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the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Original)

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Carolyn Silver
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« Reply #45 on: July 28, 2008, 10:19:49 pm »

ParaNormalIAm

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   posted 02-03-2006 03:05 PM                       
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You know Kim, one more thing comes to mind from past research into this.

How much time did it take for this event to happen?

A geological minute could take atleast a million years..

Now I'm not being skeptical because this does make alot of sence to me.
It sounds to me like we are thinking that a more sudden event claimed this continent.

I can beleive that what was left of the continent may have sank after bits and peices of it were slowly eroded. The final cataclysm may have be caused in the event you were reffering to in the form of a mega thrust that sank it.

Now the only hole I want to shoot in to this idea,
(and fill later) is the effects on the shore lines of the surrounding continents. This kind of event would have caused super sized tsunamis.
Evidence of this would have surely surfaced all over the eastern seaboard and left permanent scars if you will, all over the place.
I'm not saying that the MAR isn't a likely place for Atlantis. I am suggesting that it didn't happen with one singal event.

P.S. I would love to have Atlantis surface in this area because other theories about the migration of man would surely be open to further research upon this discovery...

Regaurds.

[ 02-03-2006, 03:11 PM: Message edited by: ParaNormalIAm ]

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« Reply #46 on: July 28, 2008, 10:20:11 pm »

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   posted 02-05-2006 02:43 AM                       
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It most likely was not a single event that sunk an island in the Atlantic. People are found of bringing up Surtsey, an island spat up by the Atlantic in a very short time through volcanic activity back in the early 1930's, but that island was tiny, nothing compared to Atlantis or evrn one of the Azores.

Even then, say that you did lower the ocean levels some three hundred feet (the figure given for the depth of the ocean levels during the Ice Age). That still would not give you the Atlantis that Plato spoke of, only a little more of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge would be visible, and that's it. It would not give you all the cities, let alone all the mountains and streams.
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« Reply #47 on: July 28, 2008, 10:21:40 pm »

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   posted 02-05-2006 03:25 AM                       
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Nice research, Carolyn, I put Atl at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge myself.

Para, actually Cayce mentions three separate cataclysms:

50,000 bc
28,000 bc
9,000 bc

I don't know how the geology of the Azores coincides with these events, but, one geologist, Christian O'Brien, has mapped a landmass about the size of Spain now underwater there. I guess they can carbon date volcanic ash, but nobody has ever done it there before.

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« Reply #48 on: July 28, 2008, 10:22:31 pm »

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   posted 02-05-2006 03:39 AM                       
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FOUNTAINS OF THE DEEP



THE FLOOD AND THE HYDROPLATE THEORY

Problems with Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics Definition - original theory 6-8 plates, now over 100. Each plate moving centimeters per year on a plume of convected rock from below.

1. Each plate about 30 miles thick.

2. Plates subduct or dive below other causing volcanism, earthquakes and mountain ranges. I.e. "The Ring of Fire"

3. Some plates slide along others causing fault areas and earthquakes. Ie the San Andreas fault.

1. Mid Ocean Ridge

46,000 mile long mountain ridge under the ocean that circles the globe like a seam of a baseball and intersects in a Y under the Indian Ocean. Composed of Basalt.

Said to be the uplift zone where the magma from the convection currents erupts and push the continents apart. (Seafloor spreading)

Called the "fracture zone"

Not all fracture zones are parallel, some actually overlap and others intersect. Some overlapping areas are over 10 miles long and apparently not spreading.

2. Is subduction or overthrusting possible?

Plates 30 miles thick composed of primarily granite.

Angle of incline q (30o)

Compressive force sc (1.3 x 109 dynes / cm2)

Length L (350 km)

Thickness t (80 km)

Density of plate p1 (3.2 gm/cm3)

Density of rock plate is pushed though is p2 (3.5 gm/cm3)

Solid to Solid friction at depth h is m. (0.6)

Gravity is g (980 cm/sec2)

It is assumed that the compressive force sc is at the same angle q

and that the compressive force does not exceed the compressive strength of the rock.

Also we will assume that the drag force F = 0

(Net Thrust)+(Body Forces) > (Friction on top and bottom surfaces)

(sct-F)+g(p2-p1)Lt sin q > (p1g(h/2)Lm)+(p1g(h/2)+p2g t cos q) Lm

0.024 + 0.094 > (4.375 + 1.894) .06

0.118 > 3.7614

SUBDUTION CANNOT OCCUR!

Overthrusting has the same delimma. If a slab of rock is over 4.9km the compressive strength to push it is greater than the compressive strength of the rock and the rock will crumble.

3. Ocean trenches. Caused by subduction of plates. NOT!

Seismic reflection profiles of trenches show almost no distortion of sedimentary layers in the trenches. If they were subducting the top layers of sediment would be scraped off.

4. Seamounts and Tablemounts

Undersea structures show a sea level that was 3 - 6000 ft. below today sea level.

5. Earthquakes

Much is yet to be known about earthquakes.

Precursors 1. Ground swelling. 2. Water table level changes

According to plate tectonics earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.

But many quakes occur far from boundaries and many occur far deeper than the subduction depth.

If two plates were rubbing along each other for centuries then the friction would cause massive heating. Geothermal drilling has not borne that out.

6. Magnetic variations of the seafloor.

1960's studies showed "magnetic reversals" on the mid ocean ridges that mirrored each other on each side.

"Magnetic reversals" are in truth magnetic intensity variances. Many of the intensity bands are perpendicular to the ridges.

7. Submarine canyons

Several hundred V shaped submarine canyons are on the ocean at the mouths of major rivers that exceed both the depth and length of the Grand Canyon.

Underwater erosion cannot produce the force to erode these canyons 15,000 ft below the surface.

8. Coal and Oil deposits at the South Pole

Fossilized tree trunks 24 ft. long and 2 ft. thick.

30 layers of coal deposits 3-4 ft. thick.

According to plate tectonics the South Pole has always been inside the south arctic circle.

9. Glaciers and Ice Ages

Glaciers and snow reflect the sun's radiation causing more cold, more snow and more glaciers. Conversely, as glaciers melt more land absorbs the sun's radiation and thus melts more snow etc.

10. Frozen Mammoths

Thousands of frozen carcasses of mammoths, some rhinoceros and musk ox have been found quick-frozen in the northern arctic latitudes.

Temperatures of at least -150o to freeze and leave stomach contents undisturbed. Carcasses show signs of struggling against being inundated with mud and water. Also could large herds of such animals live in the arctic today?

11. Major Mountain ranges and Overthrusts

See subduction point above. Cannot be formed by.

Also many show signs of folding of rock. Can hard rock be folded even with long slow compressive force? No, the rock would crumble unless it was wet when folded and hardened chemically later.

12. Volcanoes and Lava

Magma is commonly about 1800o F and liquid.

Only the outer core, which lies 1800 - 3200 miles below the surface, is liquid.

(This also presents a problem in plate tectonics, as to where are the belts)

The Magma chambers are about 60 miles below the earth. How did they get there?

At depths of 4-5 miles the pressure in the rock would close off the cracks. And if the magma rose through the cooler rock it would solidify and close off the crack.

Heat diffuses, so what concentrated heat source caused:

1. Columbia Plateau 50,000 mi2 avg. 2 mile deep.

2. Deccan Plateau 200,000 mi2 avg. 3/4 mile deep.

3. Ontong-Java Plateau on ocean floor is 25 times more extensive that the Deccan plateau.

13. Geothermal heat

Two of the deepest holes are at Russia's Kola Peninsula and Germany's northeastern Bavaria. The holes are 7.5 and 5.6 miles respectively. (Neither hole penetrated to the underlying basalt.)

What they found:

1. Hot flowing mineralized water.

2. Crushed granite

3. Salt water cracks (twice as salty as the ocean)

4. A greater than expected rise in temperature with depth.

The variance in heating due to depth is over 600% in different areas.

Complex mathematical models of solutions to spherical heat conduction are hopelessly out of sync with the variations actually found.

14. Strata

1. The strata are much too uniform in their hardness and cementing.

2. There is too much CaCO3 or limestone based on present processes even going back billions of years.

10 to 15% of the sedimentary rock on the continents are limestone.

Under the Bahamas the limestone is 3 miles thick.

The oceans are full of dissolved limestone.

Where did all the calcium and carbon come from?

15. Metamorphic rock

Formed from intense pressure, heat and flowing water. The pressure and heat would be equivalent to a 23-mile high mountain. Raising rock 23 miles to be exposed at the surface is quite a feat. Also, the flowing water is quite a trick, as water will not seep deeper than 5 miles.

A huge enigma.

