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PARIS, France

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Bianca
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« Reply #90 on: July 09, 2008, 05:11:54 pm »

                       
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« Reply #91 on: July 09, 2008, 05:24:43 pm »

                 
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« Reply #92 on: July 09, 2008, 05:39:16 pm »

                                      



                         
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« Reply #93 on: July 09, 2008, 05:40:23 pm »



                                                        276 Boulevard Raspail:

                                            Wall sculpture of a man kissing a woman






                   
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« Reply #94 on: July 09, 2008, 06:05:33 pm »



AUGUSTE RODIN

"THE KISS"
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« Reply #95 on: July 18, 2008, 08:14:20 am »



Ancient River Camps Are Oldest Proof of Humans in Paris 
 The flint arrowheads seen above are among thousands
found during a recent dig in Paris that unearthed human
campsites dated to about 7600 B.C.,
archaeologists announced in July 2008.

The sites were likely used by nomadic hunter-gatherers
and are the oldest evidence of human occupation within
modern city boundaries, dig leaders say.

Photograph by
Denis Gliksman,
courtesy Inrap
 
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« Reply #96 on: July 18, 2008, 08:19:56 am »









                               Ancient River Camps Are Oldest Proof of Humans in Paris






Kate Ravilious
for National Geographic News
July 7, 2008

Hunter-gatherers who made temporary camps along the Seine about 9,500 years ago were among
the earliest "residents" of what is now Paris, archaeologists say.

A recent dig near the river revealed thousands of arrowhead bits and animal bones from about 7600
B.C. that scientists say are the oldest evidence of human occupation within modern city boundaries.

Previously the oldest such evidence was a 4500 B.C. fishing village near the current Gare de Lyon railway station.

Nomadic tribes camped at the newfound site for periods of days or even weeks while they collected flint to make arrowheads for hunting, the dig team believes.

"It was a strategic choice, next to the river," said Bénédicte Souffi, a lead archaeologist on the dig.

Chris Scarre, a French prehistory expert from Durham University in the U.K., said the hunter-gatherers may also have used the river "for transport and for fishing as well, of course, as a ready supply of fresh water."

Although there is no evidence of ancient river transport at the site, dugout canoes from the same time period have been found in other parts of Europe, said Scarre, who was not involved with the Paris project.






Ancient Landscape



The dig site lies on the southwest edge of the French capital, sandwiched between the Parisian beltway and the city's helicopter port.

It covers an area about the size of a U.S. football field.

The French government's archaeology agency Inrap commissioned a survey of the site in preparation for building a recycling plant.
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« Reply #97 on: July 18, 2008, 08:22:26 am »



PARIS
The Seine runs through the city








Today the area is about 820 feet (250 meters) from the Seine, but ten thousand years ago the river was probably much closer. The camps may even have been established on an island within the river.

"The likely original appearance of the River Seine, and most other major European rivers before they were embanked and controlled, would have been a braided form [with multiple channels] fringed by marshy wetlands," Scarre said.

Ancient people would have hunted mammals, such as deer and wild boar, using bows and arrows rather than spears, scholars say.

"Forest-dwelling animals may have come to the water's edge to drink, making this a good place for hunting," Scarre noted.





Preserved in Sludge



Since February 2008, Souffi and her colleagues have unearthed debris from multiple hunter-gatherer campsites, all dating to the Mesolithic period—9000 to 5000 B.C.

Researchers also uncovered larger tools made from sandstone. These include a spherical hand-held "pounder" and long blades possibly used for making arrow shafts or scraping animal skins.

"We also discovered a hearth, which could have been used for dissolving adhesive for arrowheads or for cooking game," Souffi said.

Frequent flooding of the Seine had washed layers of silt over the artifacts, sealing them in and helping to preserve them.

Finds of younger polished axes and decorated pottery indicate that the site continued to be used through the ages.
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« Reply #98 on: July 18, 2008, 08:31:35 am »


















                                         7,000-year-old human settlement found in Paris, France
 




Paris, June 26:
(INRAP)

Archaeologists said they had found flint arrowheads and other objects in Paris that were evidence
of human settlement some 7,000 years ago, the oldest such site ever discovered in the French capital.

The site on the banks of the river Seine was occupied by hunter-gatherers who also left a stoneware instrument they used to make arrowheads and flint scrapers for working on animal skins, said the French Archaeological Research Institute, (INRAP).

They were nomads who hunted deer and boar, said INRAP`s Benedicte Souffi, who led excavations at the site in what is today the 15th district of the French capital.

She said it appeared that the people came to the site to gather flint from the alluvial deposits of the Seine.

