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Atlantis => Atlantis & the Atlantic Ocean => Topic started by: dhill757 on May 19, 2007, 02:54:37 am



Title: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: dhill757 on May 19, 2007, 02:54:37 am
To quote James Bramwell:


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"Either Atlantis is an island in the Atlantic or it's not Atlantis at all." -James Bramwell, Lost Atlantis, 1937--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 07:44:34 pm






Author  Topic: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 
dhill757

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The purpose of this thread is to place Atlantis back where it belongs, squarely in the Atlantic Ocean. After becoming familiar with most of the theories, both here and in the literary world, I have to say I still haven't seen anyone to compare with the original placement, in the Atlantic. Believe me, I know all the arguments for placing it in the Mediterranean and they don't hold water, so to speak! We may even go over the weaknesses of some of them here. Some researchers try to get around that by placing the "Pillars of Hercules" in other areas and say that Plato meant to situate them differently, near Greece or the Dardanelles. To that, I'll quote Andrew Collins who says, "every classical historian or geographer who mentions the Pillars of Hercules places them first and foremost at the entrance to the Atlantic Ocean." There are two choices here, to my way of thinking anyway, either Atlantis was in the Atlantic Ocean or it didn't exist at all.
Here, I'd like to investigate the Atlantis story as far east as Gibralter, as far west as America, as far north as Greenland, as far south as Antarctica.



"Either Atlantis is an island in the Atlantic or it's not Atlantis at all." -James Bramwell, Lost Atlantis, 1937


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 07:46:07 pm







dhill757

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There are several ways that Atlantis might have existed:




1. The raised Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

2. Atlantis, like Surtsey, could have been one of the many volcanic islands "spit out" by the volatile Atlantic, then taken back at a later date.

3. Laurasia, this would imply a much older Atlantis, perhaps. There certainly is a "piece" missing from the continental plates between North America and Europe.

4. The water levels being lower during the Ice Age, Atlantis could have been simply a larger version of one of the island chains we still have in the Atlantic now - the Azores, Madeiras, Cape Verde, Canaries, etc.

5. An area of the Atlantic that takes in the Azores, Canaries, Madeiras all at once and may have been of continental size.

6. Cuba, along with a larger area of the Bahamas.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 07:48:15 pm







dhill757

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Atlantic Ocean





Ocean lying between Europe and Africa to the east and the Americas to the west; area of basin 81,500,000 sq km/31,500,000 sq mi; including the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic seas, 106,200,000 sq km/41,000,000 sq mi. It is generally divided by the Equator into the North Atlantic and South Atlantic. It was probably named after the legendary island continent of Atlantis. The average depth is 3 km/2 mi; greatest depth is at the Milwaukee Depth in the Puerto Rico Trench 8,648 m/28,374 ft. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, of which the Azores, Ascension, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha form part, divides it from north to south. Lava welling up from this central area annually increases the distance between South America and Africa. The North Atlantic is the saltiest of the main oceans and has the largest tidal range.



http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0009503.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 07:55:08 pm







dhill757

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http://www.atlantisquest.com/Hiero.html

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Ancient Egyptian Writings
(Miscellaneous Observations)






                                                           THOTH






Scattered though the references may be, an interesting picture emerges from the numerous references to Thoth in the writings of the ancient Egyptians. And that picture fits the theory of an Atlantean origin for this intriguing character.

Thoth was born in a distant country to the west which was across a body of water. Its main city was by the sea (Plato's metropolis). The land possessed volcanos and, like Atlantis, had a low mountain or large hill in the center. This land is sometimes referred to as the Isle of Flame. (Book of the Dead, Hymn of Rameses IV and Pyramid Texts)

A catastrophe occurred which darkened the sun and disturbed the gods, but Thoth led them across the sea to an eastern country [Egypt]. Thoth is depicted as the "controller of the Flood," (Leyden Papyrus) and the Theban Recension includes the Island of Flame in the Flood story. (Papyrus of Ani, Chap. CLXXV)

In Chapter LXXXV of the Book of the Dead, Thoth rules the "Western Domain," and by the end of the New Kingdom he is called "Lord of the West". (Seth, 1912) Thoth is said to be the inventor of writing, astronomy, and civilization in general. The question is pertinent: Was Thoth an Atlantean?






                                                              THE FLOOD






Nu, the Egyptian god of the Primeval Sea, is represented on the marble sarcophagus of Seti I as being up to his waist in water with arms upraised to carry the Solar Boat across the Sky. He is said to have held the royal occupants of this boat above the flood waters engulfing their mountainous island home in the West. Nu had been ordered to bring about this very flood by Atum in order to purify the world (Budge, 1960). Does this primeval flood scene depict the first migration from the Lands of the West to Egypt because of the inundation of Atlantis?


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 07:56:46 pm







dhill757

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http://www.atlantisquest.com/Hiero.html

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                                                 THE LAND OF THE WEST





Secondly, I noticed that Manetho says that the Egyptian god-kings (which I believe to be identical with the ten kings who ruled Atlantis) reigned in a foreign land. The Egyptian hieroglyph set which is commonly translated "foreign land" is extremely interesting.

Set: can mean foreign land, mountainous
land, or the underworld (Inscription
of Anebni, 18th Dynasty)

Amentet: can mean either West, or
Land of the West (Funeral Stele of
Panehesi, 19th Dynasty)

Now the "Land of the West" would be a natural Egyptian name for Atlantis. The Atlantic Ocean was referred to as the "Western Ocean". Did Manetho translate "foreign land" from this glyph? If so, we probably have ourselves a reference to Atlantis in the writings of Manetho. There were no mountains in western Egypt, yet this glyph represented a mountainous land to the west of Egypt.

That the glyph set also represented the "underworld," also fits, since this is the land where the sun shines after it has set (no pun intended) on the land of Egypt. It was believed in popular Egyptian mythology that the sun passed through the underworld on its way back to rise once more in the east.

We therefore have a glyph representing a western, mountainous land, a land where the sun went after it had set on Egypt, and whose earliest rulers were probably called "Auliteans" or "Aleteans". To top it off the reign of these kings ended around 9850 B.C. A lot of coincidences.

The famed zodiac in the temple of Hathor at Denderah begins with the constellation Leo registering the beginning of a new cycle. Could this signify a time of renewal of the earth: a beginning of a new cycle after a tremendous geological cataclysm accompanying the fall of the Atlantean empire and the end of the "reign of the gods"?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 07:58:48 pm







dhill757

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                                                           THE AZORES:

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Azores History





Plato's research suggested to him that Atlantis was a land of seafarers who fought wars against Mediterranean peoples and came from beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Atlantis was supposed to be a great island with a giant natural harbour and city of concentric circles. The land sank in about 9,400 BC leaving only scattered islands.

The Azores could be the remnants of the lost world of Atlantis. The beautifully located town of Sete Cidades on Sao Miguel island is named after the seven cities of Atlantis. Further credence is added to this theory from more recent history, in 1811 a new volcanic island was formed and claimed by the British. It was named Sabrina after the ship commanded by Captain Tillard. However the British presence in the Azores was short-lived as the island soon thereafter vanished back under the waves.
For most of recent history the islands have been controlled by the Portuguese and only recently have they gained a degree of autonomy. Though varied they are all basically volcanic in character. Volcanoes, craters, some with beautiful lakes, hot springs and high cliffs abound. The maritime climate combined with rich volcanic soils results in a year-round green carpet of forests and meadows. Heathers, hydrangeas, Himalayan ginger and a wide variety of subtropical and some tropical plants cover the hillsides.





Introduction



There are nine main islands spanning 400 miles of ocean. Furthest west lie the remote and small Corvo and Flores, then Sao Jorge, Pico and Faial lie close together and are conveniently served by ferries. Pico and Sao Jorge are for the nature and wilderness lover the most attractive. This is where our guided trek is located. Just north of these three lies Graciosa and slightly further to the east Terceira. Finally, at the east end of the archipelago, lie Sao Miguel and Santa Maria.

Ponta Delgada, the capital of the Azores, is located on Sao Miguel, the largest of the islands and the most populous. Most visitors fly in here and then take local flights to reach other islands.

There are several excellent walks on the islands, much through unspoilt country, the people are friendly and crime virtually unheard of. Small villages with narrow streets are dotted along the coast and on the hillsides-tops and in almost every direction there are beautiful panoramas of the coastline and the blue Atlantic. At present there are still only a few hotels on the islands and tourism is in its infancy, it is still possible to walk on mountain paths without seeing other people. Many of the paths are not well marked and some older paths have become overgrown by the vigorous growing Himalayan ginger.

In addition to the coastal scenery, mountains and lakes, the town of Furnas on Sao Miguel stands out as a unique location lying at the base of an ancient crater. In the middle of the old town is a magnificent and extensive botanical garden. There are several hot springs and hot bathing pools in and around Furnas, the largest being located at the heart of the botanical gardens.






Climate and Weather



The average coastal temperatures in July and August are about 25°C and in January 15°C. July and August are dry months with little rain and frequently blue skies. During the winter months occasional storms are to be expected. At all times of the year the humidity can be quite high. The ocean temperatures range from 24°C in August and September to 16°C in January and February.


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http://www.ewpnet.com/Azores.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 08:02:41 pm







dhill757

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                                               GEOLOGY OF THE AZORES






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The Azores are entirely of volcanic origin. They have been created by outpourings of lava from the ocean floor. The high level of activity in the area is a result of three major tectonic plates meeting here. The North American Plate to the northwest of the Azores is gradually drifting west, the Euroasian Plate to the northeast is drifting east and south and finally the African Plate is drifting east and north. The small Azores Microplate, which is drifting westwards, further complicates the picture. Where the plates pull apart (diverge) lava outpourings have created mid-oceanic ridges, the highest parts of these rise out of the sea to create volcanic islands. The mid-Atlantic ridge on which the Azores lie extends for 16,000 km. and islands along its length include Iceland.

The oldest of the islands, Santa Maria, was formed some 7 million years ago and then sank and reappeared. As a result it is the only island to have appreciable marine fossils in its rocks. The youngest island is Pico. it was mainly formed some 300 thousand years ago. There was an even younger island - Sabrina - not far off from Sao Miguel that appeared in 1811 and was claimed by the British but sadly it vanished under the oceans just a few months later.


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http://www.ewpnet.com/azores/geology.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 08:04:33 pm






dhill757

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There was an even younger island - Sabrina - not far off from Sao Miguel that appeared in 1811 and was claimed by the British but sadly it vanished under the oceans just a few months later.
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Yet another Atlantic Island that was reclaimed by the ocean again.

Here is more of the flora and fauna of the Azores:
http://www.ewpnet.com/azores/flora.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 08:08:57 pm







dhill757

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Plato mentions elephants in Critias. The remains of Woolly Mammoths and Mastadons have washed up along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
http://www.atlantisquest.com/Paleontology.html






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                                            PALEONTOLOGICAL TESTIMONY




The Pleistocene Extinction



Paleontologists the world over know that something catastrophic happened to the large mammals roaming the world during the Pleistocene Epoch. Woolly mammoths, mastodons, toxodons, sabre-toothed tigers, woolly rhinos, giant ground sloths, and many other large Pleistocene animals are simply no longer with us. In fact, well over 200 species of animals (involving millions of individual animals) totally disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene some 10,000-12,000 years ago in what is known to Paleontologists as the Pleistocene Extinction (Click for table).


Moreover, there is evidence of large geological changes which took place, such as massive volcanism, numerous earthquakes, tidal waves, to say nothing of the glacial melting which raised sea-levels several hundred feet worldwide. It's beginning to look like the Pleistocene Epoch didn't tippy-toe out silently, but rather ended with a large roar. Geologists and Paleontologists have an innate distaste for catastrophism, and that's understandable. Catastrophists, who in the beginning were identifying every strata of sediment with a worldwide flood, layer upon layer, almost totally discredited the field of geology--and uniformitarianism pulled the science out of the fire. But now, scientists in both fields are gradually realizing that both catastrophism and uniformitarianism (or gradualism) are at work in nature, and that everything can't be explained using one or the other alone (Gould, 1975). One of the indicators of the end of the Pleistocene 12,000 years ago is the huge numbers of frozen carcasses in both hemispheres: Canada and Alaska in the western, and Northern Russian and Siberia in the eastern.








                                               THE AMERICAN REMAINS






Back in middle 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the University of New Mexico mounted an expedition to Alaska to look for human remains. The remains he found were not human, but what he found was anything but evidence of gradualism or uniformitarianism. Instead he found miles of muck filled with the remains of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions. Just north of Fairbanks, Hibbens and his associates watched as bulldozers pushed the half-melted muck into sluice boxes for the extraction of gold. Animal tusks and bones rolled up in front of the blades "like shavings before a giant plane". The carcasses were found in all attitudes of death, most of them "pulled apart by some unexplainable prehistoric catastrophic disturbance" (Hibben, 1946).


The evidence of the violence of nature combined with the stench of rotting carcasses was staggering. The ice fields containing these remains stretched for hundred of miles in every direction (Hibben, 1946). Trees and animals, layers of peat and mosses, twisted and mangled together like some giant mixer had jumbled them some 10,000 years ago, and then froze them into a solid mass. The evidence immediately suggests an enormous tidal wave which raged over the land, tumbling animals and vegetation within its mass, which was then quick-frozen (Sanderson, 1960). But the extinction is not limited to the Arctic.


Paleontologist George G. Simpson considers the extinction of the Pleistocene horse in north America to be one of the most mysterious episodes in zoological history, admitting that in all honesty no one knows the answer. He also admits that this is only a part of the larger problem of the extinction of many other species in America at the same time (Simpson, 1961). The horse is merely the tip of the iceberg: giant tortoises living in the Caribbean Sea, the giant sloth, the sabre-toothed tiger, the glyptodont and toxodon. These were all tropical animals. They weren't wiped out because Alaska and Siberia were experiencing an Ice Age. "Unless one is willing to postulate freezing temperatures across the equator, such an explanation clearly begs the question," say leading Paleontologists (Martin & Guilday, 1967).


Woolly mammoths, woolly rhinoceros, giant armadillos, giant beavers, giant jaguars, giant ground sloths and scores of other entire species were all totally wiped out at the end of the Pleistocene. Massive piles of mastodon and sabre-toothed tiger bones were discovered in Florida (Valentine, 1969), while whole mastodons, toxodons, giant sloths and other animals were found in Venesuala quick-frozen among the mountain glaciers (Berlitz, 1969). All died on a global scale, at about the same time, circa. 10,000 B.C.








                                               FROZEN ANIMALS IN SIBERIA





The picture in Siberia and northern Europe is no different. Just north of Siberia whole islands are formed of the bones of Pleistocene animals swept northward from the continent into the frigid waters of the Arctic Ocean. It has been estimated that some ten million animals lay buried along the rivers of northern Siberia. Thousands of tusks formed a massive ivory trade for the master carvers of China, all from the remains of the frozen mammoths and mastodons of Siberia. The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew attention to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when buttercups were found in its mouth and undigested food in its stomach. This was no gradual event--it had to be sudden!


And the event was worldwide. The mammoths of Siberia became extinct about the same time as the giant rhinoceros of Europe; the mastodons of Alaska and the bison of Siberia ended simultaneously. The same is true of the Asian elephants and the American camels. The cause of these extinctions must be common to both hemispheres. If the coming of glacial conditions was gradual, it would not have cause the extinctions, because the various animals could have simply migrated to where conditions were better. What is seen here is total surprise, and uncontrolled violence (Leonard, 1979).


Geologists are once more becoming divided on the issue of catastrophism. A few are breaking away from their hard stand of the past, and are at looking at the problem with more of an open mind. Mr. Harold P. Lippman seems to be objective when he admits that the magnitude of fossils and tusks encased in the Siberian permafrost present an "insuperable difficulty" to uniformitarianism alone, since no gradual process can result in the preservation of tens of thousands of tusks and whole individuals, "even if they died in winter" (Lippman, 1962). Especially when many of these individuals have undigested grasses and leaves in their belly.


Certain misguided workers have vainly suggested that man was the cause of all this death and destruction. In the first place, the remains of the animals outnumber the remains of man a million to one. There is no way the populations of man could have killed this many animals. Some Pleistocene bone sites obviously represent the efforts of Big Game Hunters: fire was sometimes used to drive a herd of animals over a cliff or into a bog to be slaughtered for food. In these instances, the hand of man is rather obvious. Prof. N. K. Vereschagin of the then Soviet Union states bluntly: "The accumulation of mammoth bones and carcasses of mammoth, rhinoceros, and bison found in frozen ground in Indigirka, Lolyma, and Novosibirsk bear no traces of hunting of primitive man" (Vereschagin, 1967).







                                           UNIVERSAL DEATH IN 10,000 B.C.






Charles Darwin, the famous naturalist, was shocked by the extinction of species at the close of the Pleistocene. He writes: "The extinction of species has been involved in the most gratuitous mystery . . . no one can have marvelled more than I have at the extinction of species" (Darwin, 1859). He declared that for whole species to be destroyed in Southern Patagonia, in Brazil, in the mountain ranges of Peru, and in North America up to the Bering Straits, one must "shake the entire framework of the globe".


Watching them cut the huge block of muck-filled ice containing the mammoth remains on the recent "Discovery" TV special helped me realize: if a woolly mammoth standing out in the grasslands of central Asia were to suddenly die, for whatever reason, his body would simply rot and the scavangers would pick the bones clean. The only way for this to have happened would be for the mammoth to either fall in a lake or pond and drown or be swept into this mass of vegetation, insects and mud by a massive wave of water. Under which of these two scenarios would such an animal be quick-frozen? His hair and skin were still intact--even the food in his stomach!


Even the Pleistocene geologist William R. Farrand of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, who is opposed to catastrophism in any form, states: "Sudden death is indicated by the robust condition of the animals and their full stomachs . . . the animals were robust and healthy when they died" (Farrand, 1961). Neither in his article nor in his letters of rebuttal does Farrand ever face the reality of worldwide catastrophe represented by the millions of bones deposited all over this planet at the very end of the Pleistocene.


