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Modern Historical Mysteries => Civil Rights => Topic started by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:40:53 pm



Title: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:40:53 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:43:56 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:45:51 pm
QUOTES ON SLAVERY
 
 
Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, speech, Mar. 17, 1865

Slavery is no scholar, no improver; it does not love the whistle of the railroad; it does not love the newspaper, the mail-bag, a college, a book or a preacher who has the absurd whim of saying what he thinks; it does not increase the white population; it does not improve the soil; everything goes to decay.

RALPH WALDO EMERSON, speech, Aug. 1, 1844

I have often sung to drown my sorrow, but seldom to express my happiness. Crying for joy, and singing for joy, were alike uncommon to me while in the jaws of slavery. The singing of a man cast away upon a desolate island might be as appropriately considered as evidence of contentment and happiness, as the singing of a slave; the songs of the one and of the other are prompted by the same emotion.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

For some slaves, the first step out of bondage is to learn to see their lives with new eyes. Their reality is a social world where they have their place and some assurance of a subsistence diet. Born into slavery, they cannot easily redefine their lives outside the frame of enslavement.

KEVIN BALES, Understanding Global Slavery

As long as the mind is enslaved, the body can never be free. Psychological freedom, a firm sense of self-esteem, is the most powerful weapon against the long night of physical slavery.

MARTIN LUTHER KING, speech, Aug. 16, 1967

Once slavery in America was not seen as radical. It became, instead, a revolutionary idea that slaves should be freed. When we have lived under a pernicious power long enough, no matter how oppressive, we grow so accustomed to the yoke that its removal seems frightening, even wrong.

GERRY L. SPENCE, From Freedom to Slavery

The fact is, that civilisation requires slaves. The Greeks were quite right there. Unless there are slaves to do the ugly, horrible, uninteresting work, culture and contemplation become almost impossible. Human slavery is wrong, insecure, and demoralizing. On mechanical slavery, on the slavery of the machine, the future of the world depends.

OSCAR WILDE, The Soul of Man Under Socialism

Hatred, slavery's inevitable aftermath.

JOSÉ MARTÍ, Woman Suffrage

Americans are so enamored of equality that they would rather be equal in slavery than unequal in freedom.... The subjection of individuals will increase amongst democratic nations, not only in the same proportion as their equality, but in the same proportion as their ignorance.

ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, Democracy in America

Slavery is theft -- theft of a life, theft of work, theft of any property or produce, theft even of the children a slave might have borne.

KEVIN BALES, Understanding Global Slavery

Not only do I pray for it, on the score of human dignity, but I can clearly forsee that nothing but the rooting out of slavery can perpetuate the existence of our union, by consolidating it in a common bond of principle.

GEORGE WASHINGTON, attributed, John Bernard's Retrospections of America

Slavery is no more sinful, by the Christian code, than it is sinful to wear a whole coat, while another is in tatters, to eat a better meal than a neighbor, or otherwise to enjoy ease and plenty, while our fellow creatures are suffering and in want.

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER, The American Democrat

Talk about slavery! It is not the peculiar institution of the South. It exists wherever men are bought and sold, wherever a man allows himself to be made a mere thing or a tool, and surrenders his inalienable rights of reason and conscience. Indeed, this slavery is more complete than that which enslaves the body alone.... I never yet met with, or heard of, a judge who was not a slave of this kind, and so the finest and most unfailing weapon of injustice. He fetches a slightly higher price than the black men only because he is a more valuable slave.

HENRY DAVID THOREAU, journal, Dec. 4, 1860

Look back, to slavery, to suffrage, to integration and one thing is clear. Fashions in bigotry come and go. The right thing lasts.

ANNA QUINDLEN, New York Times, Jan. 31, 1993

We say that slavery has vanished from European civilization, but this is not true. Slavery still exists, but now it applies only to women and its name is prostitution.

VICTOR HUGO, Les Misérables

Slavery can only be abolished by raising the character of the people who compose the nation; and that can be done only by showing them a higher one.

MARIA WESTON CHAPMAN, speech, 1855

When we acknowledge the kingdom of the self, we will no longer accept slavery either for ourselves or for others, no matter how it is disguised.

