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Wood Density Key To Stradivarius' Sweet Sound - BIOGRAPHY

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Author Topic: Wood Density Key To Stradivarius' Sweet Sound - BIOGRAPHY  (Read 11519 times)
Bianca
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« on: July 02, 2008, 12:44:08 pm »



A Stradivarius violin known as "The Penny,"

is seen on display at Christie's Auction House
in New York March 27, 2008.

The 300-year-old Antonio Stradivari violin
named after its previous owner, the pianist
and violinist Barbara Penny, was auctioned
on April 4.

REUTERS/
Brendan McDermid









                                          Wood density holds key to Stradivarius sweet sound






By Ben Hirschler
Tue Jul 1, 2008
 
LONDON (Reuters) - Researchers using a medical scanner have worked out why a Stradivarius violin sounds so good -- it is because of the remarkably even density of the wood.
 
For the past 300 years, musicians and scientists have puzzled over the unparalleled quality of classical Cremonese violins made by Italian masters like Antonio Stradivari and Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesu.

Now a Dutch doctor and a violin maker from Arkansas think they have cracked the mystery after comparing five classical and eight modern violins in a computed tomography (CT) scanner normally used to examine patients.

Using an adaptation of a computer program developed to calculate lung densities in people with emphysema, they were able to analyze the physical properties of violins without risking damage to instruments worth millions of dollars.

They found no significant differences between the median densities of the modern and the antique violins but did discover far less variation between wood grains of early and late growth in the old ones.

Since differentials in wood density affect vibration and therefore sound quality, the discovery may well explain the superiority of the Cremonese violins, they reported in the online journal PLoS ONE on Wednesday.

So why is the maple and spruce wood in a Stradivarius so different?

Part of the reason may be that trees grow slightly differently today than in the past.

"Climate difference could explain part of it but treatment of the wood could be another explanation. A third answer could simply be the ageing of the wood over the past 300 years," Dr Berend Stoel of the Leiden University Medical Center told Reuters.

"There is no way of knowing from this data; we've just shown there are density differences."

Still, Stoel and U.S. violin maker Terry Borman think the research may help modern instrument makers seeking to replicate the work of the Italian masters.



Their paper is available at


 http://www.plosone.org/doi/pone.0002554
« Last Edit: July 02, 2008, 01:29:30 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #1 on: July 02, 2008, 12:48:12 pm »



STRADIVARI II

Palacio Real,
Madrid, Spain
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Bianca
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« Reply #2 on: July 02, 2008, 12:58:08 pm »

 



                       








               

                 Antonio Stradivari, by Edgar Bundy, 1893

                 a romanticized image of a craftsman-hero









                                                    S T R A D I V A R I U S

 
A Stradivarius is a stringed instrument built by members of the Stradivari family, particularly
Antonio Stradivari.

The bowed instruments are famous for the quality of their sound, which has defied attempts
to explain or reproduce.

The name "Stradivarius" has also become a superlative applied to designate excellence.

To be called "the Stradivari" of any field is to be deemed the finest there is.
« Last Edit: November 23, 2008, 09:08:22 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #3 on: July 02, 2008, 01:05:37 pm »



ANTONIO STRADIVARI









Antonio Stradivari

(1644 – December 18, 1737)





was an Italian luthier, a crafter of stringed instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars and harps.

Stradivari is generally considered the most significant artisan in this field.

The Latinized form of his surname, Stradivarius, as well as the colloquial, "Strad", is often used to
refer to his instruments.


Stradivari is believed to have been born in the year 1644, although his exact birth date is not docu-
mented. He was born in Italy to Alessandro Stradivari and Anna Moroni.

It is possible that in the years 1658 through 1664 he served as a pupil in workshops of Nicolň Amati, though there is much evidence to dispute this fact.

In 1680 Stradivari settled himself in the Piazza San Domenico, Cremona, and his fame as an instrument-maker was quickly established.

His originality began to show through his alterations of Amati's models. The arching was changed, the various degrees of thickness in the wood were more exactly determined, the formation of the scroll was altered, and the varnish was more highly coloured.