Some geologists may be softening their traditional stand against axial tilts and other rotational variations which could be the cause of world catastrophies. Dr. J. R. Heirtzler of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory observed that there has been "a revival of a 30-year-old theory that the glacial ages were caused by changes in the tilt of the earth's axis . . . there is clear evidence that large earthquakes occur at about the same time as certain changes in the earth's rotational motion." He goes on to say: "Whatever the mechanism of these changes, it is not hard to believe that similar changes in the earth's axial motion in times past could have caused major earthquake and mountain-building activity (see my Archeology page: Tiahuanacu) and could even have caused the magnetic field to flip" (Heirtzler, 1968). It has also been found that the end of the Pleistocene was attended by rampant volcanic activity (Hibben, 1946).


More recently Prof. Stephen Jay Gould, professor of geology at Harvard University, after studying the geological and paleontological record intensively, has championed the cause for open-minded consideration of catastrophism and uniformitarianism. He concludes that both concepts are represented equally in the geological record (Gould, 1977). Prof. Hibben appears to sum up the situation in a single statement: "The Pleistocene period ended in death. This was no ordinary extinction of a vague geological period which fizzled to an uncertain end. This death was catastrophic and all inclusive" (Hibben, 1946).


So it seems the last Ice Age, the Pleistocene Epoch, the Upper Paleolithic Age, and the "reign of the gods" in Egyptian history all ended at about the same time. It appears to me that the evidence, when taken into full consideration, points to a worldwide catastrophe (from whatever cause) which occurred at the close of the Pleistocene Epoch. Can it be merely coincidence that this is the very date (circa. 10,000 B.C.) indicated by Plato for the floods and seismic disturbances which led to the sinking of Atlantis and the destruction of its empire?


* TOP of Page







Bibliography




Berlitz, Charles, "The Mystery of Atlantis," New York, 1969.

Farrand, William R., "Frozen Mammoths and Modern Geology," Science, Vol.133, No. 3455, March 17, 1961.

Heirtzler, J. R., "Sea-floor spreading," Scientific American, Vol. 219, No. 6, December 1968.

Gould, Stephen Jay, "Catastrophies and Steady State Earth," Natural History, Vol. LXXXIV, No. 2, February 1975.

Gould, Stephen Jay, "Evolution's Erratic Pace," Natural History, Vol. LXXXVII, No. 5, May 1977.

Hibben, Frank, "The Lost Americans," Thomas & Crowell Co., New York, 1946.

Leonard, R. Cedric, Appendix A in "A Geological Study of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Special Paper No. 1, Cowen Publ., Bethany, 1979.

Lippman, Harold E., "Frozen Mammoths," Physical Geology, New York, 1969.

Martin, P. S. & Guilday, J. E., "Bestiary for Pleistocene Biologists," Pleistocene Extinction, Yale University, 1967.

Sanderson, Ivan T., "Riddle of the Frozen Giants," Saturday Evening Post, No. 39, January 16, 1960.
Simpson, George G., "Horses," New York, 1961.

Vereshchagin, N. K., "Primitive Hunters and Pleistocene Extinction in the Soviet Union," Pleistocene Extinction (P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright, J., editors), New Haven, 1967.


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 08:14:18 pm







dhill757

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From Andrew Collins (Gateway to Atlantis):
http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/interactive/midatlan.htm






                                               Atlantis in the Mid-Atlantic
   



 
A very plausible solution to the Atlantis mystery is that Plato's Atlantic Island was located in the Mid-Atlantic and that the island chain known as the Azores are its surviving remnants. This cluster of nine main islands is located amid a chain of underwater mountains that rise to heights in excess of 9000 metres. They form part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which defines the division between tectonic plates, aligned approximately north-south beneath the ocean floor for some 17,600 kilometres. It is the tips of the very highest of these subterranean mountains that protrude from the ocean floor as the principal islands of the Azores, which are themselves endowed with sizeable mountains that soar to a height in excess of 2100 metres. 
   
Perhaps the most important writer to propose that the Azores were remnants of an Atlantean island continent was Ignatius Donnelly, author of the seminal classic Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, first published in 1882. This American congressman set down the foundations for the thousands of books and articles that have been written on the subject of Atlantis over the past 120 years. Although Donnelly's book has seen countless reprints, much of what he had to say about Atlantis being an antediluvial motherland for the diffusion of civilisation on both sides of the Atlantic has since been proved incorrect. 
     
  Despite this drawback, Donnelly's original thesis of a central Atlantean landmass has been perpetuated by a number of well-respected scholars of the Atlantis mystery. They include Russian academic Nikolai Zhirov. In the 1960s he wrote a series of papers on the subject, as well as a definitive book entitled Atlantis - Atlantology: Basic Problems, published in 1970. Like Donnelly, he argued that the former Atlantean landmass lay in the vicinity of the Azores and that, before it sank without trace, it acted as a land-bridge for the migration of flora and fauna between Africa and the Americas. 
     
  Christian O'Brien, a retired industrial geologist, archaeologist and historical writer, has also tackled the concept of a mid-Atlantic continent having once existed in the vicinity of the Azores. In his 1997 book The Shining Ones - co-authored with his wife Barbara Joy - he proposed that the Azorean landmass, as he sees it, suffered immense cataclysms and eventually sank into the earth's liquid magma, leaving only the Azores as hard evidence of its former existence. The discovery of six fields of hot springs in the vicinity of the Azores is, he postulates, firm evidence of this hypothesis. 
   


  During underwater explorations off the island of São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores group, in 1971 Christian O'Brien found clear evidence of an underwater river bed filled with water-worn boulders. By applying detailed contouring methods to hydrographic charts, the O'Briens discerned that rivers draining off the southern slopes of São Miguel once converged together in a huge valley, now situated some 64 kilometres out from the present coastline. Other islands in the Azores group have yielded similar hydrographic anomalies, and in one case the O'Briens even traced a series of river valleys which extended for a distance of 288 kilometres before converging together in a much larger river basin.
   
  With a knowledge of ancient river systems, the O'Briens were able to reconstruct a land profile which revealed an Azorean landmass 'about the size and shape of Spain', with high mountain ranges rising over 3655 metres above sea-level, as well as impressive rivers that run 'in curving valley systems'. Furthermore, they have pointed out that:
 
In the southeast, a feature which we have called 'The Great Plain' covered an area in excess of 3500 square miles [9065 square kilometres], and was watered by a river comparable in size to the River Thames in England. It has, as we shall see, points in common with a great plain described by Plato in his Critias, as being a feature of the island of Atlantis.


     
  The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the Azores once formed part of a much greater landmass which sank beneath the waves and is now situated 'many thousands of feet' below the current sea-level. To obtain a more substantial insight into this fascinating subject, the O'Briens propose that a scientific team take a series of core samples from the proposed sites of their river channels. They confidently predict that these will show not only evidence of ancient river beds, but also of the freshwater flora and fauna which once thrived on the former Azorean landmass. 
     

These are fascinating insights into the protohistory of the Azores group. Yet there are fundamental problems in accepting the theory of a former Azorean landmass. It is now known, for instance, that the volcanic mountains which constitute the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are of relatively recent composition. They are like age-old geological scars on a gaping wound that never properly heals. The north-south orientated tectonic plates produce an upward flow of magma which constantly creates new underwater mountain systems that are unlikely to have formed part of a geological landmass in the manner described. 
   
In addition to these problems, we must also acknowledge that there is now wide-scale acceptance of the so-called continental drift theory, first proposed in 1915 by the German meteorologist Arthur Wegener. In simple terms, this asserts that many millions of years ago the American and African landmasses were joined together, yet ever since they have been slowly moving apart. Just by making paper cutouts of the different continents and slotting them together we can see they fit snugly, suggesting that the continental drift theory is real. Furthermore, the fact that the American and African continents were once joined together explains much of the flora and fauna they share. 
   
More damning is the fact that when the first Portuguese navigators reached the Azorean islands in 1427, they found them devoid not only of human life but also of any fauna. Even though some evidence has emerged to imply that in the third century BC Carthaginian vessels from North Africa reached Corvo, the westernmost of the Azorean islands, no archaeology has come to light to suggest that the archipelago ever supported an indigenous culture. 
     
  Even if the O'Briens' proposals regarding prehistoric river beds, located off the coast of São Miguel, do prove to be correct it seems unlikely that Plato's Atlantis is the memory of a high culture which once thrived on any proposed Azorean landmass. No evidence of an indigenous culture has ever come to light on any of the islands and there is no reason to assume that Plato's Atlantis account alludes to a landmass of this sort. Even though he did state that Atlantis was the size of Libya (North Africa) and Asia combined, it can be argued that this did not relate to the physical size of the island but to the extent of the dominion held by the kings of Atlantis. This can be determined from the Critias, where Plato refers specifically to a much smaller, east-west orientated landmass that cannot have been any more than 600 kilometres in width (see the entry for the Americas).






Donnelly, Ignatius, Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, 1882, Harper, New York/London, 1902

Muck, Otto, The Secret of Atlantis, 1976, Collins, London, 1978

O'Brien, Christian & Barbara Joy O'Brien, The Shining Ones, Dianthus Publishing, Kemble, Cirencester, Glos., 1997

Zhirov, N. F., Atlantis - Atlantology: Basic Problems, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 08:41:46 pm





dhill757

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Following this link will give maps of the Atlantis that the Christian O'Brien suggests in his Azores/Atlantic landmass.

http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/survey.html




                                                    SURVEY OF ATLANTIS




A brief compilation of evidence to encourage further scientific research and analysis of the issues by specialists to prove or disprove the O'Brien thesis of the recent existence of a large Mid-Atlantis Ridge island centred on the Azores.





                                                         INTRODUCTION





Christian O'Brien in Chapter 18 of The Shining Ones features the basic historical and geological evidence which identifies the Azores as the site of the Island of Atlantis. In an outstanding career as exploration geologist he is no stranger to successfully challenging established perceptions and raises the key issue of the deep crustal rifting associated with such flood basalt constructions.

He has produced the survey of the Island, shown within the attached documents taken from Admiralty Charts, which have now been superseded by the more accurate Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map also shown. Further detailed hydrographic input is required in order to present a even clearer picture to allow further studies and the siting for new sediment cores in un-disturbed areas.

The technology needed to prove or disprove the Atlantis issue is now available. Science has reached the point of being able to understand both the creation of' such large structures and the subsequent catastrophic movements in the earths crust, which have destroyed them. Finding and dating the remains of fresh water life at depths of up to 4000 metres, finding coral, sandy beaches and volcanic material below sea level and identifying former river valleys is within reach and we look forward to providing further news on this subject later in the year.

So far this century there has been a confirmed report of a one mile rise in the floor of the ocean 576 miles north of Azores when a trans-atlantic cable broke. Dr David F. Zhirov in 1970 reported sand beaches and coral at a depths of 2 miles south of the Azores. Confirmed evidence exists that sections of the Mid-Atlantic ridge have been above sea level in the past and fresh water diatoms have been found 2 miles down in the Azores area dated 10,000 to 12,000 BC.

Volcanic material described as un-dissolved tachylite was found on Telegraph Bank 500 miles north of Azores, indicating that it had been laid down above sea level at some time between 50,000 BC and 10,000 BC. Sediment core analysis at locations off the coast of Africa have proved a 2 mile sinkage of volcanic island structures similar to those of the Azores.

The more detailed evidence provided by the latest underwater surveys will assist in identify the former glacial sea level, and locating the river canyons of' a large island where rivers Joined the sea before sea levels rose, thus matching the river canyon features of the American, European and African continental shelves.

Open minds are required to concentrate current resources on the many disciplines required to re-create or resolve this mystery which has immense importance to our understanding of human origins and human diffusion. In particular, migrations from Africa to the America's from 60,000 BC.

Important knowledge has been gathered at other sites on flood basalt formations, collapsed volcanic cones, plate tectonics, deep crustal rifting together with the rebound by up to 1km of the thick and old earths crust freed from the weight of glacial ice and the compensatory sinkage of perhaps up to 4km In the fragile young and thin oceananic crustal areas adjacent to major active fault zones.

The Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map, contoured in metres, shows the islands of the Azores as the volcanic peaks of the worlds greatest Mountain range. The area is bounded on the west by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley fault, to the north by the Kurchatov Fracture Zone, on the east by deep ocean, and on the whole southern flank by the massive and deep East Azores Fracture Zone. Here we can see the three major tectonic plates which converge in this fragile crustal area, making it perhaps the most unstable structure on the planet.

There is no doubt that world sea levels have risen on average some 400 feet since the maximum influence of the Ice Age, although the identification of shore lines at this date around 16,500 BC must be considered in the light of much greater compensatory movements in the earths crust and other factors. Certainly a large island at this latitude would have been a suitable glacial refuge for plants, animals and man, during a highly inhospitable, cold and extremely dry climatic phase with so much of the earths moisture locked tip within Ice sheets.

Sea level rises may have been relatively stable in the area of Atlantis until two accelerated sea rises, due to massive melt water discharges, from land/ice locked lakes around 12,000 BC (50-40cm per annum) and 9,300 BC (30-20 mm per annum). A third and final accelerated rise took occured between 6,000 and 5,500 BC as result of further melt water discharges. The process of' sea level rise took place as the earth warmed to the highest levels recorded for over 120,000 years, peaking before 2350 BC by some 3°C higher than current levels.

The observational evidence of the geological structure of the Azores Islands, above and below current sea level, does provide evidence of river systems, which must have been created by a much larger land area. However not enough convincing evidence exists because of substantial past volcanic activity, subsidence and land slippage within the area. This creates problems in searching both for ancient remains or biological evidence that may still exist.

Catastrophic flooding, collapse and sinking at around 9,500 BC has been suggested by many historical sources and it has now become a simple matter for science to prove or disprove the thesis. Confirmation and dating of a very large sunken island requires access to and analysis of just a few sediment cores and a search for underwater structures in key locations. These may exist from just below the surface of the sea down to a depth of 11,000 feet.

It is important to realise that the O'Brien survey and the small adjustment for tilt re- creates the island as clearly described by Plato and many other independent and unconnected sources. The major building structures, if they still exist, will lie to the south west of the great plain in an area covered by the greatest depth of.' water close to the catastrophic crustal rifting of the East Azores Fault Zone, which can be clearly seen on the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map.

We have featured more than 30 important books on our recommended reading list, which in total have produced a weight of evidence to support the basic thesis presented by O'Brien, spanning from the common records of the earliest antiquity to serious modern research. Only now are we beginning to appreciate the stature and reliability of the records presented by Solon and Plato, and accept recent Scientific explanations for related dramatic crustal rifting movements and vertical movements of the earths crust.

On a world wide scale there is common story of a great flood preceded by exceptional rainfall and accompanied by earth quakes and volcanic eruptions. It may be of significance to state that tsunami tidal waves were not directly mentioned in connection with this great flood story and that modern science has identified and dated three distinct rapid rises and three small declines in sea level since the ice age as the worlds climate warmed. The first great flood may have held more significance to early man and Atlantis, than the many subsequent floods and other natural disasters. The latter include interruptions to the circulatory flow of the Gulf Stream through fresh water input/ice melt, and episodic cometary debris impacts.

We welcome further input into this project from all interested parties. The more detailed hydrographic information, which we hope to obtain from the Portuguese authorities and the Southampton University Oceanographic Department, will allow a few small steps to be made to either dismiss the existence of Atlantis at this site or confirm the detailed evidence to re-create the great legend as fact.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:02:36 pm







dhill757

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http://www.atlantia.de/atlantis_english/myth/atlantis/atlantis_atlantic.htm

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Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean – that is the favourite theory among many scientists all over the world. Just because Plato mentioned an empire in the Atlantic Ocean? No! There is considerable circumstancial evidence for a land bridge or a huge island in the Atlantic Ocean.
According to Plato’s report, Atlantis should be situated between Spain, North Africa and Central America. This is exactly where the Canary Islands are – and the Atlantic Ridge, one of the world’s most unstable regions. Moreover, this is also the location of the Azores and, further westward, the Caribbean area with its huge and small islands.

From time immemorial, the Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to South America has been an area of considerable seismic activity. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are nothing extraordinary.









The Atlantic Ocean – Catastrophes:






In 1669, a major part of the notorious pirate island Port Royal sank due to an disastrous earthquake.

In 1775, Lisbon, which is on a parallel with the Azores at a latitude of 39 43'/36 55' N, was badly hit by a devastating earthquake killing 60 000 people. Moreover, both the harbour and the docks sank 200 metres to the ground.

In 1783, one fifth of the Icelandic population fell victim to a catastrophic earthquake.

In 1811, on the Azores, a volcanic island named “Sambrina“ rose some thousand metres to the surface and sank again shortly after. The islands of Corvi and Flores constantly change their shape and parts of them are swallowed up by the sea.


To the best of present knowledge there is an underwater area with deep valleys and high mountains around the Azores and the Canary Islands. Reducing the sea level by 150 metres to the Ice Age level brings about a huge piece of land which, however, does not match the dimensions Plato wrote about. Nevertheless, further westward, in the Caribbean area, a huge land mass comes into existence which perfectly meets Platos records.







The Atlantic Ocean – Facts:





In 1969, by order of Duke University, an expedition to the Aves Ridge in the Caribbean Sea found granite on fifty locations. Usually, granite is found only onshore or where once had been solid ground.

In 1898, 750 km north of the Azores, the transatlantic cable broke. On this occasion, rock samples were taken from a depth of 17 000 fathoms. A close examination came to the result that the rock samples consisted of tachylyte, a lava-like substance. Yet this mineral would not emerge unless above sea level and under atmospheric pressure. Moreover, it will decompose after 15 000 years. This means that once there had been mainland.

In a depth of up to 1 000 metres, coastal sand was found on the reefs of the Azores. However, it usually only appears on flat beaches.

In 1936, the Geological Society of America conducted a study of sunken river canyons in the Atlantic Ocean. It says that rivers on the European, the North African and the American side sank into the continental sockets for up to 300 km in length and 2 km in depth. That means that in the Pleistocene Age, that is when mankind emerged, the sea level underwent a change in depth up to 2 000 metres.


The Atlantic Ridge – one of the world’s most nororious regions in terms of seismic activity. Decreasing the sea level by 300 to 400 metres brings about a huge land mass that would perfectly fit Plato’s descriptions. In “Critias“, Plato writes:

 
“(...)In the next place, they had fountains, one of cold and another of hot water, in gracious plenty flowing; and they were wonderfully adapted for use by reason of the pleasantness and excellence of their waters. They constructed buildings about them and planted suitable trees, also they made cisterns, some open to the heavens, others roofed over, to be used in winter as warm baths (...)“

Usually, these warm and cold springs manifest themselves within continental zones. An example for this is Iceland where people use the warm springs to supply themselves with heat and energy – just as Plato put it.

