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How was the Universe Created?

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Baphomet
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« Reply #30 on: August 11, 2008, 12:21:15 am »

When was the universe created?

"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." -- Genesis 1:1
Archbishop James Ussher: 22 October 4004 BCE
The Universe's birthday party
The full chronology

Young-Earth Creationists: 6000 - 10,000 years ago
"...the Biblical chronology is about a million times shorter than the evolutionary chronology. A million-fold mistake is no small matter, and Biblical scholars surely need to give primary attention to resolving this tremendous discrepancy right at the very foundation of our entire Biblical cosmology. This is not a peripheral issue that can be dismissed with some exegetical twist, but is central to the very integrity of scriptural theology." -- Henry Morris, The Biblical Basis for Modern Science, Baker,(1984), Page 115.

Jehovah's Witnesses: 46,026 BCE
The JW book "Let God Be True" (1946) says that each of the seven days of creation was 7,000 years long. And that since Adam was "created toward the close of the sixth day, he was put on earth toward the end of 42,000 years of earth's preparation." (p. 155) And since "[a]ccording to reliable Bible chronology Adam was created in the year 4026 B.C.E., likely in the autumn of the year, at the end of the sixth day of creation" (April 1, 1968, Watchtower), we know that the universe was created in 46,026 BCE.

Old-Earth Creationists: Somewhere between 10,000 and 20 billion years
It's hard to pin these folks down, but they generally accept some form of day-age interpretation for the creation days of Genesis 1.

Catholic Church: The date cannot be determined from the bible
"At least 200 dates have been suggested, varying from 3483 to 6934 years B.C., all based on the supposition that the Bible enables us to settle the point. But it does nothing of the sort. ... The literal interpretation has now been entirely abandoned; and the world is admitted to be of immense antiquity. ... On such questions we have no Biblical evidence, and the Catholic is quite free to follow the teaching of science." -- Catholic Encyclopedia: Biblical Chronology

http://www.skepticsannotatedbible.com/interp/universe.html
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« Reply #31 on: August 11, 2008, 12:22:47 am »

Feature - Was the Universe Created by Angels? - Marcus Chown



The discovery that it might be possible to make a universe in the laboratory could have profound implications for the origin of our Universe

The ultimate experiment is about to begin. On a cold, lonely moon, shrouded in purple-pink fog, a sentient ocean marshals the energy of a galaxy and focuses them onto a tiny mote of matter. A hundred billion stars flicker and dim. The air above the ocean sizzles and catches fire. Crushed by stupendous energies, the tiny mote twists and bucks and, with a violent shudder, implodes. Somewhere else--in another space, another time--a searing-hot fireball explodes out of nothingness and begins to expand and cool. The ultimate scientific experiment has produced the ultimate experimental result: the birth of a new universe.

Could our Universe have been born in such a way? According to Edward Harrison, it’s a real possibility. “Our Universe could easily be the outcome of an experiment carried out by a superior intelligence in another universe,” says the British physicist, formerly of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Why suggest such an outlandish thing? Because it sheds light on a deep puzzle: why the laws of physics appear “fine-tuned” for our existence. Surprisingly, even slight deviations in the laws would result in a universe devoid of stars and life. If, for instance, the force of gravity were just a few percent weaker it could not squeeze and heat the matter inside stars to the millions of degrees necessary to trigger sunlight-generating nuclear reactions. If gravity were only a few percent stronger, however, it would heat up stars, causing them to consume their fuel faster. They would not exist for the billions of years needed for evolution to produce intelligence.

This kind of fine-tuning turns out to be widespread. One possible explanation is that the Universe was “designed” by God. Some scientists accept this. "Unfortunately, it terminates further scientific enquiry," says Harrison. The other possibility is that the Universe is the way it is because, if it wasn't, we would not be here to notice. According to this topsy-turvy reasoning, known as the "anthropic principle", it is hardly surprising that we find ourselves in a universe which is fine-tuned for the existence of galaxies, stars and life. We could hardly have evolved in a universe that was not!

The anthropic principle leads to the idea that our universe is one of countless others. In each universe of this "multiverse", forces like gravity have different strengths. An unavoidable consequence, however, is that most universes lack the special conditions needed for the birth of galaxies, stars, planets and so on. "There will be countless lifeless universes," says Harrison. "This is waste on a truly cosmic scale.”

But in cosmology, as in politics, there may be a third way. According to Harrison, the multiverse could be far from a wasteland. It could be dominated by universes with galaxies and stars and life. The prerequisite is that life-bearing universes have a special ability: the ability to reproduce. Specifically, Harrison is suggesting that intelligent life actually makes new universes. "If so, then in offspring universes which are fit for life, new life evolves to a high level of intelligence, then creates further universes," says Harrison.

In Harrison's scheme, dubbed the “natural selection of universes”, the laws of physics most suited for the emergence and evolution of life are naturally selected by life itself. The origin of our Universe is explained. It was created by super-intelligent beings living in another universe!

If Harrison is right, the fine-tuning of the laws of physics has two possible explanations. New universes could inherit the characteristics of their cosmic parents as children inherit the characteristics of their human parents. Small "genetic variations" in the laws between generations would ensure new universes were not carbon copies of their predecessors. It follows that since the parent of our Universe was fine-tuned for life and similar to our own--if it wasn't, life would never have arisen in it to make our Universe--our Universe must also be fine-tuned. Another possible explanation for the fine-tuning is that the makers of our Universe actually engineered our Universe to have laws that promoted the evolution of intelligent life.

According to Harrison, the mystery of why the Universe appears designed for life has a straightforward solution: at a fundamental level it was designed for life. However, and this is Harrison’s novel twist, it was designed not by God--a Supreme Being--but by superior beings. Angels, if you like! "Intelligent life takes over universe-making business," says Harrison. "Consequently, the creation of the universe drops out of the religious sphere and becomes amenable to science."

Crucial to Harrison's reasoning is the assumption that it is actually possible to make a universe. Bizarre as it seems, this is not science fiction. The recipe was discovered independently around 1980 by Alexei Starobinsky in Russia and Alan Guth in America. In their “inflationary” picture, our Universe “inflated” from a super-dense "seed" of matter, perhaps only a thousandth of a gram. This prompted Guth to suggest that a universe might be made in the laboratory. Simply take a seed of matter and squeeze it to the extraordinary density that once triggered the inflation of our Universe. This will make a black hole. However, according to Guth, the super-dense interior will inflate--not in our universe, but in a bubble-like space-time connected to our own by the "umbilical cord" of the hole. This cord is unstable. When it snaps, a baby universe will be born! "The practical details are not important," says Harrison. "The important thing is that if beings of our limited intelligence can dream up wild, yet seemingly plausible, schemes for making universes, beings of much higher intelligence might know theoretically and technically how to do it."

Recreating the conditions of the first split-second of the Universe is way, way beyond our capabilities. But it may not be impossible. "It's conceivable that more intelligent beings--perhaps even our own descendants in the far future--might possess not only the knowledge but also the technology to build universes," says Harrison.

But why would they want to? One possibility, says Harrison, is simply to see what happens. There may be some beings so advanced that their children make universes in the same way human children make figures out of plasticine. Another possibility, says Harrison, is that an advanced civilization, out of a spirit of altruism, might make new universes which are ever more hospitable for life.

The observable Universe contains about 10 billion galaxies. If, during the lifetime of each, a single civilisation emerges which makes a new universe--a modest figure considering our Galaxy has 200 billion suns--then our Universe reproduces 10 billion times. Furthermore, if intelligent life in each galaxy of each daughter universe repeats the ultimate experiment just once, the result is 10 billion times 10 billion granddaughter universes. This rate of reproduction puts a flu virus to shame! Life-bearing universes could very quickly come to dominate the multiverse.

