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Arts & Literature => Art History => Topic started by: Dawn Moline on April 15, 2008, 01:27:16 am



Title: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Dawn Moline on April 15, 2008, 01:27:16 am
Author  Topic: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages 
Dawn Moline

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   posted 07-22-2006 11:00 PM                       
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This topic shall explore ths history of art and literature and their development throughout history. It is through our culture that we comprise our civilization, and art and literature define our culture.

By art, I mean:

painting
drawing
sculpture
music
poetry
architecture
cinema


And, by literature, I mean:

epics
legends
myths
ballads
poetry
oral poetry
folktale
books


These things tell the story of human history. Uncovering their secrets tell us all we need to know about ourselves.

I would like to get into the great movements of art and all the masters - Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, Titian, Van Gogh, and my personal favorites, the Pre-Raphaelites. I would also like us to study all the great authors and poets and who and whatever else comes to mind. All thoughts are welcome, and feel free to trear the subject as seriously or with whatever humor you like.

Cheers,

Dawn

--------------------
"The unexamined life is one not worth leading."
-Plato

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Posts: 446 | From: citizen of the world | Registered: Oct 2004 
 
http://forums.atlantisrising.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=000759;p=1


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Dawn Moline on April 15, 2008, 01:28:43 am
First we should get into ancent art (we had to crawl before we could walk). From Wikipedia:

Morocco

The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300,000 BC, during the Middle Acheulean period. Discovered in Morocco, it is about 6 centimeters long. Evidence suggests that this Moroccan piece may have been created by natural geological processes with a minimum of human tool-work, but the piece bears evidence of having been painted; "a greasy substance" on the stone's surface has been shown to contain iron and manganese and indicates that it was decorated by someone and used as a figurine, regardless of how it may have been formed. [1]

The oldest sculpture was found in Morocco, which borders the Atlantic. Proof that culture began in that area? Perhaps.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Dawn Moline on April 15, 2008, 01:30:07 am
Next we have Japan:

The Jomon period (縄文時代, Jōmon-jidai?) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC.

Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. Based on archaeological evidence, between 35,000 BC and 30,000 BC Homo sapiens had migrated to the islands from eastern and southeastern Asia and had well-established patterns of hunting and gathering and stone toolmaking. Stone tools, inhabitation sites, and human fossils from this period have been found throughout all the islands of Japan. Additionally, a 1988 genetic study points to an East Asian base for the Japanese peoples. [1]

The term "Jomon" is a translation into Japanese of the English term "cord-marked". This refers to the markings made on clay vessels and figures using sticks with cords wrapped around them.

Incipient and Initial Jomon (10000 - 4000 BC)
More stable living patterns gave rise by around 10,000 BC to a Mesolithic or, as some scholars argue, Neolithic culture. Possibly distant ancestors of the Ainu aboriginal people of modern Japan, members of the heterogeneous Jomon culture (c. 10,000-300 BC) left the clearest archeological record. The culture was roughly contemporaneous with civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Nile, and the Indus Valley.


Early pottery

Incipient Jomon pottery (10,000-8,000 BC) Tokyo National Museum, Japan.According to archaeological evidence, the Jomon people may have created the first known pottery vessels in the world, dated to the 11th millennium BC [2] , as well as the earliest ground stone tools. The antiquity of this pottery was first identified after the Second World War, through radiocarbon dating methods [3]. However, some Japanese scholars also believe that pottery production technology was first invented on the mainland because of sites in China and Russia that have produced pottery "which may be as old, if not older, than ***ui Cave pottery" [4]. The Jomon people were making clay figures and vessels decorated with patterns of a growing sophistication made by impressing the wet clay with braided or unbraided cord and sticks.

Neolithic traits

The manufacture of pottery typically implies some form of sedentary life, since pottery is highly breakable and thus is useless to hunter-gatherers who are constantly on the move. Therefore, the Jomon were probably some of the earliest sedentary or at least semi-sedentary people in the world. They used chipped stone tools, ground stone tools, traps, and bows, and were probably semi-sedentary hunters-gatherers and skillful coastal and deep-water fishermen. They practised a rudimentary form of agriculture and lived in caves and later in groups of either temporary shallow pit dwellings or above-ground houses, leaving rich kitchen middens for modern anthropological study. Because of this, the earliest forms of farming are sometimes attributed to Japan (Ingpen & Wilkinson) in 10,000 BC, two thousand years before their widespread appearance in the Middle East. However, some archaeological evidence also suggests early experiments with agriculture in the hills and valleys of the Fertile Crescent in modern Syria, Jordan, Turkey and Iraq around 11,000 BC. [5].


Population expansion

This semi-sedentary culture led to important population increases, so that the Jomon exhibit some of the highest densities known for foraging populations [6]. Genetic mapping studies by Cavalli-Sforza have shown a pattern of genetic expansion from the area of the Sea of Japan towards the rest of eastern Asia. This appears as the third most important genetic movement in Eastern Asia (after the "Great expansion" from the African continent, and a second expansion from the area of Northern Siberia), which suggests geographical expansion during the early Jomon period [7]. These studies also suggest that the Jomon demographic expansion may have reached America along a path following the Pacific coast [8].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jomon

[ 07-22-2006, 11:12 PM: Message edited by: Dawn Moline ]


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: HereForNow on April 28, 2008, 12:31:21 pm
It interesting that agricultural activities started to happen around the same time that glacial retreat became appearent. Some beleive that it was this knowledge of agriculture that was the forbidden fruit of Adam and Eve. Then we will take into account the popular beleif of Atlantis disappearing at around this time as well. This could very well mark the time of when modern man became the greatest inventor of all the beasts in the feild.

It also shows how Earth changes helped the evolution of man to give us a greater understanding into how further events may shape our way of life in the future.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:09:37 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/JomonPottery.JPG)

Incipient Jomon pottery (10,000-8,000 BCE), Tokyo National Museum, Japan.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:10:54 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Reconstructed_Pillar_Supported_Structure.jpg/800px-Reconstructed_Pillar_Supported_Structure.jpg)

 三内丸山遺跡復元六本柱建物。The Reconstructed Pillar Supported Structure in Sannai-Maruyama site, Aomori.
 


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:11:23 pm
The Early and Middle Jōmon periods saw an explosion in population, as indicated by the number of excavations from this period. These two periods occurred during the prehistoric Holocene Climatic Optimum (between 4000 BC and 2000 BC), when temperatures reached several degrees Celsius higher than the present, and the seas were higher by 5 to 6 metres.[7] Beautiful artistic realisations, such as highly decorated "flamed" vessels, remain from that time. After 1500 BC, the climate cooled, and populations seem to have contracted dramatically. Comparatively few archaeological sites can be found after 1500 BC.

The Early Jōmon is the first stage in the Jomon era of Japanese pre-history. The Jomon period itself ranged from 10,000 to 300 BC. This stage lasted from 4000 to 3000 BC. The Early Jomon is characterized by the high sea level (2 to 3 meters higher than the modern day) and a significant population increase. [8] This period saw a rise in complexity in the design of pit houses, the most commonly used method of housing at the time. [9] The Middle Jōmon covers the period of Jōmon history from 3000 to 2000 BC. Following the Early Jōmon period, the Middle Jōmon periods saw an explosion in population, as indicated by the number of excavations from this period. These two periods correspond to a portion of the prehistoric Holocene climatic optimum (between 4000 and 2000 BC), when temperatures were several degrees Celsius higher than the present and the seas were five to six meters higher as well("Prehistoric Japan", Imamura).