Yet the Würm Ice Age 12 000 years ago is not a suitable candidate to have reduced the sea level along the Atlantic Ridge. Did, then, the catastrophe in the Atlantic Ocean indeed happen? That desaster with its devastating earthquakes and inundations that caused the mid-Atlantic Ridge to sink? Or is it all about an inundation of the Caribbean area with its shallow waters? Also, the point in time when the glaciers melted would perfectly meet the time of the disappearance of Atlantis as has been indicated by Plato.

Read the following excerpt from the Critias dialogue:

“(...)Let me begin by observing first of all, that nine thousand was the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between those who dwelt outside the pillars of Heracles and all who dwelt within them; this war I am going to describe. (...)“

 

A further mystery concerns the migrations of the European eels. These animals spawn in the Sargasso Sea west of the United States of America. The newborn eels start their three years long eastbound migration following the Gulf Stream to the European rivers. Having reached sexual maturity they migrate back to the Sargasso Sea within four months, however leaving the Azores to their left this time. It has been proven that the eels need freshwater to reach maturity but why do they venture on this long journey across the Atlantic Ocean?

Could it be that the eels have a genetic memory of a mainland with freshwater in the Atlantic Ocean but cannot find it again because it sank? Is that why they keep on migrating until they reach Europe?

Another phenomenon relates to the suicide of the Norwegian lemmings. Every year when their homeland is running short of food, these little rodents start migrating westwards. At the end of their migration they jump into the ocean and continue swimming westwards until they drown. What is it these animals are after in the ocean? Are they following a basic instinct driving them into the ocean? Are they looking for a land that offered them plenty of food a long time ago? Was this land Atlantis, located in the Atlantic Ocean according to Plato?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:05:20 pm







dhill757

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http://www.atlantida.gr/engArxaiaEbrimata.htm





                                                         ANCIENT FOUNDINGS





Did Atlantis exist in the Atlantic Ocean?




We summarize our arguements, referring the most important findings about Atlantis. The evidences was drawn up by the Museum of Atlantis.



1. At the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean was found basalt glassy lava of a mainland and not undersea volcano.

2. In 1898 special machinery brought into the surface of the Atlantic Ocean from 2800 m depth, a rock island 15000 years old which came from a mainland volcano.

3. In the summer of 1927, a crystal cranium from quartz with a movable jaw was found in the jungle of the British Honduran (Central America)!

4. In 1977, with echo sounding machinery, a pyramid was localized in depth of 300 m near the triangle of Vermuda.

5. In Bimini islands which are in the Bahamas islands were found (in 1969) sunk large stones squared or rectangulared of 600 square metres extend similar to those which were found by professor Jacques Cousteau in the small island Dias of Krete (in 1976).

6. In a mountain of Perou in Piscos Bay a very ancient trident (Atlant's symbol) is displayed which is made of white stones with phosphoric brightness "stabbed" in the slope. It has 250 m length and sides of 3,8 m width. This trident leads to a marked airport shaped flat space in Nasca plain which is located 160 km from Pisco. Wide airstrips and radiated corridors are discerned which stand out because they shine. They are formed by rack fragments. When you see this space from above it gives you the impression of an airport with geometrical lines and signs like in the modern airfields.

7. The gravestone with a carved pilot which was found in Palenkoue, near the temple of the Atlants of Mexico

8. The undersea ruins which were found through Soviet research with head the academic Accenof near Madera and the 9500 years smoothed marble stone which was drawn up by the Rusians from the undersea central Atlantic slope (mountain rage)

9. Some very ancient buildings of America belong to this technique of the most ancient buildings of Europe and North Africa as well as many architectural decorative shapes which are similar to both civilizations.

10. Geologists admit that between the Big and the Small Antilles there was land, which was sunk. Furthermore, that the Azores islands and in their extend Madera and the Canary islands are emerged summits of a big undersea volcano mountain range where often happen earthquakes and explosions.








                                                   General conclusions






All these foundings show that the large continent of Atlantis was surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. Its geographical extend approach more to the Central America, the Big and the Small Antilles and the Bahamas, included the space of the Atlantic Ocean up to the Sargassai Sea, expanded normally up to Bermuda and an oblong extend of it reached as far as to the Azores. It was also surrounded by many small islands (sea maps of Atlantis).


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:08:24 pm







Author  Topic: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 
dhill757

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The purpose of this thread is to place Atlantis back where it belongs, squarely in the Atlantic Ocean. After becoming familiar with most of the theories, both here and in the literary world, I have to say I still haven't seen anyone to compare with the original placement, in the Atlantic. Believe me, I know all the arguments for placing it in the Mediterranean and they don't hold water, so to speak! We may even go over the weaknesses of some of them here. Some researchers try to get around that by placing the "Pillars of Hercules" in other areas and say that Plato meant to situate them differently, near Greece or the Dardanelles. To that, I'll quote Andrew Collins who says, "every classical historian or geographer who mentions the Pillars of Hercules places them first and foremost at the entrance to the Atlantic Ocean." There are two choices here, to my way of thinking anyway, either Atlantis was in the Atlantic Ocean or it didn't exist at all.
Here, I'd like to investigate the Atlantis story as far east as Gibralter, as far west as America, as far north as Greenland, as far south as Antarctica.

"Either Atlantis is an island in the Atlantic or it's not Atlantis at all." -James Bramwell, Lost Atlantis, 1937


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There are several ways that Atlantis might have existed:
1. The raised Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
2. Atlantis, like Surtsey, could have been one of the many volcanic islands "spit out" by the volatile Atlantic, then taken back at a later date.
3. Laurasia, this would imply a much older Atlantis, perhaps. There certainly is a "piece" missing from the continental plates between North America and Europe.
4. The water levels being lower during the Ice Age, Atlantis could have been simply a larger version of one of the island chains we still have in the Atlantic now - the Azores, Madeiras, Cape Verde, Canaries, etc.
5. An area of the Atlantic that takes in the Azores, Canaries, Madeiras all at once and may have been of continental size.
6. Cuba, along with a larger area of the Bahamas.


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Atlantic Ocean
Ocean lying between Europe and Africa to the east and the Americas to the west; area of basin 81,500,000 sq km/31,500,000 sq mi; including the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic seas, 106,200,000 sq km/41,000,000 sq mi. It is generally divided by the Equator into the North Atlantic and South Atlantic. It was probably named after the legendary island continent of Atlantis. The average depth is 3 km/2 mi; greatest depth is at the Milwaukee Depth in the Puerto Rico Trench 8,648 m/28,374 ft. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, of which the Azores, Ascension, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha form part, divides it from north to south. Lava welling up from this central area annually increases the distance between South America and Africa. The North Atlantic is the saltiest of the main oceans and has the largest tidal range.
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0009503.html
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http://www.atlantisquest.com/Hiero.html

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Ancient Egyptian Writings
(Miscellaneous Observations)

THOTH

Scattered though the references may be, an interesting picture emerges from the numerous references to Thoth in the writings of the ancient Egyptians. And that picture fits the theory of an Atlantean origin for this intriguing character.

Thoth was born in a distant country to the west which was across a body of water. Its main city was by the sea (Plato's metropolis). The land possessed volcanos and, like Atlantis, had a low mountain or large hill in the center. This land is sometimes referred to as the Isle of Flame. (Book of the Dead, Hymn of Rameses IV and Pyramid Texts)

A catastrophe occurred which darkened the sun and disturbed the gods, but Thoth led them across the sea to an eastern country [Egypt]. Thoth is depicted as the "controller of the Flood," (Leyden Papyrus) and the Theban Recension includes the Island of Flame in the Flood story. (Papyrus of Ani, Chap. CLXXV)

In Chapter LXXXV of the Book of the Dead, Thoth rules the "Western Domain," and by the end of the New Kingdom he is called "Lord of the West". (Seth, 1912) Thoth is said to be the inventor of writing, astronomy, and civilization in general. The question is pertinent: Was Thoth an Atlantean?

THE FLOOD

Nu, the Egyptian god of the Primeval Sea, is represented on the marble sarcophagus of Seti I as being up to his waist in water with arms upraised to carry the Solar Boat across the Sky. He is said to have held the royal occupants of this boat above the flood waters engulfing their mountainous island home in the West. Nu had been ordered to bring about this very flood by Atum in order to purify the world (Budge, 1960). Does this primeval flood scene depict the first migration from the Lands of the West to Egypt because of the inundation of Atlantis?


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THE LAND OF THE WEST

Secondly, I noticed that Manetho says that the Egyptian god-kings (which I believe to be identical with the ten kings who ruled Atlantis) reigned in a foreign land. The Egyptian hieroglyph set which is commonly translated "foreign land" is extremely interesting.

Set: can mean foreign land, mountainous
land, or the underworld (Inscription
of Anebni, 18th Dynasty)

Amentet: can mean either West, or
Land of the West (Funeral Stele of
Panehesi, 19th Dynasty)

Now the "Land of the West" would be a natural Egyptian name for Atlantis. The Atlantic Ocean was referred to as the "Western Ocean". Did Manetho translate "foreign land" from this glyph? If so, we probably have ourselves a reference to Atlantis in the writings of Manetho. There were no mountains in western Egypt, yet this glyph represented a mountainous land to the west of Egypt.

That the glyph set also represented the "underworld," also fits, since this is the land where the sun shines after it has set (no pun intended) on the land of Egypt. It was believed in popular Egyptian mythology that the sun passed through the underworld on its way back to rise once more in the east.

We therefore have a glyph representing a western, mountainous land, a land where the sun went after it had set on Egypt, and whose earliest rulers were probably called "Auliteans" or "Aleteans". To top it off the reign of these kings ended around 9850 B.C. A lot of coincidences.

The famed zodiac in the temple of Hathor at Denderah begins with the constellation Leo registering the beginning of a new cycle. Could this signify a time of renewal of the earth: a beginning of a new cycle after a tremendous geological cataclysm accompanying the fall of the Atlantean empire and the end of the "reign of the gods"?


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THE AZORES:

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Azores History
Plato's research suggested to him that Atlantis was a land of seafarers who fought wars against Mediterranean peoples and came from beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Atlantis was supposed to be a great island with a giant natural harbour and city of concentric circles. The land sank in about 9,400 BC leaving only scattered islands.
The Azores could be the remnants of the lost world of Atlantis. The beautifully located town of Sete Cidades on Sao Miguel island is named after the seven cities of Atlantis. Further credence is added to this theory from more recent history, in 1811 a new volcanic island was formed and claimed by the British. It was named Sabrina after the ship commanded by Captain Tillard. However the British presence in the Azores was short-lived as the island soon thereafter vanished back under the waves.
For most of recent history the islands have been controlled by the Portuguese and only recently have they gained a degree of autonomy. Though varied they are all basically volcanic in character. Volcanoes, craters, some with beautiful lakes, hot springs and high cliffs abound. The maritime climate combined with rich volcanic soils results in a year-round green carpet of forests and meadows. Heathers, hydrangeas, Himalayan ginger and a wide variety of subtropical and some tropical plants cover the hillsides.

Introduction
There are nine main islands spanning 400 miles of ocean. Furthest west lie the remote and small Corvo and Flores, then Sao Jorge, Pico and Faial lie close together and are conveniently served by ferries. Pico and Sao Jorge are for the nature and wilderness lover the most attractive. This is where our guided trek is located. Just north of these three lies Graciosa and slightly further to the east Terceira. Finally, at the east end of the archipelago, lie Sao Miguel and Santa Maria.

Ponta Delgada, the capital of the Azores, is located on Sao Miguel, the largest of the islands and the most populous. Most visitors fly in here and then take local flights to reach other islands.

There are several excellent walks on the islands, much through unspoilt country, the people are friendly and crime virtually unheard of. Small villages with narrow streets are dotted along the coast and on the hillsides-tops and in almost every direction there are beautiful panoramas of the coastline and the blue Atlantic. At present there are still only a few hotels on the islands and tourism is in its infancy, it is still possible to walk on mountain paths without seeing other people. Many of the paths are not well marked and some older paths have become overgrown by the vigorous growing Himalayan ginger.

In addition to the coastal scenery, mountains and lakes, the town of Furnas on Sao Miguel stands out as a unique location lying at the base of an ancient crater. In the middle of the old town is a magnificent and extensive botanical garden. There are several hot springs and hot bathing pools in and around Furnas, the largest being located at the heart of the botanical gardens.

Climate and Weather
The average coastal temperatures in July and August are about 25°C and in January 15°C. July and August are dry months with little rain and frequently blue skies. During the winter months occasional storms are to be expected. At all times of the year the humidity can be quite high. The ocean temperatures range from 24°C in August and September to 16°C in January and February.


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http://www.ewpnet.com/Azores.htm

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GEOLOOGY OF THE AZORES

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The Azores are entirely of volcanic origin. They have been created by outpourings of lava from the ocean floor. The high level of activity in the area is a result of three major tectonic plates meeting here. The North American Plate to the northwest of the Azores is gradually drifting west, the Euroasian Plate to the northeast is drifting east and south and finally the African Plate is drifting east and north. The small Azores Microplate, which is drifting westwards, further complicates the picture. Where the plates pull apart (diverge) lava outpourings have created mid-oceanic ridges, the highest parts of these rise out of the sea to create volcanic islands. The mid-Atlantic ridge on which the Azores lie extends for 16,000 km. and islands along its length include Iceland.
The oldest of the islands, Santa Maria, was formed some 7 million years ago and then sank and reappeared. As a result it is the only island to have appreciable marine fossils in its rocks. The youngest island is Pico. it was mainly formed some 300 thousand years ago. There was an even younger island - Sabrina - not far off from Sao Miguel that appeared in 1811 and was claimed by the British but sadly it vanished under the oceans just a few months later.


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http://www.ewpnet.com/azores/geology.htm
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dhill757

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There was an even younger island - Sabrina - not far off from Sao Miguel that appeared in 1811 and was claimed by the British but sadly it vanished under the oceans just a few months later.
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Yet another Atlantic Island that was reclaimed by the ocean again.

Here is more of the flora and fauna of the Azores:
http://www.ewpnet.com/azores/flora.htm




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dhill757

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Plato mentions elephants in Critias. The remains of Woolly Mammoths and Mastadons have washed up along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
http://www.atlantisquest.com/Paleontology.html

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PALEONTOLOGICAL
TESTIMONY
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The Pleistocene Extinction

Paleontologists the world over know that something catastrophic happened to the large mammals roaming the world during the Pleistocene Epoch. Woolly mammoths, mastodons, toxodons, sabre-toothed tigers, woolly rhinos, giant ground sloths, and many other large Pleistocene animals are simply no longer with us. In fact, well over 200 species of animals (involving millions of individual animals) totally disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene some 10,000-12,000 years ago in what is known to Paleontologists as the Pleistocene Extinction (Click for table).


Moreover, there is evidence of large geological changes which took place, such as massive volcanism, numerous earthquakes, tidal waves, to say nothing of the glacial melting which raised sea-levels several hundred feet worldwide. It's beginning to look like the Pleistocene Epoch didn't tippy-toe out silently, but rather ended with a large roar. Geologists and Paleontologists have an innate distaste for catastrophism, and that's understandable. Catastrophists, who in the beginning were identifying every strata of sediment with a worldwide flood, layer upon layer, almost totally discredited the field of geology--and uniformitarianism pulled the science out of the fire. But now, scientists in both fields are gradually realizing that both catastrophism and uniformitarianism (or gradualism) are at work in nature, and that everything can't be explained using one or the other alone (Gould, 1975). One of the indicators of the end of the Pleistocene 12,000 years ago is the huge numbers of frozen carcasses in both hemispheres: Canada and Alaska in the western, and Northern Russian and Siberia in the eastern.

THE AMERICAN REMAINS

Back in middle 1940s Dr. Frank C. Hibben, Prof. of Archeology at the University of New Mexico mounted an expedition to Alaska to look for human remains. The remains he found were not human, but what he found was anything but evidence of gradualism or uniformitarianism. Instead he found miles of muck filled with the remains of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions. Just north of Fairbanks, Hibbens and his associates watched as bulldozers pushed the half-melted muck into sluice boxes for the extraction of gold. Animal tusks and bones rolled up in front of the blades "like shavings before a giant plane". The carcasses were found in all attitudes of death, most of them "pulled apart by some unexplainable prehistoric catastrophic disturbance" (Hibben, 1946).


The evidence of the violence of nature combined with the stench of rotting carcasses was staggering. The ice fields containing these remains stretched for hundred of miles in every direction (Hibben, 1946). Trees and animals, layers of peat and mosses, twisted and mangled together like some giant mixer had jumbled them some 10,000 years ago, and then froze them into a solid mass. The evidence immediately suggests an enormous tidal wave which raged over the land, tumbling animals and vegetation within its mass, which was then quick-frozen (Sanderson, 1960). But the extinction is not limited to the Arctic.


Paleontologist George G. Simpson considers the extinction of the Pleistocene horse in north America to be one of the most mysterious episodes in zoological history, admitting that in all honesty no one knows the answer. He also admits that this is only a part of the larger problem of the extinction of many other species in America at the same time (Simpson, 1961). The horse is merely the tip of the iceberg: giant tortoises living in the Caribbean Sea, the giant sloth, the sabre-toothed tiger, the glyptodont and toxodon. These were all tropical animals. They weren't wiped out because Alaska and Siberia were experiencing an Ice Age. "Unless one is willing to postulate freezing temperatures across the equator, such an explanation clearly begs the question," say leading Paleontologists (Martin & Guilday, 1967).


Woolly mammoths, woolly rhinoceros, giant armadillos, giant beavers, giant jaguars, giant ground sloths and scores of other entire species were all totally wiped out at the end of the Pleistocene. Massive piles of mastodon and sabre-toothed tiger bones were discovered in Florida (Valentine, 1969), while whole mastodons, toxodons, giant sloths and other animals were found in Venesuala quick-frozen among the mountain glaciers (Berlitz, 1969). All died on a global scale, at about the same time, circa. 10,000 B.C.

