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THE RENAISSANCE


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Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: October 12, 2008, 05:45:57 pm »




                                  

                                   GALILEO GALILEI








The upheavals occurring in the arts and humanities were mirrored by a dynamic period of change in the sciences. Some have seen this flurry of activity as a "scientific revolution," heralding the beginning of the modern age.  Others have seen it merely as an acceleration of a continuous process stretching from the ancient world to the present day.  Regardless, there is general agreement that the Renaissance saw significant changes in the way the universe was viewed and the methods with which philosophers sought to explain natural phenomena.

Science and art were very much intermingled in the early Renaissance, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. Yet the most significant development of the era was not a specific discovery, but rather a process for discovery, the scientific method.  This revolutionary new way of learning about the world focused on empirical evidence, the importance of mathematics, and discarding the Aristotelian "final cause" in favor of a mechanical philosophy. Early and influential proponents of these ideas included Copernicus and Galileo.

The new scientific method led to great contributions in the fields of astronomy, physics, biology, and anatomy. With the publication of Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica, a new confidence was placed in the role of dissection, observation, and a mechanistic view of anatomy
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« Reply #16 on: October 12, 2008, 05:52:22 pm »




 
             

              ERASMUS - "PRINCE OF THE HUMANISTS"









It should be emphasized that the new ideals of humanism, although more secular in some aspects, developed against an unquestioned Christian backdrop, especially in the Northern Renaissance. Indeed, much (if not most) of the new art was commissioned by or in dedication to the Church.

However, the Renaissance had a profound effect on contemporary theology, particularly in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God.  Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method, including Erasmus, Zwingli, Thomas More, Martin Luther, and John Calvin.

The Renaissance began in times of religious turmoil. The late Middle Ages saw a period of political intrigue surrounding the Papacy, culminating in the Western Schism, in which three men simultaneously claimed to be true Bishop of Rome.

While the schism was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414), the 15th century saw a resulting reform movement know as Conciliarism, which sought to limit the pope's power. Although the papacy eventually emerged supreme in ecclesiastical matters by the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1511), it was dogged by continued accusations of corruption, most famously in the person of Pope Alexander VI, who was accused variously of simony, nepotism and fathering four illegitimate children whilst Pope, whom he married off to gain more power.

Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament. Indeed, it was Luther who in October 1517 published the 95 Theses, challenging papal authority and criticizing its perceived corruption, particularly with regard to its sale of indulgences.

The 95 Theses led to the Reformation, a break with the Roman Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in Western Europe. Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct role in sparking the Reformation, as well as in many other contemporaneous religious debates and conflicts.
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« Reply #17 on: October 12, 2008, 06:03:16 pm »



FLORENCE









By the 15th century, writers, artists and architects in Italy were well aware of the transformations that were taking place and were using phrases like modi antichi (in the antique manner) or alle romana et alla antica
(in the manner of the Romans and the ancients) to describe their work.

The term 'La Rinascita' first appeared, however, in its broad sense in Giorgio Vasari's 'Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani' (The Lives of the Artists, 1550, revised 1568). Vasari divides the age into three phases:


the first phase contains Cimabue, Giotto, and Arnolfo di Cambio;

the second phase contains Masaccio, Brunelleschi, and Donatello;

the third centers on Leonardo da Vinci and culminates with Michelangelo.



It was not just the growing awareness of classical antiquity that drove this development, according
to Vasari, but also the growing desire to study and imitate nature.





In the 15th century the Renaissance spread with great speed from its birthplace in Florence, first to
the rest of Italy, and soon to the rest of Europe.

The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. As it spread, its ideas diversified and changed, being adapted to local culture.

In the 20th century, scholars began to break the Renaissance into regional and national movements, including:



The Italian Renaissance

The English Renaissance

The German Renaissance

The Northern Renaissance

The French Renaissance

The Renaissance in the Netherlands

The Polish Renaissance

The Spanish Renaissance
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« Reply #18 on: October 12, 2008, 06:08:13 pm »





               

                CHARLES VIII OF FRANCE









The Renaissance as it occurred in Northern Europe has been termed the "Northern Renaissance".