The Late Jōmon covered the period of history from around 2000 to 1000 BC, while the Final Jōmon spanned from around 1000 to 400 BC.

By the end of the Jōmon period, a dramatic shift had taken place according to archaeological studies. New arrivals from the continent seem to have invaded Japan from the West, bringing with them new technologies such as rice farming and metallurgy. The settlements of the new arrivals seem to have coexisted with those of the Jōmon for some time. Under these influences, the incipient cultivation of the Jōmon evolved into sophisticated rice-paddy farming and government control. Many other elements of Japanese culture also may date from this period and reflect a mingled migration from the northern Asian continent and the southern Pacific areas. Among these elements are Shinto mythology, marriage customs, architectural styles, and technological developments such as lacquerware, textiles, laminated bows, metalworking, and glass making. The Jōmon is succeeded by the Yayoi period.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:12:06 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/MiddleJomonVessel.JPG)

Jomon vessel with flame-like ornamentation. Middle Jomon (3000-2000 BCE). Attributed provenance: Umataka, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata. Tokyo National Museum.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:12:46 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/MiddleJomonJar2000BCE.jpg/420px-MiddleJomonJar2000BCE.jpg)

Middle Jomon Jar 2000 BCE


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:13:25 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/JomonStatue.JPG/424px-JomonStatue.JPG)

A Final Jomon statuette (1000-400 BCE), Tokyo National Museum, Japan.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:14:07 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/JarWithSpiralsFinalJomonKamegaokaStyle.jpg/518px-JarWithSpiralsFinalJomonKamegaokaStyle.jpg)

Jar With Spirals. Final Jomon, Kamegaoka Style


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:14:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/FinalJomonJarKamegaoka.jpg/800px-FinalJomonJarKamegaoka.jpg)

Final Jomon Jar, Kamegaoka style


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:21:04 pm
Art of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting, sculpture, crafts and architecture developed by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 50000 BC to 300 AD. Ancient Egyptian art as expression in painting and sculpture was both highly stylized and symbolic. Much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and thus there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of the past.

In a more narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2nd and 3rd Dynasty art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. Most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over that 3000 year period. There wasn't strong outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and remained near that level over the period.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:21:46 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Egyptian_Miniature_Glasswares.jpg/786px-Egyptian_Miniature_Glasswares.jpg)

Miniature Egyptian glassware from the New Kingdom period.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:22:03 pm
Symbolism also played an important role in establishing a sense of order. Symbolism, ranging from the pharaoh's regalia (symbolizing his power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses, is omnipresent in Egyptian art. Animals were usually also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Colors were more expressive rather than natural: red skin implied vigorous tanned youth, whereas yellow skin was used for women or middle-aged men who worked indoors; blue or gold indicated divinity because of its unnatural appearance and association with precious materials; the use of black for royal figures expressed the fertility of the Nile from which Egypt was born. Stereotypes were employed to indicate the geographical origins of foreigners


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:22:24 pm
Ancient Egyptian art forms are characterized by regularity and detailed depiction of human beings and nature, and were intended to provide company to the deceased in the “other world”. Artists endeavored to preserve everything of the present time as clearly and permanently as possible. Completion took precedence over style. Some art forms present an extraordinarily vivid representation of their time and the life, as the ancient Egyptian life was lived thousand of years before.

Egyptian art in all forms obeyed one law: the mode of representing man, nature and the environment remained almost the same for thousands of years and the most admired artists were those who replicated most admired styles of the past.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:23:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Egypt.Sobek.01.jpg)

Sobek, fertility god of ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian architects used sun-dried and kiln-baked bricks, fine sandstone, limestone and granite. Architects carefully planned all their work. The stones had to fit precisely together. Ramps were used to allow workmen to move up as the height of the construction grew. When the top of the structure was completed, the artists decorated from the top down, removing ramp sand as they went down.

Over a period of time, primitive structures of clay and reeds matured, and there emerged magnificent monumental structures of granites, with very thick walls. The massive sloping exterior walls contained only a few small openings. Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant covers were abundantly used to decorate the structures, including many motifs, like the scarab, sacred beetle, the solar disk and the vulture.

The belief in existence of life beyond death resulted in a mammoth and impressive architectural style to house the mummified bodies. Construction of a burial monument commenced as soon a pharaoh was named, and continued until he died. Some constructions are very large and finely decorated, while some are relatively small like King Tutankhamen’s tomb, as he died very young. Another interesting aspect of ancient Egyptian architecture is that no structural support was provided, except the strength and balance of the structure itself, with one exception being the mud brick roofs of common houses that were supported by palm logs.






Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:24:02 pm

Papyrus

The word paper is derived from "papyrus", a plant which was cultivated in the Nile delta. Papyrus sheets were derived after processing the papyrus plant. Some rolls of papyrus discovered are lengthy, up to 10 meters. The technique for crafting papyrus was lost over time, but was rediscovered by an Egyptologist in the 1940s. Papyrus was used by ancient Egyptians for writing and painting.

Papyrus texts illustrate all dimensions of ancient Egyptian life and include literary, religious, historical and administrative documents. The pictorial script used in these texts ultimately provided the model for two most common alphabets in the world, the Roman and the Arabic.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:24:43 pm

Pottery

Ancient Egyptians used steatite (some varieties were called soapstone) and carved small pieces of vases, amulets, images of deities, of animals and several other objects. Ancient Egyptian artists also discovered the art of covering pottery with enamel. Covering by enamel was also applied to some stone works.

Different types of pottery items were deposited in tombs of the dead. Some such pottery items represented interior parts of the body, like the heart and the lungs, the liver and smaller intestines, which were removed before embalming. A large number of smaller objects in enamel pottery were also deposited with the dead. It was customary to craft on the walls of the tombs cones of pottery, about six to ten inches tall, on which were engraved or impressed legends relating to the dead occupants of the tombs. These cones usually contained the names of the deceased, their titles, offices which they held, and some expressions appropriate to funeral purposes.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:25:32 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Egypt.Papyrus.01.jpg)

The Book of the Dead written on papyrus


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:26:28 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/Egypte_louvre_232_pot.jpg/361px-Egypte_louvre_232_pot.jpg)
Egyptian pot on display at the Louvre


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:27:03 pm
Sculpture


The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, Pharaohs,and the kings and queens, in physical form. Massive statues were built to represent gods and famous kings and queens. These statues were supposed to give eternal life to the kings and queens, and to enable the subjects to see them in physical forms.

Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. For example, the sky god (Horus) was essentially to be represented with a falcon’s head, the god of funeral rites (Anubis) was to be always shown with a jackal’s head. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statues. These conventions were intended to convey a timelessness and non aging representation of the figure's ka, or life for an eternal afterlife.




Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:27:51 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/AmenhotepIII.jpg/401px-AmenhotepIII.jpg)


A sculpted head of Amenhotep III


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:28:17 pm
Literature

Ancient Egyptian literature, most often written on papyrus, also contains elements of ancient Egyptian art, as the texts and connected pictures were recorded on papyrus or on wall paintings and so on. They date from the Old Kingdom to the Greco-Roman period.