Einstein famously said: "The most incomprehensible thing about the Universe is that it is comprehensible." According to Harrison, the explanation is that it was created by comprehensible beings--beings far in advance of us but basically like ourselves. Intelligent but also intelligible. They made our universe to be like theirs, and their universe was in turn understandable. After all, they had to have the understanding to manipulate it and make a new universe.

A difficulty with Harrison's vision is that, if our Universe was created by superior beings in another universe and theirs in turn was created by superior beings in an earlier universe, and so on, who or what created the first universe? One possibility, admits Harrison, is God. It seems a weak admission. However, Harrison distinguishes between his idea and the religious view. "In my scheme, God starts things," he says. "Thereafter, superior beings take over the creation of further universes." Another possibility is that in the beginning there was a large ensemble of universes, each with its own random variant of the laws of physics. Most of the universes were dead and uninteresting. But, by chance, the conditions in at least one—the intelligent “mother universe”--were right for life. "Thereafter, intelligent universes come to dominate the ensemble since they alone reproduce," says Harrison.

But if a Supreme Being made the first universe, who or what made the Supreme Being? And, if everything began with a mostly-dead ensemble of universe containing the intelligent mother universe, how did that come about? "Perhaps the supreme being occupied another universe created by an even higher form of intelligence, and perhaps the initial ensemble consisted of botched and bungled creations by a sorcerer's apprentice in another universe!" says Harrison.

One thing follows automatically from Harrison's vision. If humanity avoids destruction and survives into the far future, one day our descendants will have to make an important decision: whether or not to become parents!

Marcus Chown’s book, The Universe Next Door: Twelve mind-blowing ideas from the cutting edge of science, is published by Headline.

http://www.popularscience.co.uk/features/feat9.htm
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« Reply #32 on: August 11, 2008, 12:23:56 am »

CREATING A UNIVERSE-CREATION THEORY

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"What choice did God have in creating the universe?" - ALBERT EINSTEIN


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A Change in World (Universe) View, Part II

The big bang theory needed improvement. It left some questions to be answered, and some observations to be explained. In particular, it was unable to explain what happened before the big bang.

Now, one could argue that because space and time were created during the instant of the big bang, there is no such concept as a period of time or space BEFORE the big bang. Therefore nothing existed before the big bang. On inspection, this would seem to be a cop-out answer. Surely something caused the big bang to occur. Was it a divine creator? The last 20 years have seen an increasing interest in cosmology and in theories related to the creation of the universe. Outlined below are some of the major theories that have surfaced in the scientific community, describing the creation of the universe, and/or describing what happened before the big bang. Perhaps God had many choices when creating the universe.



The Bouncing Universe

In the 1960's, a physicist named John Wheeler developed the bouncing universe theory. The theory's premise involved having a universe come into being with a bug bang, expand for a while, and then implode at a certain point in time. Upon reaching reaching a certain small size (maybe even a singularity), that universe may "bounce" and re-explode in a new big bang. As a result, the universe follows a cyclical pattern of expansions and contractions.



The Protouniverse

This theory involves the formation of matter from nothingness before the explosion of the big bang. It is related to the white hole theory. A white hole is a theoretical opposite of a black hole, wherein matter would continuously appear at the speed of light, as if from nowhere. Although there is believed to be no observational evidence of white holes, the protouniverse theory was created in an attempt to explain the non-uniformity and the varying density of the universe.



The Inflationary Theory

In 1981, a particle physicist named Alan Guth created a new theory. Guth knew about the matter in physics that explained how elementary particles got their mass. This matter is called scalar field matter. Combining the mathematical equations for scalar field with Einstein's equations describing the expansion of the universe, Guth developed a theory in which large amounts of matter and energy were created from nothing! After matter and energy were created, the universe experienced an accelerated expansion, becoming exponentially large prior to continuing its evolution according to the big bang model. This theory has been worked on and modified by many cosmologists since its introduction.



The Bubble Universe / Andre Linde's Self Creating Universe

These are the theories discussed in class. The bubble universe concept involves creation of universes from the quantum foam of a "parent universe." On very small scales, the foam is frothing due to energy fluctuations. These fluctuations may create tiny bubbles and wormholes. If the energy fluctuation is not very large, a tiny bubble universe may form, experience some expansion like an inflating balloon, and then contract and disappear from existence. However, if the energy fluctuation is greater than a particular critical value, a tiny bubble universe forms from the parent universe, experiences long-term expansion, and allows matter and large-scale galactic structures to form.

The "self-creating" in Andre Linde's self-creating universe theory stems from the concept that each bubble or inflationary universe will sprout other bubble universes, which in turn, sprout more bubble universes. The universe we live in has a set of physical constants that seem tailor-made for the evolution of living things.



The Hawking-Turok Instanton Theory

To provide you with a different perspective on how the universe may have been created and what may have happened before the big bang, the Hawking-Turok model is discussed in this set of web pages. In essence, the Hawking-Turok model suggests that there was a spontaneous creation of an open, inflationary bubble universe from nothingness. Click 'Next' below to learn more about the work Stephen Hawking and Neil Turok completed independently, and the theory that resulted from the collaboration of the two physicists.

http://web.uvic.ca/~jtwong/newtheories.htm
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« Reply #33 on: August 11, 2008, 12:24:32 am »

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   posted 07-26-2005 03:02 PM                       
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God In All Worlds
lucinda Vardey

The Universal Force

Over the ceturies, a universal force has been revealed to us through prayer, through miraculous and sychonistic events, through mystical experiences and transformatory episodes, and through messages recieved in our bodies and our psyches. God reveals Himself through invisible energies which are part of the universe in which we dwell, and these energies have been called by different names--tao, Holy Spirit, prana, chi, and the Great Spirit of the Shamans. With scientific knowledge, we are able to grasp and accept some of the theories and facts which make up the force of our environment, and in doing so, we can recognize how much more there is to know of this force of infinite life.

[ 07-27-2005, 12:23 AM: Message edited by: unknown ]

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Posts: 1756 | From: Pontiac, MI. Oakland | Registered: Mar 2005   
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« Reply #34 on: August 11, 2008, 12:24:58 am »

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God in all worlds
Lucinda Varley

The evolution of the spirit in the universal force comes through the play of polarities and dualities. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin writes of the evolution of two faiths, faith in God and faith in man, and speculates which is to guide us on this mission forward. Rupert Sheldrake writes of the evolutionary creativity of the planet, and the ways that the partnership of dualities, for example mother and father and below and above, are the principles of duality in creativity and reflect the dual situation of"with God and without God." The universe unfolds in such duality according to Sheldrake, and he suggests that it originates at one point of unity and then returns to it.

Here we sit between the two knowns of our own duality in the world's evolution--the scientific knowledge of matter of the universe on the one hand, the experiences of mysticism on the other. In the middle is the void, which contains the mystery, the cosmic chaos, and there, in this place, is the movement and formation of new life.

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Posts: 1756 | From: Pontiac, MI. Oakland | Registered: Mar 2005   
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« Reply #35 on: August 11, 2008, 12:25:50 am »

God in All Worlds
Lucinda Vardey



The cosmic evolutionary process has a direction, an arrow of time. This arrow utlimately depends on the expansive impulse inherent in the cosmos since its birth. But because the growth of the universe has been accompanied by the development of feilds, particles, atoms, galaxies, stars, planets, molecules, crystals, and biological life, the arrow of time has a cumulative developmental quality as well. Just as an embryo passes through a series of stages, each of which forms the foundation for the next, so does the evolutionary cosmos. There could be no biological life until there were planets, no planets until there were galaxies and stars, no galaxies and stars until there were atoms of matter, and no atoms of matter until their constituent particles had first come into being.

