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EGYPTIANS, NOT GREEKS WERE TRUE FATHERS OF MEDICINE

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Bianca
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« on: June 01, 2007, 09:06:35 am »










                                 EGYPTIANS, NOT GREEKS WERE TRUE FATHERS OF MEDICINE


   



Scientists examining documents dating back 3,500 years say they have found proof that the origins of modern medicine lie in ancient Egypt and not with Hippocrates and the Greeks.

The research team from the KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology at The University of Manchester discovered the evidence in medical papyri written in 1,500BC – 1,000 years before Hippocrates was born.

"Classical scholars have always considered the ancient Greeks, particularly Hippocrates, as being the fathers of medicine but our findings suggest that the ancient Egyptians were practising a credible form of pharmacy and medicine much earlier," said Dr Jackie Campbell.

"When we compared the ancient remedies against modern pharmaceutical protocols and standards, we found the prescriptions in the ancient documents not only compared with pharmaceutical preparations of today but that many of the remedies had therapeutic merit."



The medical documents, which were first discovered in the mid-19th century, showed that ancient Egyptian physicians treated wounds with honey, resins and metals known to be antimicrobial.

The team also discovered prescriptions for laxatives of castor oil and colocynth and bulk laxatives of figs and bran. Other references show that colic was treated with hyoscyamus, which is still used today, and that cumin and coriander were used as intestinal carminatives.

Further evidence showed that musculo-skeletal disorders were treated with rubefacients to stimulate blood flow and poultices to warm and soothe. They used celery and saffron for rheumatism, which are currently topics of pharmaceutical research, and pomegranate was used to eradicate tapeworms, a remedy that remained in clinical use until 50 years ago.

"Many of the ancient remedies we discovered survived into the 20th century and, indeed, some remain in use today, albeit that the active component is now produced synthetically," said Dr Campbell.

"Other ingredients endure and acacia is still used in cough remedies while aloes forms a basis to soothe and heal skin conditions."



Fellow researcher Dr Ryan Metcalfe is now developing genetic techniques to investigate the medicinal plants of ancient Egypt. He has designed his research to determine which modern species the ancient botanical samples are most related to.

"This may allow us to determine a likely point of origin for the plant while providing additional evidence for the trade routes, purposeful cultivation, trade centres or places of treatment," said Dr Metcalfe.

"The work is inextricably linked to state-of-the-art chemical analyses used by my colleague Judith Seath, who specialises in the essential oils and resins used by the ancient Egyptians."

Professor Rosalie David, Director of the KNH Centre, said: "These results are very significant and show that the ancient Egyptians were practising a credible form of pharmacy long before the Greeks.

"Our research is continuing on a genetic, chemical and comparative basis to compare the medicinal plants of ancient Egypt with modern species and to investigate similarities between the traditional remedies of North Africa with the remedies used by their ancestors of 1,500 BC."

Source: University of Manchester
« Last Edit: December 22, 2008, 07:23:49 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #1 on: June 01, 2007, 09:29:36 am »

                                                  E G Y P T I A N   M E D I C I N E




                                     PAPYRUS


First to use and record advanced medical practices

Decision of doctor went one of three ways: treat, struggle to treat, not treat.  3/49 were considered hopeless in Smith Papyrus.

Did not know of cellular biology, so did not know of antibiotics.

Women contributed to discovery and development of medicine.  Men wrote the ideas down.

Chimps self medicate (eat herbs for diseases, sickness)

Medicine, religion and magic were all used by the doctor.

Homer, circa 800 BCE (Odyssey) notes Es as being the best physicians in the world.

Es believed that the body was born healthy and got sick because of foreign agents.  Invisible agents were attributed to evil forces.

ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS
 
Medicines used:

SMITH PAPYRUS

Excerpt: "Take the water (humor) contained in pigs eyes, take true antimony, red lead, natural honey, of each 1 Ro (about 15 cc); pulverize it finely and combine it into one mass which should be injected into the ear of the patient and he will be cured immediately. Do and thou shalt see. Really excellent! Thou shalt recite as a spell: I have brought this which was applied to the seat of yonder and replaces the horrible suffering. Twice."  This cures Stupid Vision.

Ebers Papyrus (110 pages, 877 remedies); 10 meters long, 30 cm wide, internal medicine, plus diseases of the eye, skin, extremities, gynecology and some surgical diseases.



SECTION OF EBER'S PAPYRUS


Imhotep and Hesyre (time of Zoser) ca. 2725 BCE
Temple schools (medical schools): interrogation (taking a history), inspection and palpation (feeling the affected or injured area)
Studied brain, pulse related to heart.  The brain was the seat of the body.  The heart provided blood vessels that were hollow.  They could not distinguish between blood vessels, nerves, tendons and channels.
medical history (questions to patient), examination and palpation and percussion.  (examined stool, urine, blood, sputum)
knew about aneurysms
knew about inguinal hernias. Cough! (heat application to reduce strangulated hernia)
had prescriptions, performed surgery.
Fertility was diagnosed by placing garlic in the **** for one night. If the next day the woman can taste or smell it in her mouth, she is fertile. This is based upon the connection between the genital parts and interior of the body. Such connection would be lost in a case of obstructed Fallopian tubes.  “To cause a woman to stop being pregnant, be it one, two or three years: part of acacia, colocynth, dates, finely ground in a hin [Hebrew measurment of liguid = circa 5 litres] of honey, fibers are moistened therewith, introduced into her ****”.
Pregnancy diagnosis: urine of pregnant woman: male child – urine germinates wheat, female- urine germinates barley.
delivery- sit on two bricks, arms on knees.  Ease delivery with burning resin or massaging the abdomen by saffron powder and beer.
Abortions – insert oil and fat.
Contraception – insert crocodile oil, acacia gum or honey, and natron. (acacia gum dissolved produses lactic acid makes known -spermicidal).
 Infants breast fed for three years.  If  not possible, cow’s milk.
suture with needle and thread.  Raw meat (first day) prevents bleeding, then astringent (biting or caustic liquid, closes pores) herbs, butter, honey (hygroscopic= absorbs water) promotes white blood cell growth, and bread (moldy = penicillin).
cancer existed in E times.
pus was removed with a knife.
 Piles and rectal prolapse were treated by medication, suppositories, laxatives and enema. For burns, a mixture of milk of a woman who has borne a male child, gum, and, ram’s hair was applied.
Urethral strictures were dilated using reeds. This was the earliest non-surgical intervention ever applied in history. In modern medicine, the first intervention was reported in the AD 1880’s by catgut balloons.
antiseptics – frankincense, date-wine, turpentine and acacia gum.
cauterization – hot fire-drill.
sedation – opiates.  Local anaesthesia – water mixed with vinaigre over Memphite stone.  This makes carbon dioxide, a known analgesic (relieves pain).
broken bones were set.  Possibly knew of screwing bones together.
reduce a dislocated joint. (Kocher’s technique today)
knew of sciatic pain (down leg from back)
knew of angina pectoris (heart attack)
cough (asthma?)– inhale honey, cream, milk, carob, colocynth and date kernels.  Technique for inhalation: “….. You should then bring 7 stones and heat them on fire. Take one of them, place parts of these drugs over it, cover it with a new jar with a pierced bottom. Introduce a tube of reed through this hole and put your mouth on this tube so that you swallow its fumes. The same with every stone … “.
joint pain (arthritis) – ointments containing fat, oil, bone marrow, gum, honey, flour, natron, onion, cumin, flax, frankincense or pine.  Today in E. flax seed (linseed) and sake or lizard fat is still used for this purpose.
knew brain was responsible for paralysis.  Had 12 headache prescriptions.
Migraines – fish (Siluris – electric catfish) in fat and oil.
trepanning (drilling holes in head for relief of pressure)
constipation – castor oil tree berries; chew and swallow with beer.  “Leaves of castor oil plant 1/4, dates of male palm 5/6, Cyprus grass 1/16, stalk of Puppy plant 1/16, Coriander 1/16, cold beer 1/2, keep moist, strain, and take for four days”.
diarrhea –green onion, gruel, oil, honey, wax, water, cook and take for 4 days.
night blindness – liver of ox, roasted and crushed. (Vitamin A)
cataracts – tortoise brain and honey.  First surgery Alexandria 31st Dynasty (Ptolomy)
dental abscess – drill holes to drain.  Treated pyorrhea, loose teeth, caries.
gold wire to secure a loose tooth.
extractions and artificial teeth
minerals used: sulfer, antimony and zinc, meats, 160 plants.
dosage – adjusted to patient’s age.
pyramid workers’ pay included : radish, garlic, onions.  These have antibiotic properties.
enema = learned from Ibis bird.
heart and mind were the same thing to an E.
knew of depression and hysteria.
alternatives: psychology, physiotherapy, heliotherapy,  hydrotherapy, mud and clay,
Three types of doctors:   sunu = physician;          priest of Sekment         (lioness-goddess, punishes sins) sau = magic physician           
specialists: eyes, teeth, mouth, stomach pains, uncertain diseases,  “Shepherd of the anus of the Pharaoh” (proctology)
Peseshet = old female physician, i.e., first (4th Dynasty)
peri-ankh = name of the medical schools: Abydos which Ramses IV visited frequently its library. At least four other houses of life were attached to temples at Bubastis, Edfu, Tel-el-Amarna and Kom-Ombo.
doctors had a code of ethics and probably swore an oath.
Cambyses, Persian king arrived in the 27th Dynasty (525 BCE).  Lost in Upper Egypt.  Returned during Festival of the Grains.  Rejoicing people he thought were making fun of him.  Destroyed schools and temples (peri-ankhs).  Successor, Darius, to win friendship, rebuilt them.
all citizens got medical care (medicare)
sick workers on the pyramids could claim pensions.
sick leaves were allowed.
sick people did not have to lift stones.
no fixed retirement age.
4 hours work in morning, break for meal and nap, 4 hours work late afternoon.  Avoid mid-day sun.
quarries and mines had doctors supplied.
first country in history to practice hair trimming to avoid insect infestation.  Still practiced in modern armies.
Kemet = Egypt in Egyptian.  Chemestry comes from it.





acacia tree



castor tree

 

coriander


Anubis - God of Healers and Embalmers




Smith Papyrus



delivering a baby
 


medical instruments



fractured forearm with splint



Imhotep, god of healing



Hesyre, oldest known physician

 
 
http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/waymac/History%20A/A%20Term%202/1.%20Egypt/egyptian_medicine.htm
« Last Edit: December 22, 2008, 07:45:36 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #2 on: June 01, 2007, 10:09:52 am »




                        ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN ANCIENT EGYPT





"I lead your head out, I set your neck up."

Papyrus “Ebers” 1)(Egyptian medical compendium)

To be able to portray aspects related to body-structure and movement, an artist needs either an understanding of anatomy or body awareness, or optimally, an appreciation of both. Body awareness was highly developed in ancient Egypt - but what was the situation with respect to understanding physiology?

Approximately a dozen papyrii within the field of ancient Egyptian medicine have survived and act today as our primary source. These texts were written between 2000 and 1200 B.C. Some templates of these writings do, however, go as far back as 2500 B.C.


OLDEST KNOWN APOTHECARY JAR
It contained traces of Ashish - The face is of the Pygmy God Bes
who became an Egyptian God of Medicine


Around 200 B.C., Flavius Clemens Alexandrinus, founder of a Christian school in Alexandria, reported six complete Egyptian medical books, in which the subject was systematically handled, one of which was “about the construction of the body”. According to Flavius, these six books were part of a series of 42 holy books, which have been ascribed to Thoth (Hermes Trismegistos). According to handed down tradition of the Egyptians, Thoth brought the art of writing, the subject of space as well as the art of healing to Egypt. Sadly, the 42 Hermetic Books have been lost.

The surviving medical texts are not textbooks as we understand them today but rather descriptions of cases and instructions for treatment. A few technical and philological commentaries exist regarding pathological terms describing the position or normal functioning of certain organs or parts of the body. The descriptions we find here about vessels and the role of various organs are partly correct, partly diffuse or speculative and some are wrong.

Whilst making this assessment, following points should, however, be considered: firstly, the Egyptian meaning is exceptionally difficult to translate. Secondly, some terms are ambiguous. One word is, for example, used for muscles as well as tendons, veins or nerves. Another word is used for both “body” and “flesh”. A final point being that it is not possible to distinguish to what extent the physical is fused with the spiritual in a symbolic or analogous manner.

