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Chronology of Space Exploration - From June 4, 780 BCE


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Bianca
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« on: June 25, 2008, 12:01:21 pm »









Chronology of Space Exploration





Copyright © 2007-2008 Ken Polsson

internet e-mail: kpolsson@islandnet.com

URL: http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/space/



This document is an attempt to bring various published sources together to present a timeline about

Space Exploration. This is a VERY early, quick timeline of the events involving outer space. The main

source is a "today in history" that I have had since the 1980s, with updates through the 1990s.


Depending on interest, I will be doing some proper research and adding detail.


References are numbered in [brackets], which are listed here. A number after the dot gives the page in the source.

Last updated: 2008 June 3.
« Last Edit: June 29, 2008, 10:14:27 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #1 on: June 25, 2008, 12:03:51 pm »









June 4, 780 B.C.
First total solar eclipse reliably recorded by Chinese. [1]

June 15, 763 B.C.
Assyrians record total solar eclipse event on clay tablet. [1]
 
March 19, 721 B.C.
First recorded lunar eclipse, seen in Babylon. [1]

April 22, 687 B.C.
Chinese record a meteor shower in Lyra. [1]

April 6, 648 B.C.
Earliest total solar eclipse; chronicled by Greeks. [1]

May 28, 585 B.C.
Thales Miletus predicts solar eclipse; Persian-Lydian battle ends. [1]

March 30, 239 B.C.
First recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

May 22, 12 B.C.
A daytime meteor shower, possibly Zeta Perseid observed in China. [1]

66
January 26
Fifth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

141
March 20
Sixth predicted perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

185
December 7
Emperor Lo-Yang, China sees supernova (MSH15-52?). [1]

218
May 17
Seventh recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

295
April 20
Eighth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]
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« Reply #2 on: June 25, 2008, 12:05:59 pm »








374
February 16
Ninth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

April 1
Halley's Comet approaches within 0.0884 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]
 
451
June 24
Tenth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

512
June 29
A monastic chronicler in Ireland records a solar eclipse. [5]

585
April 28
War between Lydia and Media ended by solar eclipse. [1]

607
March 13
Twelfth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

April 19
Comet 1P/607 H1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0898 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]

760
May 22
Fourteenth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

837
February 27
Fifteenth recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

April 10
Comet 1P/837 F1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0334 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth, the closest in 2000 years. [1]

1006
April 30
Brightest supernova in recorded history is observed. [1]

May 1
Supernova observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus. [1]

1054
July 4
Brightest known super-nova (Crab Nebula) starts shining (23 days). [1]

1056
April 22
Supernova Crab nebula last seen by the naked eye. [1]
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« Reply #3 on: June 25, 2008, 12:10:30 pm »










1145
April 22
19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

1178
June 18
Proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno. [1]

June 25
Five Canterbury monks report something exploding on Moon. [1]

1181
August 4
Supernova seen in Cassiopia. [1]

August 6
Supernova observed by Chinese and Japanese astronomers. [1]

1264
October 3
Comet said to predict the death of Pope Urban IV is last seen. [1]

1275
March 4
Chinese astronomers observe a total eclipse of the sun. [5]
 
1345
March 20
Saturn/Jupiter/Mars-conjunction; thought "cause of plague epidemic". [1]

1456
June 9
23rd recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

1497
March 9
Nicolaus Copernicus first recorded astronomical observation. [1]

1504
February 29
Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to frighten hostile Jamaican Indians. [1]

1514
April 26
Copernicus makes his first observations of Saturn. [1]

1572
November 6
Supernova is observed in the constellation known as Cassiopeia. [1]
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« Reply #4 on: June 25, 2008, 12:12:58 pm »









1145
April 22
19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

1178
June 18
Proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno. [1]

June 25
Five Canterbury monks report something exploding on Moon. [1]

1181
August 4
Supernova seen in Cassiopia. [1]
 
August 6
Supernova observed by Chinese and Japanese astronomers. [1]

1264
October 3
Comet said to predict the death of Pope Urban IV is last seen. [1]
 
1275
March 4
Chinese astronomers observe a total eclipse of the sun. [5]

1345
March 20
Saturn/Jupiter/Mars-conjunction; thought "cause of plague epidemic". [1]

1456
June 9
23rd recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]

1497
March 9
Nicolaus Copernicus first recorded astronomical observation. [1]

1504
February 29
Columbus uses a lunar eclipse to frighten hostile Jamaican Indians. [1]
 
1514
April 26
Copernicus makes his first observations of Saturn. [1]

1572
November 6
Supernova is observed in the constellation known as Cassiopeia. [1]
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« Reply #5 on: June 25, 2008, 12:16:04 pm »