Archaeologists were able to work out the age of the settlement by examining bone fragments they found there, she said.

 
www.archaeologynews.com
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« Reply #99 on: July 18, 2008, 08:33:59 am »









Ashley Washington
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    Re: 7,000 Year-Old Human Settlement Found In Paris, France
« Reply #1 on: June 27, 2008, 03:46:44 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





                              Dig shows Paris is 3,000 years older than first thought






By John Lichfield in Paris
Thursday, 26 June 2008

Paris has long been known to be a very old city but its history as a settlement has just been extended by more than 3,000 years.


An archaeological dig, whose findings were revealed yesterday, moves back Paris's first known human occupation to about 7600BC, in the Mesolithic period between the two stone ages.

An area about the size of a football field on the south-western edge of the city, close to the banks of the river Seine, has yielded thousands of flint arrowheads and fragments of animal bone. The site, between the Paris ring road and the city's helicopter port, is believed by archaeologists to have been used, nearly 10,000 years ago, as a kind of sorting and finishing station for flint pebbles washed up on the banks of the river. Once the dig is complete, the site will be occupied by a plant for sorting and recycling the refuse generated by the two million Parisians of the 21st century.

"You could say that we've come full circle," said Bénédicte Souffi, one of the two archaeologists in charge of the site. "Our ancestors were sorting rubbish from usable objects here in 7600BC. We are going to be doing much the same thing on a more elaborate scale. Maybe, there is a lesson there."

The oldest previous human settlement discovered within the Paris city boundaries dates back to about 4500BC – a fishing and hunting village beside the Seine at Bercy near the Gare de Lyon railway station. The new exploration – by Inrap, the French government agency for "preventive" archaeology on sites where new building is imminent – pushes back the history of the city to the mysterious period between the Old and New stone ages.

During the Mesolithic period, the "big game" of the Paleolithic, such as mammoth and reindeer, had disappeared from western Europe. The scattered human bands were still hunter-gatherers, and not yet farmers, but they lived in temperate forests and hunted with bows and arrows rather than spears.

The site in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, about a mile from the Eiffel Tower, has been preserved by silt from the frequent flooding of the Seine. Archaeologists believe that it was used for many centuries during the Mesolithic period, perhaps for periods of only a few weeks at a time, as a place to prospect for, and sort out, flint pebbles for cutting into arrowheads. The dig has also unearthed larger instruments made from granite. They include an almost perfectly round hand-held pounder the size of a billiard ball, and long stone blades, possibly used for making arrow shafts or scraping animal skins.

Evidence on the site suggests that it remained in use as a human settlement, on and off, until the iron age, from 800 to 500BC. Julius Caesar reported that the site of the capital was occupied by a Gaulish tribe called the Parisii in 53BC.

The Roman city of Lutece was established soon afterwards, beginning in what is now the fifth arrondissement, on the left bank of the Seine.
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« Reply #100 on: July 18, 2008, 08:37:19 am »









Ashley Washington
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    Re: 7,000 Year-Old Human Settlement Found In Paris, France
« Reply #2 on: June 27, 2008, 03:47:56 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Too bad there aren't more pictures yet!
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« Reply #101 on: March 19, 2009, 07:52:07 am »









                                  Sarkozy's daring design dreams for a new 'Grand Paris'
         





Susan Sachs
– Thu Mar 19, 2009
Paris

– Kings, emperors, generals, and presidents have all tinkered with the city.

It's been walled, razed, and excavated. In the zeal of modernization that seized planners in the 1970s, its skyline was pierced by a single 59-story skyscraper and its boundaries fixed in concrete by an eight-lane beltway.

Paris is once again on the drawing board. Commanded by President Nicolas Sarkozy to reimagine the capital as a "world class city," teams of internationally known architects have come up with 10 strategies for creating a metropolitan area known as Grand Paris – it's the first major redesign since the Napoleonic era.

Their ideas range from the prosaic to the fanciful. But they all say that Paris – its public transit system saturated, its periphery spoiled by ugly housing projects, and its suburbs an undefined sprawl of disconnected towns – does not work.

"It's slowly losing its vitality," says award-winning Paris architect Jean Nouvel. "What we laughingly call regional development is finished. If we want to maintain the prestige of Paris, we have to look after it."

The government hired the design teams after a competition last spring – a more optimistic time before the economic outlook in France started looking so grim. Even so, it was never entirely clear what would become of their proposals.

