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MAGNA GRAECIA

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Bianca
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« Reply #30 on: September 25, 2008, 03:08:02 pm »



LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 330 BC. AR Nomos (7.79 grams. 21 mm)


Obv: Bearded head of Leukippos to right, wearing Corinthian helmet; behind, lion’s head right.

Rev: barley ear, club above leaf.
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« Reply #31 on: September 25, 2008, 03:11:03 pm »



Bruttium, Kaulonia 470-440 BCE AR Nomos (7.4 gm)


Obv: Apollo holding laurel branch; small figure on arm, stag before, with head turned back.

Rx: Stag standing right

ex 500 bc
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« Reply #32 on: September 25, 2008, 03:15:40 pm »



Bruttium, Kroton 390-340 BCE AR Nomos (7.76 gm)


Obv: Eagle standing left on olive branch.

Rx: Tripod; Δ in field.
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« Reply #33 on: September 25, 2008, 03:18:35 pm »



Tarsos, Calabria 272 - 235 BCE AR Nomos (6.4 gm)


Obv: **** warrior on horseback right holding shield and spearing.

Rx: Taras on Dolphin left holding kantharos and trident; head of nymph behind.



http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/Greek.html
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« Reply #34 on: September 25, 2008, 03:47:34 pm »



Oddyseus blinds the Cyclop,

Magna Grecia
- 520 BC
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« Reply #35 on: September 25, 2008, 03:55:01 pm »



Skyphos






The vase comes from ancient Magna Graecia, the area which is now southern Italy and Sicily.

Long before the Romans came into power, settlers from Greece had colonized these lands and left objects like these amidst their tombs and cities. Although some vases were imported into southern Italy from Greece, many were made locally, in the style of the Greek vases.

This vase is called a skyphos, which was a drinking vessel.

The seated woman on the vase may represent the goddess of love, Aphrodite, who is often portrayed wearing much jewelry, although it could as well be a mortal woman or bride. 



http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/siias/greekwest.html
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« Reply #36 on: September 25, 2008, 04:15:35 pm »

             

Photo of find 'shows shield handle, '
              sleuth says


                                                           







                                                     Riace Riddle Thickens






 (ANSA) - Riace, September 24 - The riddle of an alleged theft from Italy's famed Riace bronzes has resurfaced 35 years after they were lifted from the Calabrian seabed.

A photo of the 1972 find has reignited speculation that the two figures were stripped of a shield and possibly other objects - and even a companion who has never been seen. The photo was put on display recently by a Riace cultural association and spotted by Riace bronze sleuth Giuseppe Bragho', an amateur archaeologist who has long been arguing that the site was raided by art thieves.

Bragho' says the snap, taken just after the statues were brought ashore, is ''unequivocal evidence'' that a shield was torn from the left arm of the so-called 'younger' statue.

''The photo clearly shows an object protruding from the statue's left hand. It's easy to guess that it was the handle of the shield that has never been discovered,'' Bragho' said. Bragho' said the photo should ''lend fresh impetus'' to an inquiry opened last year on the basis of his claims. The local sleuth, who has written a book outlining his suspicions, says he has ''tracked down and photographed a series of documents that indicate an alarming scenario''.

He says a third statue - ''completely different from the other two'' - as well as two shields and a lance, were seen lying on the seabed by the finder, scuba diver Stefano Mariottini.

Bragho' points to a statement made by Mariottini the day after he discovered the statues on 16 August 1972.

In the statement, he refers to ''a group of statues''.

Bragho' also highlights another section of Mariottini's statement in which he reportedly said he saw ''three statues, probably made of bronze...one of them lying on its side with a shield on its left arm''.

In addition, the expert has provided prosecutors with the name of a man who allegedly helped smuggle a shield and lance away from the scene of the discovery.
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« Reply #37 on: September 25, 2008, 09:41:48 pm »













ONE OF ITALY'S MOST IMPORTANT FINDS OF THE LAST 100 YEARS.



The bronzes were discovered by Mariottini, an amateur scuba diver from Rome, during a holiday on the Calabrian coast.