In the papyrus “Ebers” - named after the man who obtained this text in Egypt 1873 - we find, for example, the heart referred to as the “seat of thinking”. This does not automatically imply that the Egyptians were here referring to intellectual thinking. Rather it is feasable that they were implying a spiritual function, a relationship between the spiritual and physical levels.

Leaving this difficulty of interpretation of terms, I want to outline now what is remarkable in the papyrii regarding anatomy and physio-logy of movement.

Distinctions between skin, flesh, bone, bone marrow, tendons and ligaments were made. 2) Interestingly, they also mentioned “skin of leather”-layers. Knowing the context, one must assume that this was a referral to layers of connective tissue. The sutures of the skull are described as “leatherlike”. The ancient Egyptians apparently knew that the sutures of children and adults are attached to each other by connective tissue and are not fully ossified. 3) The amount of vertebrae and the existence of the spinal canal were known to them, they mentioned seven cervical vertebrae, for example. 4)

Interestingly, a predominant model of interpretation in the medicine of ancient Egypt understood health as a streaming of the body’s liquids. This streaming was supposed to be aperient and responsible for supply. Health was only possible, if the fluids and substances could flow unrestrained throughout the body. This intuitive concept appears as quite modern. Since today’s research on connective tissue and its ground substance - responsible for the free flow of nutritional subtances, antibodies, information etc. - points in the same direction. 5)

Up to the present, it is still being discussed as to whether anatomical knowledge was gained during the embalming of corpses for mummification. Whilst this cannot be verified on the one hand (sufficient detailed anatomical knowledge in existing papyrii has not been found), we know on the other hand that male and female medical doctors were trained in facilities called the “House of Life”, where embalmers worked. With this fact in mind, it is hard to imagine that no knowledge was gained through studying corpses being opened prior to mummification. It is not known whether religious tabus forbade dissections as performed today.

The methods that were applied in ancient Egypt during a medical examination reveal that they had considerable experience with respect to healthy or pathological physiology. When an ill person was examined, palpation was included, the pulse was taken, odour was noted and other tests were undertaken related to functions of the body.

The following examples are from the papyrus “Edwin Smith” (Old Kingdom) 6): In one case where a dislocation of a cervical vertebra was suspected, the doctor asked the patient to look down at his chest and at his shoulders. The reaction of the patient determined the diagnosis. If the patient was able to move his head to the left and right as well as downwards, even if painful, a strain was diagnosed. If the patient was unable to move the head, a bony dysfunction was diagnosed.

The same functional test was carried out for head injuries causing a stiffness of the neck. The doctor asked the patient to raise his face to find out whether s/he was able to extend the neck, e.g. to bend the neck backwards, and to open his mouth in order to discover whether this was painful.

Sometimes a patient was asked to walk several steps so that observations could be made. In one case of a man with a fractured skull, a doctor recorded that the patient dragged his foot on the same side as his head injury, which indeed is typical for this condition.

In a case where a spinal injury was suspected the doctor asked the patient: “Extend both legs and bend them again.” We know that, if this kind of injury is present, the patient immediately bends the legs when he tries to extend them, because of the pain incurred in the injured vertebra. We find evidence that the doctors knew that the extremities of a patient are without feeling if a cervical vertebra has been dislocated and that in such cases the **** is erect and secretes sperm or urine.


 
Fig. 1 Setting of the shoulder after a work accident (New Kingdom)

Broken bones were realigned and joints which had been dislocated put back into joint (Fig. 1). As an example of the latter, I would like to quote an instruction found in the papyrus Edwin Smith: “If you examine a man with a shifted lower jaw (= luxation, HGB) and you find his mouth open, so that he is unable to close his mouth, then you should put the forefingers on the ends of the lower jaw inside of his mouth and put your thumb under his chin. Then let the dislocated joints fall together to come to their appropriate place again.” 7) In this way, the adjusting maipulation of the jaw was accomplished.

Surgery, even skull openings, took place as early as during the first dynasties. Cool

We find frequent mention of massages in the medical papyrii, in particular for patients with rheumatism, stiff neck muscles 9) or tense muscles around the jaw.

The ancient Egyptians must have had a knowledge of subtle functions of the body. We may conclude this from the frequent portrayal of right-angled joint positions in figurative art. Johannes Ludwig Schmitt (M.D.), a leading German specialist on respiration is quoted here on this aspect: “This special posture indicates an increase in tonicity and of the stimulating effect on breathing. This is initiated via the impulses for the control of breathing caused by a joint position via receptors which respond to mechanical impulses.” 10)

The Egyptians apparently were also aware of the connection be-tween the tonus of the pelvic floor and the position of the uterus. As we know, the tonus of the pelvic floor muscles decreases when giving birth letting the uterus sink (Fig. 2). In the Ebers papyrus we find the recommendation for women after giving birth for the application of steam infusions of a certain substance to restore a healthy tonicity so that the uterus “shall return to its own place”. 11)


 
Fig. 2 A woman giving birth (1350 B.C.)

Summarizing, the medical papyrii alone do not allow us to conclude that the Egyptians had an extensive rational and intellectual knowledge about body-structure as we have today.

Here we must, however, remember that the medical literature that has survived represents only a fraction of its original size. The lost Hermetic books I mentioned above and the works of the medical healer Imhotep have never been found. Interestingly, both the ancient Greek doctor Hippocrates and the Roman scholar Galen reported having seen Imhotep’s works in a temple in Memphis, Egypt. 12) A further example of works from this sphere of knowledge are the anatomy books of Pharao Sachti from the first dynasty which were mentioned by the priest Manetho who lived in the third century B.C. Manetho also refers to Sachti as having been a great healer. 13)

Another source of hesitancy when we regard the sources of our present information must be the fact that a great deal of medical knowledge in this culture was transmitted exclusively by word of mouth as part of the secret teachings. Doctors were usually also priests and the priesthood had a hierarchical structure. At the head was a small circle of initiated persons, who passed on their knowledge only to other initiated persons. This method was especially true for those parts of the knowledge which were only comprehensible to people with an advanced consciousness. The surviving papyrii probably represent practical instructions for “ordinary” doctors, whose state of consciousness was similar to the average consciousness of the people.

Thinking “scientifically” in today’s sense was not substantial for the growth of knowledge in ancient Egypt. Spiritual higher sight and intuition as well as practical experience played a far greater role in the art of healing than the occasional rudiments of empirical science (as familiar to us), which was also practised. 14) It is not without reason that the Egyptians repeatedly pointed out that their knowledge had a primordial and divine origin. 15)

In order to comprehend the kind of knowledge of the ancient Egyptians and how it found its way into their art, it is necessary to try to understand the prevelant consciousness and perception in ancient Egypt. This shall be done in the following chapters.

       Notes

Translation by H. Joachim, Berlin 1978, p. 88 (back to the text)
Cartilage and bone are not exactly conceptually distinguished. (back to the text)
Only at the end of the 19th century, the American M.D. and osteopath William Sutherland rediscovered this. To this day, the large majority of the orthodox medical practitioners still assume that the skull is completely ossified in adults. (back to the text)
H. Grapow, Über die anatomischen Kenntnisse der alten Ägypter, Leipzig 1935 (back to the text)
See among others: Pischinger, Alfred: Matrix & Matrix Regulation. Basis for a Holistic Theory in Medicine, 1991 (back to the text)
This papyrus from the time between 2500 and 2000 B.C. was a real textbook of surgery and of medicine for the bones. Quoted from: Henry E. Sigerist, Der Arzt in der ägyptischen Kultur, Zurich 1963, pp. 99-100 (back to the text)
Papyrus Edwin Smith, translated by Wolfgang Westendorf, Stuttgart 1966 (back to the text)
Dr. W.M. Pahl of the Institute for Anthropology and Human Genetics (Department Radiology of the university of Tübingen, Germany) made a radiography of a skull in Assuan and discovered: “The lesion in the frontal region is through-shaped and smoothly defined. The internal table is intact. According to differential diagnosis, is to be assumed that the cause of the defect is either pathological (for example of inflammatory genesis) or, more probably, an intentional surgical operation... In the latter case, the operation would have been performed intra vitam. The patient survived the procedure.” See also: E. Brunner-Traut, Die alten Ägypter, Stuttgart 1981, p. 160 (back to the text)
H. Grapow, Kranker, Krankheiten und Arzt in Ägypten, Berlin 1956, pp. 84, 118 and 130 (back to the text)
Johannes Ludwig Schmitt, Atemheilkunst, Bern 1981, p. 529 and pp. 580 (back to the text)
Papyrus Ebers, translated by H. Joachim, Berlin 1973, p. 171 A chair without seat disk was used for this, under which the essences were heated up in a small pan on glowing coals. From there the steam ascended to the pelvic floor. (back to the text)
E. Brunner-Traut, Die alten Ägypter, Stuttgart 1974, p. 145 (back to the text)
Joachim Spiegel, Das Werden der altägyptischen Hochkultur, Heidelberg 1953, pp. 291 (back to the text)
These conditions have been unsufficiently considered in the fields of egyptology and of history of medical science. Most of their representatives persistently ignore that the present predominant materialistic kind of science is only one of several variations of past and present kinds of science. Therefore the majority of school scientists are only interested in such fragments of past time ideas which are congruent with the premises of modern Western science. Logically those fragments are judged by standards of modern school medicine and interpreted prejudiced according to the own ideology of science. A typical example is the statement of Julia Budka: “Mentally ill people…were called ‘people being in a god’s hand’, what clarifies, how many difficulties one (the ancient Egyptians, HGB) had to find natural causes (for mental deseases, HGB).” (Julia Budka, Heilkunst und Zauberei - Medizin im alten Ägypten, in: Kemet 4/2000) In this statement it is not even taken into consideration, that perhaps in ancient Egypt (like in many other spiritually oriented cultures too) “mental desease” was regarded to be an altered state of consciousness, different from normal, but not necessary “diseased”.
See also:

Paul Feyerabend, Wider den Methodenzwang, ibid, esp. pp. 55-70 and 238-284

S. Morenz, Die Begegnung Europas mit Ägypten, Zurich 1969, p. 211

H. Grapow, Kranker, Krankheiten und Arzt, Berlin 1956, p. 96 and 133

Sigismund von Gleich, Vom Weltentraum zum Erdenleben. Babylonien und Ägypten, Stuttgart 1938, pp. 70 (back to the text)

Rudolf Steiner said that the initiated of ancient Egypt had a “cosmic knowledge about the organs” and that they had knowledge of the nervous system. He is even convinced that in a certain sense the wise priests of those times were superior to today’s doctors. This assessment will become more understandable when we discuss the Egyptian state of consciousness in the next chapter. This consciousness was the foundation of spiritual ways of healing (for example the healing sleep inside a temple), or homoeopathic like healing (remedies using the principle of similarity) and other modalities of medicine. See: Rudolf Steiner, Ägyptische Mythen und Mysterien, Dornach 1978
« Last Edit: June 01, 2007, 12:40:38 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #3 on: June 01, 2007, 11:00:05 am »

FROM:


THE COPTIC MEDICAL SOCIETY (uk)

                                                   

                                             F O R   E V E R Y   M A L A D Y   A   C U R E
 
 


 
 AMENHOTEP - God of Medicine
 
 Of all the branches of science pursued in ancient Egypt, none achieved such popularity as medicine as it was based on an integrated scientific methodology and a system of medical schools. Under this system, the first of its kind in human history, the first school of medicine dated back to the first Dynasty followed by other reputed schools such as Per Bastet in the New Kingdom and at Abydos and Sais in the late period.

The first civilization known to have had an extensive study of medicine and to leave written records of its practices and procedures was that of ancient Egypt. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri from the period between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.: the Kahun Medical Papyrus, the Ramesseum IV and Ramesseum V Papyri, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, The Ebers Medical Papyrus and the Hearst Medical Papyrus. These texts, most of them based on older texts dating possibly from 3000 B.C., are comparatively free of the magician's approach to treating illness. Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighbouring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly.

Medical Training
Physicians learnt their profession at schools called Houses of Life. They were no doubt given some practical experience, but chiefly they had to study what was already written. They used to administer their treatments in accordance with a written law composed by earlier famous physicians. Medical texts were used not only as a fount of professional knowledge but also as a safeguard against possible failure.