The political complications are formidable, given that the Paris region is made up some 400 separate local governments. A slew of master plans for urban development, big and small, already exist. And the last time anyone managed to redraw Paris on a grand scale was in the 1850s, when Emperor Louis Napoleon replaced its warren of slums with grand boulevards and perfectly aligned stone buildings.

But the opportunity to weigh in the future of an iconic city proved irresistible.

"It is fun – very expensive fun," says Richard Rogers, the British architect who also advises London and Barcelona on their blueprints for the future. "It's a fantastic thing that the French are doing."

The architectural teams, six of them French, were given the mission of envisioning the "post-Kyoto" metropolis. They were left to define the boundaries of this newly conceived Grand Paris as they saw fit, but it was to incorporate the best of sustainable design techniques, energy efficient structures, and a mix of housing for both rich and poor.

President Sarkozy is expected to give a hint of what he might do with all the plans when they go on public view at the national architecture museum next month. Summaries of the designs were presented last week, though, and the common themes are already clear.

All of the architects rejected the 1960s French solution to suburban sprawl of creating discrete new satellite cities. Instead, most proposed filling in the unused spaces of the metropolitan area – derelict land, underused public buildings, weed-filled tracts along railways and rooftops – to preserve the countryside and make the metropolis more compact.

"I don't know any other big city where the heart is so disconnected from periphery," says Mr. Rogers. "The city is cut in pieces." His team suggested starting by building parks alongside five disused suburban rail lines – an investment that he predicted would increase property values and generate economic development.

Most of the planners urged intense use of space within the limits of historic Paris. They talked of high-speed trams on top of the beltways, malls on top of subway stations, and gardens on the five square miles of rooftops in Paris. A new mixed-use neighborhood in the center of Paris could arise, they said, if only the neglected stretch of land between the Gare du Nord and Gare de l'Est train stations in central Paris were freed up for private development.
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« Reply #102 on: March 19, 2009, 07:53:10 am »









More lyrical suggestions came from Roland Castro, a Paris architect who once ran for president as the candidate of the Movement for a Practical Utopia. His team included a sociologist, a writer, and a philosopher. "We applied the philosopher's concept that in every man there is a poet, and the city in which he lives there should be mystery, secrets, and surprises."

Mr. Castro, known for his quixotic campaign in the 1990s to relocate government ministries to the suburbs, would like to smash the old Paris model of concentrating wealth and power in the center. His proposals for Grand Paris include a 250-acre central park surrounded by modern skyscrapers for La Corneuve, now a grim suburb of anonymous subsidized housing projects, and integrating river boats into the regional public transit system.

Paris architect Antoine Grumbach said every world-class metropolis, from London to Beijing, has an opening to the sea. His team proposed a Grand Paris stretching westward along the Seine River valley to the port of Le Havre, a linear but coherent whole that encompasses the stretches of factories, universities, farmland, and cities that already hug the river.

Six out of 10 people in France live in the Île-de-France, the administrative region that now includes the municipality of Paris. Mr. Grumbach likes to describe it as the design equivalent of a fried egg, with the suburbs sprawling in an unbounded mess from the compact yolk of the historic capital.

Commuter rail lines and roads radiate from the center. People may live in one suburb and work in another, but they all have to change trains in a jam packed station in central Paris. So, no grand urban plan will really carry the region into the future, the designers all said, unless it brings the heavily populated working-class suburbs out of their economic and geographic isolation.

"The riots brought the metropolitan crisis to even the people of Paris," said Christian de Portzamparc, another Paris architect, referring to the 2005 and 2007 unrest that started in the suburbs and spread to major cities. "There are places where the public authorities should step in, where value would be generated immediately," he added. "If you're going to take an all-out approach, you'll get results in 200 years."
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« Reply #103 on: April 17, 2009, 07:39:57 am »




               









                                          La Chanson, Still Alive in a Parisian Gem






By Ciara O'Rourke
TheNewYork Times
April 15, 2009
PARIS

| Maybe it’s the waiter thumbing his nose at the indoor smoking laws by taking a drag behind the bar, but Le Limonaire (18 cité Bergère; 45-23-33-33), a tiny bistro off Grands Boulevards in Paris, conjures days gone by unlike any other in a city awash with cafes.

A crowd spilling onto the cobblestone terrace reveals the discreet haunt toward 10 p.m., when a plucky roster of musicians takes the stage (Tuesdays through Sundays), singing a repertoire of French chansons. Even the contemporary numbers feel nostalgic, and on the best nights you’ll find a modern incarnation of Edith Piaf at the mic, silencing the room with pipes that might just rival the original Little Sparrow.

