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Egypt & the Pyramids => Egypt: Latest Discoveries => Topic started by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:22:44 pm



Title: Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portraits"- PICTURES
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:22:44 pm
(http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/geography_images/Egypt_map_of_cities.gif)







                                        Ruins of 7,000-year-old city found in Egypt oasis





Tue Jan 29, 2009
 
CAIRO (AFP) - A team of US archaeologists has discovered the ruins of a city dating back to the period of the first farmers 7,000 years ago in Egypt's Fayyum oasis, the supreme council of antiquities said on Tuesday.
 
"An electromagnetic survey revealed the existence in the Karanis region of a network of walls and roads similar to those constructed during the Greco-Roman period," the council's chief Zahi Hawwas said.

The remnants of the city are "still buried beneath the sand and the details of this discovery will be revealed in due course," Hawwas said.

"The artefacts consist of the remains of walls and houses in terracotta or dressed limestone as well as a large quantity of pottery and the foundations of ovens and grain stores," he added.

The remains date back to the Neolithic period between 5,200 and 4,500 BC.

The local director of antiquities, Ahmed Abdel Alim, said the site was just seven kilometres (four miles) from Fayyum lake and would probably have lain at the water's edge at the time it was inhabited.


Title: Re: Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:34:20 pm
(http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=1398&d=1171016247)


Title: Re: Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:38:12 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Fayum-01.jpg/466px-Fayum-01.jpg)


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:44:38 pm







                                                     Fayyum mummy portraits




 
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) is the modern term
for a type of realistic painted portraits on wooden boards attached to Egyptian mummies from
Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded
forms of art in the Classical world. In fact, the Fayum portraits are the only large body of
material from that tradition to have survived.

Mummy portraits have been found in all parts of Egypt, but they are especially common in the
Faiyum Basin, particularly from Hawara and Antinoopolis, hence the common name. "Faiyum
Portraits" should therefore be thought of as a stylistic, rather than a geographic, description.
While painted Cartonnage mummy cases date back to pharaonic times, the Faiyum mummy
portraits were an innovation dating to the time of the Roman occupation of Egypt.

They date to the Roman period, from the late 1st century BC or the early 1st century AD
onwards. It is not clear when their production ended, but recent research suggests the middle
of the third century AD. They are among the largest groups among the very few survivors of
the highly prestigious panel painting tradition of the classical world, which was continued into
Byzantine and Western traditions in the post-classical world, including the local tradition of
Coptic iconography in Egypt.

The portraits were attached to burial mummies at the face, from which almost all have now
been detached.[2] They usually depict a single person, showing the head, or head and upper
chest, viewed frontally. The background is always monochrome, sometimes with decorative
elements. In terms of artistic tradition, the images clearly derive more from Graeco-Roman
traditions than Egyptian ones. The population of the Faiyum area was greatly enhanced by a
wave of Greek immigrants during the Ptolemaic period, initially by veteran soldiers who settled
in the area.

Two groups of portraits can be distinguished by technique: One of encaustic (wax) paintings,
the other in tempera. The former are usually of higher quality.

About 900 mummy portraits are known at present. The majority were found in the necropoleis
of Faiyum. Due to the hot dry Egyptian climate, the paintings are frequently very well preserved,
often retaining their brilliant colours seemingly unfaded by time.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:47:21 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Portrait_du_Fayoum_02.JPG/348px-Portrait_du_Fayoum_02.JPG)


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:49:36 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Della-valle-in-sakkara.gif)

Fanciful but inauthentic depiction of the mummies'
discovery by Pietro Della Valle









                                                       History of research
 




Pre-19th century



The Italian explorer Pietro della Valle, on a visit to Saqqara-Memphis in 1615, was the first

European to discover and describe mummy portraits. He transported some mummies with

portraits to Europe, which are now in the Albertinum (Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden).


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 02:59:25 pm







                                                    19th century collectors





Although interest in Ancient Egypt steadily increased after that period, further finds of mummy
portraits did not become known before the early 19th century. The provenance of these first
new finds are unclear; they may come from Saqqara as well, or perhaps from Thebes.

In 1820, the Baron of Minotuli acquired several mummy portraits for a German collector, but
they became part of a whole shipload of Egyptian artifacts lost in the North Sea. In 1827,
Léon de Laborde brought two portraits, supposedly found in Memphis, to Europe, one of which
can today be seen at the Louvre, the other in the British Museum. Ippolito Rosellini, a member
of Jean-François Champollion's 1828/29 expedition to Egypt brought a further portrait back to
Florence. It is so similar to de Laborde's specimens that it thought to be from the same source.