It arrived first in France, imported by King Charles VIII after his invasion of Italy. Another factor that promoted the spread of secularism was the Church's inability to offer assistance against the Black Death. Francis I imported Italian art and artists, including Leonardo Da Vinci, and built ornate palaces
at great expense. Writers such as François Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Michel
de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from
the spirit of the Italian Renaissance.

In the second half of the 15th century, Italians brought the new style to Poland and Hungary. After
the marriage in 1476 of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, to Beatrix of Naples, Buda became the one of the most important artistic centres of the Renaissance north of the Alps.  The most important humanists living in Matthias' court were Antonio Bonfini and Janus Pannonius.  In 1526 the Ottoman conquest of Hungary put an abrupt end to the short-lived Hungarian Renaissance.

An early Italian humanist who came to Poland in the mid-15th century was Filip Callimachus. Many Italian artists came to Poland with Bona Sforza of Milano, when she married King Zygmunt I of Poland
in 1518.  This was supported by temporarily strengthened monarchies in both areas, as well as by
newly-established universities.

 
The spirit of the age spread from France to the Low Countries and Germany, and finally by the late
16th century to England, Scandinavia, and remaining parts of Central Europe. In these areas humanism became closely linked to the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation, and the art and writing of the German Renaissance frequently reflected this dispute.

In England, the Elizabethan era marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, John Milton, and Edmund Spenser, as well as great artists, architects (such as Inigo Jones), and composers such as Thomas Tallis, John Taverner, and William Byrd.

The Renaissance arrived in the Iberian peninsula through the Mediterranean possessions of the Aragonese Crown and the city of Valencia. Early Iberian Renaissance writers include Ausiàs March, Joanot Martorell, Fernando de Rojas, Juan del Encina, Garcilaso de la Vega, Gil Vicente and Bernardim Ribeiro. The late Renaissance in Spain saw writers such as Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Luis de Góngora and Tirso de Molina, artists such as El Greco and composers such as Tomás Luis de Victoria.
In Portugal writers such as Sá de Miranda and Luís de Camões and artists such as Nuno Gonçalves appeared.

While Renaissance ideas were moving north from Italy, there was a simultaneous southward spread
of innovation, particularly in music.  The music of the 15th century Burgundian School defined the beginning of the Renaissance in that art and the polyphony of the Netherlanders, as it moved with the musicians themselves into Italy, formed the core of what was the first true international style in music since the standardization of Gregorian Chant in the 9th century.  The culmination of the Netherlandish school was in the music of the Italian composer, Palestrina. At the end of the 16th century Italy again became a center of musical innovation, with the development of the polychoral style of the Venetian School, which spread northward into Germany around 1600.

The paintings of the Italian Renaissance differed from those of the Northern Renaissance. Italian Renaissance artists were among the first to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the purely religious art of medieval painters. At first, Northern Renaissance artists remained focused on religious subjects, such as the contemporary religious upheaval portrayed by Albrecht Dürer. Later on, the works of Pieter Bruegel influenced artists to paint scenes of daily life rather than religious or classical themes. It was also during the northern Renaissance that Flemish brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck perfected the oil painting technique, which enabled artists to produce strong colors on a hard surface that could survive for centuries.

A distinctive feature of the Northern Renaissance was its use of the vernacular in place of Latin or Greek, which allowed greater freedom of expression. The spread of the technology of the printing press, also invented in the North, gave a major boost to the Renaissance, first in Northern Europe and then elsewhere.
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« Reply #19 on: October 12, 2008, 06:11:08 pm »





             

              GIORGIO VASARI









The term was first used retrospectively by the Italian artist and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) in his book 'The Lives of the Artists' (published 1550). In the book Vasari was attempting to define what he described as a break with the barbarities of gothic art: the arts had fallen into decay with the collapse of the Roman Empire and only the Tuscan artists, beginning with Cimabue (1240–1301) and Giotto (1267–1337) began to reverse this decline in the arts. According to Vasari, antique art was central to the rebirth of Italian art.