Once the music starts, you’re lucky to get a table — or a bite: the kitchen suspends service, if only because the waiters can’t navigate through the intimate room swollen with guests. Rubbing elbows with your neighbor is almost encouraged; the audience succumbs to a camaraderie the chanson encourages. Singalongs are frequent, raucous and sometimes poignant. It may, of course, be too many pichets of wine that warm hardened hearts; a robust selection is offered on miniature chalkboard menus line the room.

Not all is lost if you don’t speak French and can’t understand the lyrics — the impromptu chorus of a crowd is maybe even more engaging, the wine and nosh are affordable, and admission is free. The staff sends a chapeau around at the end of the night to thank the evening’s unpaid act — the price of a movie theater ticket is suggested, and that’s money probably better spent here.
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« Reply #104 on: April 26, 2009, 09:48:21 am »








                                                    Hidden Gardens of Paris









David Brabyn
for The New York Times

Parisians can dine at garden cafes like La Muscade at the Palais Royal.

       

ELAINE SCIOLINO
The New York Times
June 29, 2008

NEXT to the Palais de la Découverte, just off the Champs-Élysées, is a flight-of-fancy sculpture of the 19th-century poet Alfred de Musset daydreaming about his former lovers. As art goes, the expanse of white marble is pretty mediocre, and its sculptor, Alphonse de Moncel, little-remembered. For me, however, it is a crucial marker. To its right is a path with broken stone steps that lead down into one of my favorite places in Paris, a tiny stage-set called Jardin de la Vallée Suisse.

Paris, France Part of the Champs-Élysées’ gardens, this “Swiss Valley” was built from scratch in the late 19th century by the park designer Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand. It is a lovely illusion, where nothing is quite what it appears at first sight. The rocks that form the pond and waterfall are sculptured from cement; so is the “wooden” footbridge. But the space — 1.7 acres of semitamed wilderness in one of the most urban swaths of Paris — has lured me, over and over again. My only companions are the occasional dog walker and the police woman making her rounds.

On a park bench there, I am enveloped by evergreens, maples, bamboo, lilacs and ivy. There are lemon trees; a Mexican orange; a bush called a wavyleaf silktassel, with drooping flowers, that belongs in an Art Nouveau painting; and another whose leaves smell of caramel in the fall. A 100-year-old weeping beech shades a pond whose waterfall pushes away the noise of the streets above. The pond, fed by the Seine, can turn murky, but the slow-moving carp don’t seem to mind, nor does the otter that surfaces from time to time.

The Swiss Valley is one of the most unusual of Paris’s more than 400 gardens and parks, woods and squares. Much grander showcases include wooded spaces like the Bois de Vincennes on the east of the city and the Bois de Boulogne on the west, and celebrations of symmetry in the heart of Paris like the Tuileries and the Luxembourg.

But I prefer the squares and parks in quiet corners and out-of-the-way neighborhoods. Many are the legacy of former President Jacques Chirac. In the 18 years he served as mayor of Paris, he put his personal stamp on his city by painting its hidden corners green.

“He took some of the pathetic, shabby squares and gardens and transformed and adorned them,” said Claude Bureau, one of the city’s great garden historians who was chief gardener of the Jardin des Plantes for more than two decades. “He appreciated beauty — of women, of nature.”

Paris’s current mayor, Bertrand Delanoë, has taken over the task. In his seven years in the job, he has created 79 acres of what City Hall calls “new green spaces.” Just this month, he transformed the open space in front of City Hall into an “ephemeral garden,” a nearly 31,000-square-foot temporary installation of 6,000 plants and trees, and even a mini-lake.

Intimate, lightly trafficked and often quirky, the small gardens of Paris can be ideal places to rest and to read. The trick is to find them. You can consult “Paris: 100 Jardins Insolites” (“Paris: 100 Unusual Gardens”), a guide by Martine Dumond whose color photos make discovery for the non-French speaker a pleasure, or explore various Web sites like www.paris-walking-tours.com/parisgardens.html. Or you can simply wander on foot, confident that around the next corner there will be something new.

You’ll find spaces for listening to a concert or watching a puppet show (like the Parc de Bagatelle in the 16th Arrondissement); church gardens (like the one enclosing the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Seventh Arrondissement); gardens with vegetable patches (like the Jardin Catherine-Labouré in the Seventh Arrondissement); oriental gardens (like the one at Unesco headquarters in the Seventh Arrondissement that was a gift of the Japanese government). There are gardens with beehives, bird preserves, out-of-fashion roses, chessboards, playgrounds, menageries, panoramic views, even a rain forest and a farm. Green spaces adjoin cemeteries, embassies, movie theaters and hotels.
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