Categories of Physicians


Medical papyrus.
Wellcome Library, London
 

Priests were the first to practice medicine as some doctors belonged to the priesthood. Some again were counted among the scribes, as shown in such titles as "chief doctor and scribe of the word of God. Many enjoyed ecclesiastical as well as lay titles. Like other professions, doctors had their own hierarchy. Besides ordinary doctors there were senior doctors, inspectors, overseers and masters of physicians and the Chief of Physicians of the South and the North, a kind of minister of health. Royal and palace doctors had special hierarchy and titles. There was even a degree of specialization quite remarkable for the time. Each physician used to treat one disease, and no more. There were plenty of physicians everywhere. Some were eye-doctors, some dealt with the head, others with teeth or the abdomen, and some with hidden maladies. Only members of the high strata of society were allowed to learn and practice this honourable profession. Moreover, a physician had to learn the science of drugs especially botany. Ancient Egyptians held physicians in so much high esteem that they raised Emote, the great physician (2700 BC) after his death to a sacred status as the god of medicine.

Historical Glimpse
According to the ancient historian Billing, Egyptians used to examine bodies of the dead to know the cause of death. This should not look strange for such people, traditionally accustomed, as they were, to thorough pursuit of knowledge. According to the American historian Breasted, an authority on ancient Egyptian history, ancient Egyptian surgeons were highly skilled as shown in inscriptions. Clean wounds were treated by stitching and adhesive bandages. Other wounds were treated by approximating edges on the first day then with honey and astringent herbs. Moreover, fractures were successfully treated with splints. They used many methods to diagnose pregnancy and to know the gender of embryo before birth. They were the first to use Arabian gum in birth control. They were the first to use delivery stool, with special attention to paediatrics and the patient nutrition. It also appears that for some people, at least, there was a system of free medical aid. Ancient Egyptian chemists equally excelled in preparing and extracting drugs from mineral, botanical and, animal substances. However ancient Egyptian pharmacopoeia was mainly based on herbs especially vegetables and other foods. Drugs were used in pills and ointment form and drops. Dressings and deodorant preparations were also used. This is clearly shown in the Ebers papyrus which includes names of medical herbs of great  medical benefit.

Diagnosis Methods



PTAH HOLDING ANKH AND DJED (Magic)
 

It is both interesting and surprising to know that the diagnosis methods currently used in the medical profession are no much different than those used by ancient Egyptian physicians several centuries ago.
According to the Berlin Papyrus No. 154, an ancient report reads as follows:

The patient suffers a great epigastric pain. He feels a heavy, hot and inflamed body. He complains of being unable to tolerate his clothes and feels they do not warm him. He feels thirsty during the night. His saliva has the taste of unripe fruits. His muscles pain him as if he walked for a long distance.

Conception of Human Body
The Egyptians conception of the human body, then, was as a network of interconnecting channels and analogous to the branches of the Nile and the artificial canals of their own country. Notions of physiology and disease were all anchored in the concept of the heart as the centre of the organism. The heart was one's partner: it spoke to a person in his or her solitude. It was at the same time the engine of all the bodily functions, not only of one cardinal function, the circulation, as modern science revealed. From the heart proceeded channels (metu) linking all parts of the body together. These channels, the Egyptians believed, conveyed not only the blood, but also air (reaching the heart from the nose, they thought), tears, saliva, mucus, sperm, urine, nutriment and feces, as well as harmful substances conceived to be the agents of pain and illness. Not only blood vessels were considered as metu, but also the respiratory tract, tear duct, ducts of various glands, spermatic duct, the muscles, tendons and ligaments.



GODDESS SEKHMET 
 
As early as the 3rd Dynasty, there were already individuals corresponding roughly to the modern concept of a doctor. There were also surgeons who were known as the "Priests of Sekhmet", as well as the ancient equivalent of dental and veterinary practitioners.
The somewhat destructive and powerful lion headed goddess of war, Sekhmet was also considered to be the supreme deity of healing. The Priests of Sekhmet were the specialists of the day in medicine and surgery. A number of medical papyri survive today and these have provided us with a wealth of information concerning the Egyptians knowledge of medicine, anatomy and physiology.

The Ebers medical papyrus
Originally over twenty metres long, the Ebers Papyrus consisted of a list of some 876 prescriptions and remedies for ailments such as wounds, stomach complaints, gynaecological problems and skin irritations. Prescriptions were made up in proportions according to fractions which were based on parts of the eye of Horus, ranging from 1/64 to 1/2.
The Ebers Papyrus is primarily an internal medical reference, although anatomical and physiological references are also included. 877 recipes and 400 different drugs were described, although for some unknown reason the scribe who wrote it did not finish the papyrus, and ended in mid sentence.


The Edwin Smith medical papyrus c.1600 BC
Thought to be the work of a doctor associated with a pyramid building workforce, this five metre papyrus deals mainly with problems such as broken bones, dislocations and crushings. Each of the 48 cases documented are divided into categories: "an ailment which I will treat", "an ailment with which I will contend" and "an ailment not to be treated".
The symptoms of each of the documented cases are described in the papyrus, and where possible a remedy or cure is prescribed. The doctor writing the papyrus was aware of the circulation of blood throughout the body and clearly recognised that the condition of the heart could be judged by the patient's pulse. This papyrus includes a vast experience in fractures that can only be acquired at a site where accidents were extremely numerous, for instance, as during the building of the pyramids.


The Kahun medical papyrus c.1900 BC
The oldest yet discovered, and dating from the reign of Amenemhat III, the Kahun Medical Papyrus describes methods of diagnosing pregnancy and the sex of the unborn, toothache during pregnancy, diseases and various ailments of women, and is particularly concerned with the womb and determination of fertility.
Methods of contraception are also given, such as the rather unpleasant consumption of "excrement of crocodile mixed with sour milk", together with remedies for urinary problems, problems in the abdomen and kidneys, and aching limbs with pain in the sockets of the eyes.

Other medical papyri

The Hearst Medical Papyrus The Hearst Medical Papyrus dates to the first half of the second millennium BC. It contains, in hieratic Egyptian writing (a cursive form of hieroglyphic writing), eighteen columns with medical prescriptions. The ailments for which cures are offered range from "a tooth which falls out" (Col. I, l. 7) and "remedy for treatment of the lung" (Col. IV, l. Cool to bites by human beings (Col. II, ll. 6–7), and pigs and hippopotami (Col. XVI, ll. 5–7). 
The Berlin Papyrus:
 This contains the earliest known pregnancy test of "barley and emmer". " ... The woman must moisten it with urine every day ... if both grow, she will give birth. If the barley grows it means a male child. If the emmer grows it will mean a female child. If neither grows, she will not give birth."
 
The Ramesseum Papyri They contain sections on diseases of the eyes, gynaecology, diseases of children, muscles and tendons.
The Brooklyn Papyrus:
 Deals at great length with snakebites. It speaks about remedies to drive out poison from snakes, scorpions and tarantulas.
 
The Chester Beatty VI Papyrus:
 Concerned only with the diseases and ailments of the anus and rectum.
 
The London Papyrus:
 One of the best examples of the Egyptian approach to healing, consisting of a combination of magical spells, rituals and practical prescriptions, all of which would have been considered equally essential to the recovery of the patient.
 
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« Reply #4 on: June 01, 2007, 11:05:49 am »



                                                      A L E X A N D R I A



The Medical Tradition of a Great City
 

 

 

By Rachad Mounir Shoucri
Kingston, Ontario, Canada
 
 “For in that land (Egypt) the fruitful earth bears drugs in plenty, some good and some dangerous; and there every man is a physician and acquainted with such lore beyond all mankind.” (Homer, 8th century BC) “… As for Isis, the Egyptians say that she was the discoverer of many health giving drugs and was greatly versed in the science of healing;…In proof of this, as they say, they advance not legends, as the Greeks do, but manifests facts; for practically the entire inhabited world is their witness, in that it eagerly contributes to the honours of Isis because she manifests herself in healings.” (Diodorus of Sycily, 1st century BC)

“…studies in the art of healing,
whose help is often required in this
life of ours, which is neither frugal
nor sober, are so enriched from day
to day, that although a physician’s
work itself indicates it, yet in place
of every testimony it is enough to
commend his knowledge of the art,
if he has said that he was trained at
Alexandria”.
Ammianus Marcellinus
4th century AD


 
The Egyptian Background of The Medical School of Alexandria

 
The Egyptian physician Imhotep had a special cult as patron saint of medicine during the Greco-Roman period,
the Greeks identified him with Asclepius. It is suggested that statues of the eminent
personalities of ancient Egypt be placed in all libraries in Egypt.
 
  Clement of Alexandria describes the procession of the priests holding the 42 books of knowledge attributed to Thoth/ Hermes, the books containing the hymns to the gods, the hymns to the king, 4 books of astronomy, 10 books relating to the ceremonies of worship, 10 books


EGYPT - Physician HesiRe - circa 2650BC

Concerning the gods and the education of the priests; 36 books which were learnt by the priests and 6 books contained treatises on medicine covering anatomy, medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, gynaecology, and therapeutics. The fact that these books were known in Alexandria in the 2nd century AD reflects the rich background of Egyptian knowledge on which the scientific tradition of Alexandria grew up during the Ptolemaic period. One of the glories of ancient Egypt was medicine.

Two important papyri on ancient Egyptian medicine discovered c.1863 AD at Luxor are the Edwin Smith papyrus and the Ebers papyrus; both go back to c. 1550 BC. The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus was published  by J.H. Breasted (Chicago 1930)
 it is believed that its original source goes back to 3000 BC. The papyrus, describing 48 types of injury and disease, indicates awareness of the pulse, its relation to the heart, and possibly the movement of blood. It is the earliest known reference to the heart and circulation. The Ebers Papyrus contains 110 pages and is the best preserved of the medical papyri of ancient Egypt. Both papyri give a clear idea of the development of rational medical thinking in ancient Egypt. Early Greek writers like Homer (8th century BC) ascribe the invention of the medical art to the Egyptians. Egyptian physicians established a high ethical code that passed down to us in the Hippocratic Oath. Textual parallels between the Hippocratic medicine and some Egyptian medical papyri have been established. According to J.B. de C.M. Saunders (The Transitions from Ancient Egyptian to Greek Medicine): “Of much greater importance to us is the recognition that many of the statements on pregnancy to be found in the ‘Hippocratic Collection’ and entitled ‘On Diseases of Women’ and ‘On Sterility’ are directly derived from Egyptian sources. One of the most extraordinary examples is the almost word-for-word correspondence which exists between a passage in the Hippocratic work ‘On Sterility’ and one found in both Papyrus Carlsberg VIII and papyrus Kuhn…” According to Herodotus (5th century BC) each doctor in Egypt was “… responsible for the treatment of only one disease… some specializing in diseases of the eyes, others of the head, others of the teeth, others of the stomach, and so on…”. The renown of the Egyptian medicine in the 6th century BC was such that it was often the custom to choose the chief physician of the imperial court in Persia from Egypt.




SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS found in the Temple of Kom Ombo




MEDICINE AT ALEXANDRIA


   A papyrus of the 2nd century BC shows that the Egyptian physicians taught medicine at Alexandria. Egyptian embalmers were at work at Alexandria and they were knownfor their excellent knowledge of anatomy. The Egyptian medical tradition that dissection of the body is an essential prerequisite for practice passed from Alexandria to Rome. The physician Rufus of Ephesus (2nd century AD) who visited Egypt wrote that the Egyptian physicians named the sutures of the skull although they understood Greek poorly.

The Younger (Letters, 10.6), a member of the Roman nobility, wrote to the Emperor Trajan (98-117 AD) for “… making Harpocras my physician a citizen of Rome… I was informed by those who are better skilled in these affairs than I pretend to be, that as he is an Egyptian (from Memphis), I ought first to have obtained for him the freedom of Alexandria, before he was made free of Rome. I confess, indeed, as I was  ignorant of any difference in this case between Egyptians  and other aliens… it is an ignorance I cannot  regret, since it affords me an opportunity of receiving from you a double obligation in favour of the same  person”.