However, it was not until the nineteenth century that the French word Renaissance achieved popularity in describing the cultural movement that began in the late-13th century. The Renaissance was first defined by French historian Jules Michelet (1798–1874), in his 1855 work, Histoire de France. For Michelet, the Renaissance was more a development in science than in art and culture. He asserted that it spanned the period from Columbus to Copernicus to Galileo; that is, from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the seventeenth century.   Moreover, Michelet distinguished between what he called, "the bizarre and monstrous" quality of the Middle Ages and the democratic values that he, as a vocal Republican, chose to see in its character.  A French nationalist, Michelet also sought to claim the Renaissance as a French movement.

The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) in his Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien, by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries. He saw in the Renaissance the emergence of the modern spirit of individuality, which had been stifled in the Middle Ages.  His book was widely read and was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance.  However, Buckhardt has been accused of setting forth a linear Whiggish view of history in seeing the Renaissance as the origin of the modern world.

More recently, historians have been much less keen to define the Renaissance as a historical age, or even a coherent cultural movement. As Randolph Starn has put it,

Rather than a period with definitive beginnings and endings and consistent content in between, the Renaissance can be (and occasionally has been) seen as a movement of practices and ideas to which specific groups and identifiable persons variously responded in different times and places. It would be in this sense a network of diverse, sometimes converging, sometimes conflicting cultures, not a single, time-bound culture.



—Randolph Starn
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« Reply #20 on: October 12, 2008, 06:14:38 pm »




             

               Jacob Burckhardt - Historian









Much of the debate around the Renaissance has centered around whether the Renaissance truly
was an "improvement" on the culture of the Middle Ages. Both Michelet and Burckhardt were keen
to describe the progress made in the Renaissance towards the "modern age".

Burckhardt likened the change to a veil being removed from man's eyes, allowing him to see clearly.





"In the Middle Ages both sides of human consciousness – that which was turned within as that which

was turned without – lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veil. The veil was woven of faith,

illusion, and childish prepossession, through which the world and history were seen clad in strange hues."



—Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy






On the other hand, many historians now point out that most of the negative social factors popularly associated with the "medieval" period – poverty, warfare, religious and political persecution, for example – seem to have worsened in this era which saw the rise of Machiavelli, the Wars of Religion, the corrupt Borgia Popes, and the intensified witch-hunts of the 16th century. Many people who lived during the Renaissance did not view it as the "golden age" imagined by certain 19th-century authors, but were concerned by these social maladies.

Significantly, though, the artists, writers, and patrons involved in the cultural movements in question believed they were living in a new era that was a clean break from the Middle Ages.[40] Some Marxist historians prefer to describe the Renaissance in material terms, holding the view that the changes in art, literature, and philosophy were part of a general economic trend away from feudalism towards capitalism, resulting in a bourgeois class with leisure time to devote to the arts.

Johan Huizinga (1872–1945) acknowledged the existence of the Renaissance but questioned whether it was a positive change. In his book The Waning of the Middle Ages, he argued that the Renaissance was a period of decline from the High Middle Ages, destroying much that was important.

The Latin language, for instance, had evolved greatly from the classical period and was still a living language used in the church and elsewhere. The Renaissance obsession with classical purity halted its further evolution and saw Latin revert to its classical form. Robert S. Lopez has contended that it was a period of deep economic recession.  Meanwhile George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have both argued that scientific progress was perhaps less original than has traditionally been supposed.

Historians have begun to consider the word Renaissance to be unnecessarily loaded, implying an unambiguously positive rebirth from the supposedly more primitive "Dark Ages" (Middle Ages). Many historians now prefer to use the term "Early Modern" for this period, a more neutral designation that highlights the period as a transitional one between the Middle Ages and the modern era.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
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« Reply #21 on: October 12, 2008, 06:19:36 pm »











FURTHER READING :



                                                     THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
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« Reply #22 on: November 02, 2008, 01:22:07 pm »










                                       T H E   N O R T H E R N   R E N A I S S A N C E






From Wikipedia,
the free encyclopedia

The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. Before 1450 Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century the ideas spread around Europe. The resulting German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Netherlands, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements had different characteristics and strengths, however.

In France, King Francis I imported Italian art, commissioned Italian artists (including Leonardo da Vinci), and built grand palaces at great expense, beginning the French Renaissance. Trade and commerce in cities like Bruges in the 15th century and Antwerp in the 16th increased cultural exchange between Italy and the Low Countries, however in art, and especially architecture, late Gothic influences remained present until the arrival of Baroque even as painters increasingly drew on Italian models.