FROZEN ANIMALS IN SIBERIA

The picture in Siberia and northern Europe is no different. Just north of Siberia whole islands are formed of the bones of Pleistocene animals swept northward from the continent into the frigid waters of the Arctic Ocean. It has been estimated that some ten million animals lay buried along the rivers of northern Siberia. Thousands of tusks formed a massive ivory trade for the master carvers of China, all from the remains of the frozen mammoths and mastodons of Siberia. The famous Beresovka mammoth first drew attention to the preserving properties of being quick-frozen when buttercups were found in its mouth and undigested food in its stomach. This was no gradual event--it had to be sudden!


And the event was worldwide. The mammoths of Siberia became extinct about the same time as the giant rhinoceros of Europe; the mastodons of Alaska and the bison of Siberia ended simultaneously. The same is true of the Asian elephants and the American camels. The cause of these extinctions must be common to both hemispheres. If the coming of glacial conditions was gradual, it would not have cause the extinctions, because the various animals could have simply migrated to where conditions were better. What is seen here is total surprise, and uncontrolled violence (Leonard, 1979).


Geologists are once more becoming divided on the issue of catastrophism. A few are breaking away from their hard stand of the past, and are at looking at the problem with more of an open mind. Mr. Harold P. Lippman seems to be objective when he admits that the magnitude of fossils and tusks encased in the Siberian permafrost present an "insuperable difficulty" to uniformitarianism alone, since no gradual process can result in the preservation of tens of thousands of tusks and whole individuals, "even if they died in winter" (Lippman, 1962). Especially when many of these individuals have undigested grasses and leaves in their belly.


Certain misguided workers have vainly suggested that man was the cause of all this death and destruction. In the first place, the remains of the animals outnumber the remains of man a million to one. There is no way the populations of man could have killed this many animals. Some Pleistocene bone sites obviously represent the efforts of Big Game Hunters: fire was sometimes used to drive a herd of animals over a cliff or into a bog to be slaughtered for food. In these instances, the hand of man is rather obvious. Prof. N. K. Vereschagin of the then Soviet Union states bluntly: "The accumulation of mammoth bones and carcasses of mammoth, rhinoceros, and bison found in frozen ground in Indigirka, Lolyma, and Novosibirsk bear no traces of hunting of primitive man" (Vereschagin, 1967).

UNIVERSAL DEATH IN 10,000 B.C.

Charles Darwin, the famous naturalist, was shocked by the extinction of species at the close of the Pleistocene. He writes: "The extinction of species has been involved in the most gratuitous mystery . . . no one can have marvelled more than I have at the extinction of species" (Darwin, 1859). He declared that for whole species to be destroyed in Southern Patagonia, in Brazil, in the mountain ranges of Peru, and in North America up to the Bering Straits, one must "shake the entire framework of the globe".


Watching them cut the huge block of muck-filled ice containing the mammoth remains on the recent "Discovery" TV special helped me realize: if a woolly mammoth standing out in the grasslands of central Asia were to suddenly die, for whatever reason, his body would simply rot and the scavangers would pick the bones clean. The only way for this to have happened would be for the mammoth to either fall in a lake or pond and drown or be swept into this mass of vegetation, insects and mud by a massive wave of water. Under which of these two scenarios would such an animal be quick-frozen? His hair and skin were still intact--even the food in his stomach!


Even the Pleistocene geologist William R. Farrand of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, who is opposed to catastrophism in any form, states: "Sudden death is indicated by the robust condition of the animals and their full stomachs . . . the animals were robust and healthy when they died" (Farrand, 1961). Neither in his article nor in his letters of rebuttal does Farrand ever face the reality of worldwide catastrophe represented by the millions of bones deposited all over this planet at the very end of the Pleistocene.


Some geologists may be softening their traditional stand against axial tilts and other rotational variations which could be the cause of world catastrophies. Dr. J. R. Heirtzler of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory observed that there has been "a revival of a 30-year-old theory that the glacial ages were caused by changes in the tilt of the earth's axis . . . there is clear evidence that large earthquakes occur at about the same time as certain changes in the earth's rotational motion." He goes on to say: "Whatever the mechanism of these changes, it is not hard to believe that similar changes in the earth's axial motion in times past could have caused major earthquake and mountain-building activity (see my Archeology page: Tiahuanacu) and could even have caused the magnetic field to flip" (Heirtzler, 1968). It has also been found that the end of the Pleistocene was attended by rampant volcanic activity (Hibben, 1946).


More recently Prof. Stephen Jay Gould, professor of geology at Harvard University, after studying the geological and paleontological record intensively, has championed the cause for open-minded consideration of catastrophism and uniformitarianism. He concludes that both concepts are represented equally in the geological record (Gould, 1977). Prof. Hibben appears to sum up the situation in a single statement: "The Pleistocene period ended in death. This was no ordinary extinction of a vague geological period which fizzled to an uncertain end. This death was catastrophic and all inclusive" (Hibben, 1946).


So it seems the last Ice Age, the Pleistocene Epoch, the Upper Paleolithic Age, and the "reign of the gods" in Egyptian history all ended at about the same time. It appears to me that the evidence, when taken into full consideration, points to a worldwide catastrophe (from whatever cause) which occurred at the close of the Pleistocene Epoch. Can it be merely coincidence that this is the very date (circa. 10,000 B.C.) indicated by Plato for the floods and seismic disturbances which led to the sinking of Atlantis and the destruction of its empire?


* TOP of Page

Bibliography

Berlitz, Charles, "The Mystery of Atlantis," New York, 1969.
Farrand, William R., "Frozen Mammoths and Modern Geology," Science, Vol.133, No. 3455, March 17, 1961.
Heirtzler, J. R., "Sea-floor spreading," Scientific American, Vol. 219, No. 6, December 1968.
Gould, Stephen Jay, "Catastrophies and Steady State Earth," Natural History, Vol. LXXXIV, No. 2, February 1975.
Gould, Stephen Jay, "Evolution's Erratic Pace," Natural History, Vol. LXXXVII, No. 5, May 1977.
Hibben, Frank, "The Lost Americans," Thomas & Crowell Co., New York, 1946.
Leonard, R. Cedric, Appendix A in "A Geological Study of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Special Paper No. 1, Cowen Publ., Bethany, 1979.
Lippman, Harold E., "Frozen Mammoths," Physical Geology, New York, 1969.
Martin, P. S. & Guilday, J. E., "Bestiary for Pleistocene Biologists," Pleistocene Extinction, Yale University, 1967.
Sanderson, Ivan T., "Riddle of the Frozen Giants," Saturday Evening Post, No. 39, January 16, 1960.
Simpson, George G., "Horses," New York, 1961.
Vereshchagin, N. K., "Primitive Hunters and Pleistocene Extinction in the Soviet Union," Pleistocene Extinction (P. S. Martin & H. E. Wright, J., editors), New Haven, 1967.


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dhill757

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From Andrew Collins (Gateway to Atlantis):
http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/interactive/midatlan.htm

Atlantis in the Mid-Atlantic
   
 
A very plausible solution to the Atlantis mystery is that Plato's Atlantic Island was located in the Mid-Atlantic and that the island chain known as the Azores are its surviving remnants. This cluster of nine main islands is located amid a chain of underwater mountains that rise to heights in excess of 9000 metres. They form part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which defines the division between tectonic plates, aligned approximately north-south beneath the ocean floor for some 17,600 kilometres. It is the tips of the very highest of these subterranean mountains that protrude from the ocean floor as the principal islands of the Azores, which are themselves endowed with sizeable mountains that soar to a height in excess of 2100 metres. 
   
Perhaps the most important writer to propose that the Azores were remnants of an Atlantean island continent was Ignatius Donnelly, author of the seminal classic Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, first published in 1882. This American congressman set down the foundations for the thousands of books and articles that have been written on the subject of Atlantis over the past 120 years. Although Donnelly's book has seen countless reprints, much of what he had to say about Atlantis being an antediluvial motherland for the diffusion of civilisation on both sides of the Atlantic has since been proved incorrect. 
     
  Despite this drawback, Donnelly's original thesis of a central Atlantean landmass has been perpetuated by a number of well-respected scholars of the Atlantis mystery. They include Russian academic Nikolai Zhirov. In the 1960s he wrote a series of papers on the subject, as well as a definitive book entitled Atlantis - Atlantology: Basic Problems, published in 1970. Like Donnelly, he argued that the former Atlantean landmass lay in the vicinity of the Azores and that, before it sank without trace, it acted as a land-bridge for the migration of flora and fauna between Africa and the Americas. 
     
  Christian O'Brien, a retired industrial geologist, archaeologist and historical writer, has also tackled the concept of a mid-Atlantic continent having once existed in the vicinity of the Azores. In his 1997 book The Shining Ones - co-authored with his wife Barbara Joy - he proposed that the Azorean landmass, as he sees it, suffered immense cataclysms and eventually sank into the earth's liquid magma, leaving only the Azores as hard evidence of its former existence. The discovery of six fields of hot springs in the vicinity of the Azores is, he postulates, firm evidence of this hypothesis. 
   


  During underwater explorations off the island of São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores group, in 1971 Christian O'Brien found clear evidence of an underwater river bed filled with water-worn boulders. By applying detailed contouring methods to hydrographic charts, the O'Briens discerned that rivers draining off the southern slopes of São Miguel once converged together in a huge valley, now situated some 64 kilometres out from the present coastline. Other islands in the Azores group have yielded similar hydrographic anomalies, and in one case the O'Briens even traced a series of river valleys which extended for a distance of 288 kilometres before converging together in a much larger river basin.
   
  With a knowledge of ancient river systems, the O'Briens were able to reconstruct a land profile which revealed an Azorean landmass 'about the size and shape of Spain', with high mountain ranges rising over 3655 metres above sea-level, as well as impressive rivers that run 'in curving valley systems'. Furthermore, they have pointed out that:
 
In the southeast, a feature which we have called 'The Great Plain' covered an area in excess of 3500 square miles [9065 square kilometres], and was watered by a river comparable in size to the River Thames in England. It has, as we shall see, points in common with a great plain described by Plato in his Critias, as being a feature of the island of Atlantis.


     
  The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the Azores once formed part of a much greater landmass which sank beneath the waves and is now situated 'many thousands of feet' below the current sea-level. To obtain a more substantial insight into this fascinating subject, the O'Briens propose that a scientific team take a series of core samples from the proposed sites of their river channels. They confidently predict that these will show not only evidence of ancient river beds, but also of the freshwater flora and fauna which once thrived on the former Azorean landmass. 
     

These are fascinating insights into the protohistory of the Azores group. Yet there are fundamental problems in accepting the theory of a former Azorean landmass. It is now known, for instance, that the volcanic mountains which constitute the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are of relatively recent composition. They are like age-old geological scars on a gaping wound that never properly heals. The north-south orientated tectonic plates produce an upward flow of magma which constantly creates new underwater mountain systems that are unlikely to have formed part of a geological landmass in the manner described. 
   
In addition to these problems, we must also acknowledge that there is now wide-scale acceptance of the so-called continental drift theory, first proposed in 1915 by the German meteorologist Arthur Wegener. In simple terms, this asserts that many millions of years ago the American and African landmasses were joined together, yet ever since they have been slowly moving apart. Just by making paper cutouts of the different continents and slotting them together we can see they fit snugly, suggesting that the continental drift theory is real. Furthermore, the fact that the American and African continents were once joined together explains much of the flora and fauna they share. 
   
More damning is the fact that when the first Portuguese navigators reached the Azorean islands in 1427, they found them devoid not only of human life but also of any fauna. Even though some evidence has emerged to imply that in the third century BC Carthaginian vessels from North Africa reached Corvo, the westernmost of the Azorean islands, no archaeology has come to light to suggest that the archipelago ever supported an indigenous culture. 
     
  Even if the O'Briens' proposals regarding prehistoric river beds, located off the coast of São Miguel, do prove to be correct it seems unlikely that Plato's Atlantis is the memory of a high culture which once thrived on any proposed Azorean landmass. No evidence of an indigenous culture has ever come to light on any of the islands and there is no reason to assume that Plato's Atlantis account alludes to a landmass of this sort. Even though he did state that Atlantis was the size of Libya (North Africa) and Asia combined, it can be argued that this did not relate to the physical size of the island but to the extent of the dominion held by the kings of Atlantis. This can be determined from the Critias, where Plato refers specifically to a much smaller, east-west orientated landmass that cannot have been any more than 600 kilometres in width (see the entry for the Americas).

Donnelly, Ignatius, Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, 1882, Harper, New York/London, 1902
Muck, Otto, The Secret of Atlantis, 1976, Collins, London, 1978
O'Brien, Christian & Barbara Joy O'Brien, The Shining Ones, Dianthus Publishing, Kemble, Cirencester, Glos., 1997
Zhirov, N. F., Atlantis - Atlantology: Basic Problems, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970
   
 



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dhill757

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Following this link will give maps of the Atlantis that the Christian O'Brien suggests in his Azores/Atlantic landmass.
http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/survey.html
SURVEY OF ATLANTIS

A brief compilation of evidence to encourage further scientific research and analysis of the issues by specialists to prove or disprove the O'Brien thesis of the recent existence of a large Mid-Atlantis Ridge island centred on the Azores.

INTRODUCTION

Christian O'Brien in Chapter 18 of The Shining Ones features the basic historical and geological evidence which identifies the Azores as the site of the Island of Atlantis. In an outstanding career as exploration geologist he is no stranger to successfully challenging established perceptions and raises the key issue of the deep crustal rifting associated with such flood basalt constructions.

He has produced the survey of the Island, shown within the attached documents taken from Admiralty Charts, which have now been superseded by the more accurate Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map also shown. Further detailed hydrographic input is required in order to present a even clearer picture to allow further studies and the siting for new sediment cores in un-disturbed areas.

The technology needed to prove or disprove the Atlantis issue is now available. Science has reached the point of being able to understand both the creation of' such large structures and the subsequent catastrophic movements in the earths crust, which have destroyed them. Finding and dating the remains of fresh water life at depths of up to 4000 metres, finding coral, sandy beaches and volcanic material below sea level and identifying former river valleys is within reach and we look forward to providing further news on this subject later in the year.

So far this century there has been a confirmed report of a one mile rise in the floor of the ocean 576 miles north of Azores when a trans-atlantic cable broke. Dr David F. Zhirov in 1970 reported sand beaches and coral at a depths of 2 miles south of the Azores. Confirmed evidence exists that sections of the Mid-Atlantic ridge have been above sea level in the past and fresh water diatoms have been found 2 miles down in the Azores area dated 10,000 to 12,000 BC.

Volcanic material described as un-dissolved tachylite was found on Telegraph Bank 500 miles north of Azores, indicating that it had been laid down above sea level at some time between 50,000 BC and 10,000 BC. Sediment core analysis at locations off the coast of Africa have proved a 2 mile sinkage of volcanic island structures similar to those of the Azores.

The more detailed evidence provided by the latest underwater surveys will assist in identify the former glacial sea level, and locating the river canyons of' a large island where rivers Joined the sea before sea levels rose, thus matching the river canyon features of the American, European and African continental shelves.

Open minds are required to concentrate current resources on the many disciplines required to re-create or resolve this mystery which has immense importance to our understanding of human origins and human diffusion. In particular, migrations from Africa to the America's from 60,000 BC.

Important knowledge has been gathered at other sites on flood basalt formations, collapsed volcanic cones, plate tectonics, deep crustal rifting together with the rebound by up to 1km of the thick and old earths crust freed from the weight of glacial ice and the compensatory sinkage of perhaps up to 4km In the fragile young and thin oceananic crustal areas adjacent to major active fault zones.

The Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map, contoured in metres, shows the islands of the Azores as the volcanic peaks of the worlds greatest Mountain range. The area is bounded on the west by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley fault, to the north by the Kurchatov Fracture Zone, on the east by deep ocean, and on the whole southern flank by the massive and deep East Azores Fracture Zone. Here we can see the three major tectonic plates which converge in this fragile crustal area, making it perhaps the most unstable structure on the planet.

There is no doubt that world sea levels have risen on average some 400 feet since the maximum influence of the Ice Age, although the identification of shore lines at this date around 16,500 BC must be considered in the light of much greater compensatory movements in the earths crust and other factors. Certainly a large island at this latitude would have been a suitable glacial refuge for plants, animals and man, during a highly inhospitable, cold and extremely dry climatic phase with so much of the earths moisture locked tip within Ice sheets.

Sea level rises may have been relatively stable in the area of Atlantis until two accelerated sea rises, due to massive melt water discharges, from land/ice locked lakes around 12,000 BC (50-40cm per annum) and 9,300 BC (30-20 mm per annum). A third and final accelerated rise took occured between 6,000 and 5,500 BC as result of further melt water discharges. The process of' sea level rise took place as the earth warmed to the highest levels recorded for over 120,000 years, peaking before 2350 BC by some 3°C higher than current levels.

The observational evidence of the geological structure of the Azores Islands, above and below current sea level, does provide evidence of river systems, which must have been created by a much larger land area. However not enough convincing evidence exists because of substantial past volcanic activity, subsidence and land slippage within the area. This creates problems in searching both for ancient remains or biological evidence that may still exist.

Catastrophic flooding, collapse and sinking at around 9,500 BC has been suggested by many historical sources and it has now become a simple matter for science to prove or disprove the thesis. Confirmation and dating of a very large sunken island requires access to and analysis of just a few sediment cores and a search for underwater structures in key locations. These may exist from just below the surface of the sea down to a depth of 11,000 feet.

It is important to realise that the O'Brien survey and the small adjustment for tilt re- creates the island as clearly described by Plato and many other independent and unconnected sources. The major building structures, if they still exist, will lie to the south west of the great plain in an area covered by the greatest depth of.' water close to the catastrophic crustal rifting of the East Azores Fault Zone, which can be clearly seen on the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences map.

We have featured more than 30 important books on our recommended reading list, which in total have produced a weight of evidence to support the basic thesis presented by O'Brien, spanning from the common records of the earliest antiquity to serious modern research. Only now are we beginning to appreciate the stature and reliability of the records presented by Solon and Plato, and accept recent Scientific explanations for related dramatic crustal rifting movements and vertical movements of the earths crust.

On a world wide scale there is common story of a great flood preceded by exceptional rainfall and accompanied by earth quakes and volcanic eruptions. It may be of significance to state that tsunami tidal waves were not directly mentioned in connection with this great flood story and that modern science has identified and dated three distinct rapid rises and three small declines in sea level since the ice age as the worlds climate warmed. The first great flood may have held more significance to early man and Atlantis, than the many subsequent floods and other natural disasters. The latter include interruptions to the circulatory flow of the Gulf Stream through fresh water input/ice melt, and episodic cometary debris impacts.