They turned out to be one of Italy's most important archaeological finds of the last 100 years.

The statues are of two virile men, presumably warriors or gods, who possibly held lances and shields at one time. At around two metres, they are larger than life.

The 'older' man, known as Riace B, wears a helmet, while the 'younger' Riace A has nothing covering his rippling hair.

Both are naked.

Although the statues are cast in bronze, they feature silver lashes and teeth, copper red lips and nipples, and eyes made of ivory, limestone and a glass and amber paste.

Italy is renowned for its archaeological treasures but the Riace bronzes have attracted particular attention.

This is partly because of their exceptionally realistic rendering and partly owing to the rarity of ancient bronze statues, which tended to be melted down and the metal reused.

Mariottini, who spotted the statues 300 metres off the coast and eight metres underwater, said the bronze was so realistic he initially thought he'd found the remains of a corpse.

When they first went on display in 1981, a million people came to see them and the pair were even featured on a commemorative postage stamp.

Today the statues pull some 130,000 visitors each year to the Reggio Calabria museum housing them.

How or when the statues sank to their watery resting place also remains a mystery, as divers uncovered no wreckage in the vicinity.

While remains could have drifted to the seabed some distance away it is more probable that the statues were tossed overboard, either to lighten the ship's load in a storm or to prevent them falling into the hands of pirates.

Italian cultural authorities recently sent a fresh scientific mission to the area after a US ship reported detecting traces of underwater metal near the spot the statues were discovered.
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« Reply #38 on: September 25, 2008, 09:49:22 pm »




               

               The Warriors
               in their current location.
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« Reply #39 on: September 25, 2008, 09:51:46 pm »








                                         The Bronzi di Riace (Italian for "Riace bronzes")






are two famous full-size Greek bronzes of **** bearded warriors, cast about 460 - 430 BC and currently housed by the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in Reggio Calabria, Italy. The Riace Warriors are respectively termed "A" and "B", whereas Riace Warrior A is thought to be a depiction of a younger man than that of Riace Warrior B. They were found by Stefano Mariottini,[1] a Roman chemist on a scuba diving vacation at Monasterace,[2] on August 16, 1972, perhaps at the site of a shipwreck, off the coast of Riace, near Reggio Calabria. They are major additions to the surviving examples of Greek sculpture. The statues' eyes are inlaid with bone and glass, while the teeth are in silver and lips and nipples are in copper. Formerly they held spears and shields. Additionally, Riace Warrior B once wore a helmet pushed up atop his head and it is thought that Riace Warrior A perhaps wore a wreath upon his (Pedley). The Bronzi belong to a transition period from Archaic Greek sculpture to the early Classic style, disguising their idealized geometry and impossible anatomy (Spivey 2005) under a distracting and alluring "realistic" surface.

There is no clear testimony in ancient literature to identify the athletes or heroes depicted by the bronzes. It seems likely that the nudes originally formed part of a votive group in a large sanctuary. It is conjectured that the bronze sculptures represent Tydeus and Amphiaraus, two warriors from the Seven Against Thebes monumental group in the polis of Argos, noted by Pausanias[3], or that they are Athenian warriors from Delphi, part of the monument to the battle of Marathon, or that they are from Olympia. All three were prominent Greek sites for dedicated sculpture of the highest quality, and all were vulnerable to official thefts after the Roman occupation. Perhaps the Riace Warriors were being transported to Rome as booty when a storm overtook their ship, though no evidence of a wreck could be found.

These bronzes are from the early Classical Period, made about 445 BC. They are a fine example of contrapposto - the weight is on the back legs and is much more realistic than Archaic stances. The musculature is clear yet not incised and looks soft enough to be visible yet realistic. The turned head not only represents movement but also adds life to the sculptures. The asymmetrical layout of the arms and legs serves to add to the realism.

A local original destination is not impossible. Further explorations undertaken by a joint Italian-American team in 2004, have identified the foundations of an Ionic temple on this slowly subsiding coast. Undersea explorations by robotic vehicles along the submerged coastline from Locri to Soverato are providing a more detailed picture of this coast in Antiquity, though no further "Riace bronzes" have been found.