  And so Harpocras was made citizen of Alexandria and Rome. Note that the Egyptians did not have the right enjoyed by other aliens to become citizens  of Rome; they did not even have this right in the cities of Egypt!!
Eudemus of Alexandria (240 BCE)
He was an anatomist who studied the nervous system, human osteology, female sex organs, and experimented in embryological studies.
  Galen (2nd century AD) is the best example of what the excellence of the Egyptian medical tradition of Alexandria can produce. He studied medicine in Alexandria and left many works including his books on anatomy that were originally fifteen in number. He has preserved for us many aspects of the Egyptian medical tradition. According to C.M. Saunders: “…The Egyptian opinion on the superfluities and their putrefaction was absorbed by the Greeks and modified to form an integral part of almost all their later theories.
 Even Galen in his elaboration of the humeral doctrine… used the concept to explain the fevers”. 
  Palladius (Lausiac History, 4th century AD) mentions  his encounter in Alexandria with Saint Isidore  the Physician “… a wonderful man, distinguished in  every respect, both as regards character and knowledge…  hospitaller of the Church of Alexandria”, and  with “… the most holy Macarius, the priest and superintendent  of the hospital for cripples… the hospital  had women on the first floor and men on the ground floor”. Egyptian scientists and physicians were active in the 6th century AD, like Sergius and Harun the Priest who was the chief physician at Alexandria and editor-in-chief of a periodical medical publication. When the Arabs invaded Egypt in 639 AD, a school of medicine was still active at  Alexandria where the Syriac language was used, and indication that many students from the East-Mediterranean countries where studying medicine at Alexandria until the 7th century.
 Finally it is worth to mention that the Egyptian pharmacopoeia based on herbal medicine was used by all the people of the Antiquity, the middle Ages until the 18th century, and is being rediscovered in modern times.

•Published in Watani International newspapers 18 August 2002
 
 The Medical Tradition of a Great City
 

 

 

By Rachad Mounir Shoucri
Kingston, Ontario, Canada
 
 “For in that land (Egypt) the fruitful earth bears drugs in plenty, some good and some dangerous; and there every man is a physician and acquainted with such lore beyond all mankind.” (Homer, 8th century BC) “… As for Isis, the Egyptians say that she was the discoverer of many health giving drugs and was greatly versed in the science of healing;…In proof of this, as they say, they advance not legends, as the Greeks do, but manifests facts; for practically the entire inhabited world is their witness, in that it eagerly contributes to the honours of Isis because she manifests herself in healings.” (Diodorus of Sycily, 1st century BC)

“…studies in the art of healing,
whose help is often required in this
life of ours, which is neither frugal
nor sober, are so enriched from day
to day, that although a physician’s
work itself indicates it, yet in place
of every testimony it is enough to
commend his knowledge of the art,
if he has said that he was trained at
Alexandria”.
Ammianus Marcellinus
4th century AD


 
The Egyptian Background of The Medical School of Alexandria

 
The Egyptian physician Imhotep had a special cult as patron saint of medicine during the Greco-Roman period,
the Greeks identified him with Asclepius. It is suggested that statues of the eminent
personalities of ancient Egypt be placed in all libraries in Egypt.
 
  Clement of Alexandria describes the procession of the priests holding the 42 books of knowledge attributed to Thoth/ Hermes, the books containing the hymns to the gods, the hymns to the king, 4 books of astronomy, 10 books relating to the ceremonies of worship, 10 books

 concerning the gods and the education of the priests; 36 books which were learnt by the priests and 6 books contained treatises on medicine covering anatomy, medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, gynaecology, and therapeutics. The fact that these books were known in Alexandria in the 2nd century AD reflects the rich background of Egyptian knowledge on which the scientific tradition of Alexandria grew up during the Ptolemaic period. One of the glories of ancient Egypt was medicine.

Two important papyri on ancient Egyptian medicine discovered c.1863 AD at Luxor are the Edwin Smith papyrus and the Ebers papyrus; both go back to c. 1550 BC. The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus was published  by J.H. Breasted (Chicago 1930)
 it is believed that its original source goes back to 3000 BC. The papyrus, describing 48 types of injury and disease, indicates awareness of the pulse, its relation to the heart, and possibly the movement of blood. It is the earliest known reference to the heart and circulation. The Ebers Papyrus contains 110 pages and is the best preserved of the medical papyri of ancient Egypt. Both papyri give a clear idea of the development of rational medical thinking in ancient Egypt. Early Greek writers like Homer (8th century BC) ascribe the invention of the medical art to the Egyptians. Egyptian physicians established a high ethical code that passed down to us in the Hippocratic Oath. Textual parallels between the Hippocratic medicine and some Egyptian medical papyri have been established. According to J.B. de C.M. Saunders (The Transitions from Ancient Egyptian to Greek Medicine): “Of much greater importance to us is the recognition that many of the statements on pregnancy to be found in the ‘Hippocratic Collection’ and entitled ‘On Diseases of Women’ and ‘On Sterility’ are directly derived from Egyptian sources. One of the most extraordinary examples is the almost word-for-word correspondence which exists between a passage in the Hippocratic work ‘On Sterility’ and one found in both Papyrus Carlsberg VIII and papyrus Kuhn…” According to Herodotus (5th century BC) each doctor in Egypt was “… responsible for the treatment of only one disease… some specializing in diseases of the eyes, others of the head, others of the teeth, others of the stomach, and so on…”. The renown of the Egyptian medicine in the 6th century BC was such that it was often the custom to choose the chief physician of the imperial court in Persia from Egypt.

Medicine at Alexandria

   A papyrus of the 2nd century BC shows that the Egyptian physicians taught medicine at Alexandria. Egyptian embalmers were at work at Alexandria and they were knownfor their excellent knowledge of anatomy. The Egyptian medical tradition that dissection of the body is an essential prerequisite for practice passed from Alexandria to Rome. The physician Rufus of Ephesus (2nd century AD) who visited Egypt wrote that the Egyptian physicians named the sutures of the skull although they understood Greek poorly.

The Younger (Letters, 10.6), a member of the Roman nobility, wrote to the Emperor Trajan (98-117 AD) for “… making Harpocras my physician a citizen of Rome… I was informed by those who are better skilled in these affairs than I pretend to be, that as he is an Egyptian (from Memphis), I ought first to have obtained for him the freedom of Alexandria, before he was made free of Rome. I confess, indeed, as I was  ignorant of any difference in this case between Egyptians  and other aliens… it is an ignorance I cannot  regret, since it affords me an opportunity of receiving from you a double obligation in favour of the same  person”.

  And so Harpocras was made citizen of Alexandria and Rome. Note that the Egyptians did not have the right enjoyed by other aliens to become citizens  of Rome; they did not even have this right in the cities of Egypt!!
Eudemus of Alexandria (240 BCE)
He was an anatomist who studied the nervous system, human osteology, female sex organs, and experimented in embryological studies.
  Galen (2nd century AD) is the best example of what the excellence of the Egyptian medical tradition of Alexandria can produce. He studied medicine in Alexandria and left many works including his books on anatomy that were originally fifteen in number. He has preserved for us many aspects of the Egyptian medical tradition. According to C.M. Saunders: “…The Egyptian opinion on the superfluities and their putrefaction was absorbed by the Greeks and modified to form an integral part of almost all their later theories.
 Even Galen in his elaboration of the humeral doctrine… used the concept to explain the fevers”. 
  Palladius (Lausiac History, 4th century AD) mentions  his encounter in Alexandria with Saint Isidore  the Physician “… a wonderful man, distinguished in  every respect, both as regards character and knowledge…  hospitaller of the Church of Alexandria”, and  with “… the most holy Macarius, the priest and superintendent  of the hospital for cripples… the hospital  had women on the first floor and men on the ground floor”. Egyptian scientists and physicians were active in the 6th century AD, like Sergius and Harun the Priest who was the chief physician at Alexandria and editor-in-chief of a periodical medical publication. When the Arabs invaded Egypt in 639 AD, a school of medicine was still active at  Alexandria where the Syriac language was used, and indication that many students from the East-Mediterranean countries where studying medicine at Alexandria until the 7th century.
 Finally it is worth to mention that the Egyptian pharmacopoeia based on herbal medicine was used by all the people of the Antiquity, the middle Ages until the 18th century, and is being rediscovered in modern times.

•Published in Watani International newspapers 18 August 2002
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« Reply #5 on: June 01, 2007, 11:41:39 am »



ANCIENT EGYPT

The History, People and Culture of the Nile Valley
 
 

  Ancient Egyptian Medicine

Surviving medical texts, such as the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri, show the high level of medical practice that the ancient Egyptian physicians attained. George M. Burden M.D. looks at some unexpectedly modern-sounding case histories and finds that treatments surprisingly similar to modern ones are documented.

In ancient Egypt, a clever pharaoh could earn kudos by dispatching one of his top medical specialists to help a neighbouring monarch, often having been requested to do so specifically, such was the reputation of the ancient medics. Of course this sometimes backfired. Herodotus reports in his Histories that an eye specialist sent to the court of the Persian king Cambyses became so annoyed with his pharaoh for separating him from his family, that he incited the Persian monarch to invade Egypt successfully. In another case, Herodotus tells how the Persian king Darius was about to execute all his Egyptian doctors for mishandling his injured ankle. The Greek doctor who successfully treated Darius implored the king to spare his colleagues, to which he agreed. Perhaps we can attribute the recorded ninety-four year long reign of Pharaoh Pepy II at least partly to the ministrations of his doctors. He is still on record as the longest ruling monarch in history beating others such as Queen Victoria, Louis XIV of France and Franz Josef of Austria by many years.

On a recent trip to Egypt I had the opportunity to see and photograph various medically-related subjects, ranging from artistic depictions of surgery and surgical instruments to sculptures and paintings showing actual pathology. Perhaps the most ancient existing depictions of surgery are found in the Old Kingdom tomb of Ankh-Ma-Hor at Saqqara. Over four thousand years old, these reliefs depict surgical procedures on the toes and circumcision. At the temple of Kom Ombo, in Lower Egypt, I came across a carved wall depicting an array of surgical instruments that would not look out of place in a surgical theatre today. This included a variety of scalpels, curettes, forceps and dilators, as well as scissors and medicine bottles. The Coptic Museum in Cairo has an actual display of bronze medical instruments of all types dating from the days of Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt.

There is no shortage of depictions of pathology in pharaonic Egyptian art. I discovered several representations of achondroplastic dwarfism, including the famous sculpture of the dwarf Seneb and his family in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Seneb became an affluent and respected member of his society, indicating that his condition did not present an insurmountable barrier to advancement, even in ancient Egypt. I also found dwarves depicted making jewellery on the walls of the Old Kingdom tomb of Mereruka at Saqqara. They were reputed to be quite skilled at this craft, due to their tiny hands.



HESIRA

The first known image of a doctor? Wooden relief of Hesira, dating to the Third Dynasty, and found at Saqqara. Hesira was a scribe, possibly at the time of Djoser, but is also described as a doctor and dentist. The panel is now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
Photo: RP.


Visiting the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, in the Amarna room one could be forgiven for thinking that theories of extra-terrestrial influences on ancient Egypt might actually be based on fact. The Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten is depicted as having a bizarre elongated feminine body shape with a narrow face and long tapering digits. His six daughters were sculpted with oddly elongated heads. Today it is generally believed this was simply a new artistic/religious convention. In the past others have speculated that Akhenaten may have suffered from Marfan’s Syndrome, a hereditary condition associated with a body shape remarkably similar to Akhenaten’s, as depicted in his statuary.

Additionally, I found examples of art works that may represent microfilariasis, a parasitic infestation that can block the lymphatic system. The result is huge distention of parts of the body, usually the legs, known as elephantiasis. A possible example of this disease is shown in a painted relief from a chapel of Queen Hatshepsut’s temple, which documents her trade expedition to Punt (probably present-day Somalia). The Queen of Punt is shown as having a massive lower body, which some speculate could be due to microfilariasis.

Another example of disease found in the Egyptian Museum is a small figurine depicting an individual with a marked kyphosis, or forward curvature of the spine. The male figure appears too young to be suffering from osteoporosis, the softening of the bones that usually occurs in old age. Perhaps this is a congenital kyphosis, or perhaps it is due to pathological bone fracture from untreated infection, such as tuberculosis. He does not seem to have enough of a twist to his spine to warrant the diagnosis of adolescent kypho-scoliosis, a developmental disorder where the spine gradually grows in the form of an S-shaped curve in adolescence.

Probable cases of polio are also depicted on reliefs from many eras, where we see men leaning on sticks with what appear to be shrunken, atrophic limbs. Examination of the royal mummy Siptah also reveals characteristics of this wasting viral disease.

