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 on: Yesterday at 11:42:44 pm 
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 on: Yesterday at 11:42:18 pm 
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 on: Yesterday at 11:42:04 pm 
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    Auguste Mariette: "Letter to the Vicomte de Rougé on excavations in the vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza", Egyptological Library, vol. 18, Paris, 1904.
    Alexander Badawy: "Ancient Egyptian Architectural Design: A Study of the Harmonic System", Berkeley university, 1965. and: "History of Egyptian Architecture", Berkeley University, 1968.
    Selim Hassan: "The Great Sphinx and Its Secrets: Historical Studies in the Light of Recent Excavations " vol. 8, Cairo Gov. Press, 1953.
    Terence Duquesne: "Anubis and the Spirit of the West", Darengo Publications, 1990

 on: Yesterday at 11:41:53 pm 
Started by Darkness - Last post by Darkness
Text and Photos by Antoine Gigal
Translation to English: Lisette Gagne
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* Selim Hassan (1887-1961): He is for me, one of the three greatest Egyptologists and archaeologists of all time. He tirelessly excavated at Giza and Sakkara from 1929 to 1937 and discovered many structures that are being rediscovered today and just wrote a extraordinary 16 volume "Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt". He's published a total of 170 books on archeology in Egypt.

*** Gianbattista Caviglia (1770-1845): Italian Master Mariner, he was hired by Richard Vyse, the English Egyptologist who noticed in him a strong capacity for resourcefulness, so he began archaeological excavations with him on the small pyramid of Mykhérinos. His attention, however, was quickly captured by even more promising structures such as the Sphinx, the Great Pyramid and others.

**** Leto: The story of Leto as it is told in Greek mythology may rouse in us a strong interest in Egypt. Leto, daughter of Titans (powerful Elder Gods who ruled during the golden age under the direction of one of them: Cronos [Saturn] after his father Uranus [Heaven] for the first 21 generations of Titans) : Coeus, ruling over a celestial zone between the two terrestrial poles and Phoebe linked to the full moon and to luminous purification, and she became pregnant by Zeus. The wife of Zeus: Hera was so extremely jealous, she saw to it that "all land fled Leto" so that she could find no land on which to give birth. It is said that then Leto left Hyperborea for Lycia in Anatolia (country of the wolves, perhaps an old form of Anubis?) disguised as a she-wolf, and then went on to the island of Delos. There are several final destinations for the birth of Leto and experts are struggling to know which is correct. In any case she gave birth on an island that was not connected to the earth itself even under the sea, a floating island of some sort or an island "manufactured". In Egypt, similar stories are told of Isis taking refuge on a floating island in the Nile Delta. The Giza Sphinx with its island was indeed a place suitable to be linked to Leto. She struggled against many chthonic monsters and the Titans living underground and was attacked by Python before giving birth to the twins Artemis and Apollo. The Greek grammarian Antoninus Liberalis, a hundred years after Christ, tells us all this in great detail. He is the author of "Metamorphoses" a story about 41 metamorphic changes inflicted by offended gods). Note that Herodotus tells us that Leto was worshiped in Egypt in the form of the cobra goddess Wadjet, protectress of Lower Egypt.

 on: Yesterday at 11:41:30 pm 
Started by Darkness - Last post by Darkness
So I searched tirelessly for years for the location of the second Sphinx. The task is very difficult because all the opposite bank of the Nile is covered with buildings of the megalopolis of Cairo and of its gigantic suburbs. How to find the location of a missing sphinx? And it is there that one of my charts intervened, that of a meticulous satellite analysis of which I am a specialist, coupled with a field study of the lesser details. After having traveled thousands of streets, I identified two possible locations (see satellite photo of the Nile). That's when the great Egyptian geologist and archaeologist, Dr. Barakat paid me the honor of contacting me after reading my articles on this subject in English, to tell me that he greatly enjoyed my work and had arrived at the same conclusions, which as you can imagine, reassures me in the continuation of this research. I will devote myself this summer and will meet with the geologist during interviews which promise much and of which I will share with you later. Furthermore, following the example of the Arab historians who saw it in their time, we advance the assumption that one of the two sphinxes was female. Al Idrisi said clearly that the second Sphinx was female and located on the east bank of the Nile facing the male sphinx that we all know. Remember also that the verb form of the Greek name "Sphinx" is "Sphingo" which means to strangle. The two sphinxes facing each side of the Nile, formed a bottleneck, like a watch on ships coming from Upper Egypt or down south ...
The second location of the Sphinx could hold many secrets even from prehistoric times, many things in the basement. This will be in the future, without doubt a huge archaeological project, as Dr. Barakat said. I would also say, and I'm not the only one, that both sphinxes are similar to the two pillars of Hercules, one indicating the material capacity expressing itself upwards through spiritual power (the female sphinx) and the other (the current one), the spiritual power expressing itself in the underground material world, but this is the subject of one of my books in progress...
In any case, to temporarily close the loop, and to add my contribution to the work of Temple even if he does not speak at all about second sphinx, I discovered recently that there was long ago, two Upuaut (Anubis). On the stele JE 47381 three registers are represented: an "Upuaut of Upper Egypt, controller of the Two Lands" ("Wp-wAwt smaw aba-Tawy") and in the middle register we see him along with "Wepwawet of Lower Egypt" ("Wp-wAwt mttyt"). Thus, the two sphinxes could well have originally represented two Anubis... In a future article I will talk about the current state of comparative findings regarding pits discovered inside and under the Sphinx of Giza ... still many things that few know ....