According to the hypothesis of formative causation, each new pattern of organization involves the appearance of new knid of morphic feild. Through repetion, these new patterns of organization become increasingly habitual. Because of this habit-memory inherent in nature, the evolutionary process is cumulative; new patterns of organization come into being in the context of the existing habits of nature and through repetion and in turn become habitual.

But if evolutionary creativity--the appearance of new patterns of organization--involves the coming into being of new kinds of morphic feilds, where do these feilds come from? Hence we come back to the mystery of creativity, and as so often happens there are three kinds of theory.

According to the first theory, all creativity emerges from the mother princile: it is inherent in nature, and emerges from blind, unconscious processes such as the workings of chance. It wells up from material activies. New patterns of organization, new morphic feilds, spring into being spontaneously.

The second theory proposed that all creativity comes from the father principle. It descends into the physical world of space and time from a "higher," transcendant level that is mindlike. In the platonic tradition, this eternal intelligence is the source and abode of ideas reflected in the world of nature; for Christian Platonists it is none other than the mind of God. For Pythagoreans, this transcendent mindlike realm is mathematical.

From mathematical principles; everything is governed. Insofar as new kinds of feilds come into being, they are governed by feild equations that exist eternally in the transcendent mathematical reality, irrespective of wether they are reified in the physical world or not. Evolutionary creativity involves the manifestation in physical form of mathematical structures that have always existed, or rather that they are beyond time all together.

Third, there is the theory that all creativity comes from an interplay between the mother and the father principle, or more abstractly from below and above. It depends on chance, conflict, and neccessity, the mother of invention. It arises in particular enivironments, at particular places and times; it is rooted in the ongoing process of nature. But at the same time it occurs within the framework of higher systems of order. For example, new species arise within ecosystems; new eco-systems within g Gaia; Gaia within solar systems; the solar system within the galaxy; the galaxy within the growing cosmos.

At every level of organization, there ia a higher level that includes it, right up to the level of cosmos. Many theoretical physicists now think that the fundamental feilds of physics arose from a higher and more inclusive feild, the primal unified theory feild of the universe; in the same way, at every level of organization, new morphic feilds may arise within and from higher level feilds.
later
As with all polarities and dualities, when we try to concieve of how they are unified or held together, sooner or later we arrive at the idea that they are aspects of a higher unity. And indeed, according to the big bang theory, feilds and energy arose together within the original cosmic singularity.

All physical phenomenon--such as sunlight, molecules, trees, and stars--have both a feild aspect and an energy aspect. The wave and particle aspects of light, for example, are not two seperate things but two aspects of the same structure of activity. So are the field and energy aspects of everything else, including ourselves.

A view of nature without God must account not only for the many kinds of polarity inherent in the world and our experience but also for the higher form of unity that includes these poles. Indeed, since the universe is a unity by definition, there must be a unitary principle that includes all nature. What is the nature of this unity? It is not enough to concieve of it as static, for the universe is evolving. Somehow the underlying unity of nature has to give rise spontaneously to new kinds of organisms and new patterns of behavior, which are themselves unities, wholes, or holons.

Thus a view of nature without God must include a creative unitary principle that includes the entire cosmos and unites polarities and dualities found throughout the natural realm. But this is not far removed from views of nature with god

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« Reply #36 on: August 11, 2008, 12:26:34 am »

Paganism and Myths of Creation
A Ritual of Transformation

by Walter Wright Arthen

"In the beginning......"


These words open the book of Genesis, but they also find their echo in every great system of myth. Traditionally, myth has told us about origins, about how things began, and in doing so, it orients us. It tells us where we are from, and, therefore, who and what we are and how we should live. What happens in principio is creation: of the world itself, its physical features, and the realms of beings within it. For the traditional myth teller, to know how a thing came to be is to know something of what it is, and not to know the origin of a thing is not to understand it truly.1 So, in the first place, creation myths have always been myths of origin.

But we live "downstream" from the time of origins, Eliade's in illo tempore.2 We have probably read Joseph Campbell's works, and we know lots of myths. We have seen Star Wars, heard about Adam and Eve in the Garden, and may even have read the Akkadian Enuma Elish.3 We have some sense of scientific cosmology and the "Big Bang" theory. More significantly, we have lived through a century of myth-breaking. As our science gets better, the world gets older, and the "time of origins" gets deeper and more incomprehensible. In short, we know so many different origin stories, as well as their refutations, that no creation myth can completely absorb us. There are many "stories" and no Story. In that sense, we "moderns" are one and all skeptics.

In the second place, myth is participation as well as origin. Since the seventeenth century, our culture has been learning distanced scientific rationality, unlearning myth, and cutting the participatory cords that bind people to their world. We live in a world made banal by technological systems of control, and yet one that remains unfathomable to us. We conceive everything in our world as "raw material" or "resources" for development and use for human ends. We see ourselves as masters of the Earth, and yet we are not able to control even our personal greed or to halt the expanding processes of destruction and devastation that are gradually rendering this planet uninhabitable. We are like the white men whose fate is lamented by Old Lodge Skins in Little Big Man when he says, "they do not know where the center of the earth is." We have lost touch with our origins and with participation, and we have thereby created a world of dead manipulables, subject only to rational ordering and control. A world like that is without participation.

Third, traditional myth is perfection. It tells us of worlds that are pristine, or are complete fulfillments. The worlds built by these old myths provided total explanations of everything in a way we can no longer endorse. Neither a late arriving God who will save everything nor an ultimate cataclysm will work here, because our world is removed from the perfection of myth in at least two ways. First, it is irretrievably broken. When canisters of plutonium sit decomposing on the ocean floors, when every newspaper tells us about holes in the ozone layer, and when today's awful weapons of war - chemical, biological, and nuclear - can still be deployed for some incalculable use, the world is vulnerable in ways that it has not been before. And we have brought it to that state. Secondly, the outcome of all these problems is uncertain. No simple foreclosures, in any direction, are creditable now. We are in a time of hazard. The possible futures are momentous and uncertain.

Therefore, in a radical way, we are in front of the problem that Nietzsche foresaw under the heading of "nihilism." We do not know our origin and seem to have lost touch with even the possibility of a "ground"; hence, we do not know who our relations are or how to act. We stand in the midst of a world of which we seem somehow no longer a part, a world whose "perfection" is incomprehensible. The orienting origin is no longer "out there" creating a world of meaning. Whatever world there may be must be of our own making. Of course there is no lack of hucksters willing to tell us about their various versions of the ultimate ground. A range of "fundamentalisms" and systems of true belief abound, telling us how to get "it". Then again, we can always tune in to the culture's consumption machinery. But these shoddy goods are unappealingly evident as what they are. Therefore, we must either find our own path back to the self-concealing ground or learn to live without any simple origin, without myths. When the stories can no longer tell us how the world was created, we must begin to create it ourselves, and we must do so "more carefully and creatively than we have been."4

Can we create new myths? Or find them? Is there a way back to the ground? Can we act and live without origins? Can we make a habitable world? It is true that some scientists and philosophers are beginning to talk about "the re enchantment of the world," and the renewed relevance of mythical thinking.5 There are hints everywhere of new myths in the offing. We can explore these interconnected questions by moving in three different directions: by looking at some representative traditional creation stories to discern some of their common elements, by examining the concepts of "creation" and "origin" to pry them apart from our usual understanding of them, and by taking up the challenge of articulating a way of life without the orientation provided by the old understandings.
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« Reply #37 on: August 11, 2008, 12:27:05 am »

The Traditional Myths
"In the beginning there was only Tokpefla, Endless Space."6


So begins a Hopi creation legend, as retold by Harold Courlander. Into this endless, featureless space, Tawa, the Sun Spirit, puts some of his substance, mingling it with the elements of that place. By this act, he begins an evolutionary process of successively better worlds, which emerge as Tawa's creatures improve from empty, shadowy simulacra to full blooded human beings capable of independent thought and action - and hence, one might add, of evil. Nearly all of the great creation myths share this pattern. The Hebrew, Christian, and Greek myths certainly do, and one can find evidence of a similar pattern in East Indian traditions. A divine, creative act injects principle and order into a pre-existing nothingness or chaos.