Universities and the printed book helped spread the spirit of the age spread through France, the Low Countries and the Holy Roman Empire, and then to Scandinavia and finally Britain by the late 16th century. Writers and humanists such as Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard and Desiderius Erasmus were greatly influenced by the Italian Renaissance model and were part of the same intellectual movement. During the English Renaissance (which overlapped with the Elizabethan era) writers such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe composed works of lasting influence. The Renaissance was brought to Poland directly from Italy by artists from Florence and the Low Countries, starting the Polish Renaissance.

In some areas the Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization
of political power. While Italy and Germany were dominated by independent city-states, parts of central and western Europe began emerging as nation-states. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church had lasting effects, such as the division of the Netherlands.
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« Reply #23 on: November 02, 2008, 01:24:42 pm »



GUTENBERG PRESS

Reproduction of Johann Gutenberg-era Press on display at the
Printing History Museum in Lyon, France.

The development of printing press had great impact on
North European Renaissance








Western Europe was more uniformly under the embrace of feudalism than Northern Italy.

This economic system had dominated western Europe for a thousand years, but was on the decline at the beginning of the Renaissance. The reasons for this decline include the post-plague environment,
the increasing use of money rather than land as a medium of exchange, the growing number of serfs
living as freedmen, the formation of nation-states with monarchies interested in reducing the power of feudal lords, the increasing uselessness of feudal armies in the face of new military technology (such as gunpowder), and a general increase in agricultural productivity due to improving farming technology and methods.

As in Italy, the decline of feudalism opened the way for the cultural, social, and economic changes associated with the Renaissance in western Europe.

Finally, the Renaissance in western Europe would also be kindled by a weakening of the Roman Catholic Church. The seeming inability of the church to help with the devastating Black Plague and the Western Schism tore Europe apart.

The slow demise of feudalism also weakened a long-established policy in which church officials helped keep the population of the manor under control in return for tribute. Consequently, the early 15th century saw the rise of many secular institutions and beliefs.

Among the most significant of these, humanism, would lay the philosophical grounds for much of Renaissance art, music, and science. Desiderius Erasmus, for example, was important in spreading humanist ideas in the north, and was a central figure at the intersection of classical humanism and mounting religious questions. Forms of artistic expression which a century ago would have been banned by the church were now tolerated or even encouraged in certain circles.

The velocity of transmission of the Renaissance throughout Europe can also be ascribed to the invention of the printing press. Its power to disseminate knowledge enhanced scientific research, spread political ideas and generally impacted the course of the Renaissance in northern Europe. As in Italy, the printing press increased the availability of books written in both vernacular languages and the publication of new and ancient classical texts in Greek and Latin.

Furthermore, the Bible became widely available in translation, a factor often attributed to the spread of the Protestant Reformation.
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« Reply #24 on: November 02, 2008, 01:27:35 pm »



The Ghent Altarpiece (interior view) by Hubert van Eyck, painted 1432.
Cathedral of Saint Bavo, Ghent, Belgium.

Early Netherlandish painting often included complicated iconography, and art historians have debated the "hidden symbolism" of works by artists like Hubert and Jan van Eyck.
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« Reply #25 on: November 02, 2008, 01:46:07 pm »









                                                            A R T






The detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, with masters such as Robert Campin, Jan van
Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden, was greatly respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century.[2] Despite frequent cultural and
artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists (1500–1530)—chronologically overlapping with but un-
related to Italian Mannerism—were among the first artists in the Low Countries to clearly reflect
Italian formal developments.

Around the same time, Albrecht Dürer made his two trips to Italy, where he was greatly admired
for his prints. Dürer, in turn, was influenced by the art he saw there. Other notable painters, such
as Hans Holbein and Jean Fouquet, retained a Gothic influence that was still popular in the north,
while highly individualistic artists such as Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder developed styles that were imitated by many subsequent generations. Northern painters in the 16th century increasingly looked and travelled to Rome, becoming known as the Romanists. The High Renaissance
art of Michelangelo and Raphael and the late Renaissance stylistic tendencies of Mannerism that were
in vogue had a great impact on their work.

