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the Saxons

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« Reply #15 on: May 02, 2007, 03:56:02 pm »

Results and Discussion

To represent the indigenous population of the British Isles, we have selected a site in central Ireland that has had no known history of contact with Anglo-Saxon or Viking invaders (Castlerea, see Figure 1). Given the demonstrated similarity of Celtic and Basque Y chromosomes [4 and 5] (p = 0.6, using haplogroups), these sample sets were combined [8 and 9] to provide a representation of the Y chromosomes of the indigenous population of the British Isles. Norwegian invaders were represented by two sites in western Norway (Bergen and Trondheim), Danes were represented by a general Danish collection, and Anglo-Saxons were represented by samples from their historical homeland in Schleswig-Holstein (North Germany). Linguistic and historical investigations seem to suggest that internal migrations were minor and have not unduly blurred the genetic landscape of North Germany and Denmark in the last 1500 years [10]. We also note that some historians view the Anglo-Saxons themselves as Germanic invaders from what is now North Germany/Denmark. Population differentiation between the continental and indigenous British Isles groups was assessed by using an analog of Fisher's exact test calculated by using haplogroup (hg) frequencies, as implemented by the Arlequin software package [11]. There was no significant difference between the Trondheim and Bergen samples or between the Danish and North German samples (p = 0.Cool, while the Norwegians were different from the other northern European samples (p < 0.05). We therefore clustered these source populations into two continental groups, referred to from now on as the Norway and German/Danish sample sets. Note that the similarity of the Danish and North German Y chromosomes means that, at the hg resolution, we cannot distinguish the genetic contributions to the British Isles of the two component groups. All continental populations, however, show significant differences from the indigenous group (p < 0.01), and Norway can be distinguished, though to a lesser degree, from the German/Danish sample (p < 0.05). Sampling in the British Isles was mainly undertaken to conform to a systematic 3 × 5 grid (Figure 1).



Figure 1. British Isles Sampling Locations MapThe location of the sampled small, urban areas and the 3 × 5 grid of collection points are shown. For each grid point, we selected the closest town within a 20-mile radius. Only towns with 5–20,000 inhabitants were chosen. Individuals were, with the exception of one location, then selected if their paternal grandfather's birthplace was within a 20-mile radius of the selected center. Midhurst samples were collected up to 40 miles from the respective grid point. When the grid point was at sea, the nearest point on the coast was used (Morpeth and Stonehaven). We also added additional points to cover important geographic regions not covered by the grid (Shetland, York, Norfolk, Haverfordwest, Llangefni, Chippenham, Cornwall, Channel Islands) and included two Irish samples, Castlerea and Rush (North of Dublin). The total number of points sampled in the British Isles was 25.


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« Reply #16 on: May 02, 2007, 03:57:25 pm »

We genotyped six Y-linked microsatellites (identifying haplotypes) [12] and 11 unique event polymorphisms (UEPs, identifying hgs, as defined in Figure 2) known to be polymorphic in Europe [13 and 14]. The most frequent haplogroups observed were those defined by M173, M170, and M17 mutations ( Table 1) (Hgs R1xR1a1, IxI1b2, and R1a1, referred to as hgs 1, 2, and 3 in [4]). For most analyses, we subdivided chromosomes within these groups by using one-step neighbor clusters of the haplotypes AMH, 2.47, and 3.65 [4], indicated as AMH+1, 2.47+1, and 3.65+1, respectively.



Figure 2. Y Chromosome GenealogyY chromosome genealogy of the UEPs typed is shown. Nomenclature is as suggested by the Y chromosome consortium [18]. For simplicity, only the last derived mutation is indicated in the text.
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« Reply #17 on: May 02, 2007, 03:58:13 pm »

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« Reply #18 on: May 02, 2007, 03:59:50 pm »

R1xR1a1, IxI1b2, and R1a1 have been indicated by subtracting AMH+1, 2.47+1, and 3.65+1, respectively. a, frequency of 0.005.



In Principal Component (PC) plots summarizing variation in Y chromosome frequencies (Figure 3), all the British populations (excluding Orkney and Shetland) skewed toward the right of axis one; this reflects the relatively high frequencies of AMH+1 in these populations. The Basques, the most extreme on this axis, clustered with samples from central Ireland (Castlerea) and Wales (Haverfordwest and Llangefni). It is interesting to note that Scottish mainland sites appear generally between English ones and these “indigenous” populations. The Norwegian and the German/Danish samples are separated on axis two.