Crusted lesions on the faces and upper bodies of the mummies of Rameses V and Amenhotep II are felt to represent smallpox, a viral infection that has plagued mankind for millennia.

The ancient Egyptians had a lively interest and acquaintance with medicine and pathology. Many believe they laid the foundations for modern medical practice. Even today physicians and pharmacists still use the R/ symbol. This figure, which looks like a capital "R" with a line through the oblique portion of the letter forming an "x", has prefaced most prescriptions for centuries. Few of today’s medical personnel realize that they are in fact asking the blessing of the god Horus, whose eye it represents.

One physician who would have recognized the significance of the Eye of Horus was the author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus. It is the oldest surgical text in the world, most likely written during the third millennium BC, and it is composed of forty-eight concise orthopedic and neurosurgical cases. The injuries described may have been taken from casualties ensuing during the construction of the pyramids. Egyptologist Edwin Smith purchased the papyrus in 1862 after it was discovered between the legs of a mummy from the Upper Egyptian necropolis of Thebes. No doubt a prized possession of the deceased owner, this version was transcribed during the seventeenth century BC with a "modern" commentary after each case.

The papyrus was translated by Professor J. Breasted in 1930 with the help of a physician colleague and the now famous text finally ended up in the collection of the New York Academy of Sciences. Any modern physician will find the unknown author’s format quite familiar, with sections devoted to history and physical examination, followed by a diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan. Though ancient Egypt’s priests often had medical training, there is no evidence in this text of the prayers and amulets that often were used by this class. Instead our anonymous surgeon laid out elegant and simple diagnostic and treatment programs some paralleling those of modern medicine almost exactly.

For example in case 12, "A Break in the Nasal Bones", treatment is described as follows: "Thou shouldst force it to fall in, so it is lying in place, and clean out for him the interior of both his nostrils with two swabs of linen until every worm [clot] of blood which coagulates in the inside of his two nostrils comes forth. Now afterward thou shouldst place two plugs of linen saturated with greases and put into his nostrils. Thou shouldst place for him two stiff rolls of linen, bound on. Thou shouldst treat him afterward with grease, honey and lint every day until he recovers." In other words the nose is set, clot evacuated and splints of stiffened linen are applied. Non-stick grease soaked dressings are used to pack the nose. This is much the same approach a modern otolaryngologist would use.

In case 35, "A Fracture of the Clavicle", treatment of a patient is described in this way: "Thou shouldst place him prostrate on his back, with something folded between his two shoulder blades; thou shouldst spread out his two shoulders in order to stretch apart his collar bone until the break falls into place. Thou shouldst make for him two splints of linen, and thou shouldst apply one of them both on the inside of his upper arm. Thou shouldst bind it …" In other words draw the shoulder blades back and fit the patient with a "figure of eight" splint, exactly what a modern orthopedics text would advise.

The twenty-first century (AD) intern confronted with a dislocated jaw need look no further than case 25 of the Edwin Smith Papyrus. "If thou examinest a man having a dislocation in his mandible, shouldst thou find this mouth open and his mouth cannot close for him, thou shouldst put thy thumbs upon the ends of the two rami of the mandible in the inside of his mouth and thy two claws [meaning two groups of fingers] under his chin, and thou shouldst cause them to fall back so they rest in their places." This is exactly the technique I learned in the Emergency Room!



The head of the mummy of Rameses V, which might exhibit the signs of smallpox.
Photo from Elliot Smith The Royal Mummies.



In many cases the treatment was beyond the capability of the time and the surgeon simply states that this is "… an ailment not to be treated", i.e. with a very poor prognosis. Nevertheless he meticulously describes the physical findings of such injuries as in case 31, "Dislocation of a Cervical Vertebra", where he writes if "… thou find him unconscious of his two arms and his two legs on account of it, while his phallus is erected … and urine dribbles from his member without him knowing it … ; it is a dislocation of a vertebra of the neck extending to his back-bone …" This is the world’s first known description of quadriplegia.

In case 6, "A Gaping Wound in the Head With Compound Comminuted Fracture of the Skull and Rupture of the Meningeal Membranes", we get the first description the brain and its gyri, and the meninges. "If thou examinest a man having a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, smashing his skull, and rending open the brain … , thou shouldst palpate that smash which is in his skull like those corrugations [i.e. gyri] which form in molten copper, and something therein throbbing a fluttering under the fingers …" The pulsation of the brain is described and later the author observes that its absence is a very serious sign (which indeed it is, representing serious brain compression).

In case 8, "Compound Comminuted Fracture of the Skull Displaying No Visible External Injury", the ancient surgeon articulately describes hemiplegia (paralysis on one side of the body) secondary to a head injury: "Shouldst thou find that there is a swelling protruding … while his eye is askew because of it [conjugate deviation of the eyes], on the side of him having that injury which is in his skull; and he walks shuffling with his sole on the side of him having that injury which is in his skull ...", the author further states, "thou shouldst account him one whom something entering from outside has smitten …" It appears here that he may be trying to differentiate hemiplegia caused by an "outside" injury as opposed to similar findings that may occur from an "inside" cause such as a stroke.

In other parts of the text the ancient surgeon describes suturing lacerations, and treatment of infection and wounds with nonstick dressings and hyperosmotic agents (animal grease and honey respectively). In case 39 it is suggested that an abscess that "… arises in his breast dries up as soon as it opens of itself." In other words, as my old surgery professor said, "Pus under pressure should be punctured." The text appears to differentiate between breast tumors and infections, describing the former in case 45, "Bulging Tumors on the Breast", as "… very cool, there being no fever at all therein when thy hand touches them; they have no granulation, they form no fluid, they do not generate secretions of fluid, and they are bulging to thy hand." Is this the first description of a breast cancer?

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is only one of a number of remarkable Egyptian medical texts discovered. Almost as famous is the the Ebers Papyrus, also first purchased by Edwin Smith and subsequently sold to Egyptologist George Ebers, after whom it is named. It is one hundred and ten pages in length, the longest discovered. It is to family doctors what the Smith Papyrus is to surgeons. In addition to a surgical section, it contains descriptions of the heart and its vessels, and discussions of various diseases such as those of the stomach, anus, teeth, ear nose and throat, and skin. Skin diseases are divided into ulcerative, irritative and exfoliative.

A section on pharmacy includes various treatments including the use of castor oil as a laxative. There’s even a section on medical philosophy.

Another text, the Kahun Gynecological Papyrus, deals with diseases of women and dates from the nineteenth century BC. It contains sections on topics such as contraception and the diagnosis of pregnancy.

It’s easy to see why the Egyptians were revered in the ancient world for their medical knowledge. It boggles the mind to think that these texts pre-date the Roman Empire by as many millennia as Rome pre-dates us. To Egyptians, even Hippocrates was a mere upstart.

The ancient Egyptian physicians at their best show a logical and suprisingly up-to-date approach to the diagnosis, classification and treatment of disease. Perhaps "modern" medical thought is not as modern as we once thought.

George Burden

Dr Burden is a family physician who has practised in the Atlantic Canadian town of Elmsdale for over twenty-five years. He is also Chairman of the Quebec/Atlantic Canada branch of the Explorers’ Club, an avid freelance travel and adventure journalist and co-author of the book Amazing Medical Stories.
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« Reply #6 on: June 01, 2007, 01:16:23 pm »

                                      A N   ' O L D '   R E M E D Y   
 



 
 Cannabis seeds were used for food in China by 6000 B.C.E. and for textiles in China by 4000 B.C.E.

    Hemp was used for rope and sails as well as fine linens in ancient Egypt. Hemp rope was found in the eighteenth-dynasty tomb of Akhenaten (Amenophis IV) at El Amarna, including a three ply hemp cord in the hole of a stone and a large mat bound with hemp cords.

    In the third century C.E. the Roman emperor Aurelian imposed a tax on Egyptian cannabis.

    Cannabis was first documented in Kemet (ancient Egyt) around 2000 B.C.E. to treat sore eyes and cataracts. According to Diodorus Siculus (a Sicilian Greek historian who lived from 90 to 21 B.C.E.) Egyptian women used cannabis as a medication to relieve sorrow and bad humour.

    Cannabis is mentioned as a medication in the following ancient Egyptian medical texts: Ramesseum III Papyrus (1700 B.C.E.), Eber’s Papyrus (1600 B.C.E.), the Berlin Papyrus (1300 B.C.E.), and the Chester Beatty VI Papyrus (1300 B.C.E.). The Eber’s Papyrus is the oldest known complete medical textbook in existence. Most scholars believe that it is copy of a much earlier text, probably from around 3100 B.C.E.

 
Section of Eber’s Papyrus, Formula No. 821
Location Plate #96, Lines 7-8
 
Text in Demotic script

    Formula No. 821. Translation: “Cannabis is pounded [ground] in honey and administered into her ****. This is a contraction.” The 1907 Merck Index (page 132) lists emulsions of cannabis seeds to treat the effects of gonorrhea. The 1909 King’s American Dispensatory lists hemp seed infusion for use in after-pains and in the bearing down sensation accompanying prolapsus uteri. The 1927 U.S. Dispensatory lists hemp seed oil for inflammations of the mucous membrane.

 
Section of Eber’s Papyrus, Formula No. 618
Location Plate #78, Lines 10-11
 
text in Demotic script

    Formula No. 618 translation: “Remedy for toe-nail (or fingernail). Ingredients honey, ochre cannabis, and [other ingredients which have not yet been translated]”


    Also in the Eber’s Papyrus, a mixture of cannabis and carob was used as an enema or combined with other ingredients for use as a poultice.

    The Ramses III Papyrus provides a prescription for cannabis use in the treatment of glaucoma: “A treatment for the eyes: celery, cannabis is ground and left in the dew overnight. Both eyes of the patient are to be washed with it in the morning.”


Mummy of Ramses II - the most virile and long-lived Pharaoh

 Cannabis pollen was found on the mummy of Ramses II (nineteenth dynasty). Initially scholars debated as to whether the cannabis pollen was ancient or modern contamination. Additional research showed cannabis pollen in all known royal mummies. No known ancient Egyptian mummies were wrapped in hemp cloth.

    The intoxicating properties of cannabis were virtually unknown among Europeans until the eighteenth century (1700s) when travellers to Egypt discovered the drug. European witches knew of cannabis from antiquity, when cannabis was one of the most commonly used medications among Celts and Norse.

    The Smoke Eaters at the temple at Thebes used cannabis incense for mortality rituals.


 
The ancient Egyptian goddess Seshat (above in her role as the Goddess who measures) is depicted with a hemp leaf in her head dress. Pharaoh Tuthmosis III (1479 to 1425 B.C.E.) called her Sefkhet-Abwy (She of the seven points). Hemp was used to make measuring cords. Seshat was the goddess of libraries, knowledge, and geomancy, among other things. Spell 10 of the Coffin text states “Seshat opens the door of heaven for you”.
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« Reply #7 on: June 01, 2007, 02:31:39 pm »

                                                   R E F L E X O L O G Y








  Reflexology treatment is a holistic therapy that works on the whole body rather than the condition or disease. It works on the principle that there are reflexes in both the hands and feet that are associated or connected to all the various systems, organs and glands in the body. The body is made up of 10 zones and the skillful application of therapy to a single zone will influence all parts of the body within that zone. Reflexology originates from the ancient Egyptians and works on the same principle as acupuncture, although using the hands as tools and not needles. As well as being an effective therapy for many disorders, reflexology is an immensely relaxing experience. Reflexology as a gentle treatment that can be used to treat many common conditions such as: sciatica, sinusitis, arthritis, insomnia, head aches, odema, tinnitus, shingles, p.m.s., vertigo, muscular & sports injuries, migraine.

2330 BC—The first findings of reflexology date back to 2330 BC, over 5,000 years ago. A wall painting was found in the tomb of Ankhmahor (the highest official after the king) at Saqqara near Cairo. One man had his hands on the other man's foot. And the translation read: “Don't hurt me!”. The Egyptian physician replied, “I shall so you will praise me”.
60 BC—Cleopatra is said to have worked on Mark Anthony's feet in 60 BC.





Reflexology is a healing method for which the origins are said to date back as far as the sixth dynasty, Egypt 2500BC, the evidence for which is shown by a painting found in the tomb of an ancient Physician, Ankhmahor. The inscription reads, "Don't hurt me". The reply "I shall act so you praise me".