16. Plateaus

Relatively flat regions that are uplifted at min. 500 ft above the surrounding terrain.

Continents are granite floating on basalt.

What mechanism could cause large areas to rise up to a mile in the air?

1. Colorado Plateau

Convection currents in the solid rock 40 to 50 km below are presumed to have carried approximately 2,500,000 cubic miles of lighter granitic rock from somewhere to product the uplift and down growth. (M discontinuity or Moho is 6 miles deeper)

2. Tibetan Plateau.

750,000 sq. mi. uplifted avg. 3 miles. With the Himalayan range uplifted an avg. of 5 miles. This took about 25,000,000 cubic miles of material.

Where was the area of subsidence where all this rock was moved?

17. Salt Domes

In many areas salt deposits are buried deep below the earth. 100,000 sq. mi. and a mile thick.

Any process going on today cannot explain large deposits such as this.

18 Fossil graveyards

Fossils form rarely today because they require rapid burying of the plant or animal so they do not decay.

Huge reefs of fossil exist today with billions of fossils in them cemented in an enormous amount of sediments.

Evaluating Theories

1. Process.

Ability of a theory to explain many diverse observations strengthens its validity.

2. Parsimony

The infrequent use of assumptions. If many new assumptions are constantly being added to explain new observations the theory is weakened.

3. Prediction

Predicting unusual conditions or results if one looks in the right place, if it follows the first two criteria above, then can test a theory.

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« Reply #49 on: July 28, 2008, 10:23:10 pm »

Talya

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   posted 02-05-2006 03:41 AM                       
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HYDROPLATE THEORY

Assumptions:

1. Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas were joined by rock across a

much narrower space than occupied by the Atlantic today.

2. A large amount of water, with about twice the mineral content of the

ocean was trapped in interconnected chambers that averaged about 5/8 mile thick and was about 10 miles below the earth. This was at the Moho level. This is about 1.5 million cubic miles of water.

3. The pressure of the water in the chambers was increasing. The mechanism of pressure is unimportant.

4. No canopy existed or was unimportant in the process.

The Four Phases of the Hydroplate Theory

Phase 1: The Rupture Phase

1. Increasing pressure in the subterranean water causes the crust to "balloon" out, stretching critical weak points.

2. The rock shell reaches its breaking point in what is now the mid-Atlantic, but what was then a layer of thinner continent that spanned the Americas and Europe and Africa.

3. A microscopic crack forms and quickly spreads as stress propagation’s cause the crack to spread at about 2 miles per second (nearly the speed of sound in rock) and follows the path of least resistance in a circle around the earth, meeting in a Y in the Indian Ocean about 2 hours later.

4. The "Fountains of the Deep" roar out of the ten mile deep slit in the crust at supersonic speeds, into and above the atmosphere. Some water fragmented into rain droplets and rained on the earth in torrents never seen again. Other water jets above the atmosphere and freezes falling back as frozen ice and mud.



Phase 2: The Flood Phase

1. The force of the water erodes the continental shelf and underlying basalt causing huge tides of muddy sludge, quickly burying millions of plants and animals in huge reefs or shoals.

2. The waters, losing pressure, still surge out the slit for days, inundating the earth and covering up the mountains. The sediments are nearly equal in volume as the water at this time and "liquification" occurs causing a sorting out of the dead animals in layers according to size and mass leaving vast layers we see today.

3. The temperature of the water gushing out, due to the kinetic energy from the compression of the weight of the continents, attains a temperature of about 1000 F. This hot water, less dense than the colder water, rises to the top and evaporates, leaving its heavy mineral content behind. The addition of these minerals supersaturates the water below and the minerals settle out in a pasty layer of salts below several layers of heavier sediment. This formed the huge salt layers and domes today by pluming.

4. As the pressure decreased dissolved CO2 (20% of volcanic gas is CO2, 70% is water) bubbles out combining with Ca ions (about 35% of the eroded sediments was Basalt of which 6% is Ca) precipitating vast sheets of CaCO3 or limestone. Limestone deposits hold more C and Ca than today's atmosphere, oceans, coal and oil deposits, and living matter combined. The purity of most of the deposits today show they were formed by precipitation not formed by myriad of small shelled animals dying over eons and drifting down to be compacted and cemented together.

5. Most vegetation is uprooted and floated to regions where it accumulated in vast quantities. Later during the continental drift phase this vegetation is rapidly covered and heated and turned to coal and oil.

Phase 3: The Continental Drift Phase

1. Rock is elastic when placed under high pressure and can undergo a "phase change" where the crystalline structure "compacts" together and occupies a smaller volume. Conversely when the pressure is released, the "phase change" acts in reverse and the rock expands. This has been seen in rock quarries and mines around the world.



2. The area of the Atlantic was where the rupture occurred first. The continents have eroded wide apart and the underlying basalt undergoes a phase change and expands rapidly several miles high. This ripple effect follows around the earth on the original path moving around the earth in about half a day. The strange fracture zones and magnetic anomalies form.

3. The continents, still with some water between them and the underlying rock, begin to move away from this upthrust by gravity. They accelerate away from the mid oceanic ridge formation, riding on a layer of water acting as a lubricating film.

4. The continents begin to meet resistance of two kinds.

a.) The water film is depleted and the continents ride rock on rock. The massive inertia of the continent causing enormous kinetic energy releases in heat (magma pools) and buckling and thickening of the plate itself.

b.) The American plates move west and the European plates move east and both meet the upsurging mid Pacific ridge.

The Ring of Fire and the deep-sea trenches are formed by this sudden and catastrophic halt causing massive upward and downward buckling. The Indian plate literally slams into the Asian continent forming the Deccan uplift, America's plates buckle and form the western mountain ranges, huge compressive events everywhere form new mountains and plateaus that rise out of the flood waters. Much of the material is still wet and fold and bend in the patterns we see today in many mountains.

Phase 4: The Recovery Phase

Where did all the water go?

1. As the compression event occurs the parts of the continental plates that were the weakest buckled and rose into mountains out of the water. They also thickened downward and shut off the now much weakened flow of water. Magma from the pools left beneath the leading edge of the plate forced itself up into the shattered and cracked granite and left deposits like the Black Canyon of the Gunnison or the inner gorge of the Grand Canyon.

2. The water began to settle into the now wide basin formed by the eroding of the plates and the original rupture line. This wide basin (as wide as the oceans today was about 6 to 8 miles deep originally. Thus the Ocean level was much lower than today.

3. As the now foreshortened and thickened continental plates began to settle down on the basalt floor their weight began to uplift the ocean floor.

4. Meanwhile the huge lakes left on the now uplifted land drained away leaving huge drainage canyons in what is now deep ocean.

a.) Grand and Hopi Lakes drained through the area where the Grand Canyon is today. In several weeks of time more water poured through the gap of what is the Marble Canyon and the Grand Canyon than is in all the Great Lakes today.

b.) The Black Sea carved out the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles flowing into the Mediterranean Lake.

c.) The Mediterranean Lake flowed into the much lower Atlantic forming a deep V notch at the straits of Gibraltar.

d.) A huge lake in Central California flowed out through the gap under the Golden Gate Bridge.

5. Deep earthquakes (200 -450Km) are formed by the phase transformation of many minerals that undergo a "packing" or "unpacking" of the atomic structure under intense pressure. These are ongoing as areas where the continents are thickened are compressing the underlying basalt layer and other areas where the plate has moved or been eroded is "unpacking". This phase transformation is rapid and causes shock waves.

6. Shallow earthquakes are caused by the last of the trapped water that seeps up into cracks, and depending on the pressure widening the cracks, until movement can occur, lubricated by the water.

7. Frictional heating at the bases of the hydroplates causes the water to heat up and increased evaporation to occur. This in turn causes heavy cloud cover and increased precipitation.

The frictional heating also causes an increase in volcanism. Increased ejecta into the atmosphere causes a "nuclear winter"

Large temperature differences between the cool uplands and the warm ocean cause high winds carrying massive moisture.

The increased cold and the increased precipitation caused massive snowfall in the newly risen mountains. (As much as 100 times today's)

The "Ice Age"occurs.

8. Tablemounts rise up from the ocean floors and are eroded by the wave action of the much lower ocean.

9. Eventually the temperature differential between the land and the ocean moderates which ends the "Ice Age" and the glaciers begin to retreat, putting their water back into the ocean, bringing the ocean levels up to today's.

10. In the fracture zones, the fractures fill with sediment. Basalt contains magnetite and hematite that are strongly magnetic. At a Curie Point of 5780 C the basalt loses its magnetic properties. The fractures, filled with sediment, circulate cool water down into them and pump it back out again as a "black smoker". This cools the Basalt down past the Curie Point and causes magnetic intensities at the crack. Exactly as seen today.
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Carolyn Silver
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« Reply #50 on: July 28, 2008, 10:23:50 pm »

 
Talya

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WHAT ABOUT NOAH'S ARK?