 During the 1820s, the British Consul General to Egypt, Henry Salt, sent several further portraits
to Paris and London. Some of them were long considered portraits of the family of the Theban
Archon Pollios Soter, a historical character known from written sources, but this has turned out
to be incorrect.

Once again, a long period elapsed before more mummy portraits came to light.

In 1887, Daniel Marie Fouquet heard of the discovery of numerous portrait mummies in a cave.
He set off to inspect them some days later, but arrived too late, as the finders had used the
painted plaques for firewood during the three previous cold desert nights. Fouquet acquired
the remaining two of what had originally been fifty portraits. While the exact location of this
find is unclear, the likely source is from er-Rubayat.

At that location, not long after Fouquet's visit, the Viennese art trader Theodor Graf found
several further images, which he tried to sell as profitably as possible. He engaged the
famous Leipzig-based Egyptologist Georg Ebers to publish his finds. He produced presentation
folders to advertise his individual finds throughout Europe. Although little was known about
their archaeological find contexts, Graf went as far as to ascribe the portraits to known
Ptolemaic pharaohs by analogy with other works of art, mainly coin portraits.

None of these associations were particularly well argued or convincing, but they gained him
much attention, not least because he gained the support of well-known scholars like Rudolf
Virchow. As a result, mummy portraits became the centre of much attention.

By the late 19th century, their very specific aesthetic made same sought-after collection
pieces, distributed by the global arts trade.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:00:45 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Fayum-35.jpg/290px-Fayum-35.jpg)

The single specimen of Gayet's mummy
portraits from Antinoopolis for which
information on its archaeological context
is available.

The heavily gilt portrait was found in
winter 1905/06 and sold to Berlin in 1907.

Berlin, Egyptian Museum.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:15:33 pm






                                     Archaeological study: Flinders Petrie





In parallel, more scientific engagement with the portraits was beginning. In 1887, the British
archaeologist Flinders Petrie started excavations at Hawara. He discovered a Roman necro-
polis which yielded 81 portrait mummies in the first year of excavation. At an exhibition in
London, these portraits drew large crowds. In the following year, Petrie continued excava-
tions at the same location, but now suffered from the competition of a German and an
Egyptian art dealer. Petrie returned in the winter of 1910/11 and excavated a further 70
portrait mummies, some of them quite badly preserved.

With very few exceptions, Petrie's studies still provide the only examples of mummy portraits
so far found as the result of systematic excavation and published properly. Although the
published studies are not entirely up to modern standards, they remain the most important
source for the find contexts of portrait mummies.




                                     Late 19th and early 20th century collectors





In 1892, the German archaeologist von Kaufmann discovered the so-called "Tomb of Aline",
containing three mummy portraits, which are among the most famous today. Other important
sources of such finds are at Antinoopolis and Akhmim. The French archaeologist Albert Gayet
worked at Antinoopolis and found much relevant material, but his work, like that of many of his
contemporaries, does not satisfy modern standards. His documentation is incomplete, many of
his finds remain without context. Gayet's outspoken interest in occultism and clairvoyance also
tarnished his works.







                                                             Museums





Today, mummy portraits are represented in all important archaeological museums of the world.
Many museums around the world have fine examples of Faiyum mummy portraits on display,
notably the British Museum, the Royal Museum of Scotland, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in
New York and the Louvre in Paris.

Due to the fact that they were mostly recovered through inappropriate and unprofessional
means, virtually all are without archaeological context, a fact which consistently lowers the
quality of archaeological and culture-historical information they provide. As a result, their
overall significance as well as their specific interpretations remain highly controversial.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:17:05 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Fayum-07.jpg/318px-Fayum-07.jpg)

Detail of a still-complete portrait mummy,

Metropolitan Museum of Art.

It was discovered by Flinders Petrie
within a burial chamber in 1911.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:18:44 pm






                                                        Materials and techniques
 




Painted surface



While the majority of preserved mummy portraits were painted on wooden boards or panels, some were
painted directly onto the canvas or rags of the mummy wrapping (cartonnage painting).

To produce the boards, pieces of imported hardwoods, including oak, lime, sycamore, cedar, cypress,
fig, and citrus[9] were cut into thin rectangular pieces and then polished. Sometimes they were primed
with plaster. In some cases, the later painting was first traced. There are a few examples of portraits
being painted over, or both sides of a board being painted, perhaps indicating that the portraits were
produced during the lifetime of their subjects.

The portraits were inserted in a window-like arrangement within the mummy wrapping.





Painting techniques



Two painting techniques can be distinguished: encaustic (wax) painting and egg-based tempera.