 
This natural healing art is based on the principle that the body is mapped out on the hands and feet in the form of pressure points or 'reflexes'. It works alongside conventional medicine in some cases to help alleviate stress related problems such as migraine, premenstrual syndrome, asthma, digestive disorders, skin conditions such as eczema and acne, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pain from conditions such as sciatica and arthritis. It is also sometimes used for neurological symptoms such those seen in multiple sclerosis. Reflexology is a safe, gentle and effective form of medicine. It is holistic in its approach and takes a broader view of illness, helping individuals of all ages with a wide range of ailments.

How does it work?
There are over 7,000 nerve endings in the feet. By manipulating these reflex points, on the feet or hands, the neural pathways are cleared of energy blockages. The corresponding organs, glands or muscles receive an enhanced supply of blood and oxygen-rich nutrients, meaning they can work at maximum efficiency. The effects of this are:

Bringing the whole body back into homeostasis or 'balance' (especially with hormonal imbalances)
Inducing deep relaxation whilst subtly boosting energy levels
Boosting the immune system which can is normally weakened by constant stress

Stimulating circulation, removing toxins

Stabilising breathing patterns (also for improved sleep)
 
As approximately 75% of today's diseases can be attributed to stress, the calming effects of Reflexology allow the exhibition and then dispersal of symptoms such as gastro intestinal upset, palpitations and cardiovascular problems which may be the result of tension of nerve plexus' supplying the vital organs.



Tomb of a physician called Sesi who obviously
employed the technique that we today call
Reflexology
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« Reply #8 on: June 01, 2007, 04:01:22 pm »










DAYS OF THE PAPYRUS EBERS



Though Egyptian medicine dates from about 2900 B.C., best known and most important pharmaceutical record is the "Papyrus Ebers" (1500 B.C.), a collection of 800 prescriptions, mentioning 700 drugs. Pharmacy in ancient Egypt was conducted by two or more echelons: gatherers and preparers of drugs, and "chiefs of fabrication," or head pharmacists. They are thought to have worked in the "House of Life." In a setting such as this, the "Papyrus Ebers" might have been dictated to a scribe by a head pharmacist as he directed compounding activities in the drug room.
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« Reply #9 on: June 01, 2007, 04:11:23 pm »





JUST WHAT THE DOCTOR ORDERED IN ANCIENT EGYPT




By Ilene Springer

The place: Thebes. The time: Two thousand BC. You�re an Egyptian scribe, on assignment for an important vizier, preparing to take account of various supplies that have just come down (up) the Nile. And what do you have? A terrible, throbbing toothache. What�s the answer? Mashed garlic in a solution of equal parts of vinegar and water.

Or you�re an Egyptian wife preparing for a big banquet at your home. All is ready: the cooked geese, the fresh mango, the newly plucked lotus blossoms out of the pond. And what do you have? The start of a scratchy sore throat. What�s the answer? A rinse or gargle with garlic and water/vinegar.

Garlic was an important healing agent to the ancient Egyptians just as it still is today to the modern Coptic Egyptians and to people in all Mediterranean countries. In fact, you could think of garlic as the aspirin of the ancient Egypt.

Medical advances in ancient times

The Egyptians can claim credit for yet another achievement that influences us today: one of the first populations to have practicing physicians. Doctors in Egypt usually went through years of hard training at temple schools in the Various arts of interrogating the patient, inspection or examination, palpation and treatment.



We cannot talk about ancient Egyptian medicine without speaking of the world�s earliest recorded physician, Imhotep, the prime minister of Zoser�s reign (founder of the Third Dynasty) and also chief architect of the first pyramid at Saqqara. He was renown as a great healer, and centuries after his death he was worshipped as a god of medicine. Today, a statue of Imhotep stands in the Hall of Immortals at the International College of Surgeons in Chicago. Peseshet was the first known female physician in the world, practicing during the Fourth Dynasty. Says Sameh M. Arab, MD, Associate Professor of Cardiology, Alexandria University in Egypt, "Peseshet was titled Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians and supervised a corps of ladies who were qualified physicians, not midwives. She graduated midwives at the periankh (medical school) of Sais."



Dr. Sameh M. Arab, M.D.

The Egyptians started practicing medicine very early, around 4000 BC, during what is known as the Badarian times--before Egypt was a united nation. For example, evidence from this time period suggests that the green eye paint, malachite, was used to prevent a certain parasitic eye disease.

Egyptian medical practitioners knew a lot about the human body without the modern advantages of X-rays and CAT scans. Their knowledge came primarily through the process of mummification in which they removed and examined different parts of the body after death. They knew about the various fluids of the brain, the exact location of the heart and that the arteries were hollow and that blood circulated throughout the body.

But the Egyptian physicians were also excellent observers of their patients. They knew by the way an individual moved if he was suffering from a dislocated vertebrae. They knew that the urine of a pregnant woman germinated certain grains more rapidly than urine from a non-pregnant woman, according to Dr. Arab.

There were also specialists. There is archaeological evidence of an early dentist�s skill from the Fourth Dynasty. The mandible of the poor suffering patient was found in which a modern day-like process was used to drain an abscess under the first molar. From tombstones, we also learn about physicians who call themselves palace eye physician, palace stomach bowel physician and even guardian of the anus, according to Professor Hamed A. Ead of the University of Cairo, Giza. There were also physicians who dealt with the medical conditions of women�s fertility, pregnancy and contraception.

Written proof

The main sources for our knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine comes primarily from seven papyri that date from the Twelfth Dynasty to the Twentieth (2000 to 1090 BC). But these archives themselves reveal a much earlier practice of medicine back to the Old Kingdom.

The most famous of the papyri are the Smith Papyrus and the Elders, named after their discoverers and interpreters. The Elbers roll is over 20 meters long and 30 centimeters high. It contains 877 recipes concerning a whole host of diseases and symptoms, including that of the eye, skin, head and face; surgical procedures; diseases of women and even comments on housekeeping. Spells are recommended in only twelve cases and in the remainder, the therapy seems quite appropriate to the condition. The Elbers Papyrus is virtually a medical treatise on all known medical interventions at the time, one of the earliest ever written, over 36 centuries ago!

The Edwin Smith Papyrus much shorter and is actually a copy of a much older document dating back to probably the Old Kingdom. The most important part is the ancient author�s addition of a whole series of glossaries which explain obsolete terms used when the papyrus was first written. The Smith Papyrus also discusses actual cases dealing with wounds, each concentrated in different regions of the body---the head, throat and neck, sternum, and spinal column.

The �office visit� in ancient Egypt

Let�s say you�re a citizen of ancient Egypt and suffering from cystitis, a recurring, very painful type of urinary tract condition. What happens with the doctor? Probably the doctor would make a home visit if you could afford it. The first thing he might do is examine your pulse, although it was never really clear what information the ancient Egyptians learned from this procedure.



A Relief of What is Thought to be Surgical Instruments

Then your physician would interrogate you, according to the Smith Papyrus, finding out about your general condition and symptoms, just as doctors do today, but probably a bit longer than the restricted fifteen minutes. The doctor might ask you if you had any enemies or did anything recently to incur anyone�s wrath. If you thought so, he might chant a spell to help rid the entity that was causing your cystitis. Or give you an amulet or healing charm to wear.

Then the doctor would examine you with a lot of hands-on observation, probing here, palpating there. He might ask for an urine sample to look at or test when he left your bedside. Finally, he would pronounce what he thought was wrong with you and what your treatment should be. In your case, it would not be surprising if the doctor ordered you to take the herb coriander, still used today for medicinal purposes by the Egyptian Copts. You would be instructed to make the leaves into a tea, which was known to soothe a variety of stomach and urinary ailments, including cystitis. Coriander seeds, in fact, were discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun and in other ancient burial sites.

The ancient Egyptians were the prototype of the holistic health practitioner. They treated the whole person: physically, mentally, spiritually and even socially. Many of the medicinal herbs we use today were first used by the ancient Egyptians. Much of our knowledge of anatomy was handed down to us by these ancient healers from their experience with mummification. And the doctor back in ancient Egypt, although lacking in our high tech medical equipment, seemed to recognize a very important thing we may have forgotten: how important it is to listen to your patient.

###

Ilene Springer writes on ancient life in Egypt and Israel. She is a student of museum studies at Harvard University.



SOURCES:

On the Web:

http://www.levity.com/alchemy/islam22.html

http://www.arabworldbooks.com/articles8.html
 
Ancient Egyptian Medicine by John F. Nunn
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« Reply #10 on: June 02, 2007, 08:10:09 am »








December 22, 2000 - BBC

The discovery of a false toe attached to the foot of an mummy provides more evidence of the sophistication of ancient Egyptian medicine. The well-crafted wooden toe was discovered by a team investigating remains found in a burial chamber believed to be in the ancient city of Thebes. Pottery fragments found in the chamber dated the find at approximately the 21st or 22nd Egyptian dynasty, or between 1065BC and 740BC.

They found that the woman, aged between 50 and 55 at death had lost the big toe on the right foot - probably by amputation - during life, as soft tissue and skin had regrown over the wound. In addition, a wooden prosthetic toe - perfectly shaped to match the lost toe, even to the point of having a nail - had been created and attached to the foot with textile laces.

The regrowth of tissue, allied with definite scuff marks on the base of the wooden toe, seem to indicate a functional role rather than simply an effort by embalmers to make the body appear complete in readiness for the afterlife. Examination of the rest of the body suggest that this may well be one of the earliest examples of someone suffering diabetic complications. The woman had suffered significant hardening of the arteries, but not just the large arteries, but also the tiny vessels supplying the extremities. Although they cannot prove this, the researchers suggest that the toe may have had to be amputated after the blood supply was cut, and gangrene set in.
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« Reply #11 on: June 02, 2007, 12:39:01 pm »



                                    SIGERIST'S "THE BEGINNINGS OF MEDICINE


It was the medical men who decided what illness was and what it was not, as well as he decided which illness was "curable" and which was not.

Hence the production of illness and the selection of the "illness-begotten goods" [Krankengut] – Background: power.

Treatment of the ill one by a magician – medical man = the origin of racism and its first manifestation. In the main, the magician – medical man and the tribal chief and headman are one and the same person.

The one makes the other ill, or causes him to fall ill (by the means of magic): the only one who is the "master" of magic and spells is the medical man. In order to avoid being suspected (of having "produced" illness), it was necessary that he "explained" the magic: separation of "cause and effect".

Therefore:
          1.) "Magic is caused" by a human being, and
          2.) its "effects" consist in the change (illness) of another human being by the magic spell casted on it.

In this way, the magician managed to kill three birds with one stone: i.e. to treat the one who was suffering from the spell cast on him, to treat the other who was said to have cast the spell, while he himself was  sitting pretty.  In the end, this leads to the conclusion that people were (and are still) convinced that one could (and can) get rid of one’s illness if one could burden someone else with it, hence the magician’s prominent position!

The determining moments of what is being diagnosed by the shaman as illness are the spirits and the ill ones. That is something lifeless, dead, and immaterial which is believed to produce effects on the alive.

lllness is beheld as punishment. One is being punished by illness if one is violating a "taboo". These are the prerequisites needed for the medicine man to enter in action in order to find out the "reasons" of the punishment and, according to his findings, either to eliminate illness (by transfering it to an object) or to let die the ill one. The "best" thing to do for the ill one is to confess and to make a sacrifice.

Escaping from epidemic diseases, abandonment of the infected or, in the case of settled tribes, killing of those affected by it in order to eliminate illness by eliminating the ill one. This includes the killing of old people and of the weak, of cripples, partly out of "compassion" with the ill one.

EGYPT
 
Everythere and for all time, labor is being considered one of the main determining factors of illness and "health" (labor which has as its object: labor, e.g. cloning workers, in German: Arbeit der Arbeit).

 Magical-religious medicine was the medicine of the poor, whereas "scientific" medicine was mainly at the disposal of the rich (rare drugs cost a lot of "money"). Only the sons of wealthy families became doctors. Sakhmet, the lioness-headed goddess, mistress of the plague, was (most probably) the patroness of the surgeons.