We welcome further input into this project from all interested parties. The more detailed hydrographic information, which we hope to obtain from the Portuguese authorities and the Southampton University Oceanographic Department, will allow a few small steps to be made to either dismiss the existence of Atlantis at this site or confirm the detailed evidence to re-create the great legend as fact.



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dhill757

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http://www.atlantia.de/atlantis_english/myth/atlantis/atlantis_atlantic.htm

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Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean – that is the favourite theory among many scientists all over the world. Just because Plato mentioned an empire in the Atlantic Ocean? No! There is considerable circumstancial evidence for a land bridge or a huge island in the Atlantic Ocean.
According to Plato’s report, Atlantis should be situated between Spain, North Africa and Central America. This is exactly where the Canary Islands are – and the Atlantic Ridge, one of the world’s most unstable regions. Moreover, this is also the location of the Azores and, further westward, the Caribbean area with its huge and small islands.

From time immemorial, the Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to South America has been an area of considerable seismic activity. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are nothing extraordinary.


The Atlantic Ocean – Catastrophes:

In 1669, a major part of the notorious pirate island Port Royal sank due to an disastrous earthquake.

In 1775, Lisbon, which is on a parallel with the Azores at a latitude of 39 43'/36 55' N, was badly hit by a devastating earthquake killing 60 000 people. Moreover, both the harbour and the docks sank 200 metres to the ground.

In 1783, one fifth of the Icelandic population fell victim to a catastrophic earthquake.

In 1811, on the Azores, a volcanic island named “Sambrina“ rose some thousand metres to the surface and sank again shortly after. The islands of Corvi and Flores constantly change their shape and parts of them are swallowed up by the sea.


To the best of present knowledge there is an underwater area with deep valleys and high mountains around the Azores and the Canary Islands. Reducing the sea level by 150 metres to the Ice Age level brings about a huge piece of land which, however, does not match the dimensions Plato wrote about. Nevertheless, further westward, in the Caribbean area, a huge land mass comes into existence which perfectly meets Platos records.


The Atlantic Ocean – Facts:

In 1969, by order of Duke University, an expedition to the Aves Ridge in the Caribbean Sea found granite on fifty locations. Usually, granite is found only onshore or where once had been solid ground.

In 1898, 750 km north of the Azores, the transatlantic cable broke. On this occasion, rock samples were taken from a depth of 17 000 fathoms. A close examination came to the result that the rock samples consisted of tachylyte, a lava-like substance. Yet this mineral would not emerge unless above sea level and under atmospheric pressure. Moreover, it will decompose after 15 000 years. This means that once there had been mainland.

In a depth of up to 1 000 metres, coastal sand was found on the reefs of the Azores. However, it usually only appears on flat beaches.

In 1936, the Geological Society of America conducted a study of sunken river canyons in the Atlantic Ocean. It says that rivers on the European, the North African and the American side sank into the continental sockets for up to 300 km in length and 2 km in depth. That means that in the Pleistocene Age, that is when mankind emerged, the sea level underwent a change in depth up to 2 000 metres.


The Atlantic Ridge – one of the world’s most nororious regions in terms of seismic activity. Decreasing the sea level by 300 to 400 metres brings about a huge land mass that would perfectly fit Plato’s descriptions. In “Critias“, Plato writes:

 
“(...)In the next place, they had fountains, one of cold and another of hot water, in gracious plenty flowing; and they were wonderfully adapted for use by reason of the pleasantness and excellence of their waters. They constructed buildings about them and planted suitable trees, also they made cisterns, some open to the heavens, others roofed over, to be used in winter as warm baths (...)“

Usually, these warm and cold springs manifest themselves within continental zones. An example for this is Iceland where people use the warm springs to supply themselves with heat and energy – just as Plato put it.

Yet the Würm Ice Age 12 000 years ago is not a suitable candidate to have reduced the sea level along the Atlantic Ridge. Did, then, the catastrophe in the Atlantic Ocean indeed happen? That desaster with its devastating earthquakes and inundations that caused the mid-Atlantic Ridge to sink? Or is it all about an inundation of the Caribbean area with its shallow waters? Also, the point in time when the glaciers melted would perfectly meet the time of the disappearance of Atlantis as has been indicated by Plato.

Read the following excerpt from the Critias dialogue:

“(...)Let me begin by observing first of all, that nine thousand was the sum of years which had elapsed since the war which was said to have taken place between those who dwelt outside the pillars of Heracles and all who dwelt within them; this war I am going to describe. (...)“

 

A further mystery concerns the migrations of the European eels. These animals spawn in the Sargasso Sea west of the United States of America. The newborn eels start their three years long eastbound migration following the Gulf Stream to the European rivers. Having reached sexual maturity they migrate back to the Sargasso Sea within four months, however leaving the Azores to their left this time. It has been proven that the eels need freshwater to reach maturity but why do they venture on this long journey across the Atlantic Ocean?

Could it be that the eels have a genetic memory of a mainland with freshwater in the Atlantic Ocean but cannot find it again because it sank? Is that why they keep on migrating until they reach Europe?

Another phenomenon relates to the suicide of the Norwegian lemmings. Every year when their homeland is running short of food, these little rodents start migrating westwards. At the end of their migration they jump into the ocean and continue swimming westwards until they drown. What is it these animals are after in the ocean? Are they following a basic instinct driving them into the ocean? Are they looking for a land that offered them plenty of food a long time ago? Was this land Atlantis, located in the Atlantic Ocean according to Plato?


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Posts: 544 | From: Madison | Registered: Mar 2004  |  IP: Logged |   
 
dhill757

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   posted 08-09-2004 02:13 AM                       
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http://www.atlantida.gr/engArxaiaEbrimata.htm
ANCIENT FOUNDINGS
Did Atlantis exist in the Atlantic Ocean?

We summarize our arguements, referring the most important findings about Atlantis. The evidences was drawn up by the Museum of Atlantis.

1. At the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean was found basalt glassy lava of a mainland and not undersea volcano.
2. In 1898 special machinery brought into the surface of the Atlantic Ocean from 2800 m depth, a rock island 15000 years old which came from a mainland volcano.
3. In the summer of 1927, a crystal cranium from quartz with a movable jaw was found in the jungle of the British Honduran (Central America)!
4. In 1977, with echo sounding machinery, a pyramid was localized in depth of 300 m near the triangle of Vermuda.
5. In Bimini islands which are in the Bahamas islands were found (in 1969) sunk large stones squared or rectangulared of 600 square metres extend similar to those which were found by professor Jacques Cousteau in the small island Dias of Krete (in 1976).
6. In a mountain of Perou in Piscos Bay a very ancient trident (Atlant's symbol) is displayed which is made of white stones with phosphoric brightness "stabbed" in the slope. It has 250 m length and sides of 3,8 m width. This trident leads to a marked airport shaped flat space in Nasca plain which is located 160 km from Pisco. Wide airstrips and radiated corridors are discerned which stand out because they shine. They are formed by rack fragments. When you see this space from above it gives you the impression of an airport with geometrical lines and signs like in the modern airfields.
7. The gravestone with a carved pilot which was found in Palenkoue, near the temple of the Atlants of Mexico
8. The undersea ruins which were found through Soviet research with head the academic Accenof near Madera and the 9500 years smoothed marble stone which was drawn up by the Rusians from the undersea central Atlantic slope (mountain rage)
9. Some very ancient buildings of America belong to this technique of the most ancient buildings of Europe and North Africa as well as many architectural decorative shapes which are similar to both civilizations.
10. Geologists admit that between the Big and the Small Antilles there was land, which was sunk. Furthermore, that the Azores islands and in their extend Madera and the Canary islands are emerged summits of a big undersea volcano mountain range where often happen earthquakes and explosions.

General conclusions

All these foundings show that the large continent of Atlantis was surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. Its geographical extend approach more to the Central America, the Big and the Small Antilles and the Bahamas, included the space of the Atlantic Ocean up to the Sargassai Sea, expanded normally up to Bermuda and an oblong extend of it reached as far as to the Azores. It was also surrounded by many small islands (sea maps of Atlantis).


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dhill757

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http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/chronology.html








                                                       CHRONOLOGY






A Chronology of Historic Events for Homo Sapiens Sapiens



72,000 BC Massive super volcano eruption of Toba, North Sumatra. Resulting in severe global cooling and massive loss of life. Confirmed by what is termed a genetic bottleneck. A few thousand human survivors. At this time Sapiens Sapiens is thought to have begun the move out of Africa.

62,000 BC First sign of Sapiens Sapiens (modern man) buried with respect, in modern manner with red ochre, near Lake Mungo, Australia.

57,500 BC North Atlantic Ash Zone 2. Major volcanic activity.

50,000 BC Next oldest discovery of Sapiens Sapiens, child burial in Upper Egypt.

42,000 BC Signs of mining and farming on the Vaal River, South Africa.

42,000 BC to 16,000 BC Signs of a dramatic rise in the size and quality of sapiens sapiens tool kit, great artistic and hunter gatherer skills, and improved diet.

25,000 BC Sulatrean (cromagnon) peoples on the Eastern Atlantic seaboard sail round the Atlantic both ways in walrus skinned, wooden framed boats, delivering advanced flint working skills to peoples on the Western Atlantic. On shore their light boats would be turned upside down on low stone walls to form houses.

24,000 BC to 13,000 BC Climatic desication of Australia, the Sahara and other parts of the world, with water being locked up in the ice of the Ice Age.

19,000 BC This date is given to what is termed the Ice Age Maximum.

18,000 BC First signs of Goats being domesticated in North Africa.

13,000 BC to 12,000 BC Farming at four Isnan sites at Naquada, Dishna and at Tushka, 125 miles up river from Aswan in Egypt.

12,600 BC to 10,700 BC Bolling/Allerod warming event.confirmed by maximum extent of glaciers when ice retreats, and ice melt discharges start. Termed Windermere Interstadial, as warm as today lasting to intense heat events around 10.800 BC.

12,000 BC Prior to this date the whole of the northern littoral of the Mediterranean Sea appears to have been occupied by herb dominated steppe. The only area where evergreen oak, pistachio, olive and wild wheat’s and barley’s survived together, was Southern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. This area provided a key glacial refuge for important plants.

10,860 BC and 10,740 BC Dramatic rises in temperature. Time of mass extinctions.

10,500 BC Teutonic uplift and great floods causing Lake Victoria to discharge into the Nile. This led to a massive extension of the high level lakes and a surplus of water in the semi-arid Sahel, and the Sahara region.

10,700 BC to 9,600 BC Termed Allerod/Younger Dryas, there was a dramatic fall in temperature to a level as cold as the Ice Age minimum.

9,500 BC Re-advance of the woodland vegetation in Eastern Turkey and Western Iran commenced, but not completed until 3,500 BC.

8,500 BC Oldest town with quality stone work, at Jericho. Warm climate at the bottom of the rift valley.

8,900 BC to 7,500 BC The first signs of sophisticated and domesticated plants and animals being dispersed into new areas of the Fertile Crescent. This included the range of founder crops, and the introduction into Cyprus of the domesticated Mesopotamian fallow deer, with sheep, goats and cattle.

8,200, 5,400 and 2,000 BC Catastrophic and sudden droughts leading to the rapid drying up of many of Africa’s lakes, leaving layers of dead fish in the sediments. Clear evidence of sudden catastrophic events.

7,000 BC What is termed the high and wild stage of the Nile peaks.

6,500 BC to 5,000 BC Towns at Catul Huyuk and Sabi-Abyad, displaying a range of sophisticated technologies. Polished obsidian and superb ceramics.

4,500 BC to 3,250 BC New dates for the 150 acre, Euphrates city of Uruk. World trade, together with superb social organisation and administration.

4,000 BC Highest water level at Lake Chad. Central Sahara blooms.

4,000 BC to 2,000 BC Climatic desiccation creates the modern Sahara, Arabian and Thar deserts. People move into the Nile Valley. At the same time Mesopotamia drys out, with the decline of the monsoon rains. These pressures on successful farming and increasing populations, lead to major social unrest, and forced migrations to more favourable areas.

2,750 BC Aryan Bak tribes migrate from Sumer to Northern India and to China down the silk road. They also diffuse to many other parts of the world setting up new civilisations, or improving old ones, in Europe and the Americas.

2,350 BC Final collapse of the great Bronze Age Civilisations due to well researched and documented evidence of massive cometary debris explosions from the Mediterranean to India, and global changes in climate.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:10:47 pm







dhill757

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                                                              TENERIFE





http://www.abouttenerife.com/tenerife/legend2.asp

quote:
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For centuries, even after the Spanish conquest, it was believed that the islands were the uppermost peaks of the lost continent of Atlantis of which Plato wrote in his "Timeos and Critias".
Atlantis was a big island, "larger than Libya and Asia together", located beyond the Columns of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar). It was the dominion of Poseidon, god of the Sea, and it was inhabited by the Atlants, descendants of its first king Atlas, son of the god and a mortal women.

Atlantis was immensely wealthy and the Atlants were the most advanced people of the world. In the center of the continent raised the great capital town with the Palace and the Temple of Poseidon. Its scientists transmitted their skills and civilization knowledges to other peoples, with whom they maintained peace.

Atlants observed their laws of justice, generosity and peace for many generations. But in time they degenerated and became greedy and warlike. Others add that they discovered the secrets of the gods, secrets of cosmic energies and forces which could destroy mankind.

About 11,500 years ago Zeus, king of the gods, punished the Atlants. In the course of a single night volcanoes and tidal waves destroyed the big island in a disaster of cosmic proportions.

According to the legend, only the islands of Azores, Madeira, Canaries and Cape Verde remain from Atlantis. These were the lost continent's highest summits. But its palaces and temples are still to be found in the bottom of the sea, a sea which took its name from Atlantis: the Atlantic Ocean.




"Its steady palaces inhabited by dolphins,

its meadows and gardens carpeted with seaweed..."


(Jacinto Verdaguer - "La Atlántida")


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:13:17 pm







Essan

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   posted 08-09-2004 04:29 AM                       
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Well, I'd better add my tuppence worth of objections...
Actually, just the one point really. As I've mentioned elsewhere, there's no conceiveable way for large fauna to reach a mid Atlantic island other than by boat. If there were elephants in a mid Atlantic Atlantis, the Atlanteans must have brought them. Not impossible, but unlikely: although I suppose if Noah loaded 2 of every animal into his ark, maybe the first settlers in Atlantis did the same?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:15:20 pm







Chronos

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   posted 08-09-2004 10:38 AM                       
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Interesting work, Dhill,


There are several things I take from this:


(1) The Egyptians would have described the vicinity Atlantis was situated in as "the Western Ocean," meaning that whatever word the Greeks would have had for it would have been applied, meaning it could have not been within the Pillars of Hercules.

(2) The greater landmass around the Azores that existed around the Ice Age would have been approximately the size of Spain.

(3} The flora of the Azores resembles that of Atlantis, even if there is, like Essan says, still some question as to where the elephants came from.

(4} Local legends of the Azores clearly embrace the Atlantis story, much as the people do in Santorini.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:16:55 pm







Tom Hebert
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  posted 08-09-2004 11:38 AM                       
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These were all good points Dhill and Chronos. As Smiley and I have been preaching for years, the evidence for Atlantis in the Atlantic is overwhelming.

As for the elephants, I don't think it's illogical for them to be in the Atlantic area if you take into account the size of the territory--larger that Asia and Libya combined!

A while back I posted this website showing where scientists have discovered mastodon bones in the Atlantic Ocean!



http://www.graysreef.nos.noaa.gov/information.html


Tom


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:18:26 pm







dhill757

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   posted 08-09-2004 10:46 PM                       
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Great points, Chronos, I am especially behind you on the "before" and "beyond" the Pillars point.
Tom,

Thanks for the link on the mastadons! I was missing information on them. Anymore information you have on the mammoths, mastodons and how they relate to the Atlantic Ocean would be greatly appreciated!





Some sad news - Fay Wray (from King Kong) died today. She was always one of my favorite actresses. She was 96. Rest in peace, Fay...


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:20:30 pm







dhill757

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                                                           THE DARK OCEAN





A few - it would appear very few - sea explorers reached the Canary Islands during ancient times. The islands lie in the Atlantic Ocean, the so-called "Dark Ocean", into which very few sailors dared to venture. Furthermore, the ocean current called "Canaries Stream" flows in a southwesterly direction before veering to the west to sweep the unwary ocean vessel off to the end of the world, as it was believed during centuries.

Those few Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans who reached the islands and managed to return home to tell their story, surrounded the Canaries in a mist of magic and legend.

According to the Mediterranean sailors' tales, the Atlantic Ocean was inhabited by all kind of monsters which destroyed the vessels and devored their daring crews. You could find at any moment giant whirlpools, storms caused by angry gods or... the end of the world. Once arrived at the world's edge, which was thought to be a flat disc, the unwise seamen would fall into the abyss.

In the opinion of some historians, there was an economic or militar reason for some of these legends. The Phoenicians, skillful sailors and trademen, knew some Atlantic searoutes along the African and European coast. They were not interested at all in having other people as competitors, so they tried to keep visitors at a distance by means of spreading awful rumours and legends.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:22:04 pm







dhill757

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   posted 08-09-2004 11:09 PM                       
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quote:
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                                                  THE GARDEN OF HESPERYDES





Hesiod -a Greek poet of the 8th century b.C.- wrote about the legendary Garden of Hesperydes. The story starts with Atlas.

Atlas was a Giant, titan Japeto's son. The titans were defeated by Zeus, king of the gods, who confined them in the Tartarus -the hell. Atlas had fought the war on his father's side. According to some opinions, Zeus condemned Atlas to support the vault of heavens upon his shoulders. Other maintain that an angry Perseus showed him Medusa's head thus converting him into a high mountain that supported the sky. Be that as it may, Atlas had to hold up the sky beyond the Columns of Hercules -the Strait of Gibraltar.

Atlas had three daughters, the Hesperydes: Egle, Eritia and Aretusa. The three lived in the most westernly land of the world, some wonderful islands in the Atlantic Ocean, a Garden of Eden where weather was always mild and where golden apples grew on the trees. Goddess Gea (Mother Earth) made sprout those apples as a wedding gift to the king and queen of the gods, Zeus and Hera.