His instruments are recognized by a characteristic inscription in Latin:



Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis Faciebat Anno [date]

This was made by Antonio Stradivari of Cremona, in the year...


It is generally acknowledged that his finest instruments were manufactured from 1698 to 1725 (peaking around 1715), exceeding in quality to those manufactured between 1725 and 1730.

After 1730, some of the instruments are signed


                              "Sotto la Desciplina d'Antonio Stradivari F. in Cremona [date]"


and were probably made by his sons, Omobono and Francesco.



Apart from violins, Stradivari also made guitars, violas, cellos, and at least one harp —
more than 1,101 instruments in all, by current estimates. Approximately 650 of these instruments
survive today.


Antonio Stradivari died in Cremona, Italy on December 18, 1737 and was buried in the Basilica of
San Domenico, in Cremona. The church was demolished in 1868, During this time, the removal of
later pavement resulted in the discovery of the stone lid to the Stradivari family vault in the
Chapel of the Rosary.

It appears from contemporary accounts (Mandelli) that Antonio Stradivari's remains were unidentifiable.
« Last Edit: July 02, 2008, 01:13:00 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #4 on: July 02, 2008, 01:19:47 pm »





             









In 1660, Antonio set up shop on his own in Cremona, though his early violins are generally considered inferior to those of his "golden age", between 1698 and 1720. While his techniques have long been fertile soil for debate, still not fully understood by modern craftsmen and scientists, it is known for certain that the wood used included spruce for the harmonic top, willow for the internal parts and
maple for the back, strip and neck. This wood was treated with several types of minerals, including potassium borate (borax), sodium and potassium silicate, and vernice bianca, a varnish composed of Arabic gum, honey and egg white.

A Stradivarius made in the 1680s, or during Stradivari's Brescian period from 1690-1700, could be
worth several hundred thousand dollars or more on auction, at today's prices. Depending on condition, instruments made during Stradivari's "golden period" from 1700 to 1720 can be worth several million dollars.

Though relatively rarely sold, the highest publicised price paid was at public auction for The Hammer, made in 1707, selling for US $3,544,000 on May 16, 2006. Private sales of Stradivari instruments have exceeded this price.

It is not uncommon for violins to be labeled or branded "Stradivarius", as the name has been used
since by other manufacturers. However, it is generally believed that there are fewer than 700 genuine instruments extant, very few of which are unaccounted for.



The fame of Stradivari instruments is not a modern phenomenon and they appear in numerous works
of fiction:

The fictional detective Sherlock Holmes is described as having owned a Stradivarius, with detail given
to how he purchased the instrument for fifty-five English shillings in the story The Adventure of the Cardboard Box.

A famous, if perhaps apocryphal story about the Duport Stradivarius claims the instrument's visible dent was made by the boots of Emperor Napoléon I of France, who tried his hand
at playing it.



One aspect of Stradivari's approach is illustrated in the BBC TV series 'Lovejoy', in the episode
"Second Fiddle", which notes that, while one would expect the 'f'-holes on the top of a violin to
be symmetrical, Stradivari often made his slightly offset.

The show credits this to him being less of a perfectionist than tradition holds, but, if true, it more
likely demonstrates an aural perfectionism preferred over the visual aesthetic.



The reputation of the Stradivarius is such that its name is frequently invoked as a standard of excellence in other unrelated fields (such as ships and cars); for example, the Bath Iron Works'
unofficial motto is


                                    "A Bath boat is the Stradivarius of destroyers!"


In 1924, The Vincent Bach Corporation began releasing a line of trumpets which would later become known as Stradivarius Trumpets, in an attempt to capitalise on the Stradivari name.
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« Reply #5 on: July 02, 2008, 01:23:06 pm »



Berlin, Germany









These instruments are, of course, famous for the quality of their sound, and there have been many
attempts to explain and reproduce this quality, largely without success.

Over the centuries, numerous theories have been presented, and debunked, including an assertion that
the wood was salvaged from old cathedrals. Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, has proved this false.

A more modern theory attributes tree growth during a time of unusually low solar activity during the Maunder Minimum "Little Ice Age" from ca. 1645 to 1750. During this period, temperatures throughout Europe were much cooler causing stunting and slower tree growth with unusually dense wood. Further evidence for this "Little Ice Age theory" comes from a simple examination of the dense growth rings in the wood used in Stradivari's instruments.