GERRY L. SPENCE, From Freedom to Slavery

In nothing was slavery so savage and relentless as in its attempted destruction of the family instincts of the Negro race in America. Individuals, not families; shelters, not homes; herding, not marriages, were the cardinal sins in that system of horrors.

FANNIE BARRIER WILLIAMS, Loewenberg's Black Women in Nineteenth-Century American Life

Slavery as an institution that degraded man to a thing has never died out. In some periods of history it has flourished: many civilizations have climbed to power and glory on the backs of slaves. In other times slaves have dwindled in number and economic importance. But never has slavery disappeared.

MILTON MELTZER, Slavery: A World History

War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength.

GEORGE ORWELL, Nineteen Eighty-Four

In most ages many countries have had part of their inhabitants in a state of slavery; yet it may be doubted whether slavery can ever be supposed the natural condition of man. It is impossible not to conceive that men in their original state were equal; and very difficult to imagine how one would be subjected to another but by violent compulsion. An individual may, indeed, forfeit his liberty by a crime; but he cannot by that crime forfeit the liberty of his children.

SAMUEL JOHNSON, Life of Samuel Johnson, Sep. 23, 1777

Willingly no one chooses the yoke of slavery.

AESCHYLUS, Agamemnon

Slavery may, perhaps, be best compared to the infantile disease of measles; a complaint which so commonly attacks the young of humanity in their infancy, and when gone through at that period leaves behind it so few fatal marks; but which when it normally attacks the fully developed adult becomes one of the most virulent and toxic of diseases, often permanently poisoning the constitution where it does not end in death.

OLIVE SCHREINER, Thoughts on South Africa

It would seem that man was born a slave, and that slavery is his natural condition. At the same time nothing on earth can stop man from feeling himself born for liberty. Never, whatever may happen, can he accept servitude; for he is a thinking creature.

SIMONE WEIL, Oppression and Liberty

No slavery can be abolished without a double emancipation, and the master will benefit by freedom more than the freed-man.

THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, Aphorisms and Reflections
 


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:47:15 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Slavetreatment.jpeg)

Peter, a slave from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863. The scars are a result of a whipping by his overseer, who was subsequently discharged. It took two months to recover from the beating.


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:50:37 pm
(http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/images/slave_trade_1650-1860_b.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:52:42 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:56:00 pm
(http://education.ucdavis.edu/NEW/STC/lesson/socstud/railroad/images/caution.gif)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 10:57:13 pm
(http://www.wisegorilla.com/images/slavery/slavetrade.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:01:02 pm
(http://www.buffalo.edu/reporter/vol33/vol33n22/Graphics/deathofCapnFerrer.jpg)

Death of Captain ferrer, the Captain of the Amistad. Broadside. New Haven, 1840 by John W. Barber. The Gilder Lehrman collection. Free at Last: A History of the Abolition of Slavery in America @1997 The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.

(http://www.buffalo.edu/reporter/vol33/vol33n22/Graphics/MenofCOlortoARMS.jpg)

Men of Color to Arms! To Arms! Broadside, ca. 1863. The Gilder Lehrman collection. Free at Last: A History of the Abolition of Slavery in America @1997 The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

(http://www.buffalo.edu/reporter/vol33/vol33n22/Graphics/outdoorAbolittionistmeeting.jpg)

Ezra Weld. Frederick Douglass at an Outdoor Abolitionist Meeting. Daguerreotype, 1850. Madison County Historical Society, Oneida, New York. Free at Last: A History of the Abolition of Slavery in America @1997 The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History


www.buffalo.edu/.../vol33/vol33n22/photos.html




Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:02:24 pm
Sometimes, I wonder, if God will ever forgive us for what we have done to each other.

And then, I look around me and I see, God left this place long ago.


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:03:34 pm
(http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/UsaHistory/CivilWar/Images/Slaves.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:05:00 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:06:45 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:08:18 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:09:42 pm
(http://www.fasttrackteaching.com/T_M05_slavetrade300g15.gif)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:11:42 pm
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Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:13:18 pm
(http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2000/fyi/news/09/13/african.dna.testing/map.slave.trade.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:14:34 pm
Reclaiming their roots
Genetic test may allow African-Americans
to recover the lost legacy of their ancestors
 
September 13, 2000
Web posted at: 1:30 PM EDT (1730 GMT)



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In this story:

Identities erased in slave era

Database of almost 60 groups

European paternal lineage common

LESSON PLAN
RELATED SITES 


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By Christy Oglesby
CNNfyi Senior Writer

(CNN) -- Imagine it. Someone binds your hands with a rope, hangs you from a wooden beam and beats your bare back with a whip until you deny the name your parents gave you.