There also are examples of hybrid techniques or of variations from the main techniques. The encaustic
images are striking because of the immediate contrast between vivid and rich colours, producing an
"impressionistic" effect, while the tempera ones, with a more differentiated gradation of chalky tones
appear more restrained.[8]. In some cases, gold leaf was used to depict jewellery and wreaths.

Accentuation and differentiation of light and shade are varied to show the location of the light source.

The earlier, higher quality, portraits make more use of background colouring in this regard.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:29:15 pm







                                   Subjects and social context of the paintings





Greeks in Egypt



Under Greco-Roman rule, Egypt hosted several Greek settlements, mostly concentrated
in Alexandria, but also in a few other cities, where Greek settlers lived alongside some
seven to ten million native Egyptians.[10] Faiyum's earliest Greek inhabitants were
soldier-veterans and cleruchs (elite military officials) who were settled by the Ptolemaic
kings on reclaimed lands.

Native Egyptians also came to settle in Faiyum from all over the country, notably the Nile
Delta, Upper Egypt, Oxyrhynchus and Memphis, to undertake the labor involved in the land
reclamation process, as attested by personal names, local cults and recovered papyri.
It is estimated that as much as 30 percent of the population of Faiyum was Greek during
the Ptolemaic period, with the rest being native Egyptians.

By the Roman period, much of the "Greek" population of Faiyum was made-up of either
Hellenized Egyptians or people of mixed Egyptian-Greek origins.





Greek-Egyptian elite



While commonly believed to represent Greek settlers in Egypt, the Faiyum portraits instead
reflect the complex synthesis of the predominant Egyptian culture and that of the elite
Greek minority in the city.[18] According to Walker, the early Ptolemaic Greek colonists
married local women and adopted Egyptian religious beliefs, and by Roman times, their des-
cendants, who are likely represented in the portraits, were "mixed" and were viewed as
Egyptians by the Roman rulers, despite their own self-perception of being Greek.

The dental morphology[20] of the Roman-period Faiyum mummies was also compared with
that of earlier Egyptian populations, and was found to be "much more closely akin" to that
of dynastic Egyptians than to Greeks or other European populations.





Age profile of those depicted



Most of the portraits depict the deceased at a relatively young age, and many show children.

According to Walker (2000), "C.A.T. scans of all the complete mummies represented
[in Walker (2000)] reveal a correspondence of age and, in suitable cases, sex between mummy
and image." Walker concludes that the age distribution reflects the low life expectancy at the
time. It was often believed that the wax portraits were completed during the life of the indivi-
dual and displayed in their home, a custom that belonged to the traditions of Greek art, but
this view is no longer widely held given the evidence suggested by the C.A.T. scans of the
Faiyum mummies, as well as Roman census returns.

In addition, some portraits were painted directly onto the coffin; for example, on a shroud or
another part.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:30:44 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Fayum-22.jpg/289px-Fayum-22.jpg)

Man with sword belt, on display at
the British Museum.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:36:18 pm








                                                     Social status





The patrons of the portraits apparently belonged to the affluent upper class of military
personnel, civil servants and religious dignitaries. Not everyone could afford a mummy
portrait; many mummies were found without one. Flinders Petrie states that only one or
two per cent of the mummies he excavated were embellished with portraits.

The rates for mummy portraits do not survive, but it can be assumed that the material
caused higher costs than the labour, since in antiquity, painters were appreciated as
craftsmen rather than as artists.

The situation from the "Tomb of Aline" is interesting in this regard. It contained four
mummies: those of Aline, of two children and of her husband. Unlike his wife and children,
the latter was not equipped with a portrait but with a gilt three-dimensional mask.
Perhaps plastic masks were preferred if they could be afforded.

 
It is not clear whether those depicted are of Egyptian, Greek or Roman origin, nor whether
the portraits were commonly used by all ethnicities. The name of some of those portrayed
are known from inscriptions, they are of Egyptian, Greek, Graeco-Macedonian and Roman
origin. Hairstyles and clothing are always influenced by Roman fashion.

Women and children are often depicted wearing valuable ornaments and fine garments, men
often wearing specific and elaborate outfits.

Greek inscriptions of names are relatively common, sometimes they include professions.
It is not known whether such inscriptions always reflect reality, or whether they may state
ideal conditions or aspirations rather than true conditions.[24] One single inscriptions is
known to definitely indicate the deceased's profession (a shipowner) correctly.

The mummy of a woman named Hermione also included the term grammatike (γραμματική).
For a long time, it was assumed that this indicated that she was a teacher by profession
(for this reason, Flinders Petrie donated the portrait to Girton College, Cambridge, the first
residential college for women in Britain), but today, it is assumed that the term indicates
her level of education.