 on: Yesterday at 11:40:56 pm 
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 on: Yesterday at 11:40:54 pm 
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 on: Yesterday at 11:40:39 pm 
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In search of the second sphinx
It was generally accepted for long periods since the ancient Egyptians that the Sphinx was covered with sand, except for the head, until the Pharaoh Tutmosis IV (18th dynasty: 1420-1411 B.C.) cleared sand from it. And we have the wonderful story of Tutmosis IV engraved for eternity on a stele of pink granite and erected between the paws of the Sphinx: it is known as the stele of Tutmosis IV.
The Pharaoh who was not even yet a prince, not even belonging to the main lineage of Pharaonic succession, came to rest after a hunt in the shadow of the head only recently installed then, and fell asleep. There he dreamed that the Sphinx spoke to him in his sleep, begging him to rid him of his suffering because he could not endure anymore standing with the burning desert sand covering him. In exchange, he would give him the power and wealth. Tutmosis awoke and decided to hurry and in a short time became pharaoh and very wealthy. What is particularly interesting in relation to the stele of Tutmosis IV is the representation which is made of the sphinx. Look, there are two Sphinxes! Moreover, they are reversed, and for the question of ancient rules of perspective of one reality, two sphinxes are actually reversed. Moreover, they are lying on structures with portals indicating that the sphinx gives access to an elsewhere, an underground complex. But where did the Sphinx drawn on the second pillar go? What is curious is that very few people have begun to seek answers...
   In the famous stele of the inventory preserved at the museum of Cairo, it is made mention that a flash of lightning would have struck down the cap of the second sphinx involving its destruction like that of a sycamore tree, sacred at the time, which was also burned by the lightning. For the archaeologist Michael Poe who refers to fragments of papyrus of the Middle Kingdom, this second sphinx would have been destroyed by a particularly violent rising of the Nile about 1000 A.D. The villagers would then have taken the stones to rebuild their village.
Then, I started searching in Egypt and thanks to my knowledge of Classical Arabic I quickly found texts confirming the existence of the two sphinxes. Thusly, two geographical encyclopaedias (Kitab Al Mamalik, Al-Mamsalik and Kitab Al Jujori, the great geographer, and Arab scholar Al-Idrisi [1099-1166]), mention well the presence of two sphinxes at Giza, one in very bad condition that is reached by the water of the Nile and has many stones missing. Other authors also mention the existence of two sphinxes: The celebrated historian Musabbihi wrote about a "sphinx smaller than the other" on the other side of the Nile, in very poor condition, consisting of bricks and stones (Annals of Rabi II, circa 1024).

 on: Yesterday at 11:40:23 pm 
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 on: Yesterday at 11:39:47 pm 
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A sphinx much older than one thinks
   In 1858, our notable Auguste Mariette was commissioned by the Duke of Luynes to verify Pliny the Elder's statements regarding that the Sphinx was built and not monolithic. He opened a site near the pyramid attributed to Cheops (who reigned 2551-2528 BC, 4th Dynasty) and in a nearby shrine of Isis, he found the stele called "Inventory" where it says that the sphinx and the large pyramid existed well before the reign of the leaders of the 4th dynasty before 2575 B.C. The text states that: "During the reign of Cheops he ordered the construction of a monument along the Sphinx." Logically this means that the Sphinx was already there before ... But if it was there at the time of Cheops, this means that contrary to what the "mainstream" says, a fortiori, it could not have been built on order of Chephren's successor on the throne! Note that the theory that the Sphinx was built by Chephren - just because the road on its south side leads to the foot of the pyramid of Chephren - was launched without any evidence or knowledge by Caviglia who was still a Master Mariner paid to clear the sand from the Sphinx! No inscription confirms his lightly founded theory. There are also other documents proving that the temple adjoining the Sphinx has exactly the same kinds of marks of erosion that existed before the reign of Cheops. In an inscription which was preserved in the museum of Bulak, the royal scribe of the Pharaoh Cheops notes a dedication he himself had found on an earlier document. The dedication says that the sun himself presided over the gigantic structure, "whose origin is lost in the mists of time." However, if we take this into consideration, all the current chronological dating in Egyptology courses should be re-examined! A little too much for some ... This is why the majority of Egyptologists today turn away from this stele called the inventory, because it calls into question too many of their achievements. Some also prefer to say that this monument that lists an inventory of the temple of Isis dates back only to the 26th dynasty. Perhaps, but the explorer Auguste Mariette, who spent over ten years excavating the Giza plateau, has always said that the stele was erected by Cheops himself.
As for the supposed resemblance of the head of the Sphinx with Chephren himself - this theory has been invalidated for 30 years by the Director of the Department of Forensic Medicine of the New York Police, Dr. Frank Domingo, expert on facial morphology. After photographing the Sphinx from different angles and lighting and then the statue of Chephren in the Cairo museum, he compared them with his scientific method and concluded that no doubt, they were indeed two different people...
Robert Temple proves this through the study of the coiffe and certain features and also because of the obsession of the Pharaoh for the sphinxes of Amenemhat II (1929-1892 B.C.). In any case, if the Sphinx originally had a good head of Anubis, and much later it assumed this pharaoh's head, one could also surmise that others before Amenemhat II could have also affixed their face, the head of the sphinx comprising many traces of multiple repairs, the current head being extremely disproportionate compared to the body. There is also a text of the Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1448/1420 B.C.) with a reference to the Sphinx as "older than the Pyramids." Then we have the famous stele of Tutmosis IV which has led to my research on the second sphinx.

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