1576
May 23
Tycho Brahe given Hveen Island to build Uraniborg Observatory. [1]

1579
August 8
Cornerstone is laid for Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg observatory. [1]

1604
October 9
Supernova 1604 - the most recent supernova to be observed in the Milky Way - is seen for the first time. [5] (October 8 [1])



1610
January 1
German astronomer Simon Marius first discovers the Jupiter moons, but does not officially report it, Galileo does on July 1 1610. [1]

January 7
Galileo discovers first three Jupiter satellites, Io, Europa and Ganymede. [1]

January 13
Galileo Galilei discovers Callisto, fourth satellite of Jupiter. [1]



1612
December 15
Simon Marius, is first to observe Andromeda galaxy through a telescope. [1]

December 28
Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune, although he mistakenly catalogues it as a fixed star. [5] (January 29, 1613 [1])



1625
June 8
Birth of Giovanni Domenico Cassini discovered four satellites of Saturn. [1]

1630
May 17
Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi, first to see two belts on Jupiter surface. [1]

1631
November 7
Pierre Gassendi observes transit of Mercury predicted by Kepler. [1]

December 6
First predicted transit of Venus (Kepler) is observed. [1]

1633
February 13
Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before Inquisition for professing belief that earth revolves around the Sun. [1]
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« Reply #6 on: June 25, 2008, 12:17:59 pm »










1638
June 25
A lunar eclipse becomes the first astronomical event recorded in US. [1]

1639
December 4
Jeremiah Horrocks makes the first observation of a transit of Venus. [5] (November 24 [1])
 
1642
August 13
Christiaan Huygens discovers Martian south polar cap. [1]

1655
March 25
Christiaan Huygens discovers Titan, Saturn's largest moon. [1] [5]
 
1661
May 3
Johannes Hevelius observes third transit of Mercury ever to be seen. [1]

1662
September 16
Flamsteed sees solar eclipse, first known astronomical observation. [1]

1671
October 25
Giovanni Cassini discovers Iapetus, satellite of Saturn. [1]

1672
December 23
Giovanni Cassini discovers Rhea, a satellite of Saturn. [1]

1675
June 22
Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II. [1]
 
1678
February 13
Tycho Brahe first sketches "Tychonic system" of solar system. [1]
 
1679
November 3
Great panic occurs in Europe over the close approach of a comet. [1]
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« Reply #7 on: June 25, 2008, 12:21:00 pm »









1682
May 1
Louis XIV and his court inaugurate Paris Observatory. [1]

1686
August 18
Cassini reports seeing a satellite orbiting Venus. [1]

1690
December 23
John Flamsteed observes Uranus without realizing it is undiscovered. [1]

1702
April 20
Comet C/1702 H1 approaches within 0.0437 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]

1715
April 29
John Flamsteed observes Uranus for 6th time. [1]
 
May 3
Edmund Halley observes total eclipse phenomenon "Baily's Beads". [1]

1743
February 8
Comet C/1743 C1 approaches within 0.0390 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]
 
1753
May 6
French King Louis XV observes transit of Mercury at Mendon Castle. [1]

1758
December 25
Halley's comet first sighted by Johann Georg Palitzsch during return. [1]

1759
March 13
27th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. [1]
 
1760
January 8
Comet C/1760 A1 (Great comet) approaches within 0.0682 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]
 
1774
January 11
Messier adds M51 (spiral galaxy in Canes Venatici) to his catalog. [1]

March 4
William Herschel becomes the first to sight the Orion Nebula. [1] [5]

1778
June 24
David Rittenhouse observes a total solar eclipse in Philadelphia. [1]
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« Reply #8 on: June 25, 2008, 12:22:46 pm »









1781
March 13
Sir William Herschel sees "comet" (really discovered Uranus). [1]

1783
May 4
Herschel reports seeing a red glow near lunar crater Aristarchus. [1]

1787
January 11
William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus. [1] [5]
 
August 19
W Herschel discovers Enceladus, a moon of Saturn. [1]

1789
August 28
Sir William Herschel discovers Saturn's moon Enceladus. [1]

September 17
William Herschel discovers Mimas, satellite of Saturn. [1]

1791
February 17
Messier catalogs M83 (spiral galaxy in Hydra). [1]
 
1799
June 18
Birth of William Lassell discoverer (satellites of Uranus and Neptune). [1]

1802
March 28
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers discovers 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man. [5]

1803
April 26
Meteorites fall in L'Aigle, France. [1]

1805
December 9
Comet 3D/1805 V1 (Biela) approaches within 0.0366 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]
 
1819
July 4
William Herschel makes last telescopic observation of 1819 comet. [1]
 
1825
December 6
President John Adams suggests establishment of a US observatory. [1]
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« Reply #9 on: June 25, 2008, 12:25:10 pm »