Some portraits of men show sword-belts or even pommels, suggesting that they were
members of the Roman military.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:38:59 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/FuneraryMasksRomanEgypt.jpg/742px-FuneraryMasksRomanEgypt.jpg)

Three-dimensional funerary masks of painted plaster
 from Faiyum (1st century AD).

Montréal, Musée des Beaux-Arts.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:52:42 pm





                                               Culture-historical context






Changes in burial habits



The burial habits of Ptolemaic Egyptians mostly followed ancient traditions.

The bodies of members of the upper classes were mummified, equipped with a decorated coffin
and a mummy mask to cover the head.

The Greeks who entered Egypt at that time mostly followed their own habits. There is evidence
from Alexandria and other sites indicating that they practised the Greek tradition of cremation.
This broadly reflects the general situation in Hellenistic Egypt, its rulers proclaiming themselves
to be pharaohs but otherwise living in an entirely Hellenistic world, incorporating only very few
local elements.

Conversely, the Egyptians only slowly developed an interest in the Greek-Hellenic culture that
dominated the East Mediterranean since the conquests of Alexander.

This situation changed substantially with the arrival of the Romans. Within a few generations,
all Egyptian elements disappeared from everyday life. Cities like Karanis or Oxyrhynchus are
largely Graeco-Roman places. There is clear evidence that this resulted from a mixing of
different ethnicities in the ruling classes of Roman Egypt.





Religious continuity



Only in the sphere of religion is there evidence for a continuation of Egyptian traditions.
Egyptian temples were erected as late as the 2nd century AD.

In terms of burial habits, Egyptian and Hellenistic elements now mixed. Coffins became
increasingly unpopular and went entirely out of use by the 2nd century. On contrast,
mummification appears to have been practised by large parts of the population. The mummy
mask, originally an Egyptian concept, grew more and more Graeco-Roman in style, Egyptian
motifs became ever rarer.

The adoption of Roman portrait painting into Egyptian burial cult belongs into this general
context.





Link with Roman ancestor worship?



Some authors suggest that the idea of such portraits may be closely related to the Roman
tradition of ancestor worship, especially with the habit of producing imagines, (wax) images
of the deceased, and displaying them in the house.

Thus, it seems likely that the development of painted mummy portraits represents the combi-
nation of elements of Roman ancestral worship with Egyptian funerary tradition.

It is notable that the mummy portrait tradition appears to have developed only after full Roman
control over Egypt was established.





"Salon paintings"?



The images depict the heads or busts of men, women and children. They probably date from
circa 30 BC to the 3rd century AD.

To the modern eye, the portraits appear highly individualistic. Therefore, it has been assumed
for a long time that they were produced during the lifetime of their subjects and displayed as
"salon paintings" within their houses, to be added to their mummy wrapping after their death.

Newer research rather suggests that they were only painted after death[8], an idea perhaps
contradicted by the multiple paintings on some specimens and the (suggested) change of spe-
cific details on others. The individualism of those depicted was actually created by variations
in some specific details, within a largely unvaried general scheme.

The habit of depicting the deceased was not a new one, but the painted images gradually
replaced the earlier Egyptian masks, although the latter continued in use for some time, often
occurring directly adjacent to portrait mummies, sometimes even in the same graves.





Realism and convention



Together with Greek vases and frescoes from Pompeii and Herculaneum, Macedonia and
elsewhere, they are the best preserved paintings from ancient times and are renowned
for their remarkable naturalism.

It is, however, debatable whether the portraits depict the subjects as they really were.
Analyses have shown that the painters depicted faces according to conventions in a repe-
titive and formulaic way, albeit with a variety of hairstyles and beards. They appear to
have worked from a number of standard types without making detailed observations of the
unique facial proportions of specific individuals which give each face its own personality.





Style



In the virtual absence of other panel paintings from the period in question, it is difficult to
make firm statements about the stylistic context of the portraits. While it seems clear that
they are not in continuity from Egyptian precedents, the same cannot be said for the north-
ern shores of the Mediterranean, where such material is less likely to have survived, due to
climatic conditions there.

Evidence from frescoes, mosaics and other media suggests that stylistically, the mummy por-
traits broadly fit within the prevailing Graeco-Roman traditions then dominant around the Medi-
terranean.




Coexistence with other burial habits



The religious meaning of mummy portraits has not, so far, been fully explained, nor have associated
grave rites. There is some indication that it developed from genuine Egyptian funerary rites, adapted
by a multi-cultural ruling class.

