miguel Island. The 5-km-wide caldera was formed about 22,000 years ago, and at least 22 post-caldera eruptions have occurred. This view looks to the NW from the rim of a post-caldera cone, Caldiera Grande. Two other post-caldera cones, Caldiera do Alfreres and Seara Cerrado da Ladeira, lie across the lake, behind and to the right of the town of Sete Cidades.

Photo by R.V. Fisher, 1980 (University of California Santa Barbara).



 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-08=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1880   
Summit Elevation: 856 m 2,808 feet
Latitude: 37.87N  3752'0"N
Longitude: 25.78W 2547'0"W
Sete Cidades volcano at the western end of Sao Miguel Island contains a 5-km-wide summit caldera, occupied by two caldera lakes, that is one of the scenic highlights of the Azores. The steep-walled, 500-m-deep caldera was formed about 22,000 years ago, and at least 22 post-caldera eruptions have occurred. A large group of Pleistocene post-caldera trachytic lava domes, lava flows, and pyroclastic-flow deposits is found on the western-to-northern flanks. A nearly circular ring of six Holocene pyroclastic cones occupies the caldera floor. These have been the source of a dozen trachytic pumice-fall deposits erupted during the past 5000 years. Sete Cidades is one of the most active Azorean volcanoes. Historical eruptions date back to the 15th century and have occurred from within the caldera and from submarine vents off the west coast. 
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« Reply #11 on: June 03, 2007, 11:44:44 pm »



   Unnamed   

A chain of fissure-fed scoria cones dotting the "waist" of Sao Miguel Island between Sete Cidades and Agua de Pau volcanoes is seen here from the east below the Agua de Pau (Lagoa do Fogo) caldera. The densely populated southern coast of Sao Miguel appears in the background. At least 18 eruptions have occurred during the past 2800 years, although the only historical eruption took place in 1652 from a vent along the axis of the island.

Copyrighted photo by Marco Fulle, 2000 (Stromboli On-Line, http://stromboli.net).



 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-081
Volcano Type: Pyroclastic cones
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1652   
Summit Elevation: 350 m 1,148 feet
Latitude: 37.78N * 3747'0"N
Longitude: 25.67W 2540'0"W
Nearly 200 scoria cones dot the "waist" of Sao Miguel Island between Sete Cidades and Agua de Pau volcanoes. This monogenetic fissure-controlled, dominantly basaltic volcanism, much of which post-dates the roughly 5000-year-old Fogo eruption, cannot be assigned to either volcano and appears related to en-echelon fissures overlying a fracture zone. Thick pumice deposits thought to originate from the "waist" area may have originated from vents or a caldera destroyed and now buried by young basaltic volcanism. The most noteworthy of the young vents is 485-m-high Serra Gorda, SE of Siete Cidades, and the cone that produced a lava delta south of Agua de Paul village. The majority of the inhabitants of Sao Miguel Island occupy both coasts below this volcanic zone. At least 18 eruptions have occurred during the past 2800 years, although the only historical eruption occurred in 1652. The most recent activity has been basaltic, however two more-explosive trachytic eruptions occurred during the past 1100 years.
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« Reply #12 on: June 03, 2007, 11:48:41 pm »



   Agua de Pau  


Lagoa do Fogo lake, seen here from the west, partially fills the younger of two Pleistocene calderas on Agua de Pau stratovolcano in central Sao Miguel Island. Several post-caldera lava domes were emplaced on the northern and western flanks of the volcano, but activity inside the caldera did not resume until the eruption of the 5000-year-old Fogo-A plinian pumice-fall deposit, the product of the largest-known Holocene eruption in the Azores. Numerous cinder cones have erupted on the flanks of Agua de Pau during historical time.

Photo by Rick Wunderman, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).


 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-09=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1564   
Summit Elevation: 947 m 3,107 feet
Latitude: 37.77N  3746'0"N
Longitude: 25.47W 2528'0"W
Agua de Pau stratovolcano in central Sao Miguel Island contains an outer 4 x 7 km caldera formed about 30,000 to 45,000 years ago and an inner 2.5 x 3 km caldera that was created about 15,000 years ago. The younger caldera is partially filled by the Lagoa do Fogo caldera lake. Several post-caldera lava domes were emplaced on the northern and western flanks of the volcano, but activity in the caldera did not resume until about 5000 years ago. The 3-cu-km Fogo-A plinian pumice-fall deposit, the product of the largest-known Holocene eruption in the Azores, was emplaced at this time. Numerous flank cinder cones mark radial and concentric fissures, some of which have been active during historical time. The latest trachytic explosive eruption took place during 1563. Prominent hot springs are located on the NW flank.
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« Reply #13 on: June 03, 2007, 11:52:00 pm »



   Furnas

Furnas volcano, at the eastern end of Sao Miguel Island, contains at least two calderas. The younger 6-km-wide caldera is seen here from its northern rim. At least 11 trachytic pumice layers, all erupted during the past 5000 years, post-date the caldera. A zone of late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-trachytic cinder cones and lava domes is located between Furnas and neighboring Agua de Pau volcano. The only historical eruption of Furnas volcano, during 1630, was one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the Azores.

Photo by Rick Wunderman, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution).



 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-10=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1630   
Summit Elevation: 805 m 2,641 feet
Latitude: 37.77N  3746'0"N
Longitude: 25.32W 2519'0"W
Furnas volcano lies at the eastern end of Sao Miguel Island, immediately west of the older Nordeste shield volcano and its Povoaao caldera. Furnas contains at least two calderas, a younger one that is 6-km wide and a larger older one that is less topographically distinct. The eastern wall of the 500-m-deep caldera of Furnas overlaps the western wall of the Povoaao caldera of Nordeste volcano. Volcanic activity at Furnas dates back about 100,000 years. At least 11 trachytic pumice layers, all erupted during the past 5000 years, post-date the caldera. The most prominent post-caldera feature is the Pico do Gaspar lava dome, east of the Lagoa das Furnas caldera lake. A zone of late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-trachytic cinder cones and lava domes is located between Furnas and Agua de Pau volcanoes. Two historical eruptions have occurred at Furnas, one sometime between 1439 and 1443 and the other in 1630. The latter was one of the largest Holocene explosive eruptions in the Azores and caused significant damage and fatalities.
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« Reply #14 on: June 03, 2007, 11:53:30 pm »

   Monaco Bank 

A photograph is not available for this volcano.
 Country: Portugal
Subregion Name: Azores and Madeira
Volcano Number: 1802-11=
Volcano Type: Submarine volcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1911   
Summit Elevation: -197 m - 646 feet
Latitude: 37.60N  3736'0"N
Longitude: 25.88W 2553'0"W
Monaco Bank is a submarine volcano constructed along a NW-SE-trending fissure 20-km south of the western tip of Sao Miguel Island. The linear volcano is located along regional tectonic trends connecting Sete Cidades volcano with Santa Mara Island, SE of Monaco Bank. The summit of the volcano rises to within 197 m of the sea surface. Submarine eruptions took place during 1907, when a submarine cable was ruptured, and 1911.
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