The Ark of Noah was a barge-like structure probably built of cypress or cedar ("gopherwood"). It was about 450 feet long by 75 feet in beam, and 45 feet high. Such a boat would displace 20,000 tons and have a gross tonnage of 14,000 tons. There were three decks, one door (in the side) and a window 18 inches high probably running around the top of the vessel under the roof. The ark was caulked "within and without" with pitch (Hebrew: "kopher" = "to cover,"---translated "atonement" elsewhere in the Old Testament).

The capacity of the ark was about 522 railroad cars, (1.4 million cubic feet). Only 188 railroad cars would be required to hold a pair of each of the 17,600 species of animals presently known to man, according to Dr. John Morris. (This number of cars includes food supplies for a year's subsistence). From this we can assume that many perhaps as many as two-third of the species originally created by God are already extinct. The ark, (The Hebrew word for ark is related to the Egyptian word "db't," = "coffin"), was under construction, on dry land presumably far from water, for 120 years. Although Noah ("a preacher of righteousness") sought to persuade the people of the his generation to come into the ark and so be saved, none responded

"...when God's patience waited in the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water." (1 Peter 3:20)

The ark is a beautiful picture of salvation by grace through faith. There was no other way to be saved from destruction in that day except by coming into the God's ark of refuge. The world was warned for 120 years of impending judgment. The ark had one door in the side. Later in history Jesus said,

"Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. All who came before me are thieves and robbers; but the sheep did not heed them. I am the door; if any one enters by me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." (John 10:7-11).

Noah's name means "comfort" or "rest," and looks ahead to the words of Jesus,

"Come to me all you who are weary and heavy laden and I will give you rest."

The ark was likewise a coffin. Those who come into Christ by faith are identified with Him in his death, burial and resurrection. God called from "within" the ark inviting Noah and his family to enter in and find refuge.

The two calendars:

And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. (Exo 12:1-2 KJV)

Months Civil (Old Religious (New)
Tishri (Ethanim) 1 7
Cheshvan (Bul) 2 8
Chisleu 3 9
Tevet 4 10
Sh'vat 5 11
Adar 6 12
Nisan (Aviv) 7 1
IIyar (Zif) 8 2
Sivan 9 3
Tammuz 10 4
Av 11 5
Elul 12 6

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« Reply #51 on: July 28, 2008, 10:24:50 pm »

Carolyn Silver

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Russian scientist believes, Atlantis lies between Gibraltar and the Azores

Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor Alexander Gorodnitsky has recently celebrated his 70th birthday. This is a world-known scientist from the Russian Institute of Oceanology. Alexander Gorodnitsky is also known in Russia as a poet and a song writer.

Alexander Gorodnitsky chaired the laboratory of the marine geophysics at the Arctic Geology Research Institute in Leningrad. He took part in a lot of expeditions in various areas of the World Ocean, he explored the ocean at the depth of five kilometers in underwater vehicles. He was the first scientist in the world to calculate the lithosphere power. The professor published more than 260 scientific works, including eight studies about the geology and geophysics of the ocean floor.

You wrote a song about Atlases, you read books about Atlantis. What is it: a return to the old romantic hobby, or something more serious?

It is probably both. Vyacheslav Kudryavtsev, Director of the Metahistory Institute, believes, there is a mouth of an ancient river on the continental slope to the south-west of the British Isles. Kudryavtsev thinks, an ancient town might have existed on the banks of the river too. He is determined to go there to explore that place. There is no actual evidence to prove that supposition, but a theory says that the Greenland ice melted in the beginning of the historic time, and the Gulf Stream made it to the north. The continent with such a beautiful name - Atlantis - was flooded as a result of the ocean level change. It seemed to be very interesting to me, especially after we came across a strange construction under the water - it looked like the ruins of an ancient city.

We have all necessary equipment at our disposal at the Oceanology Institute: we have underwater probes and vehicles, which allow to submerge to the depth of the ocean. We have already developed the project of the mission, freighted a ship, we have even obtained a permission from the UK. We just need $200,000 for the expedition, but Russian sponsors have refused to help us.

Why breaking a lance - a lot of people believe that there is no Atlantis at all, because there has not been any evidence found to prove the existence of the ancient continent.

The absence of findings is not supposed to be the base to say no to further attempts and works. It simply testifies to the low level of the research. About 15 years ago scientists found a proof that a large ancient civilization used to exist - the huge Hittite Kingdom.

I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.

Yes, it is true, but there were a lot of other scientists, who were trying to find Atlantis, Jacques Yves Cousteau, for example.

It was Cousteau, who explored the sea floor around Santorin volcano and found the ruins of an ancient state there. A lot of people believed that it was Atlantis. However, such a point of view contradicted to Plato's words, who said that Atlantis was situated on the other side of Pillar of Hercules. From the point of view of the modern geology, I dare to prove that the underwater mountain chain between Gibraltar and the Azores is the lost continent. Canaries and Green Cape islands are the last peaks of Atlantis.

Atlas stands next to Pillar of Hercules, which means that ancient people had reasons for that. Of course, it would be ridiculous to think that we will find a golden statue or ruins of ancient towns. Any expedition has a chance to be a success, because there is always an opportunity to discover something new. If we manage to prove that Europe used to spread far behind the Pyrenees, it will change the perception of the human history. In addition to it, it is a great chance for Russian scientists to discover Atlantis!

Scientists say, the angle of inclination of the axis of the equator is changing, which will eventually make continents collide with each other. The collision will cause a monstrous earthquake, the land will sink under the water, tsunamis will flood practically everything. What is your attitude to such forecasts?

They are nonsense. The stability of continent plates tectonics is determined with endogenous (internal) factors. As far as the Earth's axis is concerned, one may not worry about it for the coming 100,000 years. It will remain as it is now and will not cause an earthquake that would be capable of destroying continents.

http://english.pravda.ru/science/19/94/377/10446_.html
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« Reply #52 on: July 28, 2008, 10:26:59 pm »

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quote:
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 Only 188 railroad cars would be required to hold a pair of each of the 17,600 species of animals presently known to man, according to Dr. John Morris. (This number of cars includes food supplies for a year's subsistence)
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I find that hard to believe ! 188 railroad cars to house 35,200 animals with a years supply of food. Thats 93 pairs of animals per railcar and food for those 93 pairs!! Unless we are talkiing insects, I'd say it's impossible !

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« Reply #53 on: July 28, 2008, 10:27:27 pm »

 
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  posted 02-10-2006 11:46 AM                       
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Melting ice caps might trigger earthquakes
AFAR
2/16/2003

The melting of Japan’s mountainous snowcaps might activate nearby earthquakes. Melting ice bodies seem to be influenced by seasonal shifts, with high flooding during spring and summer.

The Pacific Plate is only a little more than 6 miles thick with nearly 2.5 miles average depth of ocean resting on it. The Pacific Plate is nearly entirely covered by the Pacific Ocean. It is like holding a large flat pan of water and having someone continually add water to it, causing the pan to become more and more unstable. Each day the Earth revolves, the ocean tides sweep a large mass of water from east to west across the Pacific Plate. The tides thus transfer gravitational energy from the sun and moon through to the Pacific plates, storing this energy little by little until a trigger causes the energy to be released as an earthquake and at the same time driving the tectonic plate movements.

As the Sun and Moon appear to rise over the Pacific, large volumes of water are pulled against the American coasts. As the Sun and Moon appear to set in the West large amounts of water are pulled against the South Pacific Islands and Asian countries causing a repetitious pulsing and stretching of the Pacific Plate. The Western Pacific Plate is being pushed under the Asian Continent and the Nazca Plate (Eastern Pacific) is being pushed under the South American Continent by this daily pulsing. The effect is dramatic and can easily be seen on a bathymetric map. (Bathymetric and topographical maps) The Nazca and Pacific Plates are the fastest spreading seafloor on the planet. The increase in ocean level from melting glaciers and ice caps is slowly accelerating the process by adding water mass to the daily tides. The added instability causes earthquakes and volcanic action, ultimately bringing more heat and carbon dioxide to the troposphere and contributing along with solar radiation to the cycle of glacial melting.

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As Above So Below.

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« Reply #54 on: July 28, 2008, 10:28:01 pm »

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LAND OF FIRE & ICE

Sure enough, one day later, Iceland's newest volcano blew through the ice, sending smoke and ash thousands of feet into the arctic sky while millions of gallons of water from melted ice made its way downhill. It was a grand production of nature, more or less another day in Iceland.