Two researchers, Henri Grissino-Mayer, a University of Tennessee tree ring scientist and Lloyd Burckle, a Columbia University climatologist, published their conclusions supporting the theory on increased wood density
in the journal Dendrochronologia.

Yet another possible explanation is that the wood originated and was harvested from the forests of northern Croatia. This maple wood is known for its extreme density due to the slow growth from harsh Croatian winters. Croatian wood was a commodity traded by Venetian merchants of this era and is still used for crafting musical instruments by local luthiers to this day.

Some research points to wood preservatives being used in that day as contributing to the resonant qualities.

While the sound of Stradivari's instruments still has not been fully explained by modern research tools, devices such as the scanning laser vibrometer are aiding researchers in testing the theory that the careful shaping of belly and back plate, in order to "tune" their resonant frequencies, may be an important factor.

Glues and varnishes used by Stradivari have been analyzed extensively, and have also been attributed for the sound and quality of his instruments. There remains no consensus on the single most probable factor, and most likely, it is some combination of all, and something not yet recognized.


On July 2, 2008 it was reported that using a computed tomography scanner, a Dutch doctor and an Arkansas violin maker have found that the remarkably even density of the wood may hold the key to the intruments famous sound.
« Last Edit: July 02, 2008, 01:27:22 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #6 on: July 02, 2008, 01:47:14 pm »



Violinist So-Ock Kim performs
with a loaned Stradivarius









V I O L I N S





ex-Back 1666 Royal Academy of Music currently displayed as part of Royal Academy's York Gate Collection

Dubois 1667 Canimex Foundation on loan to Alexandre da Costa

Aranyi 1667 Francis Aranyi (collector) sold at Sotheby's London, 12 November 1986

ex-Captain Saville 1667 Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume;

Captain Saville (1901-1907) 

Amatese 1668  though listed in many reference books as one of Stradivari's earliest instruments,
the modern consensus is that it is not a Stradivari; it was sold Sotheby's New York 3 February
1982 as "an interesting violin."

Oistrakh 1671 David Oistrakh missing: stolen in 1996

Selličre 1672 Charles IV of Spain 

Spanish 1677 Finnish Cultural Foundation on loan to Elina Vähälä

Hellier 1679 Sir Samuel Hellier Smithsonian Institution

Paganini-Desaint 1680 Nippon Music Foundation  this violin along with the Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue violin of 1727, the Paganini-Mendelssohn viola 1731, and Paganini-Ladenburg cello of 1736, comprise a group of instruments referred to as the Paganini Quartet; on loan to Kikuei Ikeda of the Tokyo String Quartet

Fleming 1681   

Chanot-Chardon 1681 Timothy Baker;

Joshua Bell shaped like a guitar

Bucher 1683   

Cipriani Potter 1683   

Cobbett; ex-Holloway 1683  on loan to Sejong brokered by the Stradivari Society
 
ex-Croall 1684 WestLB
 
ex-Elphinstone 1684 Guarneri House
 
ex-Arma Senkrah 1685
 
ex-Castelbarco 1685
 
Goddard 1686 Miss Goddard; Antonio Fortunato

Ole Bull 1687 Ole Bull (1844);

Dr. Herbert Axelrod (1985-1997) donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1997 by Axelrod
Mercur-Avery 1687  on loan to Jonathan Carney, concertmaster of the Baltimore Symphony
Orchestra since 2002

Auer 1689  on loan to Vadim Gluzman brokered by the Stradivari Society

Arditi 1689 Dextra musica AS, Norway on loan to Elise Bĺtnes, concertmaster, Oslo Philharmonic
Baumgartner 1689 Canada Council for the Arts on loan to Judy Kang
 
Spanish I 1689 Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain  date range 1687-1689; part of a duo of violins (Spanish I and II) referred to as los Decorados, and los Palatinos; also collectively known as del Cuarteto Real (The Royal Quartet) when included with the Spanish Court viola (1696) and cello (1694).
 