The subject matter of such literature-related art forms include hymns to the gods, mythological and magical texts, mortuary texts. Other subject matters were biographical and historical texts, scientific premises, including mathematical and medical texts, wisdom texts dealing with instructive literature, fables and stories.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:28:48 pm
Paintings

Ancient Egyptian paintings survived due to the extremely dry climate. The ancient Egyptians created paintings to make the afterlife of the deceased a pleasant place. Accordingly, beautiful paintings were created. The themes included journey through the afterworld or their protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld. Some examples of such paintings are paintings of Osiris and warriors. Some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity.

In the New Kingdom and later, the Book of the Dead was buried with the entombed person. It was considered important for an introduction to the afterlife. However, no one found the book and it is still lost in a tomb of the Nile.

Egyptian paintings are painted in such a way to show a profile view and a side view of the animal or person. For example, the painting to the right shows the head from a profile view and the body from a frontal view.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:31:21 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Maler_der_Grabkammer_der_Nefertari_004.jpg/407px-Maler_der_Grabkammer_der_Nefertari_004.jpg)

Wall painting of Queen Nefertari


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 18, 2008, 01:34:20 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/Egyptian_Coffin_Mask.jpg/475px-Egyptian_Coffin_Mask.jpg)
An Egyptian coffin mask made of wood and glass, from the en:New Kingdom, dated to Dynasty 18 or 19 (1550-1196 BC).

From the Freer and Sackler Galleries of Washington D.C.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_of_the_ancient_world

http://forums.atlantisrising.com/cgi-bin/ubb/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=000759;p=1


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:04:55 am
Indian painting

The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka, and some of them are older than 5500 BC. Such works continued and after several millennia, in the 7th century, carved pillars of Ellora, Maharashtra state present a fine example of Indian paintings, and the colors, mostly various shades of red and orange, were derived from minerals. Thereafter, frescoes of Ajanta and Ellora Caves appeared. India’s Buddhist literature is replete with examples of texts which describe that palaces of kings and aristocratic class were embellished with paintings, but they have largely not survived. But, it is believed that some form of art painting was practiced during that time.

Somewhere around 1st century BC the Sadanga or Six Limbs of Indian Painting, were evolved, a series of canons laying down the main principles of the art. Vatsyayana, who lived during the third century A.D., enumerates these in his Kamasutra having extracted them from still more ancient works.

These ‘Six Limbs’ have been translated as follows :

1. Rupabheda The knowledge of appearances.

2. Pramanam Correct perception, measure and structure.

3. Bhava Action of feelings on forms.

4. Lavanya Yojanam Infusion of grace, artistic representation.

5. Sadrisyam Similitude.

6. Varnikabhanga Artistic manner of using the brush and colours. (Tagore.)

The subsequent development of painting by the Buddhists indicates that these ' Six Limbs ' were put into practice by Indian artists, and are the .basic principles on which their art was founded.

Indian Paintings can be broadly classified as the murals and miniatures. Murals are huge works executed on the walls of solid structures, as in the Ajanta Caves and the Kailashnath temple. Miniature paintings are executed on a very small scale on perishable material such as paper and cloth. The Palas of Bengal were the pioneers of miniature painting in India. The art of miniature painting reached its glory during the Mughal period. The tradition of miniature paintings was carried forward by the painters of different Rajasthani schools of painting like the Bundi, Kishangarh, Jaipur, Marwar and Mewar. The Ragamala paintings also belong to this school.

Indian paintings provide an aesthetic continuum that extends from the early civilization to the present day. From being essentially religious in purpose in the beginning, Indian painting has evolved over the years to become a fusion of various cultures and traditions. The Indian painting was exposed to Greco-Roman as well as Iranian and Chinese influences. Cave paintings in different parts of India bear testimony to these influences and a continuous evolution of new idioms is evident.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:05:27 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Indischer_Maler_um_1650_%28I%29_001.jpg/404px-Indischer_Maler_um_1650_%28I%29_001.jpg)

Radha.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:06:54 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/30/Indischer_Maler_des_6._Jahrhunderts_001.jpg/581px-Indischer_Maler_des_6._Jahrhunderts_001.jpg)

Fresco from Ajanta, c 6th century.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:07:42 am
Miniature painting

In western India from the 16th to 18th century miniature painting developed. These small paintings were part of manuscripts written at the time and illustrate the subjects of the manuscripts. These miniatures are found in some " Jain " manuscripts and are of 2 to 4 inches in size.

The pattern of large scale wall painting which had dominated the scene, witnessed the advent of miniature paintings during the 11th & 12th centuries. This new style figured first in the form of illustrations etched on palm-leaf manuscripts. The contents of these manuscripts included literature on the Buddhism & Jainism. In eastern India, the principal centres of artistic and intellectual activities of the Buddhist religion were Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramshila and Somarpura situated in the Pala kingdom (Bengal & Bihar).

 
Mughal paintingIt was in the 14th century A.D. that paper replaced the palm leaf. The jain style of paintings attained a high degree of development by th elate 15th and 16th century. A new trend in manuscript illustration was set by a manuscript of the Nimatnama painted at Mandu, during the reign of Nasir shah (1500 - 1510 AD). This represent a synthesis of the indigenous and the Persion style, thought it was the latter which dominated the Mandu manuscripts. There was another style of painting known as Lodi Khuladar that flourished in the Sultanate's dominion of North India extending from delhi to Jaunpur.

Akbar's reign (1556-1605) ushered a new era in Indian miniature painting. He was the first morarch who established in India an atelier under the supervision of two Persian master artists, Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul-ul-Sanad Khan. Earlier, both of them had served under the patronage of Humayun in Kabul and accompanied him to India when he regained his throne in 1555. Later, a number of artists were engaged to work under their guidance to decorate Akbar's imperial studio at fatehpur Sikri. One of the first productions of that school of miniature painting was the HAMZANAMA series, which according to the court historian, Badayuni, was started in 1567 and completed in 1582. It is interesting that most of artists beloned to the Hindu communities hailing from Gujrat, Gwalior and kashmir, who gave a birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:09:35 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d4/Mughal.jpg)
Mughal painting




Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:10:27 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/Indischer_Maler_um_1710_001.jpg/576px-Indischer_Maler_um_1710_001.jpg)


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:11:13 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Indischer_Maler_um_1595_001.jpg/601px-Indischer_Maler_um_1595_001.jpg)

Indischer Maler um 1595


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Amy Principe on November 19, 2008, 11:12:40 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/StandingBuddha.jpg/342px-StandingBuddha.jpg)
Buddha statue from the Gandhara-culture (1st century, Afghanistan)

Buddha-Statue der Gandhara-Kultur (1 Jahrhundert, Afghanistan)



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:06:23 pm
Next to ancient Egypt:

Ancient Egyptian art is five thousand years old. It emerged and took shape in ancient Egypt, the civilization of the Nile Valley. Expressed in paintings and sculptures, it was highly symbolic and fascinating — this art form revolves round the past and was intended to keep history alive.

In a narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2D and 3D art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. It is to be noted that most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over the 3000 year period that represents the ancient civilization without strong outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and remained near that level over the period.