The Vatnajökull eruption, the ultimate combination of fire and ice, was a perfect example of the geologic extremes that take place in Iceland. In the early 1960s, when the United States decided to send men to the moon, NASA scientists were confronted with the problem of finding a place on Earth similar enough to the lunar landscape so that the Apollo astronauts would know what to expect. They needed a terrain that was variegated and barren, something reminiscent of that "magnificent desolation" that Neil Armstrong would later describe on July 20, 1969 while the world listened in astonishment.

"Why not Iceland?" somebody said, "It looks like the moon."

There are certainly places on Iceland that look like they belong on another world. Rough and empty lavascapes swell up around extinct and active volcanos. Glaciers carve their way through soft rock, creating serrated ridges and valleys as defined as cut crystal. There are steaming, sulfurous blue lakes and geysers that spit up water like hidden, landlocked whales. At times, the whole country seems like a giant laboratory in the dreamscape of a sleeping geologist. But although Iceland may look like another planet, it is, if anything, more like Earth than Earth itself, a place where mother nature leans towards the demonstrative.

Why all the geologic hullabaloo? Well, the island of Iceland sits smack in the middle of something called the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a 10,000-mile long crack in the ocean floor caused by the separation of the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates. Tectonic plates are those rafts of land that float upon the Earth's molten interior, making up that thin, habitable crust upon which we live. The plates can do all sorts of things at places where they meet: they can rub each other as they head in opposite directions; they can collide head-on in a stalemate, pushing each other up or down like two fighting rams; or one might win out and push the other one beneath it. Sometimes, they don't fight at all, but move away from each other, releasing pressure and exposing the lava sea between them. The lava bubbles to the surface and cools, forming new land. When this happens, the area of separation is called a "constructive junction," and this is precisely what is happening in Iceland. The area is so constructive, in fact, that 20 million years ago the island didn't even exist.


To get an idea of the extent of geologic activity, one need only look at Iceland's volcanos. Over 30 are active, meaning that they have erupted within last few centuries. On average, Iceland experiences a major volcanic event once every 5 years, the most active volcano being the picturesque Mount Hekla. Most of this volcanism takes place along a North-South path down the center of the iceland, where the Mid Atlantic Rift passes through. The magnitude of the eruptions varies. Sometimes they do little more than steam and gurgle up slow-moving lava flows; other times they blast red hot lava thousands of feet into the air. At numerous times in the island's history, volcanoes have meant disaster. The largest recorded lava flow in world history happened here in the late 18th century, when Mount Lakagigar emitted 3 cubic miles of lava. So much ash was released that the sun was permanently obscured, and hundreds of thousands of sheep and cattle perished from the poisonous gasses. In the ensuing famine, one-third of Iceland's people died. More recently, the important fishing village of Heimaey was nearly destroyed in 1973 when a volcano called Eldfell erupted virtually inside the town. Miraculously, two-thirds of Heimaey was saved by using huge jets of water to cool the lava, which in turn created a rock dam against the flow. Ironically, by the time the eruption was over, the town's harbor was even better than before - the new land provided greater protection from wind and water.

It may be fire that created Iceland, but what shapes it is ice. Ten thousand years ago, the entire island was covered by ice, and the creeping, cutting glaciers are responsible for Iceland's extraordinary fjords and valleys. Today, a full 11 percent of the island is buried beneath ice caps, but the modern glaciers are believed to be relatively new; they probably formed around 500 BC and are still increasing. The largest glacier, Vatnajokull, is 3,200 feet thick and 3,200 square miles in area. It is not only the largest glacier in Europe, but larger than all of Europe's other glaciers combined.

While fire and ice have brought their share of destruction to the people of Iceland, they bring with them priceless gifts. The same geologic activity that creates the volcanoes provides an endless supply of geothermal energy. Over 90 percent of the island is heated by natural gas - one of the cheapest and cleanest forms of energy around. Virtually every community has its own naturally heated swimming pool. Hot springs can be found almost everywhere, and the melt water created by sub-glacial volcanoes provides the country with a limitless supply of hydroelectric power. All this clean energy has made Iceland the least polluted nation on Earth, which probably contributes to the fact that Icelanders have the longest life expectancy on the planet. Parts of Iceland may look like the moon, but in terms of livability, the island is far closer to a heaven on Earth.

http://www.geographia.com/iceland/geology1.htm
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« Reply #55 on: July 28, 2008, 10:28:24 pm »

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Who Was Egerton Sykes?
Egerton Sykes (1894-1983), was not only the creator of the largest private collection on Atlantis in the world, he was a mythologist, amateur archaeologist, writer, and editor, who prided himself on knowing every scientist around the world in the field of Atlantology from 1912 to 1950.
Sykes acquired a taste for unknown civilizations as a boy after reading Jules Verne’s Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. He began collecting books on Atlantis in his teenage years, a fascination that flourished during his eventful thirty-three year career in Europe and the Middle East as a foreign correspondent, British Intelligence Officer, and diplomat. During this period, Sykes lived in twenty-eight different countries, allowing him to search museums and bookstores for material pertaining to Atlantis, preferably books in their original language, since Sykes mistrusted the accuracy of translations. As a result, Sykes built up an unrivaled personal collection of well over six-thousand documents in fifteen different languages.
Sykes retired after World War II and settled in Brighton, England, to lecture, write, and run a publishing house, Markham House Press Ltd. For the next thirty-one years, Sykes published four magazines, including two bimonthly research journals, Atlantis (1948-1976) and New World Antiquity (1954-1979).
At the same time, Sykes also founded three organizations: The Atlantis Research Center, The Hoerbiger Institute, and The Avalon Society. The Atlantis Research Center was founded to investigate the probability of the lost continent of Atlantis having been the source from which was drawn the fundamental cultures of the two hemispheres. The Hoerbiger Institute was established to investigate the Theory of Cosmic Origins put forward by Hans Hoerbiger in 1913. The Avalon Society was created to investigate the probability that from the Megalithic Culture had evolved a system of orientation of sacred sites based upon a common astronomical knowledge; a system of measurement for the construction of these sites; a system of surveying; a system of naming sites; a calendrical system based upon the formulation of the Zodiac; and to consider whether the Arthurian legends, the Welsh Triads, the Nordic Sagas and Eddas, and the Celtic Legends may all contain confused recollections of this period. All three societies aimed to disseminate knowledge; link up with other bodies both in the Commonwealth and abroad; and to organize excursions to full sized expeditions for the purpose of investigating sites containing material of possible interest.
Sykes first visited the United States in 1965 on the invitation of Hugh Lynn Cayce of the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.). Sykes also lectured in Washington DC, Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia, and to the Explorers Club in New York. Sykes’ general impression of the USA was one of kindness from everybody, and he was thrilled by the inexhaustible appetite for knowledge expressed by the American people.
Sykes was held in high regard by the learned societies to whom he lectured and wrote for. The list included The Explorers Club of New York; British Psychological Society; Royal Institute of International Affairs; Royal Geographical Society; Royal Institution; Royal Anthropological Institute; Royal Central Asian Society; British Institute of Management; Royal India Society; Institute of Industrial Administration; Royal Societies Club; Junior Carlton Club; and Royal Aero Club.
Sykes’ conclusions about Atlantis were based on a comprehensive study of ancient maps; a world survey of submerged cities; studies of rock magnetism; petroglyphs and cave paintings; linguistics; historic and mythic records of the event; physical remains of contemporary cultures; early trans-Atlantic movements; and astronomy.
In his lifetime, Sykes witnessed many outlandish ideas, once labeled wild heresies, proven otherwise: the atom split down to the level of the quark; the development of flight from the Wright Brothers to Space capsules; Marconi’s spark transmitter grow into the colored TV of today; the beginning of culture pushed back 7000-8000 years and even earlier; the acceptance of the Viking incursions into North America; and the plethora of dating processes beginning with Carbon 14.
Sykes had a wide appreciation for the mystical approach, and was interested in antigravity, map dowsing, the zodiac, the possibility of present day Neanderthals and dinosaurs, and extraterrestrial life. To use his own ESP, Sykes realized the need to have an intuitive knowledge of the subject, and the ability to focus one’s mind on it to the virtual exclusion of everything else. When asked about metaphysics, he commented, “There is no phenomena that is not subject to the natural and ordinary laws of the universe”. With respect to all things Atlantean; however, Sykes thought it best, under the circumstances, to present his left-brain to the world.
“I have spent all my life picking out from all the various books the bits that mattered to make them into a coherent picture which people can understand and work on,” Sykes declared near the end of his life. “The books in my library give you a background to refer from.”
Sykes made several comments about needing a successor. He had no one to leave his library to and no one to carry on the research. His only son, Peter, was killed in World War II. Sold to the highest bidder in 1979, the Egerton Sykes Collection is presently housed at the A.R.E. Library in Virginia Beach.
Sykes’ lifetime friend and a Member of Parliament, Julian Amery, wrote a beautiful tribute to Sykes after his death on April 27, 1983:“A great oak tree has fallen and the forest will never be the same again... Bill Sykes died full of years... He remained in possession of his faculties, physical and mental, until the end. He was held in high regard by the learned societies to whom he lectured... and for whom he was still writing at the time of his death. He was the center of a wide circle of friends of every age, persuasion, and nationality... Bill Sykes was widely travelled. He had read widely not only from the textbooks but from the Book of Life. He had given good service to his country in both world wars... He had been active in politics... If ever there was a life fulfilled this was it... He was always open to new ideas and was himself a powerhouse of fresh thought, not so usual in a man of his years. I seldom left him without a new idea... There was about him an old world courtesy combined with an endearing and rather boyish sense of humor. Above all, he had the great gift of keeping friendship in good repair.”
Indeed, Egerton Sykes left the world a wonderfully thought-provoking legacy.
Did Atlantis truly exist? The jury is still out, but no matter which side of the fence one sits on, one cannot but help tip his hat in respect to the lifetime of work by the dedicated Englishman. 'Twas on a spring day in 1983, Sykes’ ashes were scattered in the Garden of Remembrance on the southwest side of Woodvale in Brighton. On that same day, sadly to say, Atlantology lost its most powerful supporter, and went into hiding... but the story is far from over. Section top. Top.
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« Reply #56 on: July 28, 2008, 10:31:01 pm »