Spanish II 1689 Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain [19] date range 1687-1689; part of a duo of violins (Spanish I and II) referred to as los Decorados, and los Palatinos; also collectively known as del Cuarteto Real (The Royal Quartet) when included with the Spanish Court viola (1696) and cello (1694).

Bingham 1690   

Bennett 1692 Winterthur-Versicherungen on loan to Hanna Weinmeister

Falmouth 1692  on loan to Leonidas Kavakos
 
Gould 1693 George Gould

Metropolitan Museum of Art bequeathed by Gould to the Metropolitan Museum in 1955

Harrison 1693 Richard Harrison; Henry Hottinger; Kyung-Wha Chung in the collection of the National Music Museum

Baillot-Pommerau 1694
   
Ruston 1694 Royal Academy of Music on loan to Clio Gould
 
Fetzer 1695   

1697 Edvin Marton Dima Bilan, together with Evgeni Plushenko, and Edvin Marton playing his Stradivarius, won the Eurovision Song Contest 2008
Cabriac 1698 
 
Baron Knoop 1698  one of eleven Stradivari violins associated with Baron Johann Knoop

Joachim 1698 Royal Academy of Music
 
Duc de Camposelice 1699
   
Lady Tennant; Lafont 1699 Charles Phillipe Lafont;

Marguerite Agaranthe Tennant on loan to Xiang Gao brokered by the Stradivari Society; sold at Christie's auction US$2.032 million, April 2005
 
Longuet 1699 
 
Countess Polignac 1699  on loan to Gil Shaham.

Castelbarco 1699 
 
Kustendyke 1699 Royal Academy of Music
 
Crespi 1699 Royal Academy of Music 

Cristiani 1700   

The Penny 1700 Barbara Penny 

Dragonetti 1700 Nippon Music Foundation
 
Jupiter 1700 Giovanni Battista Viotti 

Taft; ex-Emil Heermann 1700 Canada Council for the Arts on loan to Jessica Linnebach
 
Dushkin 1701  on loan to Dennis Kim, concertmaster, Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra

Markees 1701 Music Chamber on loan to Leung Kin-fung

Irish 1702 OKO Bank, Finland on loan to Réka Szilvay

Conte de Fontana; ex-Oistrach 1702 David Oistrakh (1953-1963); Riccardo Brengola; Pro Canale Foundation Oistrakh's first violin; on loan to Mariana Sirbu

Lukens; Edler Voicu 1702 A.W. Lukens; Jon Voicu; Romania Culture Ministry on loan to Alexandru Tomescu through 2012

King Maximilian Joseph 1702 
 
Lyall 1702 
 
Antonio Stradivari 1703 Bundesrepublik Deutschland on exhibit at Musikinstrumentenmuseum, Berlin

La Rouse Boughton 1703 Österreichische Nationalbank [27] on loan to Boris Kuschnir of the Kopelman Quartet

Lord Newlands 1702 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Toru Yasunaga
 
Allegretti 1703   

Alsager 1703 

Lady Harmsworth 1703 Paul Bartel on loan to Kristof Barati brokered by the Stradivari Society

Emiliani 1703 Anne-Sophie Mutter
 
Betts 1704 U.S. Library of Congress
 
Sleeping Beauty 1704 L-Bank Baden-Wurttemberg on loan to Isabelle Faust. One of the few Stradivari violins to have retained original neck.

ex-Marsick; ex-Oistrach 1705 David Oistrach acquired in trade by Oistrach for the 1702 Conte di Fontana

ex-Brüstlein 1707 Österreichische Nationalbank
 
La Cathédrale 1707   

Hammer 1707 Christian Hammer (collector) sold at Christie's New York on 16 May 2006 for a record US$3,544,000 (€2,765,080) after five minutes of bidding
 
Burstein; Bagshawe 1708 
 
Huggins 1708 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Sergey Khachatryan
 
Ruby 1708  on loan to Chen Xi brokered by the Stradivari Society

Strauss 1708  on loan to Chee-Yun brokered by the Stradivari Society

Berlin Hochschule 1709   

Hammerle; ex-Adler 1709 Österreichische Nationalbank [27] on loan to Werner Hink

Ernst 1709  on loan to Zsigmondy Dénes through 2003

Engleman 1709 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Lisa Batiashvili

