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Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned

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Author Topic: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned  (Read 5791 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #45 on: September 30, 2008, 08:18:05 pm »











4.3 Other Models and Artefacts from Hawara

There are several important finds excavated in Hawara other than the Labyrinth. We have modelled some of the structures, including the pyramid itself, and have also included other relevant information in our Web interface. The following highlights some of the more significant contents.

Figure 5 shows its internal structure at the centre of which lie the sarcophagi of King Amenemhat III and his daughter. The figure also shows a group of 12th dynasty century tomb chapels later constructed towards the back of the pyramid. One of the smallest yet best-recorded tombs is that of a woman named Satrenenutet. The surviving finds from her tomb are preserved in the Petrie Museum, and the notebook and publication permit a reconstruction of the original appearance (Figure 6).

 






Figure 5. A 3D model of the internal structure of
the Hawara pyramid
(measurements taken from Petrie 1889).




 



Figure 6. A 3D model of the tomb of Satrenenutet
(12th dynasty).

The artefacts are preserved at the Petrie Museum.
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« Reply #46 on: September 30, 2008, 08:36:45 pm »












Another important finding in Hawara is a collection of Roman period mummy portraits. Petrie (1890) recovered about 180 of these extremely fragile paintings, the largest group found in excavation and one of the most important discoveries for classical art history. Figure 7 shows one of the 41 portraits preserved at the Petrie Museum. The spatial constraints in the University gallery permits only nine of them to be displayed, but the entire portrait collection is archived and can be seen through our Web interface. Figure 7 incidentally shows one of the many non-displayed portraits which may not have been disclosed if it were not for the Web resource.

 






Figure 7. A Roman period mummy
portrait found in Hawara

(preserved at the Petrie Museum).
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« Reply #47 on: September 30, 2008, 08:39:25 pm »











Finally, the northern cemeteries at Hawara, and probably also the village south of the pyramid, were continually used after the official conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity in the 4th century AD. In 1888, workmen brought to Petrie the finds from some rich burials of this date, including one apparently of a child for which the grave goods are preserved in the Petrie Museum (Figure Cool. They offer an instructive contrast to the finds from the tomb of Satrenenutet, though the position of the objects around the body or bodies was not recorded for the late burials.

 

 



Figure 8. Toys and other objects found in a tomb

(later second century AD).
 
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« Reply #48 on: September 30, 2008, 08:42:12 pm »










5 Discussion



In this project, we proposed a case study for distributing an online resource of an ancient Egyptian site. In particular, we constructed 2 versions of VR model of the Hawara Labyrinth and presented its probable forms in 3D. The first reconstruction of the Labyrinth is based on a drawing by Petrie, and the second based on parallels from other mortuary temples of Pharaonic times as well as descriptions by classical authors. The models were complemented by Web interface where information relevant to the model and other data on artefacts were provided.

We may argue that the Petrie model looks "less Egyptian" in our contemporary interpretation, and that the second version seems to more accurate. However, both examples retain the right to be claimed as the correct reconstruction of the Labyrinth, for we do not and probably would never know for sure, what it really was like.

The project provides a generic approach in several different areas.

This project opens the door to exploration of spaces that have been lost and their structure unknown. Unlike more complex design tools, VR solution provides a range of possible options for combining existing artefacts and reconstructing entire sites from existing artefactual evidence. This approach is not only be useful to the experts who seek a modelling tool for their field of study, but is also useful to the wider public who are potentially interested in the appearance of ancient sites.
The temporal aspect of this research is also important, in that it enables us to build models of different periods. This could help in investigating transitional shifts associated with specific sites, especially when building a model of an archaeological site that has undergone transitions in its physical form as well as its culture.

From the museum-studies point of view, the project contributes by providing insight into how museums can use the full potential of web-based technologies to provide its resource in completely different modes of understanding and interpreting collections. There is also the potential in this approach to display and combine items from different collections in the same reproductions or reconstructions, and to explore different arrangements and interpretations of the same sets of artefacts.

In terms of our future output, we may further employ the potentials of VR space by developing a flexible and dynamic modelling system where users can visualise and explore interactively as they wish. The use of the virtual environment as a flexible, dynamic space is highly significant for it is fundamentally applicable to many other fields. In fact, enabling users to actively interact with the objects and arrange them in a virtual space that best suits their imagination, while moving the objects around and substituting them with new ones, is a radical challenge to the traditional control of exhibitions and information by curators.

We are currently building on the experience gained through this case study and are creating online learning and teaching resource under a three-year research project scheme.
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« Reply #49 on: September 30, 2008, 08:45:00 pm »












Acknowledgements



We would like to thank Dr. Stephen Quirke of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London, for his suggestion on selecting Hawara for treatment and his many valuable comments.

 




References



Addison, A.C. and Gaiani, M. 1998. 'Virtualized' architectural heritage - new tools and techniques for capturing built history, in Thwaites, H.(ed), Future Fusion: Application Realities for the Virtual Age, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp.17-22.

Arnold, D. (1979). Das Labyrinth und seine Vorbilder, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Institus Kairo, vol.35, pp.1-9.

Arnold, D. (1980). Labyrinth, Lexikon der Ägyptologie III, pp.905-908.
 
Batty, M. (1997). Virtual geography, Futures, vol.29, pp.337-352.
 
Blom-Boer, I. (1989). Sculpture fragments and relief fragments from the Labyrinth at Hawara in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, OMRO, vol.69, pp.25-50.