Egyptian papyrusFaience that was produced in ancient Egyptian antiquity as early as 3500 BC was in fact superior to the tin-glazed earthenware of the European 15th century ([2]; also see Faience). Ancient Egyptian faience was not made of clay but instead actually of a ceramic composed primarily of quartz. Approximately two hundred of these "masterpieces of faience" are the subject of the on-line article posted at [3].

Because of the highly religious nature of Ancient Egyptian civilization, many of the great works of Ancient Egypt depict gods, goddesses, and Pharaohs, who were also considered divine. Ancient Egyptian art is characterized by the idea of order. Clear and simple lines combined with simple shapes and flat areas of color helped to create a sense of order and balance in the art of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian artists used vertical and horizontal reference lines in order to maintain the correct proportions in their work. Political and religious, as well as artistic order, was also maintained in Egyptian art. In order to clearly define the social hierarchy of a situation, figures were drawn to sizes based not on their distance from the painter's point of view but on relative importance. For instance, the Pharaoh would be drawn as the largest figure in a painting no matter where he was situated, and a greater God would be drawn larger than a lesser god. Symbolism also played an important role in establishing a sense of order. Symbolism, ranging from the Pharaoh's regalia (symbolizing his power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses, was omnipresent in Egyptian art . Animals were usually also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Color, as well, had extended meaning— Blue and green represented the Nile and life; yellow stood for the sun god; and red represented power and vitality. The colors in Egyptian artifacts have survived extremely well over the centuries because of Egypt's dry climate. Despite the stilted form caused by a lack of perspective, ancient Egyptian art is often highly realistic. Ancient Egyptian artists often show a sophisticated knowledge of anatomy and a close attention to detail, especially in their renderings of animals. During the 18th Dynasty of Egypt a Pharaoh by the name of Akhenaton took the throne and abolished the traditional polytheism. He formed a monotheistic religion based on the worship of Aten, a sun god. Artistic change followed political upheaval. A new style of art was introduced that was more naturalistic than the stylized frieze favored in Egyptian art for the previous 1700 years. After Akhenaton's death, however, Egyptian artists reverted to their old styles.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:07:22 pm
And, lastly the greatest arworks of the ancient world:

Seven Wonder of the World - Ancient Times


The task of compiling the seven wonders of the world for people would have been really a tough one. There were so many marvels to choose from. The task of compiling the list of seven wonders of the world was originally started by around 5th century BC.

We all know the difficulties of old days to travel around places. People had quite tough times in travel and collecting data like these. Imaging traveling by walk or on camels or horses for 100s of miles without a proper place to rest. Of course our generation is blessed to have a large number of hotels and lodges wherever we go. We have aero places, trains, buses, cars, bikes and what not.


In spite of all such difficulties in travel, People like Herodotus, Callimachus and some others did a good level of research and documentation. They traveled a lot, collected a lot of books, facts and proofs to produce such documentation. But all of them were destroyed when a fire broke out in Alexandria Library. The final list was compiled in the Medieval ages. Alas! such a big loss. What we are left with is only some little maps/atlas and some basic documents from them.


Pyramid of Giza

Egypt is a place any one would like to go for a vacation. Tourism is such a great money earner for Egypt. And when somebody travels, one of the most preferred place to visit would be the Cairo and the Giza city.
This is one of the largest pyramids in the world and considered to be one of the great among the seven wonders of the world. There are actually 3 Pyramids located in this place along with a Sphinx. The biggest of all is The Great Pyramid of Khufu and this is the only one among the seven wonders of the world. These architectural marvels are found in Giza City which is located at the northern edge of the Giza Plateau, about 10 miles west of present day Cairo. Read on..

Temple of Artemis

This is located on the west coast of modern Turkey, south of Selcuk county about 50 km south of Smyrna. This place was called as Ephesus during ancient times. This temple was destroyed and rebuilt over several hundred years. From the descriptions of those times, this temple should have been a great place for travel and tourism. Tourists would have loved to visit such places.

This was first built during 800 BC near the river at Ephesus. The God Artemis in Ephesus is a goddess of fertility. In some instances Artemis is linked closely to the Roman and Italian goddess, Diana. She also is goddess of night, fruitfulness, childbirth, beasts, bull and is an eternal virgin. This got its rightful recognition as one among the seven wonders of the world. Read on..

Colossus of Rhodes

If this wonder were remaining, this would have been one of the tallest artifacts in the world and also one the tallest among the seven wonders of the world. This wonder was erected to commemorate the victory of Rhodians against the Antagonids. This statue was located in the Harbor of the Mediterranean island Rhodes in Greece. The Island of Rhodes is located at the Southwestern tip of the Asia Minor, where the Aegean sea meets the Mediterranean.

If this was still available, this would have caught attention of the travelers more than any such taller statues. Read on..


http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:11:24 pm
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If this wonder were remaining, this would have been one of the tallest artifacts in the world. This wonder of the world was erected to commemorate the victory of Rhodians against the Antagonids.

Location:

This statue was located in the Harbor of the Mediterranean island Rhodes in Greece. The Island of Rhodes is located at the Southwestern tip of the Asia Minor, where the Aegean sea meets the Mediterranean.

Details:

This is a statue of the Sun god, Helios. On the Island of Rhodes 3 cities Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos formed a unified city with their capital as Rhodes. During the period around 408 BC they had strong economic and commercial alliance with Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt.
In 357 B.C. this island was captured by Mausolus of Halicarnassus. It was then captured by Persians in 340 B.C. Then it fell into the hands of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. After Alexander's death, 3 of his generals succeeded in dividing the kingdom for themselves. They are Ptolemy, Seleucus and Antigous. After this Rhodians supported Ptolemy which angered Antigous.
Antagonids in 305 BC, wanted to break their alliance and tried invading Rhodes and found this city to be impenetrable. Antagonids were fighting for almost one full year. By this time the support for Rhodes have started coming in from Egypt. So Antagonids started withdrawing their forces and fled, leaving behind lots of their arms and ammunitions, which lead to the construction of one of the seven wonders of world.
Rhodians sold some of those equipments and to celebrate their victory, erected a statue for their Sun God, Helios. Lot of the metals used in this construction came from the left off belongings of Antagonids. This is the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the seven wonders of world.
The construction took 12 years and the stature was erected in 282 BC. During the earthquake at about 226 BC, this Colossus of Rhodes (statue) was damaged and fell down. When they planned to rebuild it, the idea was dropped because some Oracle said the city will face misfortune if this statue is rebuilt. That was the final chapter to the story of this wonder of the world.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_colossus_of_rhodes.html


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:11:51 pm
Seven Wonders of the World - Hanging Gardens of Babylon




This is one of the most venerated marvels among the seven wonders of world.

Location:
This wonder of the world was located in the east bank of Euphrates, South of Baghdad in Iraq.