Viotti; ex-Bruce 1709 Royal Academy of Music purchased in 2005 for GBŁ3.5 million

Marie Hall 1709 Giovanni Battista Viotti;

The Chi-Mei Collection named after the violinist, Marie Hall

ex-Kempner 1709  on loan to Soovin Kim

Camposelice 1710 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Kyoko Takezawa
 
Lord Dunn-Raven 1710 Anne-Sophie Mutter
 
ex-Roederer 1710  on loan to David Grimal.

ex-Vieuxtemps 1710  on loan to Samuel Magad, concertmaster, Chicago Symphony Orchestra
 
Earl of Plymouth; Kreisler 1711 Los Angeles Philharmonic [30] found in store room on the estate of the Earl of Plymouth along with The Messiah and Alard violins in 1925; purchased by Fritz Kreisler in 1928 and subsequently sold by him in 1946

Liegnitz 1711   

Le Brun 1712 Niccolň Paganini; Charles LeBrun; Otto Senn; sold at Sotheby's auction November 13, 2001
 
Karpilowsky 1712 Harry Solloway missing: stolen in 1953 from Solloway's residence in Los Angeles
 
Schreiber 1713
 
Antonio Stradivari 1713   

Boissier 1713 
 
Gibson; ex-Huberman 1713 Bronisław Huberman;

Joshua Bell stolen twice from Huberman

Lady Ley 1713 Stradivarius family now bought by Jue Yao - Chinese violinist

Wirt 1713   

Dolphin; Delfino 1714 Jascha Heifetz;

Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Akiko Suwanai

Soil 1714 Amédée Soil; Yehudi Menuhin; Itzhak Perlman 

ex-Berou; ex-Thibaud 1714
 
ex-Foulis 1714 
 
Le Maurien 1714  missing: stolen 2002
 
Leonora Jackson 1714
 
Sinsheimer; General Kyd; Perlman 1714 Itzhak Perlman

David L. Fulton 

Smith-Quersin 1714 Österreichische Nationalbank  on loan to Rainer Honeck

Alard-Baron Knoop 1715   

Baron Knoop; ex-Bevan 1715 
 
ex-Bazzini 1715 
 
Cremonese; ex-Harold, Joseph Joachim 1715 Municipality of Cremona
 
Joachim 1715 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Sayaka Shoji

Lipinski 1715  in private hands since 1962

ex-Marsick 1715  on loan to James Ehnes

Titian 1715 Jacob Lynam
 
Cessole 1716   

Berthier 1716
 
Booth 1716 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Shunsuke Sato; formerly loaned to Arabella Steinbacher; formerly loaned to Julia Fischer

Colossus 1716  missing: stolen 1998

Duranti 1716 Mariko Senju
 
Monasterio 1716  Cyrus Forough
 
Provigny 1716
 
Messiah-Salabue 1716 Ashmolean Museum Oxford on exhibit at the Oxford Ashmolean Museum

ex-Windsor-Weinstein; Fite 1716 Canada Council for the Arts on loan to Jean-Sébastien Roy

Baron Wittgenstein 1716  on loan to Mincio Mincev
 
Gariel 1717
 
ex-Wieniawski 1717
 
Kochanski 1717 Pierre Amoyal reported stolen in 1987; recovered in 1991

Sasserno 1717 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Viviane Hagner
 
Viotti; ex-Rosé 1718 Giovanni Battista Viotti;

Österreichische Nationalbank [27] on loan to Volkhard Steude
 
Firebird; ex-Saint Exupéry 1718 Salvatore Accardo name is taken from the colouration of the varnish and its brilliant sound.

Marquis de Riviere 1718 Daniel Majeske played by Majeske while concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1969-1993
 
San Lorenzo 1718 Georg Talbot on loan to David Garrett; incorrectly reported as damaged on 27 December 2007.
 