Renaissance humanism and the large number of surviving classical artworks and monuments encouraged many Italian painters to explore Greek and Roman themes more prominently than northern artists, and likewise the most famous 15th-century German and Netherlandish paintings tend to be religious. Especially common are winged polyptychs, from the monumental to the portable, that could be opened and closed on different days of the liturgical year. In the 16th century, mythological and other themes from history became more uniform amongst northern and Italian artists. Northern Renaissance painters, however, took the leading role in establishing new subject matter, such as landscape and genre painting.

As Renaissance art styles moved through northern Europe, they changed and were adapted to local circumstances. In England and the northern Netherlands the Reformation brought religious painting almost completely to an end. Despite several very talented Artists of the Tudor Court in England, portrait painting was slow to spread from the courts. In France the School of Fontainebleau was begun by Italians such as Rosso Fiorentino in the latest Mannerist style, but succeeded in establishing a durable national style. By the end of the 16th century, artists such as Karel van Mander and Hendrik Goltzius collected in Haarlem after studying in Italy and firmly established the Romanist tendencies of Mannerism there.
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« Reply #26 on: November 02, 2008, 01:48:11 pm »








                                                 T H E   A G E   O F   D I S C O V E R Y






Perhaps the most important technological development of the Renaissance was the invention of the caravelle, 
the first truly oceangoing ship.

This combination of European and Arab ship building technologies for the first time made extensive trade and
travel over the Atlantic feasible.

While first introduced by the Italian states, and the early captains, such as Christopher Columbus and Giovanni Caboto, who were Italian, the development would end Northern Italy’s role as the trade crossroads of Europe, shifting wealth and power westwards to Spain, Portugal, France, and England.

These states all began to conduct extensive trade with Africa and Asia, and in the Americas began extensive colonisation activities. This period of exploration and expansion has become known as the Age of Discovery.

Eventually European power, and also Renaissance art and ideals, spread around the globe.
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« Reply #27 on: November 02, 2008, 01:54:08 pm »



THE PINTLE AND GUDGEON RUDDER SYSTEM SCHEME
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« Reply #28 on: November 02, 2008, 01:57:31 pm »









The prelude to the Age of Exploration was a series of European expeditions crossing Eurasia by land
in the late Middle Ages.

While the Mongols had threatened Europe with pillage and destruction, the Mongol states also unified much of Eurasia creating trade routes and communication lines stretching from the Middle East to China.

A series of Europeans took advantage of these to explore eastwards.

These were almost all Italians as the trade between Europe and the Middle East was almost completely controlled by traders from the Italian city states. The close Italian links to the Levant created great curiosity and commercial interest in countries which lay further east.

Christian leaders, such as Prince Henry the Navigator, also launched expeditions in hopes of finding converts, or the fabled Prester John. There were many different types of causes and effects on the
Age Of Exploration.

The first of these travelers was Giovanni de Plano Carpini who journeyed to Mongolia and back from 1241–1247.

The most famous traveler, however, was Marco Polo who wrote of journeys throughout Asia from 1271 to 1295 in which he described being a guest at the Yuan Dynasty court of Kublai Khan. His journey was written up as Travels and the work was read throughout Europe.

In 1439, Niccolò Da Conti published an account of his travels to India and Southeast Asia. In 1466-1472, a Russian merchant Afanasy Nikitin of Tver described travels to India in his book A Journey Beyond the Three Seas.

These journeys had little immediate effect.

The Mongol Empire collapsed almost as quickly as it formed and soon the route to the east became
far more difficult and dangerous.

The Black Death of the fourteenth century also blocked travel and trade.

The land route to the East was controlled by Mediterranean commercial interests and Islamic empires that both controlled the flow and price of goods. The rise of the aggressive and expansionist Ottoman Empire further limited the possibilities of European overland trade.
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« Reply #29 on: November 02, 2008, 01:59:02 pm »



THE SILK ROUTE

The economically important Silk Road and Spice (Eastern) trade routes became blocked by the Ottoman
Empire, spurring exploration motivated initially by the finding of a sea route around Africa.
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