Description:
The King Hammurabi is the most famous king of the Babylonian kingdom. The whole kingdom flourished under his rule. His son Nebuchadnezzar is the one who built the Hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven wonders of world.
Nebuchadnezzar ruled the country for 43 years from 605 BC. He constructed impressive array of temples, palaces and streets. It is being told that he built this garden to please his wife, Amyitis. Amyitis, daughter of the king Medes seems to have had a passion for mountainous surroundings. There are some other accounts which say that this wonder of the world was actually built by the Assyrian Queen Semiramis.
The ancient accounts of this hanging gardens (one of the seven wonders of the world) describes the structure to be a stairs like one. The Greek geographer Strabo, describes it as , "the garden consists of vaulted terraces raised one above another, and resting upon cube-shaped pillars. These are hollow and filled with earth to allow trees of the largest size to be planted. The pillars, the vaults, and terraces are constructed of baked brick and asphalt."
The irrigation system was supposedly the complex part built on this gardens. This region had very scarce rains. Slaves were used to push the water upwards using some ancient method of irrigation. Of course there must be some exploitation of slave labor to maintain one among the seven wonders of the world. The gardens did not really hang on the roof using cables or ropes. But this name from the sense that it was built on the roof top. Some accounts state that the gardens are 400 by 400 feet and 80 feet high.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_gardens_babylon.html



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:12:13 pm
Seven Wonders of the World - Statue of Zeus



This is one of the interesting stories to know about. This statue is associated with our favorite Olympic games which is being a widely watched event all over the world. The only sporting marvel among all the seven wonders of world

Location:
Olympia the ancient Greek city.

Description:
In ancient times the Greek city states used to play games every 4 years. This is what is now called as Olympic games. During those times truce is declared and wars are stopped. Players and athletes from all over the places traveled to a place in Greece called Peloponnesus. These Olympic games were started during 776 BC. Incidentally this is the period when Green calendar starts. These Olympic games were held in honour of their King of gods, Zeus. He is also known as God of Jupiter.
During the 5th century, they decided to have a temple for their king of gods and Libon was assigned the task of completing the work. Libon designed the temple and Pheidias was asked to build a big statue for Zeus. Pheidias had good techniques with him to build big statues. He used wooden frame to make the outer casings for the statues in gold. His workshop still remains and incidentally its size can accommodate building of such big statues. He built a statue of approximately 40 ft height.
The statue was so high that, even while sitting the head of the god Zeus was near the roof of the temple. This is what amazed the historians and poets of those times. This simply illustrates that the god Zeus is so big that even if he stands, the whole roof would come off its place. Zeus was seated on a throne, draped in gold robe. Zeus had a wreath around his head and held a figure of his messenger in his right hand.
The statue, one among the seven wonders of world was occasionally presented with gifts from rulers. The most notable one was the woolen curtain dedicated by the Syrian king.
In the I century AD, Roman emperor Caligula tried to take the statue to Rome but failed. But before 5th century AD, wealthy Greeks have moved it to Constantinople which saved the statue for some more years. After that a severe fire has destroyed the statue. Even before this the temple site was ravaged by floods, landslides and earthquakes to the extent that the structure was badly damaged. Now the remnants of this statue, one among the seven wonders of world have gone without even a small trace except for the reproduction in some of the medieval coins.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_statue_zeus.html



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:12:31 pm
Temple of Artemis

This was supposed to be one of the most beautiful structures on the Earth. No wonder it got recognized as one of the seven wonders of the world.

Location:
This is located on the west coast of modern Turkey, south of Selcuk county about 50 km south of Smyrna. This place was called as Ephesus during ancient times.

Details:

This temple was destroyed and rebuilt over several hundred years. This was first built during 800 BC near the river at Ephesus. The God Artemis in Ephesus is a goddess of fertility. In some instances Artemis is linked closely to the Roman and Italian goddess, Diana. She also is goddess of night, fruitfulness, childbirth, beasts, bull and is an eternal virgin.
This earliest temple supposedly contained a sacred stone, probably fallen from Jupiter. By 600 BC, a Greek architect named Chersiphron (and his son, Metagenes) was engaged and the temple was built. The temple was decorated with beautiful bronze statues sculpted by artists Pheidias, Polycleitus, Kresilas and Phradmon. This was destroyed by the Lydian king Croesus when he conquered Ephesus. He later built a large temple at the same place with the help of Theodorus.
This temple was both a market place and a place of worship. For years this place was visited by lots of merchants, tourists, artisans, kings to pay their homage and share their profits with the Artemis goddess. Lots of scholars venerated to the extent that this came to be recognized as one of the seven wonders of the world.
On July 21, 356 BC, a man named HeroStratus burned the temple. He did this in order to gain a big name in the history. For an inquisitive info, Alexander was also born the same night. The reconstruction was commenced very shortly with an architect called Scopas of Paros. He was the best architect of those times. When Alexander conquered Asia Minor, he offered to rebuild the temple. The reconstruction was in progress when he reached this place. Even then, it was restored only after his death. When he came into this place in 333 BC, the temple was still being rebuilt.
This Temple was the last of the Great Goddess Temples to remain open and was the site of Goddess worship well into the Christian era. When St. Paul visited Ephesus to preach Christianity, he was not at all accepted by the local Artemisians. But after the temple was destroyed by Goths in AD 262, most of the people had got themselves converted to Christianity. In AD 401 St. John Chrysostom torn the whole structure down. That was the end to this wonder of the world. This site got excavated only in 19th century.
This one of the seven wonders of world supposed to have contained 106 columns and each of them believed to be from 40 to 60 ft height. foundation was approximately 200 feet by 400 feet.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_artemis_temple.html


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:12:49 pm
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus


This is such an elegant piece of architectural wonder that, it found a place in the list of ancient wonders among the great seven wonders of the world, like pyramids.

Location:
This Wonder of the World, is located in the city of Bodrum, on the Aegan sea, in south-west Turkey. This is actually closer to the ancient Temple of Artemis.

Description:
This Mausoleum was built in memory and as a burial tomb for the King Mausolus. King Mausolus was married to his sister Artemisia in his family. In those times, Caria rulers had a custom to marry their own sisters. When the king died, Artemisia decided to build this monument in his memory, which later found a place among the seven wonders of the world.
Mausolus was the son of Hecatomnus. Hecatomnus ruled the Mediterranean coast of Asia minor with a small kingdom. He took control of several of his neighboring regions, during his reign. After Hecatomnus' death, Mausolus also extended the kingdom.
Mausolus ruled this kingdom with the capital as Halicarnassus for 24 years. There was nothing worth mentioning as his achievement during his tenure except for this monument with its exceptional beauty later to be called as one of the seven wonders of the world.
This Mausoleum was built around 353 BC. This lasted strong for 16 centuries till an earthquake damaged the roof and the colonnade of this structure. In the early 15th century AD Knights of John of Malta, used the stone blocks in this structure to construct a castle. That was the end to the story of this Mausoleum, one among the seven wonders of the world in ancient times.
This Mausoleum had a lot of beautiful statues sculpted by the best sculptors like Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas, and Timotheus. Some of the artifacts are still kept in London.
Soon after the construction of this wonder of the world, Mausoleum Artemisia found herself in a crisis. Before death, Mausolus used to control the small neighboring regions like Rhodes island and others. When the Rhodes island king came to know that Mausolus has died, he sent a number of ships to capture the city of Halicarnassus. But Artemisia beat them cleverly by hiding her ships and then attacking her enemies.
Then she successfully sent her troops to the Rhodes island on the enemy ships and captured Rhodes Island. The Rhodes Island soldiers thought that it is their people who are coming back with victory. They did not put up any defense. So they were easily conquered.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_halicarnassus_mausoleum.html


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:13:14 pm
Light House of Alexandria

This light house of Alexandria was one of the useful wonders among all the seven wonders of the world (for the sailors to return to the Great Harbor). This is a small point that differentiates it from the rest of the wonders of the world. The mirror which was mounted on this lighthouse could reflect the light more than 35 miles off-shore. Of the 6 ancient destroyed wonders, this was the last to be destroyed around 1480 AD.