How do these stories operate in their commonalities and differences? What can we learn from reading them to guide us in our own search for an understanding of creation? Three elements among others deserve mention: the extraction of order from chaos, the centrality of act, and the resemblance between "creator" and "created."

Creation begins from emptiness. Before "being" and its orderings stand chaos and eternal night. Mythic creation is a movement from non-being to being, from formlessness to form. This void both is the medium in which order emerges and is presupposed by all order, but it is not itself ordered or ordering. This "dark" is not the dark that stands in contrast to light and that manifests as shadow or contrast. It is the primary dark before any differentiation at all. It is neither feminine nor masculine; in fact, it is not polarized in any way. Therefore, this dark is literally and completely incomprehensible. It is nowhere, has no qualities, and stands in no relations.7 It conveys more than the natural cyclic alteration of light and dark, suggesting too the possibility of total disruption and utter non-being. This primal darkness plays a double role in myths of creation. On the one hand, absence stands before the beginning of order as the field in and from which creation occurs; but, on the other hand, it also haunts the world as a perpetual threat of disorder. The monsters and powers of the time of chaos are not destroyed; instead, they are held at bay by underworld dungeons or magical protections. But there is the constant danger that at the end of things - and even now - dissolution may once again have the upper hand, as in both Scandinavian and Indian myths. In both roles, chaos is the background to what there is. it is implicit in all orderings as the Unmaker.8 In traditional myths, however, the void primarily plays a role as the site of original creation. This is its first and most dominant role. For us, however, its other role has become more important.

In each creation story, order somehow emerges from this sheer absence. The essence of these myths is this ungraspable moment of emergence. And the myths represent this moment in many different ways. The Pelasgian story of ancient Greece uses birth.9 The All-Goddess Eurynome (who is herself void) copulates with the void (as the serpent Ophion) and begets all things. The Egyptian god Ptah creates the world from his own substance by ****, YHWH and Allah create through speech and simply call order into existence ("God said 'Let it be!'and it was"). In the Enuma Elish, Marduk conquers the void (as the water goddess Tiamat) and uses her broken flesh as material for shaping the world. For the Hopi, Tawa, Spider Grandmother, Masauwu (Ruler of the Upper World, Caretaker of the Dead, and the owner of Fire) and other divinities all have a cooperative hand in bringing human beings into this "fourth world" we now inhabit, But in every story cycle, the problem is essentially the same: how does the transition from disorder to order occur, and how is disorder held at bay?

Despite the variety of shapes given to this moment of emergence, all of them involve action. Myth says, "The world comes to be as a result of an act." This apparently simple observation is actually of very great importance. As Kenneth Burke points out, the two most basic ways of talking about the world differ on whether action or sheer motion is the paradigmatic term.10 Scientific discourse systematically excludes talk about agency purpose, motive, excuse, and all the other elements of "dramatic" discourse. It gives us a world of meaningless movement composed of mindless elements and their accidental interactions. For science, the point of transition from chaos to order is to be explained without appeal to antecedent intention, mind. consciousness, purpose, or any other term that suggests agency.11 In this respect, scientific discourse excludes the participation of the knower in the known. As Starhawk, among others, has pointed out, scientific knowing as a mode of power-over essentially involves alienation and fragmentation. For myth, on the other hand, order is always evidence of the presence of action, intention, and also of mind. Its meanings are wholly participatory, and creation in its terms is always oriented toward agency. Myth structures, legitimates, and requires acts.

Creation myths share another attribute. They teach that one purpose of creative activity is the production of beings who can mirror the nature of the creator. In this view, living things are not so much accidental collocations of unconscious meaningless parts as they are images or representations of the creative power itself. If creative activity is seen as "power-over," then living beings are represented as a hierarchy and human beings, as the "acme" of creation, are given that kind of power vis-a-vis the natural world. If this creativity is seen as birthing, then females are special representatives of the world's creative power. In the best known Hebrew and Christian example, Genesis describes a discussion within the divine power: "Let us make man (sic) in our image and after our likeness." The Hopi story with which I began depicts Tawa, the Sun Spirit, as being unhappy with the human beings until they are able to remember him and their origin as well. The sipapuni, or the hole of emergence from the lower world into the next, is a sacred place because it is a link with the source. To be satisfactory, a world must mirror the essence of the creator. Hindu myths carry this same message, since the aim and perfection of human life is a return to undifferentiated identity with the divine source.

This homology between creator and created means that human lives, on whatever terms one may live them, have a significance in the whole for peoples who follow these stories. Whether a myth asserts survival of a physical death, a cycle of death and renewal, or some other pattern, human life is valuable and significant within the myth because life mirrors the greater whole. Therefore, those who live such myths experience themselves as belonging to the world. They participate in their world as agents and as representatives of the whole. They need not fear the alienation and anomie that have been a hallmark of our century and that hold us in a self-constructed prison of powerlessness.

These three themes - order and chaos, action, and the mirroring of creator and created - are clues to the larger problem of living without foundations or origins. But first we must consider "creation" and "origin" in their mutuality to see if we can think their meaning and relationship in a new way.

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« Reply #38 on: August 11, 2008, 12:27:49 am »

Creation and Origin
Hebrew and Christian influences are strong in our language and thinking. We cannot easily think "creation" without hearing the voice of the great patriarch saying, "Let there be light!" or seeing YHWH's extended finger in the Sistine Chapel calling a world into existence. While "origin" is a more neutral term - invoking as it does the mathematical point of intersection of coordinate axes - the "creationist" imagery that has helped shape us encourages us to conceive of origin, too, in terms of temporal priority. Perhaps by attending to the words more closely, we can hear them in a different way.

"Creation" is derived proximally from the Latin verb creare. This in turn derives from the basic Indo-European root ker-, meaning "to grow." It points toward Ceres (the goddess of grain and agriculture), increase, crescendo, accrual, decrease, procreation, kouros and kore, com, cranium, and Herne. Among animals, it suggests the names rook. raven, and kestrel. Elementally, ker- names the fires of hearth. ceramic and cremation. 12

"Origin" is again from the Latin - in this case, the noun origo and the verb oriri, "to rise." It is from the IE root er-, "to set in motion." Er- points toward forms of the verb to be (were and are), as well as ardor felt in battle (to be earnest), orientation, origin, and, in an extended form, run, running, rival, and rivulet. It also provides erne for eagle, ornitho for birds generally, as well as earth and various horned domestic animals such as Aries the ram.