KOM OMBO Temple - A Place of Healing and Medical Knowledge
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« Reply #12 on: June 02, 2007, 12:54:36 pm »







MEDICAL HIEROGLYPHS AT KOM OMBO
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« Reply #13 on: June 02, 2007, 01:06:12 pm »

 



                                      THE WHITE WILLOW - A HEALING JOURNEY



by Andrea Gauster for BIOL2553

Found growing along streams, rivers, and in other wet milieus of Europe, Asia, and North America (Ferry, 2001), the white willow (Salix alba) is the oldest known (Wurges and Frey, 2005) and quite possibly one of the most influential medicinal and therapeutic plants in history (Jeffreys, 2004). Also referred to as the European willow or bay willow, the white willow can reach 11-25 m (35-75 ft) in height (Wurges and Frey, 2005) and its use as an analgesic has been recorded as far back as 3000 BC (Jeffreys, 2004). The white willow is part of the Salicaceae family (Simpson and Ogorzaly, 2001) and is one of over 300 known willow species (Wurges and Frey, 2005). Often credited for its implication in the drug Aspirin, the recorded history of Salix alba dates back to the Pharaohs whose medical scripts were discovered in 1862 as the product of one man’s passion for Egyptian culture and two grave robber’s fervor for money (Jeffreys, 2004).




Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in the late 1700’s caused new world scholars and laymen alike to become enthralled with the Pharaohs and tombs of this prehistoric empire and Edwin Smith, an American expatriate, was no exception (Jeffreys, 2004). Smith arrived in Egypt in 1853 armed with an international education, a profound knowledge of Egyptian antiquity, and the ability to read hieratic texts (Jeffreys, 2004). It was his 12£ purchase of two papyri from a pair of tomb raiders in 1862 that revealed the medical ailments and procedures practiced by the ancient peoples of Egypt; many of which included the use of S. alba (Jeffreys, 2004).

Allegedly stolen from a tomb located in the prestigious ruins of Thebes, the papyri date back to 1534 BC, and are rewritten copies of medical scrolls from over a thousand years earlier (Jeffreys, 2004). Evidently, the Egyptians were aware of the therapeutic properties of white willow (Wurges and Frey, 2005) and used to prepare an all purpose tonic by mixing the bark of S. alba with beer, figs, dates and various other compounds (Jeffreys, 2004). The use of white willow by the Roman, Greek, Persian, and Ptolemaic civilizations (Wurges and Frey, 2005) a thousand years after the burial of the scrolls is likely explained by the great influence of the Egyptian empire on other cultures (Jeffreys, 2004). Hippocrates used the bark to relieve fever and pain (Wurges and Frey, 2005) while Celsus used its leaf extracts to relieve the common signs of inflammation in 30 AD Rome (Jeffreys, 2004). Dioscorides included the white willows ailing powers in his De Materia Medica (Jeffreys, 2004) and used a concoction of soaked leaves to relieve aching body parts (Simpson and Ogorzaly, 2001). Salix alba was also used as an analgesic by Claudius Galen who treated the Greek gladiators and the emperor Marcus Aurelius circa 200 AD (Jeffreys, 2004). The use of white willow and much accumulated medical insight was lost however in the vicious times that followed (Jeffreys, 2004). Other cultures continued to find uses for the tree (Jeffreys, 2004) as described in prehistoric pharmacopoeias of the physicians of China in 500BC, and it’s use much later by the Cherokee, Blackfoot, Iroquois and Eskimo tribes in therapeutic teas (Wurges and Frey, 2005). White willow’s true potential however, was not revived until the eighteenth century (Jeffreys, 2004).

With malaria prevailing in Europe, it may seem intuitive that when Reverend Edward Stone noticed the bitter taste of white willow bark in 1758, he associated the tree with the healing properties of Cinchona which had a similar flavour and was used to cure this disease (Jeffreys, 2004). Cinchona however, did not grow well in Europe, and it’s affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church as well as it’s cost, made it a socially deplorable treatment (Jeffreys, 2004). Stone collected S. alba bark, dried it, and used it to treat those with malaria (Jeffreys, 2004). His discovery became published five years later but it was after the Enlightenment that it reclaimed importance (Jeffreys, 2004) when industrialization, medical advancements, and warfare revolutionized mankind’s capability and determination (Kendall et al. 2004) to develop a much needed cure for various maladies (Jeffreys, 2004).

It is unknown whether Stone’s publication was read by 19th century European scientists attempting to isolate the active ingredient of white willow (Jeffreys, 2004). Following the successful isolation of various alkaloids such as quinine, opium, and caffeine however, the race was on to identify the healing compound in S. alba which, was now known to relieve headache, fever, and various pains (Jeffreys, 2004). Between 1828 and 1838 the active ingredient of white willow, salicin, was isolated independently by Joseph Buchner of the University of Munich, Henri Leroux of France, and Raffaele Piria of Italy; the latter developing the more potent acidic form salicylic acid (Jeffreys, 2004). Salicylates became widely used for food preservation on long voyages (Samter, 2000) but it became evident that their ingestion was highly irritating to the gastrointestinal tract (Simpson and Ogorzaly, 2001). This set the stage for the development of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) commonly known as Aspirin or, in chemical terms, 2-(acetyloxy)-benzoic acid (Samter, 2000).

It was the illustrious French chemist Charles Gerhardt who discerned that the plant derived salicylic acid was composed of a benzene ring with an attached hydroxyl group and carboxyl group, the former of which is responsible for upsetting the stomach (Jeffreys, 2004). By replacing the hydroxyl with an acetyl group, which is less intrusive on the digestive tract, Gerhardt became the first to produce ASA in 1853 (Jeffreys, 2004). His product was impure, however, and the process lengthy (Jeffreys, 2004).

Salicylic acid Acetalsalicylic acid
 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylic_acid http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirin

The synthesis of ASA was improved over the years by various European chemists who, lacking funding, industrial expertise, and proof that ASA was medicinally useful, could not make the compound a success (Jeffreys, 2004). It took the expansion of the already established Friedrich Bayer & Company of Germany and the ambitious minds of Dr. Arthur Eichengruen and Dr. Felix Hoffman to finally synthesize ASA in 1897 (Jeffreys, 2004) and make it commercially available in 1899 (Jeffreys, 2004). They did this by heating salicylic acid with aceticanhydride (Samter, 2000). Whether Hoffman read Gerhardt’s ASA synthesis in Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie published over 30 years earlier is unknown, not surprisingly however, Bayer Aspirin ignores this possibility and states that the “birth of acetylsalicylic acid” occurred in 1897.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirin

No longer required to manufacture ASA which is now made synthetically (Simpson and Ogorzaly, 2001), white willow is still used by homeopathic doctors and herbalists who assert that it may have less side effects than the acetylated form (Wurges and Frey, 2005). The bark is collected in the spring from young willow branches; it is dried and then marketed in pill, tea, or powder forms which typically contain 200-250 mg of S. alba per dose to be taken every 4 hours to relieve pain and inflammation (Wurges and Frey, 2005). Upon ingestion, salicin is converted to salicylic acid in the liver and intestine (Wurges and Frey, 2005) which is responsible for lowering prostaglandin levels (Samter, 2000) and therefore, for white willows antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties (Mills and Bone, 2000). S. alba thus remains an effective treatment for the relief of arthritis, headaches, back pains, bursitis, menstrual cramps, influenza and a variety of other painful conditions and is an approved treatment in Germany, France, and Britain (Wurges and Frey, 2005). The presence of an acetyl group in ASA is responsible for its antiplatelet properties (Mills and Bone, 2000). For this reason white willow is not effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (Mills and Bone, 2000) which is aspirin’s more recent claim to fame. Taken in high doses, S. alba may irritate the stomach causing bleeding, diarrhea, nausea, or ringing in the ears (Wurges and Frey, 2005). Given to children fighting a viral disease it may also lead to the development Reye’s syndrome; a rare but possibly fatal condition (Wurges and Frey, 2005) associated with acute encephalopathy, or swelling of the brain (Samter, 2000).

Studies suggest that ASA may retard cataract development (Samter, 2000) and even protect against various cancers via the blockage of COX enzymes (Harris et al. 2006). Botanists argue that the presence of salicin in white willow helps fight off infection by inducing apoptosis and also deters predators from attacking the tree (Jeffreys, 2004). Regardless the reason, history has revealed that the presence of this compound in S. alba has been medically influential for millennia and has played an indispensable role in developing a drug whose benefits are continually being discovered; a romantic story for such a common tree.

Literature Cited:

Bayer Aspirin. 2006. The world of aspirin. Available form http://www.aspirin.com/world_of_aspirin_en.html [cited 23 March 2006]
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« Reply #14 on: June 02, 2007, 05:25:43 pm »





MEDICINE IN ANCIENT EGYPT




Historically, many Egyptologists focused primarily on the very visible aspects of ancient Egyptian society, such as the pyramids, much to the bain of those interested in more than just monumental architecture. From the beginning of the scholarly study of Egypt's past there have been few scholars who recognized the importance of the process of disease and health on a population. With the turn of the century, new archaeological discoveries, increased knowledge of Egyptian language and writing, and the advent of more sophisticated medical techniques, new life was breathed into the study of disease and health in the ancient Nile Valley. It was this period that saw the academic study of Egyptian disease segregated into three distinct categories.

The first is the study of medical Papyri. Early on it was recognized that the textual material of the Dynastic Period pertaining to the recognition and treatment of disease was extremely important for understanding both the state of health as well as the concept of disease in ancient Egypt. The second is the study of the artistic representation of disease in the Nile Valley. The Egyptian's predilection to portrayl life in a relatively realistic manner offers an excellent opportunity for the study of disease. The third, and perhaps most obvious, is the study of human remains, both skeletal and soft tissue, of ancient Egyptians. With the advent of increasingly sophisticated medical techniques at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as those complex medical techniques in use today, the analysis of Egypt's veritable wealth of human remains provided a tremendous boost to the study of the state of disease and health in the ancient Nile Valley.



Medical Papyri


The Edwin Smith Papyrus

The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is, without a doubt, one if the most important documents pertaining to medicine in the ancient Nile Valley. Placed on sale by Mustafa Agha in 1862, the papyrus was purchased by Edwin Smith. An American residing in Cairo, Smith has been described as an adventurer, a money lender, and a dealer of antiquities.(Dawson and Uphill: 1972). Smith has also been reputed as advising upon, and even practicing, the forgery of antiquities.(Nunn 1996:26) Whatever his personal composition, it is to his credit that he immediately recognized the text for what it was and later carried out a tentative translation. Upon his death in 1906, his daughter donated the papyrus in its entirety to the New York Historical Society. The papyrus now resides in the collections of the New York Academy of Sciences.

In 1930, James Henry Breasted, director of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, published the papyri with facsimile, transcription, English translation, commentary, and introduction. The volume was accompanied by medical notes prepared by Dr. Arno B. Luckhardt. To date, the Breasted translation is the only one if its kind.

The Edwin Smith papyrus is second in length only to the Ebers papyrus, comprising seventeen pages (377 lines) on the recto and five pages (92 lines) on the verso. Both the recto and the verso are written with the same hand in a style of Middle Egyptian dating.



The Ebers Papyrus
Like the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the Ebers Papyrus was purchased in Luxor by Edwin Smith in 1862. It is unclear from whom the papyrus was purchased, but it was said to have been found between the legs of a mummy in the Assassif district of the Theben necropolis.

The papyrus remained in the collection of Edwin Smith until at least 1869 when there appeared, in the catalog of an antiquities dealer, and advertisement for "a large medical papyrus in the possession of Edwin Smith, an American farmer of Luxor."(Breasted 1930) The Papyrus was purchased in 1872 by the Egyptologist George Ebers, for who it is named. In 1875, Ebers published a facsimile with an English-Latin vocabulary and introduction.

The Ebers Papyrus comprises 110 pages, and is by far the most lengthy of the medical papyri. It is dated by a passage on the verso to the 9th year of the reign of Amenhotep I (c. 1534 B.C.E.), a date which is close to the extant copy of the Edwin Smith Papyrus. However, one portion of the papyrus suggests a much earlier origin. Paragraph 856a states that : "the book of driving wekhedu from all the limbs of a man was found in writings under the two feet of Anubis in Letopolis and was brought to the majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Den."(Nunn 1996: 31) The reference to the Lower Egyptian Den is a historic anachronism which suggesting an origin closer to the First Dynasty (c. 3000 B.C.E.)

Unlike the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the Ebers Papyrus consists of a collection of a myriad of different medical texts in a rather haphazard order, a fact which explains the presence of the above mentioned excerpt. The structure of the papyrus is organized by paragraph, each of which are arranged into blocks addressing specific medical ailments.