  INTERACTIVE
Use this map to discover where specific ethnic groups live
 
 
 
  ALSO
Africans became slaves in South America, Europe and North America 
 
 
 
Can you picture that? Would you accept the new name? Would the sting of the whip make you forsake your heritage and utter "David," even if your name was Greg?

The scene is from a television miniseries titled "Roots," which chronicled an African-American family's history from slavery until the 1880s. While the segment lasted moments, it summarized 246 years of American history in which slave owners erased a culture by denying Africans the right to use their names, speak their language, practice their faith and pass family history on to their offspring.

Now a Howard University geneticist has developed a method to match the DNA of African-Americans to ethnic groups in Africa. That test, which could be available early next year, gives African-Americans an opportunity to reclaim a stolen legacy and learn from which region of Africa their ancestors came.

"We have been mentally enslaved and physically enslaved in terms of our history," said Irena Webster, executive director for the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History in Silver Spring, Maryland. "The Europeans have all of that history of themselves, and we don't. Any effort to bring us closer to our history is critically important."

Identities erased in slave era
During the Colonial era, slaves outnumbered white people in some regions of the country, said David Organ, a geographer and director of the African World Studies Institute at Dillard University in New Orleans.

"There was a serious question about (slave) rebellion. There were worries about would some parts of America become African," Organ said. Consequently, slave owners had to devise ways to prohibit slaves from communicating and organizing.

"The removal of identity was a central function of the enslavement process," Organ said. "The whole issue of language and naming is so central to identity that slaves were not allowed to speak their native language or maintain traditional names."

 
The cultural genocide began as soon as captors collected slaves. "It started on the ships," Organ said. "People who spoke the same language or had the same markings of scarification were separated."

Once in America, slave owners also would not permit drumming because they knew slaves could communicate through the rhythms, he said. "It was another form of language."

Database of almost 60 groups
The genetic testing that Howard University professor Rick Kittles has developed will establish the connections that most African-American families lost 15 generations ago.

Kittles, the project's lead researcher, describes the tests as the results of a 25-year "yearning."

"Since I was little, I wanted to know where my ancestors came from," he said. That yearning started after he saw "Roots" on television.

African countries have cooperated with the research team to provide blood and cheek swab samples for use in genetic testing. The database has samples from almost 60 ethnic groups from West and Central Africa, the regions from which slaves were taken.

Two tests, for which a fee will be established later, will be available. One traces a person's ancestry on his or her mother's side and the other determines the father's lineage. Both rely on DNA.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the basis of hereditary molecules. It determines traits that pass from one generation to the next.

Mitochondrial DNA passes from a mother to her child without ever changing. (A mitochondrion is the part of a cell that gives it energy.) This test would give people information about their mothers' and subsequently their great-great-great-great grandmothers' ancestry.

To determine where a person's father came from, Kittles' group would match data from Y-chromosomes. That chromosome passes from a father to a son without changing.

Kittles has conducted both tests on himself.

"My mother's (DNA) went to northern Nigeria," he revealed. "I tested myself for paternal lineage, and it went to Europe."

European paternal lineage common
In 1808, the international slave trade became illegal, Organ said, and slave owners participated in the breeding of African women.

Kittles' paternal lineage is a common one. "About 30 percent of African-American men would find that their fathers are of European decent because of the **** of African-American women by white men," the geneticist said.

Kittles' group has access to Native Americans' DNA samples for those people whose roots cannot be traced to Africa. Many Native Americans helped runaway slaves.

For those whose lineage does lead to Africa, the tests will match a person to an ethnic group in Africa and state in which region that group lives. There will also be information about what languages people in that area speak, Kittles said.

Ethnic information will be more meaningful to African-Americans because present-day African countries did not exist during the slave trade, Organ said. Colonial Europeans created those boundaries in the late 1800s.