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Selected Articles By or about Egerton Sykes
After the end of World War II, Sykes bought Markham House Press Ltd, giving himself the opportunity to write and edit four scholarly journals: Atlantis, New World Antiquity, Pendulum, and Uranus.
Atlantis (1948-1976), originally created as the organ of the Atlantis Research Center, saw the birth and expiry of a dozen or more serious Atlantis journals in various parts of the world over its thirty-five years of existence. Sykes became editor in 1949 “as a purely temporary measure”. The name of the journal changed from Atlantean Research in 1951 to Atlantis: A Journal of Research in order to “maintain the main objective in sight but also allow incursions into allied fields of general interest”. The name changed a second time in late 1960 to simply Atlantis. An annual subscription to the bimonthly journal initially cost two shillings or $1.80 USA. Over the course of its publication, the journal published every known authority and every fresh theory “whether we agreed with it or not”. Understandably, there were immense changes in the approach to Atlantean research as a result of these new cosmological and geographical discoveries, although the broad outlines remained much the same — 12,000 years ago, there was a culture which we call Atlantis destroyed by a meteor strike, memories of which were sufficient to survive all over the world in the form of myths, legends, and folklore; and archaeological evidence likely exists today in Egypt, the Americas, the Caribbean, and even perhaps, buried somewhere on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.
Atlantis (AT #20)1951JulyVol. 4 No. 2: Is There Still A Chance Of Avoiding WWIII?
Atlantis (AT #53) 1957 January Vol. 10 No. 2: Continental Drift
Atlantis (AT #58) 1957 NovemberVol. 11 No. 1: A Changing Pattern Of Existence
Atlantis (AT #60) 1958 March Vol. 11 No. 3: A Discovery Which May Prove To Be Momentous (on the discovery of underwater ruins near Bermuda)
Atlantis (AT #62) 1958 July/August Vol. 11 No. 5: The Progress Of Atlantean Research Work
Atlantis (AT #65) 1959 January/FebruaryVol. 12 No. 2: The Atlantic Routes
Atlantis (AT #86) 1963 April Vol 16 No 2: Bridging The Gap
* Atlantis (AT #92) 1964 April Vol 17 No. 2/3: Unravelling The Past
Atlantis (AT #119) 1968 November/December Vol. 21 No. 6: What Is The Answer?
* Atlantis (AT #145) 1973 October Vol. 26 No. 5: Presenting A Coherent Picture
Atlantis (AT #148) 1974 March/AprilVol. 27 No. 2: A Major Break Through In Atlantis Research (on the locations of Atlantean cities)
Uranus, a publication about astronomy and space travel, had a run of eleven years and seventy-one issues. In 1965, Uranus was united with Atlantis due to the rising costs of production. Pendulum, which focused on the subjects of gravitation and dowsing, ran for sixteen years and published one-hundred-and-ninety-two issues.
New World Antiquity (1954-1979) was an international bulletin of information about the archaeology and ethnology of the New World. There were factual accounts of current research and discussions on the antiquity of man in America. Sykes took over the editorship of New World Antiquity in 1957 until its final issue twenty-two years later.
New World Antiquity (NWA #48) 1958 August Vol. 5 No. 8: The Danger Of Fossilisation
(on the hazards of stifling scientific curiosity and some proposed solutions)
New World Antiquity (NWA #51) 1958 November Vol. 5 No. 11: A Need For A Fresh Orientation
New World Antiquity (NWA #74) 1961 February/March Vol. 8 No. 2/3: The Breaking Of The Maya Codices
New World Antiquity (NWA #109) 1966 May/June Vol. 13 No. 5/6: The Relationship Of Diffusionism To Anthropology And Archaeology
New World Antiquity (NWA #118) 1967 September/October Vol. 14 No. 9/10: A Philosophy For Archaeology
* New World Antiquity (NWA #157d) 1974 July/August Vol. 20 No. 7/8: Shortsightedness
In January 1977, Atlantis and New World Antiquity were united. Sykes’ editorial titled Envoi said it all, “For the last twenty years I have been editing Atlantis, and for the last twenty years New World Antiquity. The time has now come when I find the amount of work involved is more than I can possibly manage and, hence, the only reasonable solution appears to be to amalgamate the two journals into one. As they have been following much of the same fields of research, particularly during the last ten years, I can only hope that readers will not be unduly disappointed and will forgive me for letting them down.”
In 1979 in New World Antiquity, Sykes wrote his last editorial, Hail & Farewell, in which he stated, “For thirty years I have been riding two horses — Diffusion of peoples and Atlantis... Diffusion and Atlantis are, after all, but two facets of the same historical coins... Over the years, I have tried to play fair and have quoted every writer of consequence, irrespective of whether I agree or not...nothing which I have said is sacrosanct. Any generation of researchers can only work on the basis of the data available. With fresh knowledge the horizon widens...Now with intense regret, I feel that I have to give up New World Antiquity and this is a cause of sorrow to me as I feel that it may have managed to fill a small gap in the archaeological spectrum...”
New World Antiquity (NWA #199) 1979 November/December Vol. 26 No. 11/12: Hail And Farewell