Location:
On the ancient island of Pharos, now a promontory on the harbor of the city of Alexandria in Egypt.

Description:
This lighthouse was built around 280 BC and was around 134 m in height. This was built in the city of Alexandria.
The light house had a good mirror which can reflect the sun light to a very long distance. Mythical stories used to say that this mirror was used to burn the enemy ships.
The Macedonian conqueror, Alexander during his successful reign, had tried establishing approximately 17 cities in the name of Alexandria. The only one survived long was the one in Egypt. That too even this city was not completely built by Alexander. The completion of the construction of this city was achieved by his commander Ptolemy I Soter.
Ptolemy connected Alexandria to the Pharos island by a bridge. It was realized that the sailing in this coastal region is very dangerous. That is why he decided to build a light house. This project was initiated during Ptolemy's reign in 290 BC and completed after his death by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus. Sostratus who lived in the same time as Euclid, was the architect. This used to remain in the harbor for centuries. This wonder of the world also depicted in the Roman coins that time.
The writings of the Arab conquerors are very good source of information about this lighthouse. The new rulers moved the capital to the Cairo. So this place had lost its importance. Three earthquakes stuck in various periods (around AD 956, AD 1303 and AD 1323 ) have damaged the lighthouse significantly. The during AD 1480 the Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan, has built a medieval fort at the same place. That was the end to the story of the light house.
There are some more tales to the light house. Sostratus after he completed the lighthouse wanted his name to be carved on the light house. This was not allowed by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Ptolemy II wanted his name to be carved on the structure. But what Sostratus did is he first carved his name underneath, put plasters on it and then carved Ptolemy II's name. After some years, the plasters worn out and his name has come out to be known to all.
The design of the lighthouse was unlike the modern slim lighthouse towers. This was built in 3 stages, each built on top of the lower.
This lighthouse was so popular that the word Pharos came into French, Spanish and Italian to mean lighthouse.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_lighthouse_alexandria.html

[ 07-22-2006, 11:37 PM: Message edited by: Dawn Moline ]


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:13:27 pm
Ian Nottingham

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   posted 07-23-2006 01:16 AM                       
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Great work, Dawn, our Egypt and Greek sections seems a little lacking, though.
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Posts: 240 | From: the void | Registered: Nov 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:13:36 pm
Amy Lewton

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   posted 07-23-2006 02:04 AM                       
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My favorite of the seven wonders of the world would have to be the Colossus of Rhodes, which is odd cause no one has ever seen it. It only stood something like fifty years, then an earthquake knocked it down.

Odd that the oldest of the Seven Wonders, the Great Pyramid, is the only one still around.
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Posts: 44 | From: America | Registered: Jan 2006   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:13:48 pm
Helios

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   posted 07-24-2006 02:08 AM                       
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The Colossus of Rhodes may have only stood fifty-six years, and yet it lay on the ground, split off at the legs, for some six hundred. Then, when the Arabs invaded the island, one of their traders carted it off to the Middle East, using a great number of camels. We must assume that they had to break it apart even more to transport it.

In recent years, they have made plans to rebuild the Colossus, but, as far as I know they haven't gotten off the ground yet.

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"This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits called the Pillars of Heracles; the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together..."

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Posts: 406 | From: Rhodes (an island near Cyprus) | Registered: Jun 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:14:01 pm
rockessence

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   posted 07-24-2006 03:03 AM                       
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A Wonder Destroyed...

"After Ice-Time the original Aser rebuilt their old capital called Hel (clear; whole; home; complete) or Hel-stad. They founded a new center in Nyslott (Olavin-linna) from whence they populated all the land eastwards to the Pi-Kingdom of China. Via Götland and Åland they sent two sons of the As-King to establish two more "races" or "rays" as from the Sun (the father of all things)! They originated the Kingdoms of Sweden and Denmark, the home of all European nobility.


"When the Vatican seized control of northern Europe they equipped a huge army from middle Europe to invade and demolish the oldest city in Europe, Hel. In 1050 they arrived and the whole coastal area of 270 km around Helsinki was ransacked. All its citizens were killed by sword or fire and many "heathen" temples, treasures and buildings were completely destroyed."

http://www.bocksaga.com/articles/bo_olsson/thenordicconnection.html

One of the great stone buildings destroyed was the real and true Valhalla. The Vatican mercenary army dismantled it, and in the middle of winter, dragged every bit of it out onto the frozen Bay of Finland to be swallowed up in the spring thaw.

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"Illigitimi non carborundum!"
All knowledge is to be used in the manner that will give help and assistance to others, and the desire is that the laws of the Creator be manifested in the physical world. E.Cayce 254-17

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Posts: 3129 | From: Port Townsend WA | Registered: Feb 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:14:10 pm
Jennifer O'Dell

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   posted 07-24-2006 03:33 AM                       
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Boy did that Vatican destroy a lot of pagan stuff over the years. I guess to them the ends justified the means.
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Posts: 946 | Registered: Nov 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:14:22 pm
Amy Lewton

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   posted 07-24-2006 09:39 PM                       
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You have to wonder what the Colossus of Rhodes actually looked like, what pose it was in. I heard that they actually made it with it's legs apart, which would have explained why it broke apart in the earthquake. To actually straddle the harbor, it would have had to have been twice as big as the 100 feet it was supposed to be.
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Posts: 44 | From: America | Registered: Jan 2006 


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:15:08 pm
Nicole Jimmelson

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   posted 07-25-2006 12:15 AM                       
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My favorite painting of all time has to be the Scream, by Edward Munch - there were actually four of it, and one is missing to this day:

The Scream (Skrik, 1893) is a seminal expressionist painting by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch. Regarded by many as his most important work, it is said by some to symbolize modern man taken by an attack of existential angst. The landscape in the background is Oslofjord, viewed from the hill of Ekeberg. The Norwegian word skrik is usually translated as "scream", but is cognate with the English shriek. Occasionally, the painting has been called The Cry.

There is a tempera on cardboard version (measuring 83.5 x 66 cm) formerly in the Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway (shown below), and an oil, tempera, and pastel on cardboard (measuring 91 x 73.5 cm) in the National Gallery (shown to right), also in Oslo. A third version is also owned by the Munch Museum, and a fourth is owned by Petter Olsen. Munch later also translated the picture into a lithograph (shown below), so the image could be reproduced in reviews all over the world. However, one version is currently missing from the Munch Museum, having been stolen by art thieves in August 2004.

Sources of inspiration

Munch translated The Scream into lithograph in 1895 so that it could be reproduced all over the world.Munch described his inspiration for the image thus:

I was walking along a path with two friends – the sun was setting – suddenly the sky turned blood red – I paused, feeling exhausted, and leaned on the fence – there was blood and tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and the city – my friends walked on, and I stood there trembling with anxiety – and I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature.
This has led some commentators to propose that the person in the painting is not screaming, but reacting with despair to the "scream passing through nature".