Attributions of such spectacular works of art to famous sculptors have followed traditional lines: "all the 'big' names of Classical times have been proposed in this connection," Brunilde Sismondo Ridgeway has written[4], but she finds it encouraging that at least a few scholars are willing to consider a non-Attic, even a 'colonial' workshop of origin, as contrasted with "the dominant Athenocentrism of previous years."

While it is certain is they are original works of the highest quality, it has also been argued that their torsos have been produced from a single model, which was then altered with direct modifications to the wax before casting, and that they may be seen as types.

The Bronzi di Riace emerged from conservation in 1981; their exhibition in Florence and Rome was the cultural event of the year in Italy, providing covers for numerous magazines (Gemelli). They are kept in the National Museum of Magna Grecia at Reggio Calabria. They have been commemorated in a pair of postage stamps issued by Italy, and, in another sure sign that they have joined the canon of Greek sculpture, they are widely reproduced.
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« Reply #40 on: September 25, 2008, 09:53:13 pm »










Notes



^ Mariottini is currently a researcher for the Sovraintendenza Archeologica della Calabria,through a cultural association, KODROS.

^ the site is in six to eight meters of water. No associated wreck site has been identified, but in the immediate area, on a subsiding coast, architectural remnants have also been found (Mariottini interview).

^ "A little farther on is a sanctuary of the Seasons. On coming back from here you see statues of Polyneices, the son of Oedipus, and of all the chieftains who with him were killed in battle at the wall of Thebes. These men Aeschylus has reduced to the number of seven only, although there were more chiefs than this in the expedition, from Argos, from Messene, with some even from Arcadia. But the Argives have adopted the number seven from the drama of Aeschylus, and near to their statues are the statues of those who took Thebes: Aegialeus, son of Adrastus; Promachus, son of Parthenopaeus, son of Talaus; Polydorus, son of Hippomedon; Thersander; Alcmaeon and Amphilochus, the sons of Amphiaraus; Diomedes, and Sthenelus. Among their company were also Euryalus, son of Mecisteus, and Adrastus and Timeas, sons of Polyneices." Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.20.5.

^ "The study of Greek Sculpture in the Twenty-First Century", read 15 November 2003 before the American Philosophical Society, published in their Proceedings 2005. 
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« Reply #41 on: September 25, 2008, 09:54:36 pm »









External Links / Further Reading





Wikimedia Commons has media related to:



Riace bronzes[http://www.photographers.it/articoli/bronzidiriace.htm
"I Bronzi di Riace - Le altre verità"
del Prof. Giuseppe Braghò

Nigel Spivey, "The beauty myth", The New Statesman, 2 May 2005
Mariottini interview (Italian)

Bruno Gemelli, "Vissi d'arte, vissi di code" (Italian)
"Sotto il mare caccia segreta ai “nuovi” bronzi di Riace" 14 September 2004

Lombardi, Satriani & Paoletti (eds.) Gli Eroi Venuti Dal Mare Heroes from the Sea: The Photographic Record of the Riace Bronzes. Gangemi Editore.

The Riace Warriors are extensively discussed and illustrated in Programme One ("More Human Than Human...") of the five part series How Art Made The World, written and narrated by Dr Nigel Spivey, who offers, in the programme, the opinion that they are the "best statues ever made." How Art Made The World is also available as a book (Basic Books, 2006 ISBN-10: 0465081827, ISBN-13: 978-0465081820).

Pedley, John Grffiths. "Greek Art and Archeology", Fourth Ed. Pearson- Prentice Hall, 2007. PP.234-237.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riace_Warriors"



Categories: 5th century BC Greek sculptures | Calabria



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riace_Warriors
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« Reply #42 on: September 25, 2008, 09:56:12 pm »




           





                                   




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« Reply #43 on: September 25, 2008, 09:58:47 pm »

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« Reply #44 on: September 25, 2008, 10:00:22 pm »





                                              
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