Between Atlantis and New World Antiquity, the two journals totaled almost four-hundred volumes of scientific and academic writings on all facets of Atlantology. Factual accounts of current research, the short articles of three-hundred-and-fifty to seven-hundred words, many of which included references, stimulated much debate among scholars around the world. Sykes often boasted that all of the “ranking experts” in the field of Atlantology were in his network and contributors to the two journals. Indeed, he was proud that these delightful journals were not only interspersed with flashes of editorial humor and current events of the times, they provided a solid foundation for the serious study of all lost civilizations.
By the end of his life in 1983, Sykes had published well over three million words on the subject of Atlantis in these four journals, which are now collector’s items. Fortunately, Atlantis and New World Antiquity, along with an accompanying Index and Readers’ Guide, are once again available for the world’s enjoyment.(Atlantis and New World Antiquity issues are available here).
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Sykes’ 1966 Lecture To The Explorers Club In New York
On November 22, 1966, The Explorers Club of New York let one of their first Atlantologists, Egerton Sykes, through the front door, to lecture on “The Antediluvian World”. It was old hat to Sykes that the continent of Atlantis wasonce situated in the Atlantic Ocean between the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean, and it stretched from the Azores to Ascension Island with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge — its highest peaks reaching 6000-feet above sea level — forming the mountainous backbone of the continent; however, most of the Club’s members were uninformed on the subject of Atlantis. Nonetheless, the courageous Sykes managed to explain what occurred, when it happened, cultural traces left behind, and what could be done nowadays to pick up the lost trails.
Sykes claimed that within a few years of Atlantis sinking, shiploads of hardy adventurers were breasting the Atlantic waves to search for remnants of the lost continent. These journeys began a continuous stream of traffic to the Americas, which lasted until the days of Columbus. He proudly boasted that Atlantology rode both the horses of Diffusion and Atlantis — two facets of the same historical coin — and set out to prove that there have been Old World cultural manifestations by Egyptians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Etruscans, Minoans, the Vikings, and the Irish — to name a few — on the east coast of the Americas since 10,000 BC. On the western coasts, documented traces of the Chinese, Ainu, and Jomon from Japan, dated nearly as far back.The process of diffusion left behind a whole series of river and place names, stories of adventures, and occasional artifacts.
Noticing some raised eyebrows in the audience, Sykes acknowledged that there were probably a few disbelievers present, after all, heated arguments have raged over the centuries over whether Atlantis ever really existed or not. Indeed, in France, bitter quarrels once caused the government to forbid a conference of Atlantologists, claiming it threatened the calm of the inhabitants of Paris and the safety of the buildings in which the meetings would take place.
Not intimidated in the least, Sykes nonchalantly informed his skeptical hosts, “Atlantis is a part of our history whether we like it or not.”
Sykes hypothesized that Atlantis was a place where humankind made impressive advancements in the development of civilization. The Atlanteans, a red race, were one of up to five races to appear, possibly simultaneously, in different regions of the Earth. The Atlanteans knew sufficient astronomy to have an accurate calendar; had knowledge of architecture; and worshipped Poseidon, the Sun, and the Moon. They were Rhesus negative; mummified their dead; and practiced artificial cranial deformation to produce slightly egg shaped heads with sloping foreheads. There were thousands of artificially deformed skulls in museums all over the world, and there had been some magnificent ones in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons before it was bombed during World War II.
Sykes debated with his peers about the cause of the catastrophe that submerged Atlantis in 10,000 BC, and entertained theories ofa meteor strike or some other stellar intruder, possibly associated with a magnetic pole reversal. The Lunar Capture Theory, as described by Hans Hoerbiger, was presently the most popular and controversial theory, as the Moon had always been regarded as a naturally born child of the Earth; not a separate, captured planet.
In 1913, Hans Hoerbiger, an Austrian engineer and amateur astronomer, with the support of Philip Fauth, the eminent astronomer, postulated that our present moon had been captured by the Earth in 10,000 BC. The event caused vast tidal waves as waters congregated around the tropical and equatorial belts; the North Pole shifted from somewhere near Petermanns Peak in Greenland to its present position; and tectonic strains caused enormous earthquakes and volcanic activity. The rain of debris, which accompanied the final dissolution of the Moon, marked the end of a geological era by crushing all that had preceded it. Atlantis plunged two to three miles underwater.
Sykes and his fellow Atlantologists researched meteorite craters all over the globe as possible proof of a cosmic bombardment, including the Carolinas, Arizona, east coast USA, the Caribbean, Arabia, Australia, Labrador, the Vredefort Ring in South Africa, and the Sahara of southern Lybia.
A persistent legend in Argentina told of a giant chunk of iron that fell from the sky in a spectacular fireball. In 1965, an American research team and an Argentinean geologist concluded that the original meteorite partly buried in the sandy soil of Campo del Cielo, the Field of the Sky, was part of a moon that fell to Earth. The Bushmen, the oldest inhabitants of South Africa, pay special reverence to meteorite pieces as their oral legends teach that the Moon is responsible for everything that has taken place — good or bad — and tell of a tremendous disaster on Earth in which the Moon played a significant part.
Plato’s dialogue of Critias supported the Hoerbiger Theory when the Egyptian priest said, “Often and in many ways has mankind suffered destruction, and will again be destroyed, mainly through fire and water... This sounds like a myth, but the true kernel of it is the altered courses of the bodies moving around the Earth...”
The Club members gradually opened their minds as the passionate Englishman brilliantly intertwined mythology and science.
Major terrestrial changes accompanied the catastrophe of 10,000 BC: the end of the Ice Age; the formation of the Sargasso Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Great Rift of Africa; the desiccation of the Sahara; and the quick freezing of mammoths in northeastern Siberia — so quick that the beasts’ cells were preserved intact, and the creatures’ mouths and stomachs contained green grass and fresh dandelions.Carbon-14 dating used on the famous Taimyr mammoth found in 1948, showed that the animal lived 12,000 years ago.
As the last fragmented islands of Atlantis descended to the depths, the final wave of migrants fled to Central and South America, France, Spain, Portugal, the Pyrenees mountains, and Egypt. It took humanity many thousands of years to recover from the shock. The survivors had witnessed astonishing cosmic and terrestrial phenomenon, and recorded their honest accounts in the world’s religious and classical literature, history, mythology, legend, folklore, and customs. Archaeology provided more tangible evidence in the ruins of cities and temples, ancient calendars, petroglyphs, and artifacts.
Sykes sketched a hazy outline of cultural connections between ancient peoples, and remarked that he desperately wanted the mysteries of the Egyptians and Maya solved in his lifetime. Sykes hoped that someday, the complex biology ofblood groups, in combination with linguistic studies,would allow us to trace the migration path of any given group of people.
Well-versed in mythology, Sykes reminded the Club members that the six-hundred Deluge stories of different races around the world, among peoples who knew the sea well and among those who lived far inland, are not simply coincidental. The Flood was a universal event. Stories of the Deluge are to be found in the Sagas; the Eddas (records of Nordic history that may have the only account of the beginning of an ice age known to mankind); the Puranas; Greek myths; the Book of Genesis; and in the memories of the Algonquins, Aztecs, Incas, Mayas, Toltecs, Babylonians, Hebrews, Egyptians, and Chinese. In Peru, there were strange tales of the Moon’s capture by a fiery dragon in the days before the great flood. Many of the creation legends of Latin America start with the first men digging themselves out of caves to the surface after a major catastrophe that preceded the Deluge.
Sykes thought it interesting that in all early religions, men were the children of the representatives of the gods of the Earth, and not the objects of their creation. Sykes viewed the Bible as the best history book available between 2000 BC and AD 100, and liked to clarify that religious history is as full of inaccuracies as any other form. The story of Noah in the Old Testament was an eyewitness account of the Deluge, and the Garden of Eden was a memory of the dispute between the Serpent Worshippers and the High Priest.
“Serpent worship appears to be the oldest religious activity in the world”, Sykes speculated, and went on to state his belief that it started somewhere near what is now the Gobi Desert. The Snake Priestesses were the healers of antiquity, and these famous women oracles of the past included Medea, Medusa, and the Delphic Oracle. The art of the Maya in Yucatan shows that the feathered serpent was important in religion. Some Indian tribes in America had a tradition of a Snake Island in the Atlantic Ocean. There are three serpent mounds in Ohio. A tradition existed throughout the Near East, of an all powerful and wise serpent clan of rulers dating back to remote times, who were in some way connected with catastrophe stories of a cosmic nature. Sykes assumed that they were a pre-Deluge race of humans having the serpent as their totem.
Sykes chuckled as he recalled the time in 1947, when he was denied a visa by the Turkish government to head an expedition to look for Noah’s ark on Mount Ararat. Sykes had wanted to date the wood of the ship, and thus, prove the time of the Deluge.
“There are a scant 149 classical references to Atlantis which have survived to the present day. Unfortunately, there have been extensive losses of ancient literature in both the New and Old World”, Sykes lectured. “No doubt the burning of the Library at Alexandria in AD 641 and the destruction of the Maya codices by Bishop Landa, deprived us of keys to the past. Still, the truth may lay in the hundreds of tons of unsorted and untranslated documents lying in the cellars of religious, educational, and secular buildings throughout Europe, the Near East, and Russian Central Asia...”
Sykes’ finishing stroke referred to the fascinating branch of the science of Atlantology which studied other mythical lost civilizations, including the Lemurian culture. Those sculptures with enormous ears twice as long as normal and reaching down to the chin were those of the Lemurian culture, a generic term for the half dozen cultures existing at various early times in the Pacific Ocean island groups. “There is no satisfactory means of dating rude stone monuments, and the lack of written material means that we have only a vague idea as to the nature of the Pacific civilizations,” he stated confidently. “We have the numerous megalithic structures in the Caroline Islands; Angkor Vat, the mysterious city of French Indo-China with its monstrous snake images; the Venice of the Pacific on Ponape; Malden Island’s forty stone temples joined by paved highways, some of which vanish into the sea; and Thor Heyerdahl’s captivating tales of Easter Island — but they are only a speck of the story...”
The Explorers Club members listened to what Sykes had to say with great patience and asked many valuable questions afterwards.At the end of the evening, Sykes was presented with aninscribed vellum scroll as a gesture of thanks. In return, Sykes left the crowd with some parting words to ponder, “When I was a boy it was stated by practically everybody that the atom was indivisible, and only a few daring heretics dared to suggest otherwise.”
As an appendix to Sykes’ lecture, Dr. Manson Valentine, a Yale Professor of Zoology, and a daring archaeologist, gave an account of some of his most recent discoveries in the Caribbean Islands — finds possibly related to Atlantis.
On his application for membership to The Explorers Club of New York, Sykes wrote, “Atlantis apart, I still am an authority on the political background of Eastern Europe, the Near East, and the Mediterranean, all of which I know extremely well, having covered the area as a soldier in two world wars as a foreign correspondent and as a diplomat. To recapitulate: My ideas may not be agreed with by everybody, but I adhere strictly to logical and scientific principles in my work on them.”
Dr. William R. Nethercut, Professor of Greek and Latin at Columbia University in New York, wrote a supportive seconding-letter in August 1967 to The Explorers Club Committee on Admissions. Nethercut wrote, “Atlantis is a controversial issue, and there may be some reluctance to accept Mr. Sykes’ petition for membership on the very grounds that his name is linked with the problem. Those members of the Committee who attended his talk on Atlantis will have formed their own judgments about the value of what was said. I shall point out, in any case, that the candidate’s edition of Donnelly’s work (Ignatius Donnelly, a Minnesota congressman and known as the founder of the modern science of Atlantology, published Atlantis: The Antediluvian World in 1882 to rave reviews) represents a service... Sykes also published an up-to-date list of all books and articles pertaining to Atlantis through the years, and has collected all the classical references to the problem. This bibliographical work is objective and fills a need. His time has not been wasted on it.”
Sykes was accepted as a member of The Explorers Club in April 1968, and in 1977, he became the Chairman of the British Chapter of the Explorers Club of New York. Section top.
Top.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Egerton Sykes Bibliography
Some Essays
(Atlantis and New World Antiquity issues are available here).
Antinea—Search For A Love Queen
Atlantis (AT #140) 1972 October Vol. 25 No. 5/6
Astrology
Atlantis Key To The Past
Bimini
Atlantis (AT #150) 1974 July/August Vol. 27 No. 4
Carnac And The Megalith Builders
Classical References To Atlantis
Atlantis Research Center Classical References To Atlantis Compiled By Egerton Sykes. Rome. February 1947.
Diffusion from The Eastern Mediterranean
New World Antiquity (NWA #127) 1968 March/April Vol. 15 No. 3/4
East and West Series
El Dorado
New World Antiquity (NWA #168) 1974 November/December Vol. 21 No. 11/12
European Literature On Atlantis 1914-1950
Glaston And The Holy Grail
Hoerbiger And The March Of Science
Atlantis (AT #160) 1976 Summer Vol. 29 No. 3
Jerusalem And Baalbek
New World Antiquity (NWA #139) 1970 January/February Vol. 17 No. 1/2
Lemuria Reconsidered
Atlantis (At #114) 1968 January/February Vol. 21 No. 1
Life On Other Planets
Atlantis (AT #84) 1962 December Vol. 15 No. 5/6
Meteor Strikes And The Hoerbiger Theory
Atlantis (AT #133) 1971 April/July Vol. 24 No. 3/4
Negative Matter (2 articles)
Atlantis (AT #26) 1952 July Vol. 5 No. 2
Atlantis (AT #27) 1952 September Vol. 5 No. 3
Nicolas Of Lynn
Atlantis (AT #122) 1969 May/June Vol. 22 No. 3
Noah’s Ark And The Deluge
Atlantis (AT #6) 1949 March Vol. 1 No. 6
Parapsychology (2nd Edition)
Ragnarok
Atlantis (AT #124) 1969 September/October Vol. 22 No. 5
The Azores And Early Explorers Of The Atlantic (2nd Edition)
Atlantis (AT #75) 1960 October Vol. 13 No. 6
The Bermuda Triangle
The Clockwise Diffusionists (2nd Edition)
Atlantis (AT #152)1975 January Vol. 28 No. 2
The Extra Terrestrials (2nd Edition)
The Garden Of Eden
The Keely Mystery
Atlantis (AT #141) 1973 January Vol. 26 No. 1
The Pyramids Of Egypt (2nd Edition)
The Schliemann Mystery
Atlantis (AT #23) 1952 January Vol. 4 No. 5