The scene is from a road overlooking Oslo, the Oslofjord and Hovedøya, from the hill of Ekeberg. At the time of painting the work, Munch's manic depressive sister Laura Catherine was interned in the mental hospital at the foot of Ekeberg.

In 1978, the renowned Munch scholar Robert Rosenblum suggested that the strange, sexless creature in the foreground of the painting was probably inspired by a Peruvian mummy which Munch could have seen at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This mummy, which was crouching in foetal position with its hands alongside its face, also struck the imagination of Munch's friend Paul Gauguin: it stood model for the central figure in his painting Human misery (Grape harvest at Arles) and for the old woman at the left in his painting Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?. More recently, an Italian anthropologist speculated that Munch might have seen a mummy in Florence's Museum of Natural History which bears an even more striking resemblance to the painting[1].

In 2003, astronomers claimed to have identified the time that the painting depicted. The volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 caused unusually intense sunsets throughout Europe in the winter of 1883-4, which Munch captured in his picture[2].


Thefts

Thieves taking paintings from the Munch Museum, August 2004On 12 February 1994 the National Gallery's Scream was stolen. Initially the theft was linked to various anti-abortion groups active in Norway, but this turned out to be false. After three months, the painting was offered back to the Norwegian government for a ransom of USD $1 million. The ransom was refused, but the painting was nevertheless recovered on 7 May, following a sting operation organised by the Norwegian police with assistance from the British Police and the Getty Museum.

On August 22, 2004, the Munch Museum's Scream was stolen at gunpoint, along with Munch's Madonna. Museum officials expressed hope that they would see the painting again, theorizing that perhaps the thieves would seek ransom money. The paintings are still missing. On April 8, 2005, Norwegian police arrested a suspect in connection with the theft[3]. On April 28, 2005, it was rumoured that the two paintings had been burnt by the thieves to conceal evidence[4]. On June 1, 2005, the City Government of Oslo offered a reward of 2 million Norwegian kroner (about USD $320,000) for information that could help locate the paintings. In early 2006, six men with previous criminal records were scheduled to go on trial, variously charged with either helping to plan or execute the robbery. Three of the men were convicted and sentenced to between four and eight years in prison in May of 2006. Two of the convicted art thieves, Björn Hoen, 37, and Petter Tharaldsen, 34, were also ordered to pay 750 million kroner (US $122 million) to the City of Oslo which is where the paintings were previously located. [1] None of the suspects had been persuaded to reveal the paintings' current location, perhaps due to fear of retaliation. The Munch Museum itself was closed for 10 months for a $6 million security overhaul.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Scream

[ 07-25-2006, 12:17 AM: Message edited by: Nicole Jimmelson ]
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Posts: 157 | From: Boston | Registered: Mar 2006   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:15:44 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f4/The_Scream.jpg/463px-The_Scream.jpg)

This painting by Edvard Munch is in the public domain in the United States because it was first published more than 95 years ago. The painting is protected by copyright in Norway until 2015 (the life of the author + 70 years). The painting may also be covered by copyright in the countries of the European Union


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:16:38 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/50/Munch_The_Scream_lithography.png)

The Scream by artist Edvard Munch. Lithography, 1895.


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:17:27 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4b/The_Scream2.jpg)
This version, executed in tempera on cardboard, was stolen from the Munch Museum in 2004, and recovered in 2006.



Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:18:05 pm
rockessence

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   posted 07-25-2006 12:44 AM                       
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I got to see one of the SCREAM paintings in Oslo in 1969. It was situated right next to a window! As I recall, all the museums I visited that year were woefully under-guarded. In Amsterdam in the Rjiksmuseum, I spent a long while in a 12X12 foot dimly lit room all by myself with about six or seven Vermeers! None of the canvasses were too large to fit under my shirt! A ways across the museum there was a single permanent guard in the room with the huge "Nightwatch" by Rembrandt which had a velvet rope to hold back people from approaching the canvas.

Ah, I still think longingly of those delicious Vermeers!

[ 07-25-2006, 12:48 AM: Message edited by: rockessence ]

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"Illigitimi non carborundum!"
All knowledge is to be used in the manner that will give help and assistance to others, and the desire is that the laws of the Creator be manifested in the physical world. E.Cayce 254-17

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Posts: 3129 | From: Port Townsend WA | Registered: Feb 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:18:21 pm
Jennifer O'Dell

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   posted 07-25-2006 12:58 AM                       
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That's pretty cool, Rockessence, is that how your connection to Norway first began? Have you travelled there a lot?

Just how huge is the Nightwatch anyway?
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Posts: 946 | Registered: Nov 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:18:43 pm
rockessence

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   posted 07-25-2006 11:37 AM                       
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quote:
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Originally posted by Jennifer O'Dell:
That's pretty cool, Rockessence, is that how your connection to Norway first began? Have you travelled there a lot?

Just how huge is the Nightwatch anyway?
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_Watch

The "Night Watch", Rembrandt, 1642
oil on canvas, 363 × 437 cm (11.91 feet by 14.39 feet)
I was standing about 10-15 feet back and it was pretty wide. My husband was a painter and some of his work was as big as 8X12 feet.

I went to a Rijksmuseum site and saw only 4 Vermeer's listed.... were there more then? I don't know.

The Milkmaid
The Love Letter
Woman in Blue reading a Letter
The Little Street

As to my interest in Norway/Scandinavia. I spent part of June and part of November 1969 there, with the sweetest family ever. I learned about Theodore Kittelsen, Tove Jansen (Mummintrollet), wartime events and politics. My friends father had been a political cartoonist and during the war he published a lot of cartoons about the Nazis and Hitler. His signature was a star, and no one knew who he was. When Norway was invaded by Germany, finding him was top priority. He was finally captured about a week before Germany lost the war, so just barely escaped being shipped off to a camp. His cell was next to the one holding my friend's mother, and the two became acquainted through tapping out a code. Later they married.

We visited him in Voss, a little town on a lake in the middle of Norway. He lived in an ancient small cabin on the hillside above the lake across from the town. We could watch the tiny train like a toy, chugging through the valley. I tried to make American style pancakes one morning and they were a dismal failure! He drew me a cartoon of himself blasting through the roof of his outhouse....with the label "Pancake I on it's way to Mars"....

My 1969 trip was amazing...I went to England first and then hitchhiked north to Norway and south all the way to North Africa and back again. Some amazing adventures.

[ 07-25-2006, 11:44 AM: Message edited by: rockessence ]

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"Illigitimi non carborundum!"
All knowledge is to be used in the manner that will give help and assistance to others, and the desire is that the laws of the Creator be manifested in the physical world. E.Cayce 254-17

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Posts: 3129 | From: Port Townsend WA | Registered: Feb 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:19:54 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/The_Nightwatch_by_Rembrandt.jpg/720px-The_Nightwatch_by_Rembrandt.jpg)

De Nachtwacht (The Night Watch)
Rembrandt, 1642
Oil on canvas
363 × 437 cm, 142.9 × 172.0 in
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:20:34 pm
 
Jennifer O'Dell

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   posted 07-26-2006 01:21 AM                       
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Sounds pretty cool, I didn't know the Night Watch was so huge.

The cartoonist signed his name with a star, like the star of David or something? Was he Jewish and that was the reason he was going off to the camps?