1826
February 28
M Biela, an Austrian officer, discovers Biela's Comet. [1]

1829
October 15
Birth of Asaph Hall discovered satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. [1]

1836
May 15
Francis Baily observes "Baily's Beads" during annular solar eclipse. [1]

1838
June 12
Hopkins Observatory, dedicated in Williamstown, Massachusetts [1]

1839
January 2
First photo of the Moon (French photographer Louis Daguerre). [1]
 
December 18
First celestial photograph (the moon) made in US, John Draper, New York City, New York. [1]

1840
March 23
Draper takes first successful photo of the Moon (daguerrotype). [1]
 
1842
August 31
US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress. [1]

1846
September 23
Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich d'Arrest find Neptune. [1]

October 10
Neptune's moon Triton discovered by William Lassell. [1]

1847
July 1
Amateur astronomer M Hencke discovers second asteroid Hebe. [1]
 
K L Hencke discovers asteroid #6 Hebe. [1]
July 10
Urbain J.J. Leverrier and John Couch Adams, codiscoverers of Neptune. [1]
 
October 1
Maria Mitchell discovers a non-naked-eye comet. [1]

1848
September 19
Bond (US) and Lassell (England) independently discover Hyperion, moon of Saturn. [1]
 
1849
December 18
William Bond obtains first photograph of Moon through a telescope. [1]
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« Reply #10 on: June 25, 2008, 12:27:03 pm »










1850
July 17
Harvard Observatory takes first photograph of a star (Vega). [1]
 
1851
July 28
Total solar eclipse captured on a daguerreotype photograph. [1]

July 29
A De Gasparis discovers asteroid #15 Eunomia. [1]

October 24
William Lassell discovers Ariel and Umbriel, satellites of Uranus. [1]

1852
June 24
J R Hind discovers asteroid #18 Melpomene. [1]

1853
April 29
Comet C/1853 G1 (Schweizer) approaches within 0.0839 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth. [1]
 
1854
June 10
Georg F.B. Reiman proposes that space is curved. [1]

July 22
J R Hind discovers asteroid #30 Urania. [1]

1857
March 25
Frederick Laggenheim takes first photo of a solar eclipse. [1]
 
June 27
H Goldschmidt discovers asteroid #45 Eugenia. [1]
 
December 16
Birth of Edward Emerson Barnard Tennesee, astronomer (Jupiter's 5th satellite). [1]
 
1858
June 2
Donati Comet first seen named after its discoverer. [1]

September 28
Donati's comet becomes the first to be photographed. [1]
 
1859
March 26
First sighting of Vulcan, a planet thought to orbit inside Mercury. [1]

September 1
RC Carrington and R Hodgson make first observation of solar flare. [1]

1861
June 28
Leipzig Observatory discovers short-period (6.2 years) Comet d'Arrest. [1]

1862
January 31
Telescope maker Alvin Clark discovers dwarf companion of Sirius. [1]
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« Reply #11 on: June 25, 2008, 12:29:02 pm »









1864
August 5
Spectrum of a comet observed for first time, by Giovanni Donati. [1]

1866
June 15
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #88 Thisbe. [1]

1867
July 7
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #92 Undina. [1]

1868
July 11
J C Watson discovers asteroid #100 Hekate. [1]

August 18
Pierre Janssan discovers helium in solar spectrum during eclipse. [1]

1869
May 1
A colt is reported killed by a meteorite near New Concord Ohio. [1]
 
1870
December 22
Jules Janssen flies in a balloon in order to study a solar eclipse. [1]

1871
July 23
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #114 Kassandra. [1]
 
December 12
Jules Janssen discovers dark lines in solar corona spectrum. [1]

1872
July 31
C H F Peters discovers asteroids #122 Gerda and #123 Brunhild. [1]
 
1873
June 13
J C Watson discovers asteroid #132 Aethra. [1]

1875
June 3
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #144 Vibilia and #145 Adeona. [1]

June 8
A Borrelly discovers asteroid #146 Lucina. [1]

July 10
L Schulhof discovers asteroid #147 Protogeneia. [1]

1876
July 12
Paul Henry discovers asteroid #164 Eva. [1]
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« Reply #12 on: June 25, 2008, 12:31:17 pm »









1877
August 11
Asaph Hall discovers Mars's moon Deimos. [1]

August 17
Asaph Hall discovers Mars' moon Phobos. [1]

1878
June 18
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #188 Menippe. [1]
 
1879
May 10
Meteor falls near Estherville IA. [1]

June 13
A Borrelly discovers asteroid #198 Ampella. [1]

July 9
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #199 Byblis. [1]

July 27
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #200 Dynamene. [1]