Books
Atlantis: The Antediluvian World by Ignatius Donnelly
Revised by Egerton Sykes in 1949 and 1970.
Everyman’s Dictionary Of Non-Classical Mythology by Egerton Sykes
First published 1952. Revised 1961, 1962, 1965.
Who’s Who in Non-Classical Mythology by Egerton Sykes and Alan Kendall
Published in 2003.
Section top. Top.


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« Reply #58 on: July 28, 2008, 10:42:49 pm »

---AZORES---
As for the subject of a possible discovery off the Azores Islands
in the Atlantic, here was the first item that I saw in my issue. You can read
the exact version at http://www.ancientamerican.com/issue41.htm as to
"U.S. Navy Atlantis Cover-up?" on p.36.


It seems a dispatch was put out from the mid-Atlantic and passed
on via William Donato who is President of The Atlantis Organization. This was
September 7th, 2001. A team was about 250 miles SW of the Azores. They had
some very high tech instruments which included underwater devices. They
were researching a 90 kilometer ledge. Why? Because these items were
"spotted" (I am unsure of the exact terminology depending on what devices were used).
They found a temple supported by 9 pillars(3 feet in diameter). The
pillars supported a flat roof of 20 feet x 30 feet wide. Remains of 5 circular
canals, along with bridges. And 4 rings of structures like the centrally
located temple. Location is approximately in 2800 feet in the Mid-Atlantic
ridge. At the moment it seems to be stable. They tried sending photos but
were jammed either inadvertantly or on purpose by several military ships
which carried a US flag. The dispatch notes their research ship was there
on a special research project for Spain. Finally they were chased off by the
military ship/ships. Mountains are said to rise within 300 feet of the
surface also in this vicinity. Using sonar, they tried following the ridge
west, but slowly towards the south. It is believed they may connect with a
shelf near Hispaniola and heads to Cuba.



Another ship tried tracking the ridge towards England or to its
East. However, the military ships seem to be doing maneuvers, but as if
they are trying to prevent the research.

NOW, awhile back, some updated information came to me, and they
wanted to remain anonymous due to governmental interference. So I guess
the best thing to do is make up a name to refer to them for future reference.
As much as I hate to, I guess some steps are necessary to protect others. And
I would not want to be the one to cause problems for them or endanger them.
So we will refer to him as AnonyMous, which will make it easy for me to
remember.


AnonyMous has shared some items on the Azores "find", but in brief
& very quickly. So my notes may not be complete. But the story I was given
goes like this. AnonyMous explained he was not on any of the ships when
the discovery was made, but calls them colleagues. And his information is
direct from them. Just like in the article, a Bathoscope was one item used. The
complex(my term here) consists of about 30 to 40 structures, and they seem
to be uncannily preserved. The "settlement"(his term) is about 2200 feet
deep which is about the same as Cuba's find. There are "rounds" or
circles, and on one end there seems to be a harbor, sort of like Plato's
description.

Elsewhere recently, about 5 islands have surfaced 250 miles SW of
the Azores. However, this does occur frequently in the Atlantic. Here
today, gone tomorrow. Perhaps.... Time will tell.



At night they noticed something most unusual. It appears as if the
bottom is moving. It seems to rise 35 to 40 feet. I am not sure, but I
think it stabilized, bit I might be wrong.


They have retrieved a few pieces. Even though underwater for a
very long time, the Carbon-14 testing reveals a time which places it back in
the 10,000 BC era or 12,500 years back era. One plate (possible plaque) had
very strange pictographs on it. But it seems different from anything we know of
in today's time.


Further on the circles, there are 9 circles joined & separated. 3
Circles open to a Causeway.


In the middle of the complex, what appears to be a giant crystal
either 40 or 400 feet across(my notes have a contradiction as to if the
second zero was there). There is a huge 30 meter high statue that is
intact. Who knows, it may even be of Poseidon. Time will tell.



I have a note about the odd weight of one piece, but unsure of
what the oddity was. One pioece was tested with a laser, but it did nothing to
it. The material is not like anything we have today.

And AnonyMous wonders just why the government is trying to
suppress this find. Is it due to power, money, superiority, or just what. I was
informed that not only were there US Navy ships, but British ones as well,
and I think another countries if not mistaken. There is no question the
research ships were prevented from doing any more, as it was deliberate,
not just due to practice maneuvers. But the crew(s), as well as others, have
been threatened to turn over their find. However, nobody has given up the
data or the location of the find.