Clearly, the semantics of the two families are closely allied. Both ker- and er- connote movements of arising and growth. They also refer to horns and horned animals, as well as birds. They suggest the emergence of power into manifestation a rising up. Yet, in this field of similarities, there are also significant divergences. Ker- connects to the element of fire. It is the hearth. carbon, and cremation. Fire is the vital, fertilizing energy of growth, development and change, and it is the consuming fire of the funeral pyre. Both of these aspects are present in ker-. It holds the rook and the raven, who are birds of death, and the agricultural bounty of Ceres and corn. Er-, on the other hand, is linked to the element earth rather than fire. As motion, it is running rather than growth. It is flowing out onto the ground rather than burgeoning emergence. It names what is set into motion.

These etymological considerations are suggestive rather than determinative. They point strongly to the semantic connections weaving ker- and er-, creation and origin, together. They also give us some tools for seeing them differently. Elemental associations suggest that ker- names a process of growth and emergence. Creation is a fiery emergence into order as growth. Creation is the fruiting corn; it is the kore playing in the fields: it is "cereal crescendo." Origin, on the other hand, might be imagined as the site of this emerging. It is the place from which the stream of what there is flows. It is our original orientation on the Earth.

Further. these distinctions suggest how we might begin to see a little further and begin to experience creation and origin differently. Rather than seeing them as the first temporal events that bring what-there-is into being, we might see them as the self-feeding, self-consuming cycle of life that is its own support. Taken in this way, creation can be the ongoing emergence of the world as ordered in the face of the threat of radical disruption and chaos. As such, it can be freed from what happened first and brought into relation with what is happening now. In that way, we might come to see the sacred as presence rather than source, as our own responsibility and doing.


Creative Action
Today then let us build a temple to the stars
we see above us now, burned out
ten million years ago: hosannahs
to the wind that shifts the silent dunes
without intent: amen to the deep rot
of the forest floor, the subatomic world
we'll never see, the sweet collisions
and the million accidents of time
that gave us life - and all those miracles,
indifferent and inhuman as the waves
that Adam in his garden never dreamed
because they're no more kin
to him than heaven is to kings
or what is natural to what is named.13
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« Reply #39 on: August 11, 2008, 12:28:12 am »

The ordering of the world need not be understood as a movement from what is first in time to what is later. Our familiar creation stories envision creative action as a movement from that "first time," in which the patterning actions for all human living were set down, to a present which is fully real just to the extent that it fulfills these ancient patterns. But that is not the only possibility. The three characteristics of creation stories that we identified earlier can be a guide in moving toward a new way.

The first characteristic is the emergence of order from chaos. As indicated before, chaos is not just first, it is always. As well as being the primal dark into which the first creation comes, chaos is also present as the depth over which we move, threatening us with the perpetual possibility of engulfment, and which we, in our living, order. Because the region of temporal firstness is no longer accessible to us, our stories of creation and origin need to be different from the old ones. They cannot be about the first emergence from chaos into order, but they can tell us about how order and chaos dance here and now. But we must always remember that this dance can be deadly. Our partner, the primal chaos, may take the shape of militarism, of AIDS, or of "development's" ongoing genocidal destruction of tribal people. We need stories that speak of cycles and of alternating light and dark without conceiving these movements as flowing from a single point of origin. We need stories that bespeak patterns of transformation, of how things change, without assigning a changeless venue. The rising, running movement of the origin flows always from everywhere - abundance without source or end. So origin is not long ago; it is here and now. We need these stories desperately. We need them to live ourselves and for the Earth to live.

But action, the second element, must be there too. It is action that orders the ever-present chaos. Again, this action need not be taken to be temporally first. The action that generates myth is a beginning as the present point of order's emergence from chaos, rather than as the indefinitely remote past moment of first enactment. At every moment, act separates order from chaos. In any moment that we work to build the world, we are in harmony with the creative dimension of myth. But how is action possible in a world that is disordered? What can it mean?

Essentially, the myth-creating act will be the action we do ourselves as we call the world to order. Because, as the third theme suggests, the action cannot be merely the expression of the agent without regard for the condition of the world. The agent and the environing world cannot any longer be conceived as separate. They need to be related as "micro-" and "macro-" cosms, each reflecting the other in mutual participation. We are a part of the world and not apart from it. The world we inhabit now is imperfect and threatened in ways we have brought about. As the world is flawed and threatened, so are we, by our own devices. Our new myths must speak to that condition. We cannot invoke the Earth or nature spirits and ignore the damage we have done and are doing to them. We cannot honestly enclose ourselves within a simplistic, romantic view of how things are or of what is possible. The enormous fragile contingency, the insubstantiality of our "world order" cannot be overlooked. We and the world stand together in that fragility and insubstantiality. So the "doing" needed now must include recognition, reparation, and healing. Creation, as we vision it mythically, now will need to speak to the fragile hopes of a world renewed and preserved in the face of present, self-generated, overwhelming threats of desolation and annihilation. We must name what we have done and allowed. And this means speaking to the inconceivable, inhuman depths of nature: to "the light of stars burned out ten million years ago," to "the wind that shifts the silent dunes without intent," and to "the million accidents of time that gave us life."

The great power of Starhawk's Truth or Dare14 is that she takes this question of action as myth-making very seriously. Two suggestions arise from her work and Catherine Madsen's that can give direction to our thinking on this question. The first involves new stories and the second involves new ways of hearing the old ones.

First, just as myths described the fundamental patterns of the ancients' lives, we moderns - or "post-moderns" - can find in our own lives the materials for new creation stories: the experiences of transformation, resistance, loss, and hope, and the occurrence of meaning. Starhawk uses her own personal stories to weave a magical pattern, and she describes several group exercises in which telling our stories to one another becomes a medium of understanding, intimacy, and power. To dare the truth with one another is to open avenues to a new mythology that understands creation in the very terms required. She writes:

Telling our personal stories in ritual also moves us close to the realm of myth... Myth gives as a set of organizing symbols that places our own lives and events in a context that stretches back to the past and forward to the future... Our personal stories can become the ground of the new myths we need in order to create the world anew.15
Creation is not restricted to a long time ago. It happens now in moments of courage and healing. These moments are one source of the myths we need.

Second, however, creation myths for today need not be altogether new. If we can learn to listen again, if we can come to hear the potentials that have always been present in the oldest Stories, then, as Starhawk does with "The Descent of lnanna,"16 we can detect the traces of what we need to know now in the same stories we have always known. To do this, we need to move away from literal interpretations, and we need to hear these old tales as words about now instead of then. We need to remember how we have revisioned "creation" and "origin." But if we can do this and can listen past what we already think we know, perhaps we can hear something about what creation needs to mean in our place and time. Because chaos and order do their fateful dance everywhere and always, we can see the dance wherever we look.

But, even to hear the old stories differently, we must act. When we hear what creation means in our place and time, we will be called to do something. There will be no cosmic assurances that what we have to do will be safe or right. Like all our forebears, we will face a step over the edge of the familiar into a dangerous dark. But step we must.

In these two ways - telling our own stories as myths and rehearing the old stories anew - it may be possible for the Pagan community to recover a connection with the event of creation that is fitting for the endangered world we now share. In coming to that understanding, we may also discover that the corrosive destruction of the old myths by science and enlightenment rationalism was not merely a loss. Perhaps losing the old myths was a necessary clearing which made possible the homeopathic healing of the damage we ourselves have engendered. Perhaps the place of loss is also the place of recovery, a place in which we can learn how to act fittingly - humanly - on the Earth.