1882
July 4
Telegraph Hill Observatory opens in San Francisco. [1]
 
July 19
J Palisa discovers asteroid #226 Weringia. [1]

December 6
Atmosphere of Venus detected during transit. [1]

1884
June 27
J Palisa discovers asteroid #237 Coelestina. [1]

July 1
V Knorre discovers asteroid #238 Hypatia. [1]

1885
June 5
J Palisa discovers asteroid #248 Lameia. [1]

August 30
13,000 meteors seen in one hour near Andromeda. [1]

November 26
First meteor photograph. [1]

November 27
Earliest photograph of a meteor shower made. [1]

1886
June 28
C H F Peters discovers asteroid #259 Aletheia. [1]

1887
June 8
A Borrelly discovers asteroid #268 Adorea. [1]

1890
July 15
A. Charlois discovers asteroid #294 Felicia. [1]
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« Reply #13 on: June 25, 2008, 12:38:00 pm »









1900
May 28
Solar eclipse occurs. [1]

June 4
M Wolf and A Schwassmann discovers asteroid #456 Abnoba. [1]

December 17
First prize of 100,000 francs offered for communications with extraterrestrials. Martians excluded-considered too easy. [1]
 
December 20
Giacobini discovers a comet (will be first comet visited by spacecraft). [1]



1901
June 7
M Wolf discovers asteroid #471 Papagena. [1]

July 11
L Carnera discovers asteroid #472 Roma. [1]



1902
June 26
M Wolf and L Carnera discovers asteroid #488 Kreusa. [1]

June 30
S I Bailey discovers asteroid #504 Cora. [1]

July 9
L Carnera discovers asteroid #487 Venetia. [1]



1903
June 23
M Wolf discovers asteroid #512 Taurinensis. [1]



1904
July 7
A Charlois discovers asteroid #537 Pauly. [1]

July 18
P Gotz discovers asteroid #538 Friederike. [1]



1905
January 2
Elara, a satellite of Jupiter, discovered by Perrine. [1]

January 5
Charles Perrine announces discovery of Jupiter's 7th satellite, Elara. [1]

July 26
P Gotz discovers asteroid #568 Cheruskia. [1]

July 27
J Palisa discovers asteroid #569 Misa. [1]

July 30
M Wolf discovers asteroid #570 Kythera. [1]



1906
June 14
J H Metcalf discovers asteroid #600 Musa. [1]
 
1907
June 9
K Lohnert discovers asteroid #635 Vundtia. [1]

July 19
K Lohnert discovers asteroid #639 Latona. [1]



1908
January 27
Pasiphaë, a satellite of Jupiter, discovered by Melotte. [1]

June 24
A Kopff discovers asteroids #663 Gerlinde and #664 Judith. [1]

July 22
W Lorenz discovers asteroid #665 Sabine. [1]
 
July 23
A Kopff discovers asteroids #666 Desdemona and #667 Denise. [1]
 
July 27
A Kopff discovers asteroid #668 Dora. [1]
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« Reply #14 on: June 25, 2008, 12:43:01 pm »









1909
June 17
A Kopff discovers asteroid #682 Hagar. [1]

July 23
M Wolf discovers asteroid #683 Lanzia. [1]



1910
April 19
Halley's comet seen by naked eye first time this trip (Curacao). [1]

April 20
Halley's Comet passes 29th recorded perihelion at 87.9 million km. [1]
 
May 10
Halley's Comet closest approach to Earth in 1910 pass. [1]

May 18
Passage of Earth through tail of Halley's Comet causes near-panic. [1]

June 5
J Helffrich discovers asteroids #699 Hela and #700 Auravictrix. [1]
 
July 10
Johann Galle discoverer of Neptune with telescope, dies. [1]
 
July 12
J Helffrich discovers asteroid #701 Oriola. [1]

July 16
J Helffrich discovers asteroid #702 Alauda. [1]



1911
July 30
J Palisa discovers asteroid #716 Berkeley. [1]

1912
January 4
Smallest earth-moon distance this century, 356,375 km center-to-center. [1]

1914
June 24
G Neujmin discovers asteroid #789 Lena. [1]

June 29
G Neujmin discovers asteroid #791 Ani. [1]



1915
March 19
Pluto photographed for first time (although unknown at the time). [1]

1916
July 30
G Neujmin discovers asteroid #951 Gaspra. [1]

1917
July 22
M Wolf discovers asteroids #879 Ricarda, #880 Herba and #881 Athene. [1]

1918
June 4
M Wolf discovers asteroid #894 Erda. [1]

June 8
Nova Aquila, brightest nova since Kepler's nova of 1604, discovered. [1]

July 11
M Wolf discovers asteroid #895 Helio. [1]



1919
July 4
M Wolf discovers asteroid #914 Palisana. [1]
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