Figure 3. Principal Components PlotA plot of the first and second principal components of the Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies of the populations shown in Table 1. The first two components of the Principal Components analysis of Y chromosome frequencies explain almost 60% of the total variation. The loadings with the greatest magnitude for the first axis are for AMH+1 and 3.65+1 (+0.152 and –0.241), while 2.47+1 and 3.65+1 have the greatest impact on the second axis (+0.128, −0.131).


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« Reply #19 on: May 02, 2007, 04:02:45 pm »

To aid interpretation of this plot, we simulated admixed populations by drawing varying proportions of individuals at random from each of the source populations and plotting them on PC plots that also included the source populations themselves (Figure 4). The simulated populations show that the position of a population on the first two axes provides a sensitive indicator of the degree of continental input into an indigenous background, with Norwegian input moving populations strictly along axis 1 and German/Danish input moving populations at an angle through both axes. Inspection of Figure 3, in light of these simulations, shows that Orkney and Shetland have significant Norwegian input and little to no German/Danish input, that the English and Scottish sites all have German/Danish influence, and that the Western Isles and Isle of Man have German/Danish influence, presumably due to English immigration. In addition to these relatively clear patterns, the PC plots also provide a suggestion of more subtle differences. For example, there is a group of populations that appears shifted to the left from the main angle of German/Danish influence, and this is consistent with some degree of Norwegian input. It is not surprising that the Western Isles and Isle of Man are in this group, but the inclusion of Penrith is of particular interest given the Scandinavian influence on dialect in this region [15]. Similarly, Rush appears to be shifted slightly toward the Norwegian pole on PC1, but there is no shift toward the German/Danish position. In addition, the mainland Scots are somewhat closer to the indigenous type than any English sets, except Cornwall. The sites with the highest degree of German/Danish input are York and Norfolk, followed by Southwell and Llanidloes. All of these except Llanidloes are historically in regions where the Danes are known to have had a significant presence. The peculiar position of Llanidloes might reflect recent migration in the past two centuries [1]. The remaining samples are closer to the indigenous group; for these populations, this finding suggests a lower demographic impact by North European populations. This can also be seen in the frequency of AMH+1, which is always above 33% in British populations but remains below 26% in the continental source populations; these data are consistent with the presence of some indigenous component in all British regions.



Figure 4. Principle Components Plot of Simulated PopulationsA Principle Components plot of simulated populations of N = 50 comprising, at admixtures of, respectively, 20%, 40%, and 60%, the indigenous British and the German/Danish and Norwegian sets. The circles group simulated populations with the same continental proportions. The arrows indicate the directions along which the simulated population tends to move according to the relative proportion of Continental input.
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« Reply #20 on: May 02, 2007, 04:04:11 pm »

Admixture proportions were also evaluated by using a likelihood approach implemented by the program Lea [16]. This quantitative analysis was consistent with the visual pattern shown by PC investigation, and it also provides significant evidence that there has not been complete population replacement anywhere in the British Isles (see Table S1 in the Supplemental Data available with this article online).

The apportionment of genetic variation was inferred with AMOVA, as implemented by the Arlequin package [11]. Comparison of the different small towns sampled indicates that the vast majority of the diversity present was within populations (96.35%), with only 3.65% across populations. The subdivision of the samples into Celtic (Ireland, Wales, and mainland Scotland) versus the rest of the populations showed a distribution across the two groups of 3.65% of the total variation; the exclusion of Llanidloes and Durness, which clearly show evidence of continental input, increased this value to 6.16% ( Figure 3 and Table S1). Considering the indigenous/nonindigenous clustering system (Castlerea, Haverfordwest, and Llangefni versus the rest), a value of 7.48% was calculated, one of the highest values obtained, among multiple alternative clustering systems (not shown). Thus, the indigenous/nonindigenous distinction appears to be the most important factor influencing geographic patterns of Y chromosome variation in the British Isles.