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« Reply #40 on: August 11, 2008, 12:29:54 am »

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GALACTIC HISTORY
The Old Universe/Old Empire/
Mind Eaters/DNA

By Stewart Swerdlow

from "As Ye Sow, So Shall Ye Reap"
OVERVIEW OF GALACTIC HISTORY
A parallel universe exists which is referred to as the "Old Universe". This universe exists on its own time line. The events that occurred in the Old Universe were very influential to the development of our universe. The civilization that existed in the Old Universe was called the Empire. The Empire controlled almost the entire universe and was extremely evil. In order to complete the capture of the entire universe the scientists of that civilization created entities called Mind Eaters. The Mind Eater was a geoplasmic energetic entity that attached itself to the physical brain and auric energies of the being it invaded, removing the being's thought patterns and replacing it with new Empiric programming.

The scientists released these entities into unconquered worlds and also used them to program their own people. Imagine their shock when they realized that these entities could multiply themselves. When a Mind Eater absorbed a certain amount of energy it split into two separate entities. Eventually the Mind Eaters became uncontrollable and started feeding on their own creators the Old Universe's form of A.I.D.S. Over a period of centuries there was virtually no life left in the Old Universe except for the Mind Eaters. The only escape from them was physical death. A small band of survivors within the emperor's court, or inner circle, created technology that allowed the survivors. to physically transport to another universe, escaping both death and the Mind Eaters. Unfortunately the band of survivors entered this universe during the time of the Lyraen civilization. This is the only way that DNA from another universe physically manifests in an alternate universe, otherwise, there is no physical link. Thus, our universe became contaminated.

Satan wished to create a model universe for his beliefs. He almost achieved that in the Old Universe, but Divine Plan thwarted his ambitions. His own Satanic creations are the means for his destruction. Satan's goal was to totally control all physical universes and lock them off from Salvation. Because he almost controlled the entire Old Universe through the negative Nine Aspects of the Mind of God that he created, the importance of Salvation in this universe and all others is evident. Satan still wants to control the minds of all beings so that the only link they have to the Mind of God is what he allows.

A group of beings descended (descended Angels, demons) who operated at the right hand of Satan and created a civilization within this universe using the DNA from the Old Universe. They developed into the Draco (cold blooded, reptilian) whose purpose was to create a Left Brain influence and support structure for the contamination that entered this galaxy. At the center of the galaxy was the Lyraen civilization which was border line E.T./physical reality. Totally Right Brain, .it was Christlike, etheric, and very noble. The Lyraens were the greatest culture ever known to this galaxy; their sphere of influence covered not only this galaxy but many around it for millions of years. Without physical bodies in their pure state, they had bodies made of light. Their first colony on Earth was the beginning of the original Atlantean civilization which was etheric/E.T. like. The dolphin and whale population (warm blooded, mammalian) was its first attempt at physical structure. Because the Lyraens had no point of comparison for negativity, they were easily deceived by the survivors of the Old Universe who were accepted as brothers in Christ. Eventually the Lyraens realized that their civilization was in jeopardy from the infiltrators from the Old Universe as well as from the Draco. They decided to create a balance in physical form between themselves and their opposites in hope of preventing conflict. This was the creation of the Amphibian race (hybrid of reptilian/ mammalian) and was a gigantic galactic, inter galactic, and inter universal experiment. The Amphibian races were designed by OhaIu through the Sirians to be a bridge.


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Ohalu Council is an E.T./Angelic group that has the function of tabernacle (that which covers and protects) and acts as a bridge. Its purpose is to span the gap between physical reality and true reality. This book is one of their projects. The chairman of the Ohalu Council is Christ Jesus.

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Because physical beings cannot mate with etheric beings and all of the Old Universe survivors were males, the survivors recreated themselves genetically through the process of cloning. Now temptation existed for the lofty Lyraens to incarnate into physical bodies this was the beginning of their end. Gradually more and more Lyraens descended into physical bodies to experience physical reality from a physical body instead of a light body. The mere idea of descension into physical reality is a temptation that causes an imprisonment through DNA and the need for Salvation. In response, the E.T. group who performed the Ohalu function volunteered to descend a portion of itself to act as a bridge, or balance, for this incorrect pattern. This group became known as Sidus A.

As the Lyraen empire degenerated, factions developed as DNA was manipulated and altered to suit the various environments in which the light beings now lived. Physical bodies were designed to accommodate the atmospheres and conditions of the various planets that encompassed the Lyraen civilization. This Galactic civilization, once comprised of unified beings each identical to the other, was now confronted with differences in body type, resulting in separation of races. Now they had no choice but to follow the pattern of the 12 rays emanating from the Mind of God, thereby producing the 12 frequencies, or main Galactic root races. At the same time the negative side (Draconian race) developed into the reptilian and eventually insect species. The Draco empire also had colonies modeled along the Old Universe Empire. They colonized the Earth by driving the moon, which is actually an artificial vehicle, into orbit. Their first colony on Earth was known as Lemuria. Androgynous and extremely physical, these beings existed side by side with the ethericlE.T. Atlantean civilization. The positive side of the same energy developed along human and mammalian species.

In accordance with the incorrect mind pattern of being special or supreme, many of the 12 races of this Lyraen civilization rebelled against the other, each seeking dominance. This was the end of that civilization as it was known, leaving the 12 groups open for attack by a strongly unified Draco. Many horrendous battles ensued (Civil War) and lasted many centuries and in fact, still occur. In their effort to create balance, the Sirians gave technology to both sides to keep them equal. Thus began the loss of purpose for the Sinans as they were tempted into becoming merchants and peddlers of technology. Parts of the old Lyraen civilization were absorbed into the Draco empire. Among these were the star systems of Rigel, Zeta Reticuli 1, and Zeta Reticuli 11, which have since become known as the Orion Confederation. Another group formed called the Pleaidian Council. The Pleaidians were refugees from the original Lyraen star system. The Pleaides is a group of 7 stars with 16 inhabited planets. The Pleaidian Council had the intention of recreating a physical version of the original Lyraen civilization modeled after the Old Empire from the Old Universe. One group of Pleaidians which was adverse to this followed their E.T. ancestors to Earth. They started what is known as the first physical Atlantean Empire or the second Atlantean cycle knows as the Atlans, the first cycle was an etheric/E.T. type colony comprised of the original Lyraen civilization. All of this activity was duly noted by other groups within other galaxies.

Never before in this universe had such a division between Left and Right taken place. A congress, or council, convened in the Andromeda Galaxy (closest to Milky Way) on a planet called Hatona. Comprised of many civilizations and groups throughout the immediate area of the universe, this group decided that the solar system at the edge of the Milky Way would be an experimental area for the purpose of rebuilding the 12 rays which were now 12 root races. Many of these root races branched off into sub races. Earth was destined to be a focal point for the Salvation of the soul. Monitored from a Sirian outpost on Mars, different races representing the 12 root races, as well as those representing the negative side, would be brought to this one place to convert the negative side and release the positive side from DNA bondage. In addition to the introduction of genetic programming known as Kundalini which was created for the purpose of Salvation, there was the introduction of an object known as the Crystal Skull (refer to The Crystal Skull section on page 45).

There was also the introduction of a being, or model/prototype, called the Savior that would show the way back to true reality.

The head group within the council in Hatona known as the Krel monitored the physical situation in the Milky Way. One of the major civilizations in the Andromeda Galaxy, they were light beings who used physical bodies whenever necessary. There were several groups that opposed colonization on Earth; one group known as Marduk had its own agenda. They created an artificial world also known as Marduk filled with beings whose purpose was to traverse the galaxy upgrading what they considered to be low level or animalistic DNA or genetics, to create a new race. The beings of Marduk known as the Abbenaki are not adverse to the use of slavery. Their vehicle was driven into our solar system with a force that destroyed the 5th planet that existed between Mars and Jupiter, explaining why there is an asteroid belt in that area. The Sirians rescued much of that civilization before the destruction bringing them to both Mars and Earth underground. Marduk continued on its way toward the Earth, flipping it on its axis thus causing the first cataclysm of Atlantis.