The Hesperydes cultivate the Garden, but a fierce dragon looked after it. It was called Ladon, and it had hundred flame-spewing heads.
Hercules -also called Herakles-, the greatest hero of ancient times, had to perform twelve very difficult tasks, almost impossible to accomplish, the "Twelve Labors of Hercules". Labor number eleven consisted in stealing the Hesperydes' Golden Apples.

Hercules found Atlas supporting the sky near the Ocean, in the mountains which we call today Atlas (Morocco). Since the Garden of Hesperydes' dragon knew Atlas, Hercules persuaded him to go to the islands and steal the apples, while he stayed as supporter of the sky in his place. Atlas went to the Garden in which he could enter since the dragon recognized him, killed the monster, stole the golden apples and returned to the place where Hercules stayed. Atlas, tired of his task, intended to leave Hercules with the burden upon his shoulders, but the hero managed to cheat him. He passed him the burden again and fled with the apples.

And the Garden of Hesperydes? Did it lose its Golden Apples forever? No! They ended by returning to the islands, since they were given to goddess Athena, who gave them back to the gardeners, the Hesperydes.


Concerning Ladon, the watch-dragon killed by Atlas... it lives on in their children, the dragon-trees. According to the legend, the blood flowing from the dragon's wounds fell all over the Garden of Hesperydes. A dragon tree sprouted from each blood drop. Dragon trees -dracaena drago- have massive trunks from which raise a bunch of twisted branches, Ladon's hundred heads. When a piece of bark or a branch are broken, the tree "bleed" a dark-red sap called "dragon-tree blood", which can be used with medical purposes. Dragon trees grow slowly, but they can live for several centuries. There is a specimen at Icod de los Vinos -Tenerife- which is called the "Thousand-year old Dragon Tree". The Guanches, Canarian natives, revered the places where these trees grew as specially meaningful and full of energies. Today, several superstitions of the Canarian folklore are still refered to a dragon tree, growing lonely at the edge of a crag or a cliff.


When the traveler approaches the Canaries by sea, he can glimpse the misty form of the Teide floating over the clouds many miles before arriving at the islands. When we imagine how it looked when the volcano has been in eruption, we shall understand how the legend was born of a fierce fire-spewing dragon who watched over a wonderful Garden where the Golden Apples grew...


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:24:08 pm







dhill757

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                               THE GHOST ISLAND: SAN BORONDON (SAINT BRENDAN)





The Canaries are seven islands... but an eigth isle is still searched! It is the ghost island, the mysterious one, the island of San Borondón. San Borondón is the Canarian name of Saint Brendan or Saint Brandan of Clonfert (480-576 d.C.), an Irish monk who plays the lead in one of the most famous legends of the Celtic culture: the voyage of Saint Brendan or Brandan to the Promised Land of the Saints, the Islands of Happiness and Fortune.

The Irish poem tells that Brendan was a monk of Tralee, County Kerry. He was ordained priest in the year 512 d.C.. He sailed with 14 other monks on a small vessel which went far away in the Atlantic Ocean. The legend tells about their adventures, how they took with them along their voyage three other monks, their encounter with fire-hurling demons, with floating crystal columns, with monstruos creatures as large as an island.

Brendan and his fellow travellers landed on island where they found trees and other sort of vegetation. They said mass, and suddenly the island started to sail. It was a gigantic sea creature and they were on its back.
After many vicissitudes Brendan managed to go back to Ireland.

Many base on this legend the affirmation that Irish sailors reached possibly in the High Middle Ages the shores of North America or Newfoundland, Iceland and other Atlantic isles.


When the Canaries were conquered throughout the 15th century, stories were insistently told about an eigth island which sometimes was seen to the West of La Palma, El Hierro and La Gomera. When sailors tried to reach it and approached to its shores, mountains and valleys, the island was covered by mist and vanished. The island was obviously identified as mythical Saint Brendan's whale-island, and was called "San Borondón" in the Canary Islands. People believed firmly in its existence, and there were even detailed accounts from an odd sailor or two who swore that they had landed on the island and explored it before the land had sunk again into the Ocean. In some international treaties signed by the Kingdom of Castille it was stated, concerning the Canary Islands, the Castilian sovereignty over *the islands of Canaria, already discovered or to be discovered*; just in case... The island was called "Aprositus", the Inaccesible, and in other versions of the legend is named "Antilia" or "Island of the Seven Cities", cities which were supposed to have been founded by seven legendary bishops.

The archives of the 18th century inform about official inquiries by the authorities of El Hierro, where tens of witnesses declared having seen the bewitched island from the summits of El Hierro's mountains. An expedition in search of the island sailed from Santa Cruz de Tenerife as a result of this inquiry.

The persistence of this legend in the islands' folklore is amazing. San Borondón is still alive in the islands' people imagination. There is probably no one islander of Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera or El Hierro who sometime has not looked from the mountains of his island into the sea, searching the lost island of San Borondón in the western horizon where the sun sinks in the cobalt-blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

"Let the Guanche drums resound
and the conch shells blow,
for the mysterious island
is appearing in the midst of the waves;
here comes San Borondón,
showing up in the mist
like a queen
with the surf as suite..."

"San Borondón", Cabrera/Santamaría


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The prior three posts come from this website:


http://home.pi.be/~p4u00071/canarias/canleyend-eng.html#Dark


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:26:45 pm







dhill757

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   posted 08-09-2004 11:14 PM                       
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                                                 History of the Canary Islands





http://www.canaryislandbreaks.com/history.php

quote:
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Background





The origins of the Canary Islands are by no means clear, however we do know the islands are estimated to be 30 million years old. The Canarian archipelago is made up of seven islands and six islets, located approximately 100km off the coast of North Africa.

Legend has it the Canary Islands were formed when the mythical continent of Atlantis sank into the ocean. In Roman times Pliny referred to the islands as the "Fortunate Isles", a name that is still used today, due to the favourable winds and stable climate conditions. Information about the islands was lost in the dark ages, folklore has it that it was too dangerous for boats to venture into the Atlantic for fear of the "dragon infested waters".
 






Conquest





In 1402, Jean de Bethencourt of Normandy in France, left La Rochelle and headed towards the Canary Islands. He arrived first in Lanzarote, but later moved on to Fuerteventura. After running out of supplies and with very few men, he headed next for mainland Spain only to return to Fuerteventura in 1404. On returning to Fuerteventura, El Hierro and La Gomera came under his control. The Spanish King, Enrique III appointed him Lord of the islands and Bethencourt encouraged farmers from his Norman homeland to begin settling there.

During his time in Betancuria, Bethencourt built a chapel in the village which became an important local focal point. The chapel still stands today and continues to dominate the village. In 1406, Bethencourt left his nephew Maciot in charge and returned to Normandy. Although the islands suffered a turbulent history for centuries after, Bethancourt's establishment of the islands under Spanish control has remained permanent.






 

                                                      The Modern Canaries





The Canary Islands were declared a province of Spain in 1821, and Tenerife's Santa Cruz was made the capital. An unsuccessful division of the islands in the 1840's was attempted when feuds developed between Tenerife and Gran Canaria. It wasn't until 1927 when Madrid made the decision to officially separate the Canaries into two provinces. It remains the case today that Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro make up one province while Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote make up the other.

The establishment of the Canary Islands as a major tourist destination can be attributed to Franco, who began to encourage tourism to the Spanish mainland in the late 1960's. This had a knock-on effect on the Canary Islands, which also gained popularity for their year-round good weather. Millions of holidaymakers now flock to the islands every year.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:30:13 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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Versión española



                                                      THE GUANCHES





The native people of the Island of Tenerife, which gave name to the different aboriginal peoples of the Canary Islands







                                          THE CANARY ISLANDS IN ANTIQUITY





A few - it would appear very few - sea explorers reached the Canary Islands during ancient times. The islands lie in the Atlantic Ocean, into which very few sailors dared to venture. Furthermore, the ocean current called "Canaries Stream" flows in a southwesterly direction before veering to the west to sweep the unwary ocean vessel off to the Caribbean. Centuries later, Europeans would make use of this current as a powerful aid in crossing the Ocean to reach America. (Cristopher Columbus called in at Gran Canaria and La Gomera, and set sail from this island during his voyage of discovery in 1492. The Canaries were the last land sighted by the Spaniards before landing in the island of Guanahani -San Salvador- on October 12, 1492; and Canarian water and provisions supplied the "Pinta", the "Niña" and the "Santa María").

Those few Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans who reached the islands and managed to return home to tell their story, surrounded the Canaries in a mist of magic and legend. For centuries, even after the Spanish conquest, it was believed that the islands were the uppermost peaks of the lost continent of Atlantis of which Plato wrote. Others identified them with the Elysian Fields, home to the blessed who knew no cold or pains. Similarly, the islands came to be identified with the Garden of Hesperydes, a paradise where golden apples grew under the guard of a gigantic flame-spewing monster (the Teide volcano?).

The Roman general Quintus Sertorius, whose ship was swept from Lusitania (Portugal) by a storm, speaks in the Ist century BC of "some islands higher than Mount Atlas with a gentle climate". Plutarch called the Canaries "the Fortunate Islands", a nickname with they still bear and which has given rise to the term "Macaronesia" (the Happy Islands) to refer to the archipelagos of the Azores, Canaries, Madeira, and Cape Verde in the Atlantic.

Juba, king of Mauritania in Northern Africa and vassal of Rome in the Ist century BC, sent an expedition out to explore the islands according to the writings of the famous naturalist Plinius.








                                        THE NATIVES OF THE CANARY ISLANDS






Europeans re-discovered the Fortunate islands in the first half of the XIVth century. They found living there a people who later came to be known as the Guanches, and who are still the object of great mystery.

Where did they come from? How did they reach the islands? When did they arrive?

They had to have arrived by sea, of course. And they arrived with their domesticated animals: goats, sheep, pigs and dogs. They brought with them wheat and barley. They came from North Africa, originating from the same stock as the Berbers of the Atlas mountains. Yet this simple affirmation has caused - and still causes - virtual rivers of ink to flow in polemical debate in which archeology and ethnography become entangled in politics.

According to the tales of the European conquerors, the Guanches were a "highly beautiful white race, tall, muscular, and with a great many blondes amongst their numbers" Their great height must be understood in relation to the average height of Europeans at that time. As for the presence of blondes, even today after many centuries of invasions and intermarriage, a heritage of blond hair and blue eyes is easily found among modern day Berbers of the Atlas region in Africa. There have of course been those who have tried to deny the Berber origins of the Guanches for political reasons, perhaps in order to avoid the possibility of potential territorial claims on the part of Morocco. But this reasoning is totally illogical. The ancestors of the current Moroccan and Algerian Berbers who emigrated to the Canaries did so several centuries before the birth of Christ when neither Morocco nor Algeria nor their cultures yet existed. According to the same line of argument, the Italians of Rome would have a stronger claim to the cities of Northern Africa which were founded by the Roman Empire!

The ancestors of the Guanches arrived by sea, colonized the islands... and then "forgot" how to sail! When the Europeans landed on the Canaries, they discovered a stone age culture based on shepherding, fruit gathering and a very limited agriculture. This same base was common to all the islands, but each island had developed into its own microcosm to the point where even the language had differentiated into distinct dialects. The islands were cut off one from the other as the natives did not know the art of navigation. They fished only in coastal tidal pools.

This is one of the great enigmas of the Guanches. How was it possible for a race of people to reach the shores of these tiny islands by sea, live surrounded by ocean with - on several islands - enormous forests of tall trees for raw material and yet ignore the sea, living as it were with their back turned to it? Several possible answers to this mystery have been offered. Perhaps the people of the Canaries were simple shepherds who had been transported to the islands by a sailing people and later forgotten and left to fate. Other explanations might be found in the extraordinary difficulty of navigating the oceans surrounding the Canaries due to the strong currents flowing to the West and the trade winds blowing as strongly almost year round.








                                     THE GUANCHES: THE PEOPLE FROM TENERIFE





Guanche was the name by which the natives of Tenerife called themselves. Guan Chenech meant "Man from Chenech", or man from Tenerife. With the passage of time, the term Guanche became identified with all the native peoples of the Canaries.





The names of the different islands and of their inhabitants (for those that are known) are as follows:


TENERIFE: Chenech, Chinech or Achinech. It would seem that the natives of La Palma, seeing the snow-covered peak of the Teide on the horizon, called that island Ten-er-efez, "White Mountain" (from Ten, teno, dun, duna= mountain, and er-efez= white). Achenech was inhabited by the Guan Chenech, the men from Chenech.


FUERTEVENTURA: Maxorata, inhabited by the Majoreros or Maxos.

GRAN CANARIA: Canaria, was inhabited by the Canarii or Canarios. All the islands took their name from this one, because the Castilians started to call them 'Islands of Canaria', later 'Islas Canarias' (Canary Islands).

LANZAROTE: Tyteroygatra.

LA PALMA: Benahoare, pronounced "Ben-Ajuar", and meaning "from the tribe of Ahoare" (tribe of the African Atlas). Island inhabited by the Auaritas.

LA GOMERA: Gomera, inhabited by the Gomeros.

EL HIERRO: Hero, inhabited by the Bimbaches.


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http://home.pi.be/~p4u00071/canarias/canguan1-eng.html





Another great link on the Canary Islands:



http://www.red2000.com/spain/canarias/


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:33:24 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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                                              The Mysterious origin of the Guanches





The Guanches are the mysterious natives of the Canary Islands. They were just about exterminated by the Spaniards when these invaded the archipelago at the turn of the 15th century. Tall, blond and blue-eyed, the Guanches have long intrigued the anthropologists, for blond natives are rarity. According to the reliable Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Guanches "are thought to have been of Cro-Magnon origin... and had a brown complexion, blue or gray eyes, and blondish hair"


Indeed, the Guanches are deemed to be related to the Berbers of neighboring Morroco, who are, likewise, tall, blond and blue-eyed when unmixed with the Arab majority. Other specialists, however, believe that the Guanches are related to the Celts of Western Europe, the early realm of these races. No matter what, the Guanches represent a unique opportunity of studying the early peoples of this region so intimately connected with Atlantis and the Garden of the Hesperides.


Isolated in their islands, the Guanches were prevented, until the advent of the Spanish, from sexually mingling with other races. So, they preserved their pristine Cro-Magnon genetic traits in a more or less pure fashion until that date. But, as we said, the Guanches were massacred by the Spaniards, and their remainder mingled heavily with the invaders, so that they essentially inexist today. But the blond, blue-eyed, tall stock has been preserved in part, and can still be seen in many individuals. As is known, blond traits are dominated by dark ones, and tend to disappear from the population. But they survive unseen, and may return in certain individuals called "recessives", who combine the proper genes.


Furthermore, the Guanches mummified their dead, and this material can be studied by the researchers, particularly concerning traits such as blood type and racial characteristics. This strange mode of disposing of the dead - which the Guanches shared with the Polynesians, the Egyptians and the Mayas - has been mooted out by several authorities as indicating a close affinity among these distant nations. The Guanches also left some sort of alphabetic inscriptions which have yet to be studied, along with their pottery and peculiar ruins. All in all, the archaeology of this most remarkable people is far from satisfactorily researched.


Many researchers have pointed out the resemblance of the Guanche natives with the Cro-Magnons and, particularly, with Cro-Magnoid types of regions such as those of Muges (Portugal) dating from the Mesolithic (c. 8,000 BC). Similar groups have been noted and studied Portugal, Spain, France, England, Sweden and Northwest Africa, precisely the realm of the Celto-Germanic and the Berber races.







                                   Are the Canaries the Remains of Sunken Atlantis?





Many Atlantologists have proposed that the Canary Islands are the remainder of a sunken Atlantis, being the lofty volcanic peaks left behind when the lost continent foundered. However, the Canary islands rise directly from the deep ocean floor, from a depth of some 3,000 meters below the surface. Indeed, they are a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, having been formed by submarine volcanoes at the end of the Tertiary Age (circa 2.5 million years ago).Their lavas consist of basalts and trachytes, the typical material of submarine, non-explosive volcanism typical of seabottoms.


Due to both their age and their origin, the Canarian volcanoes can hardly be invoked to account for the conflagration that wiped Atlantis off the map. Instead, this type of basaltic, submarine volcanism is nowadays perfectly well understood geologically speaking. Such volcanoes result from the upwelling magma that forms the Continental Plates, according to the theory of Plate Tectonics, and are a feature of all oceanic regions of the world. Hence, the claims made by certain Atlantologists such as P. Termier, I. Donnelly, C. Berlitz and many others that the Canaries or the Azores, or the Madeiras are the remains of sunken Atlantis do not hold water at all.







                                       Are the Guanches Atlantean Relicts?





As we said above, though we can be certain that the Canaries, along with the other neighboring Atlantic islands, are not the residues of a sunken continent that foundered in the region, we have yet to explain the mysterious origin of the Guanches. However, where smoke is, there is usually fire, and we cannot simply ignore the recurrent legends that link this people to Atlantis.


But if they are not Atlanteans left behind when their continent sunk, the only possible explanation for the mysterious origin of the Guanches is that they primordially came from somewhere else. But, whence? Certainly not from neighboring Africa, the realm of the Black Man. No serious anthropologist has ever maintained that the blond Aryans originated in Africa itself. The standing proposals for the origin of the Berbers and, possibly, the Guanches themselves, are that they came from Arabia, after crossing the Sahara desert.


But, to start with, no one is sure that the Arabs or, even less, the Aryans, originated in Arabia or Palestine, and their own ethiological legends affirm that they came from beyond the Indian Ocean. Moreover, the Sahara desert poses a formidable barrier ever since the end of the Pleistocene, and it is highly unlikely that it could be crossed by hordes of migrants, unstocked with the food and water required for the task.


The Guanches were held in perfect isolation from Europe and other Old World civilizations until they were discovered by the Portuguese and Spanish at the end of the 15th century. This separation dates from prehistoric times that far predate the ones of Plato and Herodotus, and even those of Homer and Hesiod. So, if Guanche legends indeed relate to Atlantis and its doom, we can be certain that the golden realm was no idle invention of Plato or other Greeks, but originated in a very ancient tradition, dating from the dawn of mankind. This is precisely what we aim to prove in the present work on the origin of the Guanches.