I would love to go to Norway someday. Have you ever met Boreasi in person, by the way?
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Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:20:43 pm
Devlin

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   posted 07-26-2006 01:35 AM                       
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Where exactly did you go in North Africa, Rockessence? And when you went to England, did you stop and see Stonehenge..?
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Posts: 102 | Registered: Jun 2006   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:21:04 pm
rockessence

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   posted 07-26-2006 10:21 AM                       
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Jenni,Devlin,

RE: "The cartoonist signed his name with a star, like the star of David or something? Was he Jewish and that was the reason he was going off to the camps?"

No he was not Jewish. He signed with a little 5-point star...apparently his cartoons had been so scathing for years, the Nazis couldn't wait to get their hands on him.

I have never met Boreas in person or on the phone. Only communicated thru Email. I would dearly love to go and meet him and Ior Bock and Leo Nygren and also the fellow in Germany who keeps the bocksaga.de site. Mr. Nygren has written a lot of material from speaking with Ior Bock and it is on the site. I have spoken to him on the phone and he offered to give a tour to all the important places relating to the Bock material. That sounded really great.

Devlin,

I went to Morocco for almost a month. I had a great time after I recovered from Amoebic Dysentary! In England I had a stunning but fleeting view of Stonehenge from a bus! Whoa Nellie! If I knew then what I know now...blah blah blah.....

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"Illigitimi non carborundum!"
All knowledge is to be used in the manner that will give help and assistance to others, and the desire is that the laws of the Creator be manifested in the physical world. E.Cayce 254-17

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Posts: 3129 | From: Port Townsend WA | Registered: Feb 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:21:18 pm
Dawn Moline

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   posted 07-26-2006 09:48 PM                       
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Timely of you to mention Stonehenge, Rockessence, for tonight I think we should look at the beginnings of architecture.

During the Ice Age, human beings did desperate things to survive. They lived not only in caves, but in the skeletons of dead mammoths:


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30 bone hut sites out of Mammoth bone made by prehistoric humans during the Paleolithic period has been found (as deep as 22.5 m deep) in Czech Republic, Poland and Ukraine in Europe. The huts and houses were Circular or oval huts and as much as 15 to 20 feet in diameter. The oldest are dated to be 27,500 years old, (Ukraine houses are dated at between 12,000 and 19,000 years ago) and whole villages have been found, being the oldest towns found. Humankind started creating urban centers like those clusters of homes 15,000 years ago, during the Ice Age.
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http://www.elephant.se/mammoth_bone_houses.php?open=Man%20and%20elephants

Can we imagine how difficult it most have been for human beings to have lived and kept warm in these barren structures, just how difficult our ancestors had it?

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"The unexamined life is one not worth leading."
-Plato

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Posts: 446 | From: citizen of the world | Registered: Oct 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:21:49 pm
Dawn Moline

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   posted 07-26-2006 09:54 PM                       
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The oldest cave paintings found, date to 32,000 bc and can be found along the deep gorge of the Ardèche River in southern France:


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The Grotte Chauvet is one of hundreds of natural caverns cut into the pale limestone cliffs that form the Ardeche Gorge.

But it is unique. Its stone etchings and 416 paintings -a dozen more were discovered in the 15-day expedition that began last week-are, at 32,000 years, the oldest cave art known to science. The find consists of mural after mural of bold lions, leaping horses, pensive owls and charging rhinoceroses that together make up a veritable Louvre of Paleolithic art.
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http://donsmaps.com/chauvetcave.html

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"The unexamined life is one not worth leading."
-Plato

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Posts: 446 | From: citizen of the world | Registered: Oct 2004   


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:22:29 pm
(http://donsmaps.com/images3/chauvetcliff.jpg)


Title: Re: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original
Post by: Crystal Thielkien on November 20, 2008, 03:24:00 pm
 
Dawn Moline

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   posted 07-26-2006 10:01 PM                       
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Some interesting notes on the Venus of Willenorf:


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Obesity in the Palaeolithic Era?


The Venus of Willendorf


Eric Colman, M.D.


The Venus of Willendorf is one of numerous similarly shaped, uniquely feminine, statuettes dating to the Upper Paleolithic Period (circa 20 000 to 30 000 BC)

This faceless work of art, with its pendulous breasts, fleshy hips, and protruding buttocks, has been considered by some to be a true to life depiction of obesity. Are we to believe that obesity plagued prehistoric women? Although we cannot discount the existence of a singular case of obesity due to Cushing's disease, hypothyroidism, or pituitary dysfunction, several lines of reasoning suggest that obesity must have been exceedingly rare, if it existed at all, during prehistoric times.

Excessive dietary fat and calories, sedentariness, and aging (particularly after menopause) are commonly associated with weight gain and obesity. These factors, in all probability, did not have a major role in the lives of prehistoric women. First, the people of that era lived as hunter gatherers. Obtaining food supplies required daylight, accommodating weather, time, and luck.

Provisions were probably scarce. In addition, primarily because of the leanness of wild animals, our prehistoric ancestors consumed a diet low in fat, approximately 20% of total calories. Therefore, consumption of an overabundance of calories by those women is difficult to imagine. In fact, the studies of paleonutritionists support the contention that undernutrition was a pervasive health problem during prehistoric times.

Second, the nomadic hunter gatherer lifestyle was not sedentary. Indeed, some archeologic data suggest that prehistoric people engaged in perennial treks from mountainous to coastal regions to take advantage of seasonally abundant food sources. Third, the life expectancy of prehistoric women was short. Studies of skeletal remains indicate that most people of that time did not live beyond their mid 30s. Accordingly, age and menopause related increases in body weight would not have manifested themselves in most cases. Collectively, therefore, the lifestyle of Paleolithic women seems unlikely to have fostered the development of obesity.

What then remains as an alternative interpretation of the Venus of Willendorf? Some may argue that because obesity was rare and may have conferred a survival benefit during times of food shortage (much like non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and the thrifty genotype), it was desirable and worthy of ritualization in the form of statuettes. At first glance, this is a reasonable hypothesis; yet when one considers that no portly male figurines have been discovered, this theory falls into disfavor.

In addition to a short life expectancy, prehistoric women seemed to have suffered an increased risk of death during their 20s. This finding may reflect mortality associated with pregnancy and childbirth. It takes little imagination to see the similarities (albeit exaggerated) between the Venus and a pregnant woman. Although admittedly speculation, the Venus of Willendorf may have been used as a talisman in a precarious world of heightened obstetric related mortality. Similarly, some have proposed that this figurine was the object of a cult: a fertility goddess used to conjure deities and obtain from them fertility for the species.

Obviously, we will never know exactly what inspired the creation of the Venus of Willendorf , nor will we know its true meaning. Nonetheless, this ancient work of art serves as a valuable reminder that obesity is a disease unique to the modern world and one in which environmental factors, such as diet and exercise, assume critical etiologic roles.
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http://donsmaps.com/willendorf.html

Scarce as it was to find food back then, 30,000 to 20,000 bc, perhaps it is a wonder that human beings even survived at all.

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"The unexamined life is one not worth leading."
-Plato

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Posts: 446 | From: citizen of the world | Registered: Oct 2004   
 
http://donsmaps.com/chauvetcave.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_of_the_ancient_world

http://forums.atlantisrising.com/cgi-bin/ubb/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=000759;p=1