In summary, our results show that Norwegian invaders heavily influenced the northern area of the British Isles, but this group had limited impact through most of mainland Scotland (except the extreme north). Instead, mainland Scotland was more influenced by the German/Danish input. Despite their well-known activities in the Irish Sea, Norwegian input in adjoining areas is modest. Some is indicated in the Isle of Man, and a smaller amount is indicated in Ireland. Perhaps the most surprising conclusion is the limited continental input in southern England, which appears to be predominantly indigenous and, by some analyses, no more influenced by the continental invaders than is mainland Scotland (Figure 3 and Table S1). It is interesting to note that the areas in southern England were, historically, mostly occupied by the Anglo-Saxons, while the activities of the Danish Vikings were mainly in eastern England [1]. The results seem to suggest that in England the Danes had a greater demographic impact than the Anglo-Saxons. An alternative explanation would be that the invaders in the two areas were genetically different and that we cannot see this difference reflected in the current inhabitants of the Continental areas corresponding to Anglo-Saxon and Danish homelands. This would seem to be a difficult distinction to make, and it should be emphasized that our analyses assume that we have correctly identified the source populations. If, for example, the real continental invaders had a composition more similar to the indigenous British than our candidate sample set, our results would systematically underestimate the continental input. Similarly, any Continental input into our Castlerea sample would bias our inferences, but the very similar composition of the Basque and Castlerea samples suggests that this has been minimal. With regard to source populations, we note that Weale et al. [7] recently used Friesland as an Anglo-Saxon representative source population and suggested a substantial replacement of pre-Anglo-Saxon paternal lineages in central England. We therefore compared Frisians to our North German/Danish sample and found that the two sets are not significantly different from each other (p = 0.3, data not shown). When included in the PC analysis, the Frisians were more “Continental” than any of the British samples, although they were somewhat closer to the British ones than the North German/Denmark sample. For example, the part of mainland Britain that has the most Continental input is Central England, but even here the AMH+1 frequency, not below 44% (Southwell), is higher than the 35% observed in the Frisians. These results demonstrate that even with the choice of Frisians as a source for the Anglo-Saxons, there is a clear indication of a continuing indigenous component in the English paternal genetic makeup. We also note that our analysis includes representatives of the Danish Vikings, which were not available in the Weale et al. study. Consideration of Danish Viking input is important because their activities on the British eastern coast are well documented [1]. Our evaluation of the Danish and Anglo-Saxon source populations, however, shows that the contributions of these groups are unlikely to be distinguishable by using the resolution available in our analyses. Whatever level of replacement took place in England, it could have been due to “Anglo-Saxons,” Danes, or a combination of both groups.

Conclusions

The detailed sampling scheme used here identified other previously unknown regional patterns in the degree of continental input. For example, the Central-Eastern part of England experienced the most continental introgression. In addition, our inclusion of samples from Wales additional to those of Weale et al. [7] indicates that the transition between England and Wales is somewhat gradual, which was not visible in the samples analyzed in the Weale et al. study

Most studies in human evolution and genetic history have used samples from very few locations, often near major metropolitan areas. Here, we show that detailed samples from multiple small, urban areas with a geographically structured sampling design reveal patterns that could not be detected with typical sampling schemes. For example, analyses of multiple sets have confirmed higher continental input in central England and the northernmost samples (Durness, on the north coast of Scotland and the Scottish Isles) and a lower level of continental introgression in southern England and Lowland Scotland. In addition, multiple sample sets revealed heterogeneity in Wales.

Iberian, French, and Central-Northern Italian populations have been shown to have similar Y chromosome compositions, presumably reflecting their common heritage in the European Palaeolithic [14]; Wilson et al. [4] noted that AMH+1 haplotypes at high frequency are associated with the European Palaeolithic. Here, we note that another haplogroup (I1b2) is found almost exclusively in British populations that have experienced little or no continental genetic input ( Tables 1 and S1). Intriguingly, earlier studies have shown that it is present in the Iberian Peninsula at low frequencies (0%–5.4%) and in Sardinia at a significant percentage (35.1%) [9 and 14]. This group might be another constituent of the European Palaeolithic.

Finally, we note that forensic analyses based on the Y chromosome generally assume homogeneity of Y chromosome haplotypes throughout most of Europe [17]. Our fine-scale investigation of Y chromosome variation demonstrates appreciable frequency differences of Y chromosome haplotypes over relatively short geographic distances. Haplotype 12 13 11 16 25 11 (hg R1a1) (number of repeats, loci as follows: DYS388, 393, 392, 19, 390, 391) is present at frequencies around 5% in Shetland and Orkney, while it is almost completely absent from the other collections. Similarly, haplotype 14 13 11 14 22 10 (hg IxI1b2) was recorded at 6%–7% in the Central-East English samples, but it was absent from Irish, Welsh, and Scottish populations.

Experimental Procedures

Microsatellite and UEP Analysis


Y chromosome microsatellites DYS388, 393, 392, 19, 390, and 391 analysis was performed by following the protocols described [12]. UEP analysis was based on a PCR-RFLP approach. Protocols will be published elsewhere and are available from C.C. upon request. Briefly, the DNA region containing the chosen polymorphic nucleotides was PCR amplified and then screened by using appropriate restriction endonucleases. Digested PCR products were loaded on a 377 ABI automated sequencer updated to 96 lanes, and alleles were called according to fragment size.