The tradition of mummy portraits occurred from the Delta to Nubia, but it is striking that other funerary
habits prevailed over portrait mummies at all sites except those in the Faiyum (and there especially
Hawara and Achmim) and Antinoopolis.

In most sites, different forms of burial coexisted.

The choice of grave type may have been determined to a large extent by the financial means and
status of the deceased, modified by local customs.

Portrait mummies have been found both in rock-cut tombs and in freestanding built grave complexes,
but also in shallow pits. It is striking that they are virtually never accompanied by any grave offerings,
with the exception of occasional pots or sprays of flowers.



Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 03:57:27 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Fayum-50.jpg)







                                           End of the mummy portrait tradition





For a long time, it was assumed that the latest portraits belong to the end of the 4th centuryAD,
but recent research has modified this view considerably, suggesting that the last wooden portraits
belong to the middle, the last directly painted mummy wrappings to the second half of the 3rd cen-
tury. It is commonly accepted that production reduced considerably since the beginning of the
3rd century.

Several reasons for the decline of the mummy portrait have been suggested; no single reason
should probably be isolated, rather, they should be seen as operating together.

In the 3rd century the Roman Empire underwent a severe economic crisis, severely limiting the
financial abilities of the upper classes. Although they continued to lavishly spend money on
representation, they favoured public appearances, like games and festivals, over the production
of portraits.

Other elements of sepulchral representation, like sarcophagi did, however, continue.

There is evidence of a religious crisis at the same time. This may not be as closely connected
with the rise of Christianity as previously assumed (the earlier suggestion of a 4th century end
to the portraits would coincide with the widespread distribution of Christianity in Egypt. Christia-
nity also never banned mummification).

An increasing neglect of Egyptian temples is noticeable during the Roman imperial period, leading
to a general drop in interest in all ancient religions.


The Constitutio Antoniniana, ie the granting of Roman citizenship to all free subjects changed the
social structures of Egypt. For the first time, the individual cities gained a degree of self-admini-
stration. At the same time, the provincial upper classes changed in terms of both composition and
inter-relations.

Thus, a combination of several factors appears to have led to changes of fashion and ritual.
No clear causality can be asserted.

Considering the limited nature of the current understanding of portrait mummies, it remains dis-
tinctly possible that future research will considerably modify the image presented here.

For example, some scholars suspect that the centre of production of such finds, and thus the
centre of the distinctive funerary tradition they represent, may have been located at Alexandria.
New finds from Marina el-Alamein strongly support such a view.[32] In view of the near-total
loss of Greek and Roman paintings, mummy portraits are today considered to be among the very
rare examples of ancient art that can be seen to reflect "Great paintings" and especially Roman
portrait painting.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:05:58 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Fayum-13.jpg/327px-Fayum-13.jpg)

Depiction of a young woman with a ringlet
hairstyle, wearing a violet chiton and coat
and pendant earrings.

British Museum.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:10:31 pm







                             Mummy portraits as sources on provincial Roman fashion





 
Provincial fashions



Mummy portraits depict a variety of different hairstyles. They are one of the main aids in dating
the paintings. The majority of the deceased were depicted with hairstyles then in fashion. They
are frequently similar to those depicted in sculpture.

As part of Roman propaganda, such sculptures, especially those depicting the imperial family,
were often displayed throughout the empire. Thus, they had a direct influence on the develop-
ment of fashion.

Nevertheless, the mummy protaits, as well as other finds, suggest that fashions lasted longer in
the provinces that in the imperial court, or at least that diverse styles might coexist.





Hairstyles



Since Roman men tended to wear short-cropped hair, female hairstyles are a better source of
evidence for changes in fashion.

The female portraits suggest a coarse chronological scheme: Simple hairstyles with a central
parting in the Tiberian period are followed by more complex ringlet hairstyles, nested plaits and
curly toupées over the forehead in the late first century AD.

Small oval nested plaits dominate the time of the Antonines, simple central-parting hairstyles
with a hairknot in the neck occur in the second half of the 2nd century.

The time of Septimius Severus was characterised by toupée-like fluffy as well as strict, straight
styles, followed by looped plaits on the crown of the head. The latter belong to the very final
phase of mummy portraits, and have only been noted on a few mummy wrappings. It seems to
be the case that curly hairstyles were especially popular in Egypt.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found In Egypt Oasis
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:13:03 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Fayum-11.jpg/356px-Fayum-11.jpg)

Depiction of a woman with a ringlet
hairstyle, an orange chiton with black
bands and rod-shaped earrings.

Royal Museum of Scotland.