Paragraphs 1-3 contain magical spells designed to protect from supernatural intervention on diagnosis and treatment. They are immediately followed by a large section on diseases of the stomach (khet), with a concentration on intestinal parasites in paragraphs 50-85.(Bryan 1930:50) Skin diseases, with the remedies prescribed placed in the three categories of irritative, exfoliative, and ulcerative, are featured in paragraphs 90-95 and 104-118. Diseases of the anus, included in a section of the digestive section, are covered in paragraphs 132-164.(Ibid. 50) Up to paragraph 187, the papyrus follows a relatively standardized format of listing prescriptions which are to relieve medical ailments. However, the diseases themselves are often more difficult to translate. Sometimes they take the form of recognizable symptoms such as an obstruction, but often may be a specific disease term such as wekhedu or aaa, the meaning of both of which remain quite obscure.

Paragraphs 188-207 comprise "the book of the stomach," and show a marked change in style to something which is closer to the Edwin Smith Papyrus.(Ibid.: 32) Only paragraph 188 has a title, though all of the paragraphs include the phrase: "if you examine a man with a…," a characteristic which denotes its similarity to the Edwin Smith Papyrus. From this point, a declaration of the diagnosis, but no prognosis. After paragraph 207, the text reverts to its original style, with a short treatise on the heart (Paragraphs 208-241).

Paragraphs 242-247 contains remedies which are reputed to have been made and used personally by various gods. Only in paragraph 247, contained within the above mentioned section and relating to Isis' creation of a remedy for an illness in Ra's head, is a specific diagnosis mentioned. (Bryan 1930:45)

The following section continues with diseases of the head, but without reference to use of remedies by the gods. Paragraph 250 continues a famous passage concerning the treatment of migraines. The sequence is interrupted in paragraph 251 with the focus placed on a drug rather than an illness. Most likely an extract from pharmacopoeia, the paragraph begins: "Knowledge of what is made from degem (most likely a ricinous plant yielding a form of castor oil), as something found in ancient writings and as something useful to man."(Nunn 1996: 33)

Paragraphs 261-283 are concerned with the regular flow of urine and are followed by remedies "to cause the heart to receive bread."(Bryan 1930:80). Paragraphs 305-335 contain remedies for various forms of coughs as well as the genew disease.

The remainder of the text goes on to discuss medical conditions concerning hair (paragraphs 437-476), traumatic injuries such as burns and flesh wounds (paragraphs 482-529), and diseases of the extremities such as toes, fingers, and legs. Paragraphs 627-696 are concerned with the relaxation or strengthening of the metu. The exact meaning of metu is confusing and could be alternatively translated as either mean hollow vessels or muscles tissue.(Ibid.:52) The papyrus continues by featuring diseases of the tongue (paragraphs 697-704), dermatological conditions (paragraphs 708-721), dental conditions (paragraphs 739-750), diseases of the ear, nose, and throat (paragraphs 761-781), and gynecological conditions (paragraphs 783-839)


Kahun Gynecological Papyrus

The Kahun Papyrus was discovered by Flinders Petrie in April of 1889 at the Fayum site of Lahun. The town itself flourished during the Middle Kingdom, principally under the reign of Amenenhat II and his immediate successor. The papyrus is dated to this period by a note on the recto which states the date as being the 29th year of the reign of Amenenhat III (c. 1825 B.C.E.). The text was published in facsimile, with hieroglyphic transcription and translation into English, by Griffith in 1898, and is now housed in the University College London.

The gynecological text can be divided into thirty-four paragraphs, of which the first seventeen have a common format.(Nunn 1996: 34) The first seventeen start with a title and are followed by a brief description of the symptoms, usually, though not always, having to do with the reproductive organs.

The second section begins on the third page, and comprises eight paragraphs which, because of both the state of the extant copy and the language, are almost unintelligible. Despite this, there are several paragraphs that have a sufficiently clear level of language as well as being intact which can be understood. Paragraph 19 is concerned with the recognition of who will give birth; paragraph 20 is concerned with the fumigation procedure which causes conception to occur; and paragraphs 20-22 are concerned with contraception. Among those materials prescribed for contraception are crocodile dung, 45ml of honey, and sour milk.(Ibid:35)

The third section (paragraphs 26-32) is concerned with the testing for pregnancy. Other methods include the placing of an onion bulb deep in the patients flesh, with the positive outcome being determined by the odor appearing to the patients nose.

The fourth and final section contains two paragraphs which do not fall into any of the previous categories. The first prescribes treatment for toothaches during pregnancy. The second describes what appears to be a fistula between bladder and **** with incontinence of urine "in an irksome place."(Ibid. 35)


The Investigation of Disease Patterns Through Human Remains and Artistic Representations


Parasitic Diseases

Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis)

Of the three main species of the platyhelminth worm Schistosoma, the most important for Egypt are S. mansoni and S. haematobium. There is a complex life cycle alternating between two hosts, humans and the fresh water snail of the genus Bulinus. The infection is caught by humans who come into contact with the free swimming worm which the snail releases in the water. The worm penetrates the intact skin and enters the veins of the human host. The main symptom of the presence of the parasite is haematuria which results in serious anemia, loss of appetite, urinary infection, and loss of resistance to other diseases. There may also be interference with liver functions.

One of the finest archaeological examples for the existence of schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt was the discovery of calcified ova in the unembalmed 21st Dynasty mummy of Nakht. Upon medical examination, the mummy not only exhibited a preserved tapeworm, but also ova of the Schistosoma haematobium and displayed changes in the liver resulting from a schistosomal infection.(Millat et al. 1980:79)


Bacterial and Viral Infections

Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

Ruffer (1910) reported the presence of tuberculosis of the spine in Nesparehan, a priest of Amun of the 21st Dynasty. This shows the typical features of Pott's disease with collapse of thoracic vertebra, producing the angular kyphosis (hump-back). A well known complication of Pott's disease is the tuberculous suppuration moving downward under the psoas major muscle, towards the right iliac fossa, forming a very large psoas abscess.(Nunn 1996:64)

Ruffer's report has remained the best authenticated case of spinal tuberculosis from ancient Egypt. All known possible cases, ranging from the Predynastic to 21st Dynasty were reviewed by Morse, Brockwell, and Ucko (1964) as well as by Buikstra, Baker, and Cook.(1993) These included Predynastic specimens collected at Naqada by Petrie and Quibell in 1895 as well as nine Nubian Specimens from the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Both reviewers were in agreement that there was very little doubt that tuberculosis was the cause of pathology in most, but not all, cases. In some cases, it was not possible to exclude compression fractures, osteomyelitis, or bone cysts as causes of death.

The numerous artistic representation of hump-backed individuals are provocative but not conclusive. The three earliest examples are undoubtedly of Predynastic origin. The first is a ceramic figurine reported to have been found by Bedu in the Aswan district. It represents an emaciated human with angular kyphosis of the thoracic spine crouching in a clay vessel.(Schrumph-Pierron 1933) The second possible Predynastic representation with spinal deformity indicative of tuberculosis is a small standing ivory likeness of a human with arms down at the sides of the body bent at the elbows. The head is modeled with facial features carefully indicated. The figure is shown with a protrusion of the back and on the chest.(Morse 1967: 261) The last Predynastic example is a wooden statue contained within the Brussels Museum. Described as a bearded male with intricate facial features, the figure has a large rounded hunch-back and an angular projection of the sternum.(Jonckheere 1948: 25)

As well, there are several historic Egyptian representations which indicate the possibility of tuberculosis deformity. One of the most suggestive, located in and Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty tomb, is of a bas relief serving girl who exhibits localized angular kyphosis. A second provocative example has its origin in the Middle Kingdom. A tomb painting at Beni Hasan, the representation shows a gardener with a localized angular deformity of the cervical-thoracic spine.(Morse 1967: 263)


Poliomyelitis

A viral infection of the anterior horn cells of the spinal chord, the presence of poliomyelitis can only be detected in those who survive its acute stage. Mitchell (Sandison 1980:32) noted the shortening of the left leg, which he interpreted as poliomyelitis, in the an early Egyptian mummy from Deshasheh. The club foot of the Pharaoh Siptah as well as deformities in the 12th Dynasty mummy of Khnumu-Nekht are probably the most attributable cases of poliomyelitis.

An 18th or 19th Dynasty funerary staele shows the doorkeeper Roma with a grossly wasted and shortened leg accompanied by an equinus deformity of the foot. The exact nature of this deformity, however, is debated in the medical community. Some favor the view that this is a case of poliomyelitis contracted in childhood before the completion of skeletal growth. The equinus deformity, then, would be a compensation allowing Roma to walk on the shortened leg. Alternatively, the deformity could be the result of a specific variety of club foot with a secondary wasting and shortening of the leg.(Nunn 1996: 77)


Deformities

Dwarfism

Dasen (1993) lists 207 known representations of dwarfism. Of the types described, the majority are achondroplastic, a form resulting in a head and trunk of normal size with shortened limbs. The statue of Seneb is perhaps the most classic example. A tomb statue of the dwarf Seneb and his family, all of normal size, goes a long way to indicate that dwarfs were accepted members in Egyptian society. Other examples called attention to by Ruffer (1911) include the 5th Dynasty statuette of Chnoum-hotep from Saqqara, a Predynastic drawing of the "dwarf Zer" from Abydos, and a 5th Dynasty drawing of a dwarf from the tomb of Deshasheh.

Skeletal evidence, while not supporting the social status of dwarfs in Egyptian society, does corroborate the presence of the deformity. Jones (Brothwell 1967:432) described a fragmentary Predynastic skeleton from the cemetery at Badari with a normal shaped cranium both in size in shape. In contrast to this, however, the radii and ulna are short and robust, a characteristic of achondroplasia. A second case outlined by Jones (Ibid.:432) consisted of a Predynastic femur and tibia, both with typical short shafts and relatively large articular ends.




Cited References

Breasted, J.H.

The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (University of Chicago Press: University of Chicago, 1930)

Brothwell, D.

"Major Congenital Anomalies of the Skeleton," in Diseases in Antiquity: A Survey of Disease, Injuries, and Surgery in Early Populations (eds.) A.T. Sandison and D. Brothwell (Charles C. Thomas: Springfield, 1967)


Bryan, P.W.

The Papyrus Ebers (Geoffrey Bles: London, 1930)


Buikstra, J.E.; Baker, B.J.; Cook, D.C.

"What Disease Plagues the Ancient Egyptians? A Century of Controversy Considered," In Biological Anthropology and the Study of Ancient Egypt (eds.) W,V. Davies and R. Walter (British Museum Press: London, 1993)


Dasen, V.

Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt and Greece (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1993)


Dawson, W.R. and E.P. Uphill

Who Was Who in Egyptology (Egyptian Exploration Society: London, 1993)


Jonckheere, F.

"Le Bossu des Mussées Royaux D'Art et D'Histoire de Bruxelles," Chronique D'Égypt (45) 25, 1958.


Millet, N.; Hart, G.; Reyman, T.; Zimerman, A.; Lewein, P.

"ROM I: Mummification for the Common People," in Mummies, Disease, and Ancient Cultures (eds.) Aiden and Eve ****burn (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1980)


Morse, D.

"Tuberculosis," in Diseases in Antiquity: A Survey of Diseases, Injuries, and Surgery in Early Populations (eds.) A.T. Sandison and D. Brothwell (Charles Thomas: Springfield, 1967)


Morse, D.; Brothwell, D.; Ucko, P.J.

"Tuberculosis in Ancient Egypt," in American Review of Respiratory Diseases (90), 1964)


Nunn, J.F.

Ancient Egyptian Medicine (University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, 1996)


Ruffer, M.A.

"Potts'che Krankheit an Einer Ägyptischer Mumie aus der Zeiy der 21 Dynastie," in Zur Historischen Biologie der Krankheiserreger (3), 1910


"On Dwarfs and Other Deformed Persons," Bulletin de Societé D'Archéologie D'Alexandrie (13)1, 1911


Sandison, A.T.

"Diseases in Ancient Egypt," in Mummies, Disease, and Ancient Cultures (eds.) Aiden and Eve ****burn (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1980)


Schrumph-Pierron, B.

"La Mal de Pott en Égypt 4000 Ans Avant Notre Ére," Aesculpe (23)1933
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