He named a few agencies of the US involved, such as CIA(Central
Intelligence Agency) & DIA(Defense Intelligence Agency), and of course the
Navy. These were the main 3 agencies that have kept this find suppressed.


He was afraid that if the government got the data, this find will
never be brought forth into the public's eye(into the community was his
thoughts) and into the scientific world. In other words, they want it out
in the open & want everything to be handled scientifically to document
everything. Their query is what we all want, to know of our past so that
we can face the future & not make the same mistakes.

I guess I'll end it here, except AnonyMous noted that Paulina and
those involved in the Cuba find have also been threatened if not being
suppressed. I have known of the CIA threatening researchers in the
Carribean concerning finds for a couple of years now. An archaeologist told me some
of the goings on behind the scenes. You would be amazed as to how far the CIA
has infiltrated the Atlantis researchers It is sad that such a thing
exists.


Now before anybody thinks I am into promoting a bunch of
conspiracies, I assure you, I am not. My hopes are that the researchers
will some day be free of interference & suppression so that we might find the
truth of our existence, or I should say our distant past reaching out to
our far future.
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« Reply #59 on: July 28, 2008, 10:48:26 pm »

Carolyn Silver

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SURVEY OF ATLANTIS

A brief compilation of evidence to encourage further scientific research and analysis of the issues by specialists to prove or disprove the O'Brien thesis of the recent existence of a large Mid-Atlantis Ridge island centred on the Azores.

INTRODUCTION

Christian O'Brien in Chapter 18 of The Shining Ones features the basic historical and geological evidence which identifies the Azores as the site of the Island of Atlantis. In an outstanding career as exploration geologist he is no stranger to successfully challenging established perceptions and raises the key issue of the deep crustal rifting associated with such flood basalt constructions.

He has produced the survey of the Island, shown within the attached documents taken from Admiralty Charts, which have now been superseded by the more accurate Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map also shown. Further detailed hydrographic input is required in order to present a even clearer picture to allow further studies and the siting for new sediment cores in un-disturbed areas.

The technology needed to prove or disprove the Atlantis issue is now available. Science has reached the point of being able to understand both the creation of' such large structures and the subsequent catastrophic movements in the earths crust, which have destroyed them. Finding and dating the remains of fresh water life at depths of up to 4000 metres, finding coral, sandy beaches and volcanic material below sea level and identifying former river valleys is within reach and we look forward to providing further news on this subject later in the year.

So far this century there has been a confirmed report of a one mile rise in the floor of the ocean 576 miles north of Azores when a trans-atlantic cable broke. Dr David F. Zhirov in 1970 reported sand beaches and coral at a depths of 2 miles south of the Azores. Confirmed evidence exists that sections of the Mid-Atlantic ridge have been above sea level in the past and fresh water diatoms have been found 2 miles down in the Azores area dated 10,000 to 12,000 BC.

Volcanic material described as un-dissolved tachylite was found on Telegraph Bank 500 miles north of Azores, indicating that it had been laid down above sea level at some time between 50,000 BC and 10,000 BC. Sediment core analysis at locations off the coast of Africa have proved a 2 mile sinkage of volcanic island structures similar to those of the Azores.

The more detailed evidence provided by the latest underwater surveys will assist in identify the former glacial sea level, and locating the river canyons of' a large island where rivers Joined the sea before sea levels rose, thus matching the river canyon features of the American, European and African continental shelves.

Open minds are required to concentrate current resources on the many disciplines required to re-create or resolve this mystery which has immense importance to our understanding of human origins and human diffusion. In particular, migrations from Africa to the America's from 60,000 BC.

Important knowledge has been gathered at other sites on flood basalt formations, collapsed volcanic cones, plate tectonics, deep crustal rifting together with the rebound by up to 1km of the thick and old earths crust freed from the weight of glacial ice and the compensatory sinkage of perhaps up to 4km In the fragile young and thin oceananic crustal areas adjacent to major active fault zones.

The Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map, contoured in metres, shows the islands of the Azores as the volcanic peaks of the worlds greatest Mountain range. The area is bounded on the west by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley fault, to the north by the Kurchatov Fracture Zone, on the east by deep ocean, and on the whole southern flank by the massive and deep East Azores Fracture Zone. Here we can see the three major tectonic plates which converge in this fragile crustal area, making it perhaps the most unstable structure on the planet.

There is no doubt that world sea levels have risen on average some 400 feet since the maximum influence of the Ice Age, although the identification of shore lines at this date around 16,500 BC must be considered in the light of much greater compensatory movements in the earths crust and other factors. Certainly a large island at this latitude would have been a suitable glacial refuge for plants, animals and man, during a highly inhospitable, cold and extremely dry climatic phase with so much of the earths moisture locked tip within Ice sheets.

Sea level rises may have been relatively stable in the area of Atlantis until two accelerated sea rises, due to massive melt water discharges, from land/ice locked lakes around 12,000 BC (50-40cm per annum) and 9,300 BC (30-20 mm per annum). A third and final accelerated rise took occured between 6,000 and 5,500 BC as result of further melt water discharges. The process of' sea level rise took place as the earth warmed to the highest levels recorded for over 120,000 years, peaking before 2350 BC by some 3°C higher than current levels.

The observational evidence of the geological structure of the Azores Islands, above and below current sea level, does provide evidence of river systems, which must have been created by a much larger land area. However not enough convincing evidence exists because of substantial past volcanic activity, subsidence and land slippage within the area. This creates problems in searching both for ancient remains or biological evidence that may still exist.

Catastrophic flooding, collapse and sinking at around 9,500 BC has been suggested by many historical sources and it has now become a simple matter for science to prove or disprove the thesis. Confirmation and dating of a very large sunken island requires access to and analysis of just a few sediment cores and a search for underwater structures in key locations. These may exist from just below the surface of the sea down to a depth of 11,000 feet.

It is important to realise that the O'Brien survey and the small adjustment for tilt re- creates the island as clearly described by Plato and many other independent and unconnected sources. The major building structures, if they still exist, will lie to the south west of the great plain in an area covered by the greatest depth of.' water close to the catastrophic crustal rifting of the East Azores Fault Zone, which can be clearly seen on the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map.

We have featured more than 30 important books on our recommended reading list, which in total have produced a weight of evidence to support the basic thesis presented by O'Brien, spanning from the common records of the earliest antiquity to serious modern research. Only now are we beginning to appreciate the stature and reliability of the records presented by Solon and Plato, and accept recent Scientific explanations for related dramatic crustal rifting movements and vertical movements of the earths crust.

On a world wide scale there is common story of a great flood preceded by exceptional rainfall and accompanied by earth quakes and volcanic eruptions. It may be of significance to state that tsunami tidal waves were not directly mentioned in connection with this great flood story and that modern science has identified and dated three distinct rapid rises and three small declines in sea level since the ice age as the worlds climate warmed. The first great flood may have held more significance to early man and Atlantis, than the many subsequent floods and other natural disasters. The latter include interruptions to the circulatory flow of the Gulf Stream through fresh water input/ice melt, and episodic cometary debris impacts.

We welcome further input into this project from all interested parties. The more detailed hydrographic information, which we hope to obtain from the Portuguese authorities and the Southampton University Oceanographic Department, will allow a few small steps to be made to either dismiss the existence of Atlantis at this site or confirm the detailed evidence to re-create the great legend as fact.


MAPS

For a comprehensive map of The Azores - click here

The Azores


A much clearer verion of this map can be downloaded by clicking here


A reconstruction of the Main Island of Plato's Atlantis (by raising the Contoured Sea Bed around the Islands of the Azores). Assumed tilt from South to North = 0°.37


A much clearer verion of this map can be downloaded by clicking here

The downloaded file is zipped (compressed) and needs to be unzipped before viewing. We recommend using WinZip.


If you do not have WinZip you can download it here.


DISPLAY PRINTS AND KEY TEXTS

Proof of the former existance of a large island on the Mid Atlantic Ridge click here
Atl symbol in Aztec zodiac click here
Plate Tectonics click here
Plate Tectonics click here
Minoan civilization click here
Codex troano click here
Calendar of Denderah click here
Aztec story click here
Younger Edda click here
Atlantis and her peoples click here
Escape from Atlantis click here
The Lady of Elche click here
Atlantean temple healing practices click here
Mount Pico click here
Atlantis and her peoples click here
Carthage click here
Speculative land of Atlantis click here
The capital city of Atlantis click here
Ni-duk-ki click here
Mount Pico click here
Atlantis - myth or reality click here
Atlantis - myth or reality? click here
Flood Legends and Ciphers click here
Land areas click here
Seven Cities click here
Atlantis? click here


LINKS TO OTHER SITES

Geological data by David Pratt: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dp5/sunken.htm




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