Data Analysis

Principal Components analysis was performed by using the POPSTR software (H. Harpending, personal communication). The apportionment of genetic variation and Fisher's Exact Test analog were inferred by using the Arlequin package [11].

Supplemental Data

Supplemental Data including Table S1 are available at http://images.cellpress.com/supmat/supmatin.htm.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-48PV5SH-12&_coverDate=05%2F27%2F2003&_alid=339895807&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6243&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000049116&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=949111&md5=9edf5ce1c39d4139af4c01733282fa82
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« Reply #21 on: May 02, 2007, 04:08:42 pm »

Saxons in Britain

A number of Saxons, along with Angles, Jutes, Frisians and possibly Franks, invaded or migrated to the island of Great Britain (Britannia) around the time of the collapse of Roman authority in the west. Saxon raiders had been harassing the eastern and southern shores of Britannia, for centuries before - prompting the construction of a string of coastal forts called the litora Saxonica or Saxon Shore and many Saxons and other folk had been permitted to settle in these areas as farmers long before the end of Roman rule in Britannia. However, in 449 A.D., following a particularly devastating raid in the north from the Picts and their allies, the Romano-British administration invited two Jutish warlords - namely Hengist and Horsa - to occupy the island of Thanet in north Kent and act as mercenaries against the Picts at sea. After the Jutes had executed this mission and defeated the Picts, they returned with demands for more lands. When this was rejected they rose in revolt and provoked an insurrection amongst all the settled farming folk of Germanic stock with them.

Three separate Saxon Kingdoms emerged

1. The East Saxons: Settled around Colchester, creating the area of Essex.
2. The South Saxons: led by Aelle, created the area of Sussex
3. The West Saxons: led by Cerdic, ruled the Kingdom of Wessex from their capital Winchester.


During the period of Ecbert to Alfred, the kings of Wessex emerged as Bretwalda, unifying the country, with the shorter-lived Middlesex eventually became part of the kingdom of England in the face of Danish Viking invasions.
Historians are divided about what followed. Some argue that the takeover of lowland Great Britain by the Anglo-Saxons was peaceful. However, there is only one known account from a native Briton who lived at this time (Gildas) and his description is anything but:

"For the fire...spread from sea to sea, fed by the hands of our foes in the east, and did not cease, until, destroying the neighboring towns and lands, it reached the other side of the island, and dipped its red and savage tongue in the western ocean. In these assaults...all the columns were leveled with the ground by the frequent strokes of the battering-ram, all the husbandmen routed, together with their bishops, priests, and people, whilst the sword gleamed, and the flames crackled around them on every side. Lamentable to behold, in the midst of the streets lay the tops of lofty towers, tumbled to the ground, stones of high walls, holy altars, fragments of human bodies, covered with livid clots of coagulated blood, looking as if they had been squeezed together in a press; and with no chance of being buried, save in the ruins of the houses, or in the ravening bellies of wild beasts and birds; with reverence be it spoken for their blessed souls, if, indeed, there were many found who were carried, at that time, into the high heaven by the holy angels...Some, therefore, of the miserable remnant, being taken in the mountains, were murdered in great numbers; others, constrained by famine, came and yielded themselves to be slaves for ever to their foes, running the risk of being instantly slain, which truly was the greatest favour that could be offered them: some others passed beyond the seas with loud lamentations instead of the voice of exhortation...Others, committing the safeguard of their lives, which were in continual jeopardy, to the mountains, precipices, thickly wooded forests, and to the rocks of the seas (albeit with trembling hearts), remained still in their country."

Wars between the native Romano-Britons and the invading Jutes, Saxons and Angles continued for over 400 years. The Britons of England either fled westwards or northwards or were progressively immersed into the new English culture, as the territory that they controlled gradually shrunk in size to contain only Wales, Cornwall, north-westernmost England (Cumbria), and Strathclyde. Some fled over the sea to Brittany.

Collectively the Germanic settlers of Great Britain, mostly Saxons, Angles and Jutes, came to be called the Anglo-Saxons. Both Old English and modern Low Saxon are derived from Old Saxon.
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« Reply #22 on: May 02, 2007, 04:09:48 pm »

Saxons in medieval Southeastern Europe

In the Middle Ages, groups of Saxon ore miners (called саси, sasi in the South Slavic languages) settled in ore-rich regions of Southeastern Europe. In the 13th-14th century, Saxons from the Upper Harz and Westphalia settled in and around Chiprovtsi in modern northwestern Bulgaria (then in the Second Bulgarian Empire) to extract ore in the western Balkan Mountains, receiving royal privileges from Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman.[1] It is thought that these miners established Roman Catholicism in this part of the Balkans before being completely Bulgarianized (by marrying Bulgarian women) and merging with the local population.[2] Along with spreading Roman Catholicism, the Saxons also enriched the local vocabulary with Germanic words and introduced a number of mining techniques and metal-working instruments to Bulgaria.[3] Ethnic subgroups that are thought to be partial descendants of these Saxons are the Banat Bulgarians and the Krashovani.