Title: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:16:38 pm





Clothing



Like the hairstyles, the clothing depicted also follows the general fashions of the Roman Empire,
as known from statues and busts.

Both men and women tend to wear a thin chiton as an undergarment. Above it, both sexes tend
to wear a coat, laid across the shoulders or wound around the torso.

The males wear virtually exclusively white, while female clothing is often red or pink, but can also
be yellow, white, blue or purple. The chiton often bears a decorative line (clavus), occasionally
light red or light green, also sometimes gold, but normally in dark colours. Some painted mummy
wrappings from Antinoopolis depict garments with long sleeves and very wide clavi.

So far, not a single portrait has been definitely shown to depict the toga, a key symbol of Roman
citizenship. It should, however, be kept in mind that Greek coats and togas are draped very similar-
ly on depictions of the 1st and early 2nd centuries AD. In the late 2nd and 3rd centuries, togas
should be distinguishable, but fail to occur.





Jewellery



With very few exceptions, only women are depicted with jewellery.

It generally accords to the common jewellery types of the Graeco-Roman East. Especially the
Antinoopolis portraits depict simple gold link chains and massive gold rings.

There are also depictions of precious or semi-precious stones like emerald, carnelian, garnet,
agate or amethyst, rarely also of pearls.

The stones were normally ground into cylindrical or spherical beads.

Some portraits depict elaborate colliers, with precious stones set in gold.

There are three basic shapes of ear ornaments: Especially common in the first century are
circular or
drop-shaped pendants. Archaeological finds indicate that these were fully or semi-spherical.

Later tastes favoured S-shaped hooks of gold wire, on which up to five beads of different
colours and materials could be strung. The third shape are elaborate pendants with a horizontal
bar from which two or three, occasionally four, vertical rods are suspended, usually each deco-
rated with a white bead or pearl at the bottom.

Other common ornaments include gold hairpins, often decorated with pearls, fine diadems,
and, especially at Antinoopolis, gold hairnets. Many portraits also depict amulets and pendants,
perhaps with magical functions.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:25:16 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Septimusseverustondo.jpg/593px-Septimusseverustondo.jpg)

Tondo with images of Septimius Severus and his family.

Antikensammlung Berlin.



Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:30:03 pm






                                                Art-historical significance





The mummy portraits have immense art-historical importance.

Ancient sources indicate that panel painting (rather than wall painting), ie painting on wood or
other mobile surfaces was held in high regard. But very few ancient panel paintings survive.

One of the few examples besides the mummy portraits is the Severan Tondo, also from Egypt
(around 200 AD), which, like the mummy portraits, is believed to represent a provincial version
of contemporary style.

Some aspects of the mummy portraits, especially their frontal perspective and their concentra-
tion on key facial features, strongly resemble later icon painting.

A direct link has been suggested, but it should be kept in mind that the mummy portraits repre-
sent only a small part of a much wider Graeco-Roman tradition, the whole of which later bore
an influence on Late Antique and Byzantine Art.

A pair of panel "icons" of Serapis and Isis of comparable date (3rd century) and style are in the
Getty Museum at Malibu; as with the cult of Mithras, earlier examples of cult images were scul-
ptures or pottery figurines, but from the 3rd century reliefs and then painted images are found.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:34:33 pm






                                                         Bibliography





(chronological order)



W. M. Flinders Petrie: Roman Portraits and Memphis IV, London 1911 (online:[2])

Klaus Parlasca: Mumienporträts und verwandte Denkmäler, Wiesbaden 1966

Klaus Parlasca: Ritratti di mummie, Repertorio d'arte dell'Egitto greco-romano Vol. B, 1-4, Rome
1969-2003 (Corpus of all known mummy portraits)

Henning Wrede: Mumienporträts. In: Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Bd. IV, Wiesbaden 1982, column 218-222

Barbara Borg: Mumienporträts. Chronologie und kultureller Kontext, Mainz 1996, ISBN 3-8053-1742-5

Susan Walker, Morris Bierbrier: Ancient Faces, Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt, London 1997
ISBN 0714109894

Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien, Mainz 1998 (Zaberns
Bildbände zur Archäologie/ Sonderhefte der Antiken Welt, ISBN 3-8053-2264-X; ISBN 3-8053-2263-1
 
Wilfried Seipel (Hrsg.): Bilder aus dem Wüstensand. Mumienportraits aus dem Ägyptischen Museum
Kairo; eine Ausstellung des Kunsthistorischen Museums Wien, Milan/Wien/Ostfildern 1998;
ISBN 88-8118-459-1;

Klaus Parlasca; Hellmut Seemann (Hrsg.): Augenblicke. Mumienporträts und ägyptische Grabkunst
aus römischer Zeit [zur Ausstellung Augenblicke - Mumienporträts und Ägyptische Grabkunst aus
Römischer Zeit, in der Schirn-Kunsthalle Frankfurt (30. Januar bis 11. April 1999)], München 1999,
ISBN 3-7814-0423-4

Nicola Hoesch: Mumienporträts in: Der Neue Pauly, Vol. 8 (2000), p. 464f.
 