We start by reviewing the ancient traditions linking the Canaries to the Garden of the Hesperides and the Islands of the Blest, and progress into the modern proposals purporting to show that the Canaries and the other neighboring islands are the remains of sunken Atlantis. Finally, we attempt showing their rather direct relationship between the Canaries, Atlantis and the Garden of Eden, the legendary site of the origin of Mankind.


If our conclusions indeed prove to be right and survive the wellcome attack of the critics, the whole of human prehistory will have to undergo a major revision. Hence, the importance of inquiring on the origin of the Guanches and their possible connection with Atlantis. The mysterious Guanches provide the key to the riddles that surround the origin of Mankind, and are the "missing link" connecting the Mediterranean and other neighboring civilizations to the Far Orient and the Indies, the true site of the Garden of the Hesperides. This garden, also known as that of Eden, is the place where Mankind and Civilization indeed developed, according to the holy traditions of many nations, and not only that of the Bible.   







                                                   Evening Isles Fantastical 





Classical writers often mention legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean in a way that closely evokes the legends of Atlantis. Homer mentions islands like Phaeacia, Scheria and Ogygia. The Argonautica, deemed to be prior to Homer's Odyssey, also speaks of legendary oceanic islands such as Aiaia, Thrinacia and Colchis. More than just delightful novels, these ancient sagas were indeed Sacred History, and were believed to derive from actual fact. The Greco-Roman traditions concerning the fabulous oceanic islands and their golden realms apparently derive from the far earlier ones such as the Epic of Gilgamesh of the Sumero-Babylonians or the Ramayana and the Mahabharata of the Hindus.


Many other classical authors also mention such fantastic islands of the ocean. This ocean the Greeks, ignorant of the other oceans, very naturally identified with what we nowadays call by the name of Atlantic Ocean, that is, "the Ocean of the Atlanteans". But when we read the ancient traditions closer, we notice that the fabulous islands of the Atlanteans were always placed "at the confines of the earth".


Moreover, the ocean in question is invariably described as "winy red" and is placed towards dawn and Orient. In other words, the ocean in question is the Indian Ocean, which the ancients called Erythraean, that is, "Red One". And Atlantis is the same as the Ultima Thule of the ancients, this being the name they gave to the "confines of the earth" which lay towards the Orient, in the Eastern limits of their world, and where they also placed the Pillars of Atlas, the twin and counterpart of the western Pillars of Hercules, in Gibraltar.


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http://istina.rin.ru/eng/ufo/text/243.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:35:11 pm







dhill757

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A great link on the rock art of Ireland & the Canary Islands!


http://www.irishmegaliths.org.uk/seanchlocha6.htm
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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:36:38 pm







dhill757

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The Cape Verde Islands are half-way between Machupicchu and the Great Pyramid, fifty miles north of the line of ancient sites. These islands are also half-way between Easter Island and the Indus Valley. When the Cape Verde Islands were rediscovered by European mariners in 1460 they were found to be uninhabited. However, islands in this location are found on earlier maps and described as inhabited in ancient times.

The Mecia de Viladestes map of 1413 shows islands at this location labeled Gades. The information in this map is thought to have come from Roman sources dating back to the first century AD. The Discoveries of the World from their first originall unto the yeere of our Lord 1555, written by Antonio Galvao in 1563, lists the ancient names for the Cape Verde Islands as the Dorcades, Hesperides and the Gorgades. A 1587 map by Richard Hakluyt also labels the Cape Verde Islands as the Gorgades and the Hesperides.

In ancient Greek Mythology, the Island of Atlantis was given to Poseidon. Atlas was Poseidon's son and the first king of Atlantis. The seven daughters of Atlas were known as the Atlantides. Because their mother was named Hesperis, they were also known as the Hesperides.



http://home.hiwaay.net/~jalison/capev.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:37:47 pm







dhill757

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These are some awesome shots of Gibraltar, which the Atlantean navy would have had to pass through in order to invade the Mediterranean, the "Pillars of Hercules."



http://www.geocities.com/player2000gi/gibraltar.htm http://www3.sympatico.ca/pjdavis/gibraltar.htm


http://www.munnwerks.com/spain99/gibraltar.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:41:20 pm







dhill757

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http://www.maltastar.com/pages/msDossierDetailN.asp?id=10483&po=2

quote:
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                                                   Why Did The Med Dry Up?





25 June 2003 - Prof Victor Axiak*

Last week we had a collective dry nightmare of the Mediterranean Sea drying up. We saw how the stretch between Malta and Sicily was turned into a dusty plateau, with the occasional deep valley cutting through it. We also saw how both the Eastern and Western basins of this sea tuned into deep holes with vast expanses of salt flats alternating with occasional mountains. The climate within these dried up basins was very harsh and not many animal and plant forms were able to survive. On the other hand, the surrounding climate of the region is cooler and drier as an important moisture source disappeared.





The problem with this nightmare/dream is that it DID happen.



Why?

How?



The first real indication of this cataclysmic past event came to light in 1970 when an international group of scientists started drilling the Mediterranean seafloor. Strange things started turning up in core samples: layers of microscopic plants and soil sandwiched between huge beds of salt more than two kilometres below today's sea level. The plants had grown in sunlight. Could the seafloor once have been near a shoreline? Or did the sea ever evaporated, leaving behind massive deposits of salts and what was once the sea floor, exposed to air! Eventually, most scientists agreed with the latter proposition: The Med did dry up. What’s more fantastic about this idea is that this sea probably dried up, only to be refilled with seawater more than once!

As we all know, the Mediterranean sea is exposed to intense sunlight which evaporates huge volumes of seawater. In fact, in spite of being replenished by a number of rivers which flow in it, some scientists have estimated that the sea level of our sea should go down by one metre every year, due to this water loss. So what stops this from happening? Well, this does not happen thanks to the Straits of Gibraltar through which water from the Atlantic is flowing in to compensate for the water loss due to the evaporation by the sun.

 
As the last Atlantic waters dripped over into the Mediterranean, this body of water began to become a hypersaline lake as evaporation exceeded precipitation and it eventually dried up (PICTURE 2). Prior to completely drying up, there could have been smaller hypersaline lakes, in which little or no marine life survived. As such lakes eventually evaporated as well, they left behind them thick deposits of salts. And these salt deposits were one of the first clues which suggested the possibility that our sea dried up, millions of years ago. Some remnants of these salt deposits today form salt mines which are commercially exploited (PICTURE 3)
 
About 5.3 million years ago, a small breach in the Gibraltar dam sent the process into reverse. Ocean water gushed out cutting a tiny channel to the Mediterranean. As the channel enlarged, the water flowed faster and faster, until the torrent ripped through the emerging Strait of Gibraltar at more than 100 knots. That must have been quite a sight (PICTURE 4)!

Eventually, the rising waters drowned the falls and warm Mediterranean water began to escape to the Atlantic, reheating the oceans and the planet. The salinity crisis ended about 5.3 million years ago. It had lasted roughly 600 000 years.
 
Incidentally, the pictures shown in the present contribution should not be taken literally or as being accurate enough. For example, it is quite likely that a few million years ago, the morphology of the Mediterranean was quite unlike that of today! However these pictures do give us a rough idea of what happened.

Can this event happen again? Yes. It is not unlikely that future continental drift will push the African continent closer to Europe sealing off the Straits of Gibraltar yet again.

Can it happen in our lifetime?

Certainly not.

These events are of a geological nature and therefore normally take place at VERY SLOW rates. So, it is quite likely that the human species will not be around to witness a repeat performance of this event.

What a pity!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:43:10 pm







Anteros

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Wow, Dhill... what a massive amount of studying you've done!

Since I'm a believer in the Atlantic theory, this stuff is gonna keep me reading for while!

Good work, man!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 09:45:29 pm







dhill757

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Anteros,

Thanks for the compliment! There's a lot more to come. I'm a firm believer in the Atlantis in the Atlantic theory and after some of the things I've discovered, both here and in my own research, I believe even more. There's no way Plato could have been refering to Atlantis as a peninsula, when he really meant a large island, which eliminates the Spain and Morocco theories as far as I'm concerned. More on that later.




Essan,

Actually the remains of woolly mammoths and mastdons have washed up along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, there have been accounts of that, they just haven't found any remains of that yet. I'm still searching for some solid evidence of that, but it's even mentioned in the Andrew Collins book, "Gateway to Atlantis," and he's a pretty decent reseacher. That, among other things, is one of the things that inspires me towards the Atlantic again. I think we're missing something here, in other words, don't have all the pieces of the puzzle.

I'll write more when I get the chance.



Check out the flora of the Azores, looks a lot like Atlantis if you ask me!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:05:40 pm







Essan

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Dhill: I agree, Collins' book it very good and well researched. Don't remember it mentioning mammoth/mastodon bones, but I could easily have forgotten/missed it.

I'd love someone to prove Atlantis was in the mid Atlantic (actually, I'd love someone to prove Atlantis was anywhere!).

But I think any good research needs a sceptical element to it: too many theories have been published where basic known facts about geogrpahy, geology, history etc have been ignored/overlooked or else are based on pure speculation without any hard evidence. The sceptic can help avoid those mistakes being made and hopefully lead to a resulting theory that actually fits the evidence.

So any comments I make aren't intended to undermine yours (or anyone elses research), I'm simply your token sceptic


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:07:21 pm







dhill757

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That's okay, Essan, I like your comments~! Good scientific work is supposed to stand up to scrutiny, no matter who is offering it, and I've your particular scutiny more enlightened than most!
The passage I'm talking about from the Collins books comes from page 58 of my copy, under the chapter "Atlanticus."

It reads like this:

"What we cany say is that various species of mammoth and mastodon inhabited the American continent prior to the cessation of the last Ice Age, c 9000-8500 b.c. Conceivably, such enormous beasts could have been construed as elephants, invoking the possibility that they might have existed on Plato's Atlantic Island. In support of this theory Atlantologists cite the fact that mammoth and mastodon bones have been trawled up from the sea bottom by vessels fishing off the Atlantic shelf, close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Despite such inexplicable curiosities there is no hard evidence whatsoever to lend credibility to the idea of elephants in Atlantis."

Collins' footnote credits Donato, A Re-examination of the Atlantis Theory, p 46, after K.O. Emery in Oceanus magazine. Hansen, p. 399

Now, I like Andrew Collins research a lot, but some of his conclusions often are kind of weird. To disqualify the idea of hard evidence of elephants in Atlantis, I think we both agree you have to know where Atlantis was. Collins, of course, places it in Cuba, and it's to his credit that he even mentions anything supporting an Azores Atlantis at all. Most researchers, I've noticed, either try to rip apart evidence that it may have been in other places or don't even mention it at all in order to support their pet theories.

Between, the elephant bones trawled up by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (and I'm still looking for the original sources and, of course, for pictures), the fact that the O'Briens have mapped out a sunken area there roughly the size of Spain, and that bigger parts of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge were almost certainly above sea level during the Ice Age (which I'll get into later), the Azores becomes just as strong a candidate for Atlantis as it ever was, although, in my opinion it's not the only one!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:08:57 pm







Riven

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Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii alioru[m]que lustrationes.


http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/waldexh.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:10:14 pm







dhill757

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This next bit of information should eliminate, once and for all, that Atlantis could have been Spain or anything other than a large island in the Atlantic.
Thie first quote comes from Atalante in the thead entitled "Atlantis=Island-Peninsula"


quote:
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Strabo explained the difference between continents, islands, and peninsulas.
quote from: http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/1D*.html

"Next, after saying that there has been much discussion about the continents, and that some divide them by the rivers (the Nile and the Tanaïs), declaring them to be islands, while others divide them by the isthmuses (the isthmus between the Caspian and the Pontic Seas, and the isthmus between the Red Sea and the Ecregma), and that the latter call the continents peninsulas, Eratosthenes then says that he does not see how this investigation can end in any practical result, but that it belongs only to persons who choose to live on a diet of disputation"

At the bottom of the following link there is a map of the continents, as the Greeks understood them at that time. http://www.livius.org/ea-eh/edges/edges.html


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To which Chronos also added earlier in this thread:


quote:
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Incidentally, even if the translation reads "before" rather than "beyond" the Pillars of Hercules, it doesn't neccessarily disqualify the Azores as Atlantis. In fact, for Atlantis to actually be Spain, one might argue that the translation would have to read "beside" the Pillars of Hercules, rather than "before." That would be their correct geographic location. 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:11:12 pm







dhill757

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To which I'll also add these quotes from Critias & Timaeus:

quote:
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"The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia. This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north."
"Such was the vast power which the god settled in the lost island of Atlantis;

"This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits which are by you called the Pillars of Heracles; the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together, and was the way to other islands, and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean; for this sea which is within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbour, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a boundless continent."


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As Andrew Collins also says, "you really have to play around with the geography of Timaeus for Atlantis to be in Spain."


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:13:39 pm







dhill757

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Thanks for the link, Riven, here is one for you. This is more information on the Russian discoveries of Atlantis, though still no pictures:
http://pandorasfiles.com/research/atlantis/chapter3_2.htm


quote:
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Soviet Case for Atlantis
On the 27th of March 1979, the Soviet vessel, of oceanographic research, "Vityaz" was found at the delta of the Portugeuese river Tago. During the same night journalists from all over the country and abroad, would listen to Dr. Ascenov's scientific announcements regarding the results of their research in the Atlantic.
After the necessary introduction to the journalists, the Soviet oceanologist announced some peculiar results regarding their research within the Atlantic ocean.

" In an Area that is located 900 kilometers off the Portuguese shores, an underwater plateau was identified, with strange formations. The plateau is on top of an underwater mountain. After extensive research and based to the measurements of our scientific equipment, we have identified possible ruins of a submerged city. We clearly identified destroyed walls and gigantic stairs. And although all these items are covered with loads of marine plants, we managed to take clear photos of the area. The photos are showing symmetrical stone constructions, staircases and other remains. All this material will be sent to Moscow for further analysis".
     
this short announcement, the soviet scientists revealed to the journalists, that they could have probably found Atlantis.
The Soviet vessel continued its mission searching the oceanic floor west of Madeira.

Close to this area there is an underwater mountain called "Amber". Five years later, in 1984 when the Soviet scientists concluded their research, they announced that "Amber" mountain, once was an island that was eventually submerged without giving any more information.

In September of the following year (1985) "Pravda" reported that the Soviets had pulled out of the ocean, from a depth of 4,500 meters a strange piece of marble. This discovery was made by another Soviet vessel: "Academic Boris Petrov". This new finding, puzzled the scientists.
The marble artifact's sides were smoothened. Its color was yellowish. Its schema betrayed artificial origin. The Soviet scientists mentioned that it was definitely man-made. By chemical analysis they produced palaeochronology results, showing that this piece of marble was lying at the bottom of the ocean for thousands of years (the experimental procedure unfortunately was not published).

The leading scientist of the Soviet Academy of Science, Leo Chitrov declared that he would personally head the research for the chemical analysis of the find. Since then, the Soviet Academy never announced anything regarding the results.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:15:49 pm







dhill757

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   posted 08-12-2004 01:22 AM                       
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From 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (Jules Verne)




http://jv.gilead.org.il/fpwalter/2/09.html


"I looked back down the side we had just cleared. There the mountain rose only 700 to 800 feet above the plains; but on its far slope it crowned the receding bottom of this part of the Atlantic by a height twice that. My eyes scanned the distance and took in a vast area lit by intense flashes of light. In essence, this mountain was a volcano. Fifty feet below its peak, amid a shower of stones and slag, a wide crater vomited torrents of lava that were dispersed in fiery cascades into the heart of the liquid mass. So situated, this volcano was an immense torch that lit up the lower plains all the way to the horizon.

As I said, this underwater crater spewed lava, but not flames. Flames need oxygen from the air and are unable to spread underwater; but a lava flow, which contains in itself the principle of its incandescence, can rise to a white heat, overpower the liquid element, and turn it into steam on contact. Swift currents swept away all this diffuse gas, and torrents of lava slid to the foot of the mountain, like the disgorgings of a Mt. Vesuvius over the city limits of a second Torre del Greco.

In fact, there beneath my eyes was a town in ruins, demolished, overwhelmed, laid low, its roofs caved in, its temples pulled down, its arches dislocated, its columns stretching over the earth; in these ruins you could still detect the solid proportions of a sort of Tuscan architecture; farther off, the remains of a gigantic aqueduct; here, the caked heights of an acropolis along with the fluid forms of a Parthenon; there, the remnants of a wharf, as if some bygone port had long ago harbored merchant vessels and triple-tiered war galleys on the shores of some lost ocean; still farther off, long rows of collapsing walls, deserted thoroughfares, a whole Pompeii buried under the waters, which Captain Nemo had resurrected before my eyes!

Where was I? Where was I? I had to find out at all cost, I wanted to speak, I wanted to rip off the copper sphere imprisoning my head.

But Captain Nemo came over and stopped me with a gesture. Then, picking up a piece of chalky stone, he advanced to a black basaltic rock and scrawled this one word:

ATLANTIS

What lightning flashed through my mind! Atlantis, that ancient land of Meropis mentioned by the historian Theopompus; Plato’s Atlantis; the continent whose very existence has been denied by such philosophers and scientists as Origen, Porphyry, Iamblichus, d’Anville, Malte-Brun, and Humboldt, who entered its disappearance in the ledger of myths and folk tales; the country whose reality has nevertheless been accepted by such other thinkers as Posidonius, Pliny, Ammianus Marcellinus, Tertullian, Engel, Scherer, Tournefort, Buffon, and d’Avezac; I had this land right under my eyes, furnishing its own unimpeachable evidence of the catastrophe that had overtaken it! So this was the submerged region that had existed outside Europe,Asia, and Libya, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, home of those powerful Atlantean people against whom ancient Greece had waged its earliest wars!

The writer whose narratives record the lofty deeds of those heroic times is Plato himself. His dialogues Timaeus and Critias were drafted with the poet and legislator Solon as their inspiration, as it were.