Saxons also mined ore in the Osogovo and Belasica mountains (between Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia),[4] as well as around Samokov[5] in Rila and various parts of the Rhodopes[6][7] and around Etropole[8] (all in Bulgaria), but were assimilated without establishing Catholicism there. The Saxons miners in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina—active in Brskovo, Rudnik, Olovo, Novo Brdo and other places—also left a significant trace in the mining and metal-working history of the South Slavs.[9]

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« Reply #23 on: May 02, 2007, 04:13:51 pm »

Saxons in the Republic of Macedonia

Saxons (in Macedonian Sasi) have settled in the north-east parts of Macedonia in 13 Cent., in the area around present towns of Kriva Palanka, Kratovo, Kočani and Štip. They came as a profesional miners and have founded many settlements. The Saxons in Macedonia were incorporated into the Macedonian nation, during the last 600 years and still many people from north east of Macedonia posses nordic german anthropological characteristics. Macedonians from north easter Macedonia speak the Macedonian Language, but remained very few specific german words in their dialect like tas (german e. Tasse), tute (german e. Tüte), lamba (german e. Lampe), german-ec (instead of slavic word nemec) and some german words that might be adopted latter on like šnajder, štof, šuster etc. with same pronouncing and meaning like in the German language. The Saxons left behind them toponims in this part of Macedonia with german etymology like:

1. Village German (Rankovce and Kriva Palanka Municipality);
2. Village and Mine Complex Sasa (Saxons);
3. Village Luke originates from German word Luke (Kriva Palanka Municipality);
4. Village Šlegovo (Schlegovo) originates from German word Schlagen (Kratovo Municipality);
5. Village Stalkovica (Stahlkovica) originates from German word Stahl (Municipality Kratovo) ;
6. Mountain Osogovo (which belongs to Municipalities of Kriva Palanka and Kočani, as well as Bulgaria);according to the most famous legend, the name of Mountain Osogovo originates from the old Ferman words "osso" (god) and "gov" (place) which means "a divine place" etc. There is a simmilar toponym Osogna, a village in Switzerland.

The historical documents testify that Macedonian town of Kratovo was found by Saxon (Sasi) miners in year 1282. In that time, Kratovo became one of the biggest towns and a major mining centre in Macedonia for a gold and silver. Saxons shortly after their arrival in Macedonia adopted slavic macedonian language as all the schools in Kratovo in 14 cent. were in this language, including the famous Medieval Transcription Kratovo School.
The Code of Serbian Czar Stefan Dušan from 14 Cent. mentions Sasi (Saxons) as an ethnic group in his empire.
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« Reply #24 on: May 02, 2007, 04:15:08 pm »

Change of use of the name

Following the downfall of Henry the Lion and the subsequent split of the Saxon tribal duchy into several territories, the name of the Saxon duchy was transferred to the lands of the Ascanian family. This led to the differentiation of Lower Saxony, lands settled by the Saxon tribe, and Upper Saxony as the duchy (finally a kingdom). When the Upper was dropped from Upper Saxony, a different region had acquired the Saxon name, ultimately replacing the original meaning.


Modern remnants of the Saxon name

The Finns have changed their meaning over the centuries to denote the whole country of Germany (Saksa and Saksamaa respectively) and the Germans (saksalaiset and sakslased, respectively) now.

The label "Saxons" (in Romanian 'Saşi') was also applied to German settlers from Saxony who migrated during the 13th century to south-eastern Transylvania in present-day Romania.

In the Celtic languages, the word for the English nationality is derived from Saxon. The most prominent example, often used in English, is the Gŕidhlig loanword Sassenach (Saxon), often used disparagingly in Scottish English/Scots. England, in Gŕidhlig, is Sasainn (Saxony). Other examples are the Welsh Saesneg (the English language), Irish Sasana (England), Breton Saozneg (the English language), and Cornish Sowson (English people) and Sowsnek (English language), as in the famous My ny vynnav kows Sowsnek! (I will not speak English!).

During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his being from Saxony; in particular, the Venetians greeted the 1709 performance of his opera Agrippina with the cry Viva il caro Sassone, "Long live the beloved Saxon!"

The word also survives as the surnames Saß/Sass and Sachs.
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