Susan Walker (ed.): Ancient Faces. Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt. New York, 2000.
ISBN 0-415-92744-7.

Paula Modersohn-Becker und die ägyptischen Mumienportraits...Katalogbuch zur Ausstellung
in Bremen, Kunstsammlung Böttcherstraße, 14.10.2007-24.2.2008, München 2007,
ISBN 978-3-7774-3735-4

Jan Picton, Stephen Quirke, Paul C. Roberts (Hrsg): Living Images, Egyptian Funerary Portraits
in the Petrie Museum, Walnut Creek CA 2007 ISBN 978-1-59874-251-0



This article was initially translated from the Wikipedia article Mumienporträt,
specifically from this version.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 04:38:32 pm





                                                            References





^ Berman, Lawrence, Freed, Rita E., and Doxey, Denise. Arts of Ancient Egypt. p.193.
Museum of Fine Arts Boston. 2003. ISBN 0878466614

^ Examples still attached are in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and the British Museum

^ Oakes, Lorna. Gahlin, Lucia. Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated Reference to the Myths,
Religions, Pyramids and Temples of the Land of the Pharaohs. p.236 Hermes House. 2002.
ISBN 1-84477-008-7 '

^ Corpus of all known specimens: Klaus Parlasca: Ritratti di mummie, Repertorio d'arte
dell'Egitto greco-romano Vol. B, 1-4, Rome 1969-2003; a further specimen discovered
since: Petrie Museum UC 79360, B. T. Trope, S. Quirke, P. Lacovara: Excavating Egypt,
Atlanta 2005, p. 101, ISBN 1928917062

^ a b c d Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 10f.

^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 13f., 34ff.

^ Petrie: Roman Portraits and Memphis IV, p. 1

^ a b c d e f g Nicola Hoesch: Mumienporträts in: Der Neue Pauly, Bd. 8 (2000), p. 464

^ Wrede, LÄ IV, 218

^ Adams, Winthrope L in Bugh, Glenn Richard. ed. "The Hellenistic Kingdoms".
The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. 2006, p. 39

^ Stanwick, Paul Edmund. Portraits of the Ptolemies: Greek Kings as Egyptian
Pharaohs. Austin: University of Texas Press. 2003, p. 23

^ Adams, op cit.

^ Bagnall, R.S. in Susan Walker, ed. Ancient Faces : Mummy Portraits in Roman
Egypt (Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications). New York: Routledge, 2000, p. 27

^ Bagnall, op cit.

^ Bagnall, pp. 28-29

^ Egyptology Online: Fayoum mummy portraits accessed on January 16, 2007

^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Egyptian art and architecture - Greco-Roman
Egypt accessed on January 16, 2007

^ Bagnall, op cit.

^ Walker, Susan, op cit., p. 24

^ Dentition helps archaeologists to assess biological and ethnic population traits and
relationships
 
^ Irish JD (2006). "Who were the ancient Egyptians? Dental affinities among Neolithic
through postdynastic peoples.". Am J Phys Anthropol 129 (4): 529-43
 
^ Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece, Nigel Guy, Routledge Taylor and Francis group, p.601

^ a b Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 58

^ Nicola Hoesch: Mumienporträts in: Der Neue Pauly, Bd. 8 (2000), p. 465
 
^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 53-55

^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 40-56; Walker, Bierbrier: Ancient Faces, p. 17-20

^ summarised in: Judith A. Corbelli: The Art of Death in Graeco-Roman Egypt,
Princes Risborough 2006 ISBN 0747806470

^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 78
 
^ Nicola Hoesch: Mumienporträts in: Der Neue Pauly, Bd. 8 (2000), p. 464; others
scholars, eg Barbara Borg suggest that they start under Tiberius.
 
^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 31

^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 88-101
 
^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 13f., 34ff.
 