Economow, M. (1995). Museum collections and the information superhighway, Spectra, vol.23(1), pp.7-9.

Johnston, L. (1998). Imaging in museums; issues in resource development, in Jones-Garmil, K. (ed.), The Wired Museum, American Association of Museums, New York, pp.93-114.

Kemp, B.J. (1989). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization, Routledge, London.

Kern, H. (1995). Labyrinthe, Prestel-Verlag, Munich.

Lepsius, R.(1897).Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopten, Textband I, 46-48, (E. Naville ed) Berlin.

Lepsius, R. (1849). Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopten, II, 11-30, Berlin.

Lloyd, A.B.(1970). The Egyptian labyrinth, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol.56, pp.81-100.

Michalowski, K. (1968). The labyrinth enigma: archaeological suggestions, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol.54, pp.219-222.

Pesce, M. (1996). VRML: Browsing & Building Cyberspace, New Riders, Indianapolis.

Petrie, W.M.F. (1889). Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe, Field & Tuer, London.

Petrie, W.M.F. (1890). Kahun, Gurob and Hawara, Field & Tuer, London.
 
Petrie, W.M.F., Wainwright, G.A. and Mackay, E. (1912). The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh, (British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account, 18th Year), Bernard Quaritch, London.
 
Pollefeys, M., Koch, R., Vergauwen, M. and Gool, L.V. (1998). Virtualizing archaeological sites, in Thwaites, H. (ed.), Future Fusion: Application Realities for the Virtual Age, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp.600-605.

Shaw, I. And Nicholson, P. (1995). British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London.

Shiode, N. and Kanoshima, T. (1999). Utilizing the spatial features of cyberspace for generating a dynamic museum environment, in Spencer, S.N. (ed.), Proceedings for VRML'99 - Fourth Symposium on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language, The Association of Computing Machinery, New York, pp. 79-84.
Sweeney, T. (1997). Digital imaging, multimedia and museums of the future, in Earnshaw, R. and Vince, J. (eds.), The Internet in 3D: Information, Images and Interaction, Academic Press, London, pp.365-375.

Uphill, E.P. (2000). Pharaoh´s Gateway to Eternity, The Hawara Labyrinth of King Amenemhat III, Keagan and Paul, London.

Worden, S. (1997). Thinking critically about virtual museums, Archives & Museum Informatics, pp.93-103.




 

* This report is based on a short-term project supported by the Graduate School, University College London.

A version of the project output can be obtained from http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/.



**Digital Egypt for Universities is a three-year project to create online learning and teaching resource, funded by JISC (the Joint Information Systems Committee) that is currently carried out by Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, and the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London.



http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/enco2000_web.html
« Last Edit: September 30, 2008, 08:45:51 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #50 on: September 30, 2008, 08:54:59 pm »











                                                    The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara








Amenemhet Lives

 

The Hawara enclosure, located on the south side of the pyramid, measured 385 x 158 m, is oriented north-south and was the largest of the middle kingdom pyramid enclosure.

As with Djoser, the pyramid was in the north while the entrance was on the far south end of the east side where, as in Senwosret III's layout, an open causeway approached from the east..

Between the entrance and the pyramid lay the 'mortuary temple' which here is a misnomer. This was apparently such an extraordinary architectural creation that it was seen by visitors in Classical times as a unique monument in a class of its own.

They called it the Labyrinth, comparing it with the legendary Labyrinth of Minos at Knossos in Crete.

It is all the more frustrating, therefore, that the temple is almost completely lost to us. Quarried since the roman times, very little is left except a foundation bed and limestone chips, which only hint at its vastness. This was not a labyrinth in the sense of nested passages and corridors.. Its complexity instead arose from the replication of small courts and shrines, in n arrangement that Strabo called ' a palace composed of as many smaller palaces as were former nomes'.

All the Classical authors write of multiple courts but disagree on the number. Herodotus spoke of 12 main courts, and said the visitor was conducted 'from courtyards into rooms, rooms into galleries, galleries into more rooms, thence into more courtyards'. He mentioned lower rooms and crypts devoted to the sacred crocodile Sobek, noted also by Pliny the Elder.

Close to the south side of the pyramid Petrie found remains of two great granite shrines weighing 8 to 13 tons, each containing two figures of the king.. These may have stood near the findspot at the back center of the temple.

Did they occupy a central place like the five statues in the Old Kingdom pyramid temples?

Also close to the pyramid Petrie found the remains of a colossal granite statue of the king. Other fragments must have belonged to statues that stood in the chapels and courts, including ones of the crocodile go, Sobek, as well as other deities like Hathor and an unusual palm goddess, statues of the king and offering bearers. Stadelmann sees these statues, probably assigned to their respective booths and courtyards, as the translation into three dimensions of flat painted relief scenes graced the walls of prior pyramid complexes.

But the rows of chapels most strongly the Heb Sed court of Djoser, which was more abbreviated than the fabled colonnaded courtyards. It seems fitting that Amenemhet III, with built the last major royal; pyramid complex in Egypt, borrowed and elaborated the architectural expression of 'the palace composed of smaller palaces' from Djoser. The builder of the first great royal pyramid.
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« Reply #51 on: September 30, 2008, 09:04:02 pm »



Overall view of the Labyrinth looking south. The canal can be seen at right.
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« Reply #52 on: September 30, 2008, 09:05:50 pm »



A more detail view of the Labyrinth showing some the remaining granite blocks strewn about.
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« Reply #53 on: September 30, 2008, 09:11:37 pm »






http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/amenemhet%20III%20hawara7.htm
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