In order to remove the Atlans and Draco from Earth, the Nordics, who are in control of the Pleaidian Council, took advantage of the situation. Working with the Abbenaki, they created a slave race from primate genetics which developed into the black race. At the same time severe battles ensued between the allies of the Nordics and the Abbenaki against the Draco/Lemurians. When the Draco realized that they would be driven off the planet Earth, they prepared vast underground bases that were kept in suspended animation for future time. They also created beings called the Deros, a cross between humanoid and Draco. Placed inside the Earth, they remain there to this day until the time of Revelation is complete. Many of the Draco/Lemurians fled to Venus. The Amphibians were attacked for being a balance between the two groups. They sealed much of their civilization in underwater chambers guarded by the dolphins and whales. The remainder of the Amphibians fled to Tritan which is a moon of Neptune.

The Orion Confederation decided to create a race of beings out of humanoid genetics to monitor the occurrences on Earth for the Draco. Famous for abducting humans, they are the 4 foot and 3 foot "Greys" with the black wrap around eyes and are under the control of the Rigelians who work directly for the Draco Empire. The Rigelians were once part of the Lyraen Civilization and were physically equal to the tall blonds or Nordics. During the Draco invasion of that sector (Civil War), their planet was so bombarded and contaminated by nuclear waste that they degenerated into a genetically and hormonally weak race which survives by using the life material of others. In the meantime, the survivors of the 5th planet developed into a civilization known as the Sumerians using Sirian. aid. Simultaneously, the 3rd Atlantean empire developed and was quite evil. Divided into 2 religions, one was called the Children of the Law of One, and the other the Sons of Belial. Belial was a Draconian god. Infiltrating this civilization were the influences of the Sirians, the Pleaidians, and the Orion Confederation, each vying for dominance. In response to this hostility, many of the inhabited interior galaxy worlds bonded together to form the Galactic Federation.

During the last two thousand years of the 3rd Atlantean civilization, horrendous genetic experiments were performed by the Atlanteans and aliens. Slaves were necessary in the mindpattern of these people since they relished technology and a life of leisure. Beings who were part human, part animal/insect were developed to perform various tasks. This was done because there was a certain impure strain in genetic material available. During the initial colonization on Earth when the light beings first appeared, many attempted to incarnate in animal bodies to experience Earth. When they finally hardened into physical form with the influx of the Atlans, many retained animal features in addition to their humanoid form. The same occurred for the Lemurians whose genetics included dinosaur/reptilian DNA. When the 2 groups finally merged at the end of the Lemurian civilization, the reptilian brain became a central feature in the new human prototype.

Herein lies the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The role of Kundalini, represented by the curl of the coiled snake (reptilian), is necessary as a method to overcome the lower side of existence.

During this time period colonies were created on Earth from Arcturus, Antaries, Tau Ceti, Procyon, Sirius B, and several other races. It was also determined by the council on Hatona that it was Marduk's responsibility to monitor the new race it had created. The problem was that Marduk was on a programmed orbit through the galaxy, only coming near the Earth once every 12,000 years. During the periods when Marduk was not in the area, it monitored its creations through an alien race known as the Bear, who are under the direct control of the Abbenaki. The last time that Marduk passed through the solar system the last portions of Atlantis sank beneath the sea. The Atlanteans had so abused the magnetic field of the Earth and weakened the axis stability so dramatically that nothing could be done to prevent the Earth from flipping on its axis. Marduk is scheduled to return in 1998. The Earth shifting on its axis will raise Atlantis as a result of this. Symbolically, the sinking of Atlantis was the submergence of the Right Brain leaving the Left Brain unchecked. The next axis shift will bring Atlantis above the surface and all the records will be revealed, including those beneath the Sphinx and in the Yucatan.

When Atlantis sank for the last time its refugees fled to its various colonies around the Earth. Some fled to newly created land such as North America. The colony in Egypt (Khem) was guided by the beings of Sirius A. The colony in North Western Europe (Celts) was guided by the beings of Pleaides. The colony in North America (east coast Indians) was guided by the beings of Procyon. During the period that the Sirians influenced the Egyptian civilization, further genetic purification was needed. The Hebrew race was introduced by the Sirians as a further attempt to overcome the reptilian brain and balance the Left Brain and Right Brain. Symbolically, the Hebrew race is a Pineal Gland through which global Kundalini can rise by way of a Christ figure emerging. DNA is programmed to be released at various stages until this is accomplished. The separation of the children of Israel from bondage in Egypt is symbolic of the separation of the Pineal Gland from the Left Brain. Egypt is representative of ego. The 12 tribes of Israel represent the 12 frequencies as they relate to Earth and their unification back to the source. People now live in what might be called the end of time, or the final stages of the 9th completion of the Book of Revelation programming. All frequencies are returning to claim their own and in the purification of their frequencies on Earth, they themselves will be purified, leading to the perfection of the illusion for each of the 12 rays and allowing for return to the Mind of God. The purpose of DNA will be fulfilled for some, but for others a time of tribulation and further imprisonment will be necessary.

DNA, represented by chains, symbolically refers to Satan and his Angels imprisoned in the abyss of physical reality. Their DNA will be reprogrammed until their cycle is complete. The E.T. level of existence has several experiments and projects along these lines. The encoding of DNA is of paramount concern to them. Over the course of history many humans have been removed to other places in the universe for development along different lines. Those humans who will be taken away during this cycle refer to this as the rapture. Even within the solar system laboratories exist stored with genetic material to be used if and when necessary for further experiments. The Sirians have similar laboratories on Mars, the Draco on Venus, the Amphibians on Neptune and Triton, the Pleaidians on the moons of Jupiter, the Orion Confederation on the moon, and some E.T. groups on the moons of Saturn. Many of the moons within this solar system are not natural objects but rather giant observation posts and laboratories. The Draco are already driving a ship into the solar system that will be used as a second moon. Some groups have the intention of stopping this craft by crashing the planet Jupiter into it. The resulting explosion and chemical reaction would turn Jupiter into a second sun, thus creating a binary star system. if this occurs, the effect on the other planets will be devastating.


http://www.2012.com.au/Galactic_History.html

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Beware the All-Seeing Eye. It watches you even as you sleep. The power touches every corner of the earth.

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« Reply #41 on: August 11, 2008, 12:33:50 am »

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   posted 08-14-2005 09:18 PM                       
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Here's a discussion I really wish would get jump started again (if the guy who started it will ever come back), how was the universe really created?

Any ideas?

Michelle?

Aphrodite?

Calvin?

I'll bet your ideas are each as funny as anybody else could possibly come up with about it!

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☼The Pagan ☼
╚╪╪╪╪╪╪╪╪╝

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« Reply #42 on: August 11, 2008, 12:34:22 am »

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   posted 08-15-2005 04:53 PM                       
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Nicola Tesla

"There manifests itself in the fully developed being, Man, a desire mysterious, inscrutable and irresistable: to imitate nature, to create, to work himself what he percieves... Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, ot tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasha or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the light giving or creative force, calling into existence, in never-ending cycles all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter, the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disapears, reverting to the primary substance."