Lauterbach 1719 Johann Christoph Lauterbach; J.B. Vuillaume; Charles Philippe Lafont
 
Madrileńo 1720   

von Beckerath 1720 Michael Antonello
 
Antonius Stradivarius Cremonensis 1721  recovered in southern Germany in 2006
 
Lady Blunt 1721 Paolo Stradivari named after Lady Anne Blunt, daughter of Ada Lovelace,
granddaughter of Lord Byron.

Jean-Marie Leclair 1721 Jean-Marie Leclair; on loan to Guido Rimonda

Red Mendelssohn 1721 Mendelssohn Family;

Elizabeth Pitcairn inspiration for the 1998 film, The Red Violin

Artot 1722   

Jupiter; ex-Goding 1722 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Daishin Kashimoto; formerly Midori Goto

Laub-Petschnikoff 1722   

Jules Falk 1722 Viktoria Mullova 

Elman 1722 Chi Mei Museum
 
Cádiz 1722 Joseph Fuchs on loan to Jennifer Frautschi; named after the city of Cádiz, Spain.
 
Kiesewetter 1723 Clement and Karen Arrison[38] on loan to Philippe Quint brokered by the Stradivari

Society Left by Quint in taxi on April 21, 2008, and recovered the following day.

Earl Spencer 1723  on loan to Nicola Benedetti

Le Sarasate 1724 Musée de la Musique, Paris  bequeathed to the Conservatory by
Pablo de Sarasate

Brancaccio 1725 Destroyed in an allied air raid on Berlin. owned by Carl Flesch, until 1928 where
it was sold to Franz von Mendelssohn, banker and amateur violinist.

Chaconne 1725 Österreichische Nationalbank [27] on loan to Rainer Küchel

Leonardo da Vinci 1725 Da Vinci family

Wilhelmj 1725 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Baiba Skride; one of several Stradivari violins
with the sobriquet "Wilhelmj"
 
Greville; Kreisler; Adams 1726 Fritz Kreisler 

Barrere 1727  on loan to Janine Jansen brokered by the Stradivari Society

Davidoff-Morini 1727  missing: stolen in 1995;

ex-General Dupont 1727  on loan to Jennifer Koh

Holroyd 1727   

Kreutzer 1727 Maxim Vengerov one of four Stradivari violins with the sobriquet Kreutzer
(1701, 1720, 1731)

Hart; ex-Francescatti 1727 Salvatore Accardo
 
Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue 1727 Nippon Music Foundation this violin along with the Paganini-Desaint violin of 1680, the Paganini-Mendelssohn viola of 1731, and the Paganini-Ladenburg cello of 1736, comprise a group of instruments referred to as the Paganini Quartet; on loan to Martin Beaver of the Tokyo String Quartet

Halphen 1727 Angelika Prokopp Private Foundation on loan to Eckhard Seifert

Vesuvius 1727 Antonio Brosa

Remo Lauricella

Town of Cremona 

A. J. Fletcher; Red Cross Knight 1728 A. J. Fletcher Foundation on loan to Nicholas Kitchen of the Borromeo String Quartet; the instrument was made by Omobono Stradivarius

Artot-Alard 1728 Endre Balogh  a bench copy of this instrument was produced in 1996 by Gregg
Alf and Joseph Curtin, using modern materials and methods; Balogh performs on both the 1728
original and the replica.

Dragonetti; Milanollo 1728 Giovanni Battista Viotti on loan to Corey Cerovsek

Perkins 1728 Los Angeles Philharmonic named after Frederick Perkins, formerly owned by Luigi Boccherini

Benny 1729 Jack Benny;

Los Angeles Philharmonic bequeathed to the Los Angeles Philharmonic by Jack Benny

Solomon, ex-Lambert 1729 Murray Lambert;

Seymour Solomon sold at Christie's, New York for US$2,728,000 (€2,040,000)

Innes 1729  on loan to Eugen Sarbu; previously loaned to Wieniawski

Guarneri 1729 Canada Council for the Arts on loan to Yi-Ja Suzanne Hou in 2003

Lady Jeanne 1731 Donald Kahn Foundation on loan to Benjamin Schmid

Garcin 1731 Jules Garcin; Sidney Harth 

Royal Spanish 1730   

Heifetz-Piel 1731 Rudolph Piel;

Jascha Heifetz 

Duke of Alcantara 1732 an obscure Spanish nobleman described as an aide-de-camp of King Don Carlos; UCLA Genevieve Vedder donated the instrument to the University of California at Los Angeles' (UCLA) music department in the 1960s. In 1967, the instrument was on loan to David Margetts who left the Stradivarius on the roof of his car and drove off or claimed it was stolen from his vehicle. For 27 years the violin was considered missing until it was recovered from an amateur violinist. A settlement was made and the Stradivarius was returned to UCLA in 1995.