"It's key for African-Americans who are trying to make linkages to pay attention to ethnic groups who might reside in more than one state," Organ said. "The ambiguity of modern-day boundaries don't coincide with pre-colonial nations, empires and kingdoms."

cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/.../african.dna.testing/



Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:17:59 pm
(http://www.lib.rochester.edu/IN/RBSCP/Frederick_Douglass/IMAGES/slaveryasitexists.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:20:52 pm
(http://www.e-tutor.com/lsnpics/34005_tubman.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:24:11 pm
(http://www.mlcook.lib.oh.us/Anti-Slavery%20meeting%20at%20Mosses.jpg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:36:31 pm
(http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2000/winter/images/winter-2000-reward-poster-l.jpeg)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Carole on March 25, 2007, 11:38:20 pm
(http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/grade5/Poster.JPG)


Title: Re: Slavery in America
Post by: Volitzer on July 03, 2007, 11:49:50 pm
 
Article XIII


Proposed by Congress February 1, 1865, proclaimed adopted December 18, 1865.168

See Also Utah Supreme Court Opinion, Dyett vs Turner, a March 22, 1968 opinion of the Utah Supreme Court. It is the official view of the Court on the flawed nature of the so-called Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.



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Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
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168 The language of this Amendment is older than the Constitution itself. On July 13, 1787, the Congress under the Articles of Confederation passed the ordinance creating the Northwest Territory (Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin), which provided: "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory otherwise than in punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." But a proviso required the return from the territory of fugitive slaves.

When, on January 13, 1865, a two-thirds vote was taken in the House of Representatives for proposing the Thirteenth Amendment "in honor of the immortal and sublime event" the House adjourned.

Congress had previously abolished slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories, had repealed the Fugitive Slave Law, and had given freedom to the Negroes who had served in the Union armies.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves only in the seceded States, excepting some parishes (counties) in Louisiana, a few counties in Virginia, and the whole of Tennessee. Besides, the validity of the proclamation under the war power of the President was questioned. To remove the legal doubt and to liberate slaves everywhere the Amendment was adopted.

Of the Thirteenth Amendment a Federal court said:
"It trenches directly upon the power of the States and of the people of the States, It is the first and only instance of a change of this character in the organic law. It destroyed the most important relation between capital and labor in all the States where slavery existed. It affected deeply the fortunes of a large portion of their people. It struck out of existence millions of property. The measure was the consequence of a strife of opinions, and a conflict of interests, real or imaginary, as old as the Constitution itself. These elements of discord grew in intensity. Their violence was increased by the throes and convulsions of a civil war. The impetuous vortex finally swallowed up the evil, and with it forever the power to restore it."c110

A law of a State under which one fined for a misdemeanor confessed judgment and agreed to work out the fine for the surety who paid it for him was held by the Supreme Court (1914) to be unconstitutional as creating "involuntary servitude" in violation of this Amendment.c110

A person who hired another under a contract by which the hirer had the right to imprison the worker or keep him under guard until the contract should he performed was held (1903) by a Federal court to violate the Peonage Act of Congress (1867) passed under this Amendment. And so it was held (1907) of a State law making it a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for one to agree to perform service and then, after receiving a part of the consideration in advance, refuse to perform.c110

Thus it is seen from very late cases that this provision is still vital and active. But in many cases it has been held that city ordinances requiring persons committed to the city prison to work out their fines in the streets or elsewhere do not violate this Amendment. c110

 



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Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 170
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170 Congress passed under this constitutional authority the Civil Rights Act of March 1, 1875, another act prohibiting peonage, and some other statutes. The first and second sections of the Civil Rights Act of Congress were held (1888) by the Supreme Court in contravention of this Amendment, which is a regulation of the States with regard to slavery, and which does not authorize Congress to regulate the conduct of individuals who prevent Negroes from having the full and equal enjoyment of hotels, theatres, and other public places. Legislation of this kind comes within the police power of the State. In many of the States there has been legislation requiring the providing of separate but equal accommodations for white persons and Negroes. Such regulations have been held valid as essential to public order. c18

The Supreme Court has said that while the object of this Amendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, "in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either." The Court said that laws permitting and even requiring separation did not imply the inferiority of either race to the other, and such laws had been generally, if not universally, recognized as within the competency of State legislatures in the exercise of their police powers.