[ 08-15-2005, 04:54 PM: Message edited by: unknown ]
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« Reply #43 on: August 11, 2008, 12:35:41 am »

New cosmic look may cast doubts on big bang theory
UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA NEWS RELEASE

Posted: August 2, 2005

A new analysis of 'cool' spots in the cosmic microwave background may cast new doubts on a key piece of evidence supporting the big bang theory of how the universe was formed.

Two scientists at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) looked for but couldn't find evidence of gravitational "lensing" where you might expect to find it, in the most distant light source in the universe -- the cosmic microwave background.

Results of this research by Dr. Richard Lieu, a UAH physics professor, and Dr. Jonathan Mittaz, a UAH research associate, were published Monday in the "Astrophysical Journal."

In the same paper, Albert Einstein's 1917 theory that at a certain "critical" density the counteracting forces of gravity and expanding space can result in a "flat" universe no matter how irregular the distribution of matter might be, is proven mathematically for the first time.

Proving Einstein right might become a problem for the standard cosmological model of how the universe was formed because Einstein's theory also predicts that the cosmic microwave background shouldn't look the way it does, according to Lieu.

The problem, he says, is that cool spots in the microwave background are too uniform in size to have traveled across almost 14 billion light years from the edges of the universe to Earth.

"Einstein's theory of how gravity attracts light, coupled with the uneven distribution of matter in the near universe, says you should have a spread of sizes around the average, with some of these cool spots noticeably larger and others noticeably smaller," he said. "But this dispersion of sizes is not seen in the data. When we look at them, too many cool spots are the same size."

The cosmic microwave background is believed to be the afterglow of hot gases that filled the fledgling universe immediately following the big bang. These microwaves permeate the sky, coming to Earth from every direction in a nearly homogeneous blanket of weak radiation.

Nearly homogeneous because some spots are slightly cooler than the average "temperature" of less than three Kelvin -- three degrees Celsius above absolute zero.

Cosmologists have theorized that these cool regions in the microwave blanket are the birthmarks of galaxies and clusters of galaxies that condensed out of the primordial plasma a few eons after the big bang.

Based on theories about disturbances in gases that existed for millennia after the big bang, cosmologists developed detailed estimates of how big these cool spots should have been when they emitted the radiation reaching us as microwaves today.

These cool spots were studied in detail by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), which found that the average spot is about the size that had been forecast for a flat, smooth universe.

The problem, says Lieu, is that not only is the average about right, but far too many of the spots themselves are "just right" with too little variation in sizes. Given the uneven distribution of matter in an expanding universe, he says, we should see a broader size distribution among the cool spots by the time that radiation reaches Earth.

The distribution of matter and the expanding universe are important because they have opposite effects on the "shape" of space and the paths taken by light, microwaves and other radiation as they zip through the cosmos.

An expanding universe would tend to "stretch" space, causing radiation to disperse as it flies through. That dispersion would make objects appear to an observer to be smaller than they really are, as if the light went through a concave lens.

"As far as we know," said Lieu, "the expansion takes place smoothly everywhere. When the universe reaches a certain age all points in space at this moment expand in the same way."

Matter -- or more specifically gravity -- tends to constrain space. And because matter is distributed unevenly across the universe, so are its gravitational effects.

If you have enough matter in one small place, such as a galaxy or cluster of galaxies, that super concentration of gravity can act like a convex lens, bending inward both space and any light traveling through it. When light from a distant galaxy is bent by gravity as it passes another galaxy or galaxy cluster, these distortions can appear as Einstein rings or weak lensing shear effects.

If the object emitting light is like a cool spot in the microwave background, the focusing effect of galaxy clusters or groups of galaxies between those spots and Earth might make the spots appear to be larger than they really were.

A large portion of the mass in the nearby universe is concentrated in small volumes of space. These are galaxies and massive galaxy clusters, which are surrounded by vast empty voids of intergalactic space. If the standard big bang model is correct, that means the microwave radiation from some cool spots would travel through mostly empty space, would be dispersed by the expanding universe and would look small by the time that radiation reached Earth.

Radiation from other cool spots, however, would pass around or near massive gravity lenses. These focused spots would appear to be larger than the average cool spot.

"But you don't see this fluctuation," said Lieu. "There appear to be no lensing effects whatsoever. This lack of variation is a serious problem."

In his "Cosmological Considerations of the General Theory of Relativity," Einstein theorized that the net effect of the counteracting forces of expansion and gravity should remain the same if the amount of matter in the universe stays the same.

While Einstein developed this theorem based on a universe where the distribution of matter is "smooth," the UAH mathematical work shows for the first time that the net effect on the propagation of light doesn't change even if the universe is "clumpy."

If the cool spots are too uniform to have traveled to Earth from near the beginning of time, Lieu says cosmologists are left with several alternative explanations.

The first is that the cosmological parameters (including the Hubble constant, the amount of dark matter, etc.) used to predict the original, pre-lensed sizes of the cool and hot spots in the microwave background might be wrong. These parameters could be adjusted to predict a narrower range of sizes on either side of the "pre-lensed" average.

Then, after the effect of gravitational lensing is folded in, the resulting average size and size dispersion would agree with what WMAP actually saw, said Lieu. "This approach is the most conservative, but would still result in an overhaul of the standard model."

"Or, could it be that although the radiation itself is from far away, some of these cool spot structures are caused by nearby physical processes and aren't really remnants of the universe's creation?" Lieu asked. "Could they have been imprinted locally and aren't cosmological at all? Given that we find no lensing, that might be one possibility.

"Or is it possible that as light goes through the vast areas of space there is some other, unknown factor damping the effects of dispersion and focusing? There is certainly plenty of room for unknowns."

The most contentious possibility is that the background radiation itself isn't a remnant of the big bang but was created by a different process, a "local" process so close to Earth that the radiation wouldn't go near any gravitational lenses before reaching our telescopes.

Although widely accepted by astrophysicists and cosmologists as the best theory for the creation of the universe, the big bang model has come under increasingly vocal criticism from scientists concerned about inconsistencies between the theory and astronomical observations, or by concepts that have been used to "fix" the theory so it agrees with those observations.

These fixes include theories which say the nascent universe expanded at speeds faster than the speed of light for an unknown period of time after the big bang; dark matter, which was used to explain how galaxies and clusters of galaxies keep from flying apart even though there seems to be too little matter to provide the gravity needed to hold them together; and dark energy, an unseen, unmeasured and unexplained force that is apparently causing the universe not only to expand, but to accelerate as it goes.

In research published April 10 in the "Astrophysical Journal, Letters," Lieu and Mittaz found that evidence provided by WMAP point to a slightly "super critical" universe, where there is more matter (and gravity) than what the standard interpretation of the WMAP data says. This posed serious problems to the inflationary paradigm.

Recent observations by NASA's new Spitzer space telescope found "old" stars and galaxies so far away that the light we are seeing now left those stars when (according to big bang theory) the universe was between 600 million and one billion years old -- much too young to have galaxies with red giant stars that have burned off all of their hydrogen.

Other observations found clusters and super clusters of galaxies at those great distances, when the universe was supposed to have been so young that there had not been enough time for those monstrous intergalactic structures to form.

http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n0508/02background/
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"The sleep of reason brings forth monsters." - Goya
Baphomet
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« Reply #44 on: August 11, 2008, 12:36:00 am »

 
Baphomet

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   posted 08-15-2005 09:31 PM                       
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Excellent quote on Tesla, Unknown, a misunderstood, mistreate genius. Where would Thomas Edison have been without him?

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"The sleep of reason brings forth monsters." - Goya

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