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Egyptian Maps

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Josie Linde
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« Reply #15 on: March 30, 2008, 11:13:57 pm »

Lower Nubia in Pre Dynastic and Old Kingdom Egypt

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Josie Linde
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« Reply #16 on: March 30, 2008, 11:15:17 pm »

Maps on Digital Egypt for Universities: background

Most of the larger maps on Digital Egypt for Universities are based on a series of maps published by 'The Egyptian Survey Authority'. The maps were produced between 1987-1995. The published scale of them is 1:50 000. For Digital Egypt they have been much reduced in scale and detail. Some other maps for which the series was not available (especially those from the Delta) are taken from different sources and are originally of different scale (1:250 000). They are therefore less detailed.

Digital Egypt for Universities tries to mark as many archaeological sites as possible. However, there are several problems. Numerous archaeological sites are not marked on any map and only described as being in a certain distance from a modern place. Other sites are marked on maps of old publications, but the landscape changed over the last years so much that it is often hard to locate these places on modern maps, especially when no excavations or surveys have recently been conducted in the area. Therefore, on the DEU maps, many sites have only been marked with a name as being close to a certain village or town without pinpointing the site with a dot or sign itself on the map. Other sites are placed on the map according to co-ordinates or the position marked on other maps. These examples are listed separately at the bottom of each map with the note: 'position not confirmed on the map'. The maps are kept deliberately as simple as possible. Areas with mixed vegetation (for example steppes or swamps) are shown as cultivation (green) or deserts (yellow), although such terrain falls between the two categories.

Place names are given in the Arabic form, given in the mentioned maps. Some names differ slightly from forms usually found in Egyptological publications. Ancient Greek names of sites are given in italics. The better known ancient Egyptian names are given in brackets under the modern name.

Symbols and colours

 red: modern settlement  green: cultivation, areas with any kind of vegetation
 violet: ancient site  blue: water
 yellow: desert   town with a bishop (Byzantine period)



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Copyright 2003 University College London. All rights reserved.

http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk//maps/background.html
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Josie Linde
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« Reply #17 on: March 30, 2008, 11:17:22 pm »

The Geology of Egypt
The three layers

A layer of limestone covers most of the surface of modern Egypt.

Beneath this lies a bed of sandstone, and this earlier sandstone is the surface rock in Nubia and southern Upper Egypt, as far north as the area between Edfu and Luxor.

The oldest ground of modern Egypt comprises outcrops of metamorphic and igneous rocks.

River and rock

The Nile River cuts its way north from Sudan; through the sandstone the Valley is narrow, with few fields either side in Lower Nubia and southern Upper Egypt, whereas the limestone Valley in Egypt between Luxor and the Fayum is broader, widening in Middle Egypt with a parallel river branch between Asyut and the Fayum. Between the Fayum and the Delta, the Valley is narrower again, before the river splits into separate branches, forming a great flat Delta between Cairo and the Mediterranean Sea.

http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk//geo/geology.html
« Last Edit: March 30, 2008, 11:18:21 pm by Josie Linde » Report Spam   Logged
Josie Linde
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« Reply #18 on: March 30, 2008, 11:20:03 pm »



The classification of rocks

Rocks are classified into three main groups, according to the conditions of their formation:

igneous (also called eruptive or magmatic rocks: the solidifed form of magma, the molten material beneath the surface or 'crust' of planet earth)
sedimentary rocks (products of decomposition deposited by water, ice or wind)
metamorphic rocks (result of transfromation of sedimentary or igneous rocks under high pressures and high temperatres)
The first two of these general groups can be subdivided further:

Group 1. igneous rocks are divided according to their position at formation:

plutonic (or intrusive) rocks - the magma solidified below the surface of the earth
volcanic (or extrusive) rocks - the magma poured out at a volcanic eruption, and solidified above ground
veinstones - the magma penetrated cracks in adjacent rocks, and solidified there
Group 2. sedimentary rocks are divided according to the material out of which they were formed:

clastic sediments - loose weathered particles such as gravel (broken stone) and sand: in conglomerate rocks, these loose particles are bound by clay, lime or quartz
chemical sediments - from materials dissolved in water
organic sediments - from accumulations of dead animals or plants
See illustrations of these in the page on stone.

 

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Josie Linde
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« Reply #19 on: March 30, 2008, 11:21:14 pm »

The harvest of the desert

At all periods the Egyptians made full use of their soft stones, the limestone and sandstone cliffs along the Valley, for building stone: in general, they used a relatively close source, and so the monuments from Abydos to Cairo are mainly of limestone, and those from Dendera south are mainly of sandstone. In addition, they quarried the harder rocks in the outcrops north of Cairo (quartzite), at the First Cataract (granite and granodiorite), and north of the Fayum (basalt).

The Saharan deserts to west and east of the Nile Valley in Egypt and Nubia offer a variety of other stones: well-used quarries include the calcite/travertine quarries at Hatnub, south-east of Amarna, and the quarries for sedimentary stones along the Wadi Hammamat, between Koptos and the Red Sea. The Roman Emperors set up more distant quarries, most famously at the source for imperial porphyry.

The desert also provided semi-precious stones such as amethyst, carnelian and jasper.

At several quarries, the ancient mining expeditions left inscriptions immortalising their success.

References

Arnold 1991
Bauer1974

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Copyright 2003 University College London. All rights reserved.

http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk//geo/geology.html
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