Herkules 1732 Eugčne Ysa˙e missing: stolen in 1908

Red Diamond 1732   

Tom Taylor 1732  previously loaned to Joshua Bell

Des Rosiers 1733 Angčle Dubeau
 
Huberman; Kreisler 1733 Bronisław Huberman;

Fritz Kreisler 

Khevenhüller 1733 Yehudi Menuhin
 
Rode 1733   

Ames 1734  missing: stolen in the 1960s

Baron Feilitzsch; Heermann 1734 Baron Feilitzsch;

Hugo Heerman

Gidon Kremer
 
Habeneck 1734 Royal Academy of Music
 
Herkules; Ysaye; ex-Szeryng; King David 1734 Eugčne Ysa˙e;

Charles Münch;

Henryk Szeryng;

State of Israel 

Lord Amherst of Hackney 1734 Fritz Kreisler
 
Lamoreux 1735  missing: stolen
 
SwisherSweets 1735 Raymond "Mox" Jahnke Private Owner

Muntz 1736 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Arabella Steinbacher
 
ex.Roussy 1736 Chisako Takashima

Comte d'Amaille 1737
   
Lord Norton 1737
 
Chant du Cygne; Swan Song 1737 Ivry Gitlis
« Last Edit: July 02, 2008, 02:40:10 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #7 on: July 02, 2008, 01:51:04 pm »












V I O L A






                                 There are thirteen known extant Stradivari Violas.






Tuscan-Medici 1690 Cosimo III de' Medici commissioned by Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany; currently on loan to the U.S. Library of Congress

Archinto 1696 Royal Academy of Music

Spanish Court 1696 Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain [19] collectively known as del Cuarteto Real (The Royal Quartet) when included with the violin duo, los Decorados (Spanish I and II, 1687-1689), and the Spanish Court cello of 1694.

Kux; Castelbarco 1714 Royal Academy of Music converted from viol to viola by Jean Baptiste Vuillaume

The Russian 1715 Russian State Collection 

Cassavetti 1727 U.S. Library of Congress
 
Paganini-Mendelssohn 1731 Nippon Music Foundation this viola along with the Paganini-Desaint violin
of 1680, the Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue violin of 1727, and the Paganini-Ladenburg cello of
1736, comprise a group of instruments referred to as the Paganini Quartet; on loan to Kazuhide
Isomura of the Tokyo String Quartet
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« Reply #8 on: July 02, 2008, 01:55:26 pm »











C E L L I





Celli




            Antonio Stradivari built between 70 and 80 cellos in his lifetime, of which 63 are extant.





Sobriquet Year Provenance Notes

ex-Du Pre; ex-Harrell 1673 Jacqueline du Pré

Lynn Harrell 

General Kyd; ex-Leo Stern 1684 Los Angeles Philharmonic the instrument was stolen in 2004 and later recovered.

Barjansky 1690 Julian Lloyd Webber
 
ex-Gendron; ex-Lord Speyer 1693 Kunststiftung NRW on loan to Maria Kliegel; previously loaned to Maurice Gendron (1958-1990)

Spanish Court 1694 Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain [19] collectively known as del Cuarteto Real (The Royal Quartet) when included with the violin duo, los Decorados (Spanish I and II 1687-1689), and the Spanish Court viola of 1696.

Bonjour 1696 Abel Bonjour

Canada Council for the Arts on loan to Soo Bae

Lord Aylesford 1696 Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Danjulo Ishizaka; previously loaned to Janos Starker (1950-1965)

Castelbarco 1697   

Servais 1701 National Museum of American History on loan to Anner Bylsma;

Paganini-Countess of Stanlein 1707 Bernard Greenhouse 

Markevitch; Delphino 1709 Royal Academy of Music 

Gore Booth; Baron Rothschild 1710 Rocco Filippini 

Duport 1711 Mstislav Rostropovich (1974-2007)
 
Mara 1711 Heinrich Schiff 

Davidov 1712 Karl Davidov

Jacqueline du Pré on loan to Yo-Yo Ma.