^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 45-49

^ Barbara Borg: "Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ...". Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 49-51
 
^ Barbara Borg: „Der zierlichste Anblick der Welt ....“ Ägyptische Porträtmumien,
Mainz 1998, p. 51-52
 
^ other examples: a framed portrait from Hawara (Walker, Bierbrier: Ancient Faces,
p. 121-122, Nr. 117), the image of a man flanked by two deities from the same site
(Walker, Bierbrier: Ancient Faces, p. 123-24, Nr. 119), or the 6th century BC panels
from Pitsa in Greece

^ image

^ Kurt Weitzmann in The Icon, 1982, Evans Brothers Ltd, London, p. 3, (trans of Le
Icone, Montadori 1981), ISBN 0237456451


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fayum_mummy_portraits


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:17:06 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/09/Fayum-01.jpg/466px-Fayum-01.jpg)

Faiyum mummy portrait of a young man.

Antikensammlungen, Munich


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:20:10 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Fayum-boy-MNW.jpg/445px-Fayum-boy-MNW.jpg)

Portrait of a Boy from Faiyum, on display at the

National Museum in Warsaw.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:22:32 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Museo_archeologico_di_Firenze%2C_Museo_Egizio%2C_Ritratto_da_Al_Fayum.JPG/503px-Museo_archeologico_di_Firenze%2C_Museo_Egizio%2C_Ritratto_da_Al_Fayum.JPG)

Portrait of a young girl, on display at the

Museo Egizio - Florence, Italy


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:25:45 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Portrait_d%E2%80%99homme_barbu.jpg)

Portrait of a man holding a plant, on display at the

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:28:17 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Portrait_du_Fayoum_01a.JPG/450px-Portrait_du_Fayoum_01a.JPG)

Portrait of a young girl, on display at the

Louvre.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:30:42 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/PortraitOfAYoungBoy_MetropolitanMuseumOfArt.png/305px-PortraitOfAYoungBoy_MetropolitanMuseumOfArt.png)

Portrait of a young boy, identified by inscription
as Eutyches, on display at the

Metropolitan Museum of Art.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:33:49 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/R%C3%B6misch-%C3%84gyptischer_Meister_001.jpg/365px-R%C3%B6misch-%C3%84gyptischer_Meister_001.jpg)

Portrait of a man with black curly hair, on display at the

Metropolitan Museum of Art.


Title: Re: FAYYUM - Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portaits"
Post by: Bianca on January 30, 2008, 05:37:35 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8d/Hawara_MoS_1911.210.1.JPG/800px-Hawara_MoS_1911.210.1.JPG)

Portrait of bearded man Edinburgh, MoS 1911.210.1,

Royal Museum of Scotland


Title: Re: Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portraits"- PICTURES
Post by: Bianca on April 25, 2009, 02:41:39 pm

(http://d.yimg.com/a/p/afp/20090412/capt.photo_1239543470123-1-0.jpg?x=213&y=347&xc=1&yc=1&wc=252&hc=410&q=85&sig=D3WZTWC70lVHrR3GUao_gQ--)

A photo released by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities on April 12, 2009 shows a mummy found 90kms south of Cairo.

Archaeologists working in an Egyptian oasis have found a necropolis containing dozens of the brightly painted mummies dating back as far as 4,000 years, the country's antiquities chief said
on Sunday.

(AFP/HO)





                                                         F A Y O U M   O A S I S


                                            Mummies found in ancient Egypt burial chamber
 



         
April 12, 2009
CAIRO
(AFP)

– Archaeologists working in an Egyptian oasis have found a necropolis containing dozens of brightly painted mummies dating back as far as 4,000 years, the country's antiquities chief said on Sunday.

"The mission found dozens of mummies in 53 rock-hewn tombs dating to the Middle Kingdom" from 2061-1786 BC, Zahi Hawass told AFP.

"Four of the mummies date back to the 22nd Dynasty (931 to 725 BC) and are considered some of the most beautiful mummies found," he said.

The linen-wrapped mummies are painted in the still-bright traditional ancient Egyptian colours of turquoise, terracotta and gold.

The necropolis was uncovered near the Ilahun pyramid in Fayoum oasis south of Cairo.

Abdel-Rahman el-Ayedi, who headed the mission, said that a Middle Kingdom funerary chapel with an offering table was also found, and that it was probably used up to the Roman era which lasted from 30 BC to 337 AD.

The team also found 15 painted masks, along with amulets and clay pots, Hawass said.


Title: Re: Ruins Of 7,000-Year-Old City Found At Site of "Mummy Portraits"- PICTURES
Post by: Bianca on April 25, 2009, 02:43:27 pm
(http://www.pack2egypt.com/images/egypt_map.jpg)




              (http://www.ask-aladdin.com/images/fayoum.gif)






FAYOUM OASIS


The Al-Fayoum oasis is the largest oasis of Egypt (60KM long, 70KM wide). Instead of the other Western oases this oasis is at rather short distance of the Nile and Cairo.