Batta 1714 J. P. Thibout

Alexander Batta; W.E. Hill & Sons; Baron Johann Knoop; Gregor Piatigorsky
 
de Vaux 1717  on loan to Adam Klocek.

Becker 1719   

Piatti 1720 Carlos Prieto 

Cristiani 1720   

Baudiot 1725 Gregor Piatigorsky 

Chevillard 1725 Museu da Música (Lisbon) 

Marquis de Corberon; ex-Loeb 1726 Royal Academy of Music 

De Munck; ex-Feuermann 1730 Emmanuel Feuermann

Aldo Parisot

Nippon Music Foundation on loan to Steven Isserlis

Pawle 1730 Chi Mei Museum
 
Braga 1731  played by Myung-Wha Chung

Paganini-Ladenburg 1736 Nippon Music Foundation; this cello along with the Paganini-Desaint violin of 1686, the Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue violin of 1727, and the Paganini-Mendelssohn viola of 1731, comprise a group of instruments referred to as the Paganini Quartet; on loan to Clive Greensmith of the Tokyo String Quartet
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« Reply #9 on: July 02, 2008, 01:57:51 pm »










G U I T A R S






There are two complete extant guitars by Stradivari, and a few fragments of others, including the
neck of a third guitar which is owned by the Conservatoire de Musique in Paris.

These guitars have ten (doubled) strings, which was typical of the era.






Hill 1688 Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University


 

Rawlins 1700 National Music Museum South Dakota
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« Reply #10 on: July 02, 2008, 01:59:45 pm »










H A R P





The only Stradivarius harp to survive today is the arpetta (little harp), owned by

San Pietro a Maiella Music Conservatory in Naples, Italy.

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« Reply #11 on: July 02, 2008, 02:01:58 pm »












M A N D O L I N S



                                  There are two known extant Stradivari mandolins.








The Cutler-Challen Choral Mandolino of 1680, is currently in the collection of the National Music
Museum at the University of South Dakota in Vermillion, South Dakota.

The other, dated ca. 1706, is owned by private collector Charles Beare of London.
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« Reply #12 on: January 24, 2009, 08:02:14 am »










                                          Secrets of Stradivari cracked



                             Anti- worm chemicals 'gave violins their unique sound'






 (ANSA)
- Rome,
January 23, 2009

- Researchers from the United States claim to have cracked the riddle of why Italian-made Stradivari and Guarneri violins have a distinctive sound.

Joseph Nagyvary, a biochemist at Texas A&M University, believes that wood-preserving chemicals are responsible for the 18th-century instruments' unique sound - explaining why subsequent generations of violin-makers have never been able to recreate the famous violins from natural wood.

The violin-makers would have used the potion to protect the wood from being eaten by worms, but it had a ''collateral effect'', according to Nagyvary.

''It influenced the mechanical and acoustic properties of the wood, conferring on the instruments a sound without equal,'' he said.

Nagyvary's team published the theory in Nature three years ago after a preliminary analysis of slivers of wood obtained from restorers working on the instruments.

But in new research published in the journal Public Library of Science, the team has succeeded in identifying the special chemical cocktail used on the instruments by burning the wood slivers and analysing the ashes.

Borax, fluorides, chromium and iron salts form the base of the wood-preserving mixture.

''Borax has a long history as a conserver - the ancient Egyptians used it for mummification,'' said Nagyvary, who has been working on his theory for over 30 years since learning to play the violin on an instrument once belonging to Albert Einstein.

The researchers believe the discovery could lead to changes in the practice of modern violinmakers.

Some 600 of the 1,000 violins thought to have been crafted by Antonio Stradivari still exist, each valued at around five million dollars.

Around 140 violins survive by Stradivari's rival, Bartolomeo Guarneri (del Gesu'), and are valued at the same amount. 
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