One day Solon was conversing with some elderly wise men in the Egyptian capital of Sais, a town already 8,000 years of age, as documented by the annals engraved on the sacred walls of its temples. One of these elders related the history of another town 1,000 years older still. This original city of Athens, ninety centuries old, had been invaded and partly destroyed by the Atlanteans. These Atlanteans, he said, resided on an immense continent greater than Africa and Asia combined, taking in an area that lay between latitude 12° and 40° north. Their dominion extended even to Egypt. They tried to enforce their rule as far as Greece, but they had to retreat before the indomitable resistance of the Hellenic people. Centuries passed. A cataclysm occurred—floods, earthquakes. A single night and day were enough to obliterate this Atlantis, whose highest peaks (Madeira, the Azores, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands) still emerge above the waves.

These were the historical memories that Captain Nemo’s scrawl sent rushing through my mind. Thus, led by the strangest of fates, I was treading underfoot one of the mountains of that continent! My hands were touching ruins many thousands of years old, contemporary with prehistoric times! I was walking in the very place where contemporaries of early man had walked! My heavy soles were crushing the skeletons of animals from the age of fable, animals that used to take cover in the shade of these trees now turned to stone!

Oh, why was I so short of time! I would have gone down the steep slopes of this mountain, crossed this entire immense continent, which surely connects Africa with America, and visited its great prehistoric cities. Under my eyes there perhaps lay the warlike town of Makhimos or the pious village of Eusebes, whose gigantic inhabitants lived for whole centuries and had the strength to raise blocks of stone that still withstood the action of the waters. One day perhaps, some volcanic phenomenon will bring these sunken ruins back to the surface of the waves! Numerous underwater volcanoes have been sighted in this part of the ocean, and many ships have felt terrific tremors when passing over these turbulent depths. A few have heard hollow noises that announced some struggle of the elements far below, others have hauled in volcanic ash hurled above the waves. As far as the equator this whole seafloor is still under construction by plutonic forces. And in some remote epoch, built up by volcanic disgorgings and successive layers of lava, who knows whether the peaks of these fire-belching mountains may reappear above the surface of the Atlantic!

As I mused in this way, trying to establish in my memory every detail of this impressive landscape, Captain Nemo was leaning his elbows on a moss-covered monument, motionless as if petrified in some mute trance. Was he dreaming of those lost generations, asking them for the secret of human destiny? Was it here that this strange man came to revive himself, basking in historical memories, reliving that bygone life, he who had no desire for our modern one? I would have given anything to know his thoughts, to share them, understand them!

We stayed in this place an entire hour, contemplating its vast plains in the lava’s glow, which sometimes took on a startling intensity. Inner boilings sent quick shivers running through the mountain’s crust. Noises from deep underneath, clearly transmitted by the liquid medium, reverberated with majestic amplitude.

Just then the moon appeared for an instant through the watery mass, casting a few pale rays over this submerged continent. It was only a fleeting glimmer, but its effect was indescribable. The captain stood up and took one last look at these immense plains; then his hand signaled me to follow him.

We went swiftly down the mountain. Once past the petrified forest, I could see the Nautilus’s beacon twinkling like a star. The captain walked straight toward it, and we were back on board just as the first glimmers of dawn were whitening the surface of the ocean."


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:17:20 pm







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                                                      Cape Verde





History

The history of Cape Verde is dominated by three overriding facts: there were no people of any sort on the islands when the Portuguese first arrived; the environment has become increasingly fragile over the centuries, largely due to the impact of people and overgrazing; and it's farther from the African mainland and closer to the Americas than any other African country. It's hardly surprising, therefore, that Cape Verde developed along lines somewhat different from the rest of Africa.

When Portuguese mariners first landed in Cape Verde in 1456, the islands were barren of people but not of vegetation. Seeing the islands today, you find it hard to imagine that they were once sufficiently verde (green) to entice the Portuguese to return six years later to the island of São Tiago to found Ribeira Grande (now Cidade Velha). The Portuguese soon brought slaves from the West African coast to do the hard labour. The islands also became a convenient base for ships transporting slaves to Europe and the Americas.

Environment

The Cape Verde islands are in the Atlantic Ocean, 620km (385mi) west of West Africa's coast at Mauritania. There are 10 major islands (9 of them inhabited) and 5 islets, all of volcanic origin and grouped into the Barlavento (Windward) group (Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia, Ilheu Branco, Ilheu Raso, São Nicolau, Sal and Boa Vista) to the north and the Sotavento (Leeward) group (Maio, São Tiago, Fogo and Brava) to the south.

The interior of the main island, São Tiago, is mountainous, and Fogo has the islands' highest peak, Mt Fogo (2840m/9320ft). Fogo was rocked by a volcanic eruption in 1995; there have been seven such eruptions since 1760. Many of the islands are arid and hilly, and cultivation of the hillsides has caused widespread soil erosion. Santo Antão has the highest rainfall and tends to be much greener than the other islands.

Common plants in the islands include rhododendrons, the fire tree, dragon tree, marmulano, corn plant and the Florida Beauty dracaena.

Among the islands' most colourful fauna are its coral and fish, especially in the waters around Sal, where you'll see parrot fish, barracuda and moray eels. You might also spot blue and humpback whales, the narrow-snouted dolphin, harbour porpoise and loggerhead, green and hawksbill turtles. The Raza Island lark, Cape Verde petrel, brown booby, frigatebird, tropicbird and Cape Verde warbler are among the birds winging around the archipelago. Creepy crawlies include the Cape Verde skink and the giant Cape Verde gecko.

Cape Verde has the coolest temperatures of any country in West Africa. Daily highs range from 20°C (68°F) to around 29°C (84°F) from August to October, when there can also be rainstorms. Due to ocean currents, the sea is also considerably chillier than along the West African coast.

Area: 4,030 sq km
Population: 401,343



http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/africa/cape_verde/environment.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:18:49 pm







dhill757

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"For example, the midway point between the Great Pyramid and Machupicchu is in the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately one degree south of the Cape Verde Islands. This is also the midway point between Easter Island and the Indus Valley. Although the Cape Verde Islands were found to be uninhabited when they were rediscovered in 1460 A.D., maps and geographical descriptions for the past 2000 years have shown this location to be the home of ancient island civilizations, including maps showing this location to be the site of Atlantis. In Plato's account of Atlantis, there was a mountainous region north of the city. Are the higher elevations of those mountains now the Cape Verde Islands?
"The distance from the Great Pyramid to Easter Island is approximately 40% of the circumference of the Earth. The X in the diagram is halfway between the two, 20% each way. Machupicchu is halfway between the X in the diagram and Easter Island, 10% each way. The Distance from the Great Pyramid to Angkor Wat is approximately 20% of the circumference, and the Indus Valley is halfway between the two, 10% each way. The Distance from Easter Island to Angkor Wat is approximately 40% of the circumference, and Anatom Island is halfway between them, 20% each way. These sites are located in multiples of 10% of the circumference of the Earth, and particularly at 20% intervals. Although there are no islands near the location of the X in the diagram, it is interesting to note that the famous Piri Reis map shows a large island in this location, and the geology of recent core samples, taken from the ocean floor in this area, is of continental rather than oceanic type rock:


quote:
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Geological structure of the Strakhov fracture zone (equatorial segment of the Mid-Atlantic ridge)
G. B. Udintsev, A. F. Beresnev, V. M. Golod, A. V. Kol'tsova, N. A. Kurentsova, and M. V. Zakharov

Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

G. V. Agapova

Institute of Geology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

L. P. Volokitina

P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

V. G. Udintsev

Shmidt Institute of Earth Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract

Geological-geophysical data obtained during cruises 7, 11, and 12 of R/V Akademic Nikolay Strakhov (1989-1991) within the international project EQUARIDGE in the region of Strakhov fracture zone (4oN) are presented. The trough of the fracture is interpreted as an open extension joint, a graben produced by stretching along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Bedrock studies showed that the typical mid-oceanic tholeiitic basalts occur within the narrow (60 nm wide) axial rift zone, whereas igneous rocks not typical to the ocean were found on the eastern and western flank plateaus. This allows us to suppose that a reworked relict continental-type basement of pre-Upper Jurassic age possibly exists beneath the flank plateaus, within the segment under discussion. The above data correspond to the hypothesis by E. Bonatti about a nonspreading nature of the basement of Mid-Atlantic Ridge within the Equatorial segment and the Strakhov fracture zone.

Figures 3, Tables 3, References 22, Pages 544-558
Received December 16, 1993


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http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/AlisonJ1-p10.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:20:25 pm






dhill757

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quote:
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Madeira



The flora is so exotic it seems contrived. Anthurium; orchids; bird-of-paradise; variegated lilies; protea and other flowers usually seen only in florists (and priced by the stem) bloom voluntarily.

Some 68 plants including three varieties of orchids grow in Madeira but nowhere else, at least not in their natural environment. Another 42 also occur in the Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde (the total region is called Macaronesia), and still others brought here by accident or intent on trading vessels from Asia and Africa quickly adapted to the soil and climate.

Bananas, mangos, avocados, papaya, oranges, lemons, guavas, custard apples and passion fruit grow in terraced orchards and are for sale in Funchal's vast covered market or by the side of the road. Walnuts and chestnuts are so abundant they have their own festivals upcountry in summer.

Madeira was unpopulated when it was discovered in 1419 by Portuguese explorer Joao Goncalves Zarco. He had anchored at Porto Santo in a storm, and his sailors seeing Madeira under a cloud on the horizon concluded this was the end of the earth. Zarco returned with a less nervous crew the following year and reached a mountainous densely forested island he named Ilha da Madeira, Island of Wood. He was so taken with the place he stayed on as governor and colonizer. Except for some British occupation during the Napoleonic wars and Spanish sword-rattling, Portugal prevailed.

Like so many volcanic islands, Madeira is speculated to be the top of the mythical Atlantis. Only 36 miles long and 14 miles wide, its mountains rise from 16,500 feet below sea level to 6100 feet above, and 90% of the island is 600 feet or more. The volcanoes are long dormant, but the mild climate keeps the rocky escarpment tooth-sharp. There are waterfalls in the north; the world's second highest sea cliff in the south; and a green facade of rare trees everywhere. This type of primitive forest (the "laurisilva") covered all Europe in the tertiary era only to be decimated by advancing glaciers that never reached this far south. Madeira is the same latitude as Casablanca, a scant 400 miles east.

There are no beaches except on Porto Santo which has five miles of white sand.


http://www.goodmoney.com/madeira.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:24:00 pm







Absonite

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Dhill,
I would be interested in your ideas about the following:
have you as yet looked at the animation at bob sarmast's site of the depiction of the flooding after the break in the Gibraltar straits? It is also interesting that there is now a thought that Plato's translation now might be "before" instead of "beyond".
Additionally, apparently after the break at Gibraltar, the break at the Sicilian land-bridge break came a bit later after volcanic activity and earthquakes. This would have some implications into what the area looked like for some time before the actual flooding of the far eastern mediteranean..

Bob's animation link appears at:
http://www.discoveryofatlantis.com/

under his Project Updates link and at the May 7th update link.

keeping in mind at least these these two points from the Urantia info...

1. "a long narrow peninsulaÖalmost an islandÖprojecting westward from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea."


2a. "About the time of these climatic changes in Africa, England separated from the continent, and Denmark arose from the sea, while the isthmus of Gibraltar, protecting the western basin of the Mediterranean, gave way as the result of an earthquake, quickly raising this inland lake to the level of the Atlantic Ocean.
Presently the Sicilian land bridge submerged, creating one sea of the Mediterranean and connecting it with the Atlantic Ocean. This cataclysm of nature flooded scores of human settlements and occasioned the greatest loss of life by flood in all the world's history.

2b. "four thousand years after Adam left the Garden when, in connection with the violent activity of the surrounding volcanoes and the submergence of the Sicilian land bridge to Africa, the eastern floor of the Mediterranean Sea sank, carrying down beneath the waters the whole of the Edenic peninsula. Concomitant with this vast submergence the coast line of the eastern Mediterranean was greatly elevated. And this
was the end of the most beautiful natural creation...."


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:26:19 pm







dhill757

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Absonite,


I like Bob's book a lot, and wish he were still at this site so we could still discuss things with him. He makes a lot of good points and it's clear he's done a lot of research for it. Unfortunately, when he says that the Atlantic Ocean references were added later to the dialogues, there really isn't any evidence of that. People asked him where his "pillars" were in the thread he started and it didn't seem he had an answer for that either. Also when any researcher says that there were different "Pillars of Hercules," that's wrong, too. Almost all the ancient writers place the Pillars of Hercules where the modern Straits of Gibraltar now are.

Bob also says that the "sinking" had to happen in a time of the ancients' memory and in an area close by the Greeks for them to know about it. That's a good point, but Catastophe also raised some good questions about just when the area of Cyprus he's exploring may have sunk, talking many more years beyond when the Ice Age ended, which is when Atlantis is usually dated.

Again, maybe we're all wrong and not to slight anything he's done, but at this point most things point to the west. Heck, why would it even be called"Atlantis if it weren't out in the Atlantic Ocean..?"

So, in short, I'm sure he'll find something, but I don't think it will be Atlantis. I'm actually not convinced that Atlantis and Eden were the same thing either. The ruins lay someplace out west in the ocean.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:28:51 pm







dhill757

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Atlantis - above the waves
traditions, theories, evidence and facts

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Evidence from the floor of the ocean



In a 1954 issue of Geological Society of America, Bulletin, Bruce Heezen and others reported on a seamount - an underwater mountain - that has been named Atlantis by geologists and is in the Atlantic Ocean. It has been found to have been an island about 12,000 years ago - exactly the time specified by Plato! This abstract is given:

The Atlantis, Cruiser, and Great Meteor seamounts rise from a broad ridge or plateau which extends from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to 37°N. 32°W. southeast to Great Sea mount at 30°N. 28°W. The Atlantis Sea mount, briefly explored 1947 and 1948, was found by echo sounding and submarine photography to have a fairly flat bedrock summit area at about 180 fathoms covered in some cases by current-rippled sand. Its slopes are covered with sand or ooze symmetrically rippled at 400 fathoms and marked by slump features in 570 fathoms. A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))

In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)

Although they make no such fanciful claim from their results as to have discovered the mythical mid-Atlantic landmass, an international group of oceanographers has now convincingly confirmed preliminary findings that a sunken block of continent lies in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery comes from analysing dredge samples taken along the line of the Vema offset fault, a long east-west fracture zone lying between Africa and South America close to latitude 11øN.

The article describes the first report of "shallow-water limestone fragments" from the Vema Fracture in the Atlantic:

Four years ago two University of Miami workers, J. Honnorez and E. Bonatti, first reported the recovery of shallow-water limestone fragments from the Vema fracture zone. This limestone contained minerals indicative of a nearby granitic source unlikely to occur on the ocean floor. Neither water currents, nor more esoteric transport systems, could explain the presence of these rocks so far from the modern boundaries of the continents. The two researchers believed that, instead, the granitic grains must have been deposited close to their source.





Then the recent researchers are noted:



Now, with C. Emiliani of Miami, Paul Bronniman of the University of Geneva, M.A. Furrer of Esso Production Research, Begles, and A.A. Meyerhof, a consulting geologist from Tulsa, USA, they have carried out a more searching analysis of the dredge samples (Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 26, p.8)

Finally he notes the evidence for activity in less than 30 meters ofwater, and even some evidence for activity in soil.

The Limestones include traces of shallow-water fossils - foraminifera, green algae, bits of gastropods, and crab coprolites - implying formation in water, in one instance, less than 30 m deep. Furthermore, the limestones have been recrystallized from a high to low-magnesium form of calcite. Oxygen and carbon-isotope ratios prove conclusively that this process must have taken place subaerially [on land surface] "through the action of meteoric water enriched in light carbon while passing through a soil zone ..." A pitted limestone sample bears evidence of tidal action. Some 50 km east of the dredge site along the Vema fracture the team also recovered a thick-shelled, shallow-water, bivalve fossil from a depth of over 2000 m.

The coprolites in the sample indicate a Mesozoic age for the limestone which may well be the sedimentary capping on a residual continental block left behind as the [??] spread out into an ocean. The granitic minerals could thus have come from the bordering continents while the ocean was still in its infancy. Vertical movements made by the block appear to have raised it above sea level at some period during its history.

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.)



http://www.atlantissource.com/home/forgotten_article.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:30:48 pm







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"I'm actually not convinced that Atlantis and Eden were the same thing either."



Neither am I, and I think that when people imply this it creates a lot of confusion. There is far more reason to believe that Eden lay in Africa, the Middle East or Asia. Migration largely seems to have moved westward, with the ancient Greek and Egyptian civilizations, among others, likely having their roots in ancient Vedic culture. (http://www.sulekha.com/expressions/articledesc.asp?cid=306520).

But we should keep in mind that the Atlanteans were described as foreigners to these people - not their ancestors! Equating Atlantis with Eden is what prompts many people to place it in one of the other locations, because if Atlantis were Eden, or the cradle of all civilization, it would seem ludicrous to place it in the Atlantic Ocean.

If I am to believe Plato’s words exactly when it comes to the date, size and location of his Atlantis - which I’d prefer to do in spite of keeping an open mind to other theories as well - then I can only assume Atlantis was just one of many civilizations which thrived during ice age. It may have been home to a beautiful land that seemed like paradise by all appearance, but its people eventually rose to great power, sought dominance over the whole world, and were nearly extinguished in a great cataclysm. But I see no reason thus far to believe it was actually Eden.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:34:03 pm







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Some early geographers said that the Atlantic Ocean was bigger than our modern definition. By their definition the syrtes of Africa belong in the Atlantic ocean.
They presumed that the 3 continents (Europe/Asia/Afric) were separated by "tongues" of the surrounding ocean, which reached into the land.

1. Before I demonstrate data which may affect the location of Atlantis, let me cite these geographers' viewpoint about how Africa and Asia are separated.

quote from: http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol6No1/HV6N1Takahashi.html
70 The Gulf of Aden is in fact the entrance to the Red Sea, but is often counted by Islamic geographers as a separate branch of the Indian Ocean. The usual name in Arabic is al-khalîj al-barbarî derived from Barbarâ/Berbera on its shore, but the name bahr al-barbar is found in Bîrûnî, Tafhîm 122.9 (pers. 168.1 daryâ-i barbar)

2. Likewize, the classical Greek geographers had consistently (and erroneously) claimed that the Caspian Sea was connected to the surrounding ocean on the east side of the Caspian. Thus the Caspian sea separates Asia from Europe.

3. Now once these two geographical
"postulates" are understood, it becomes obvious that those early geographers must have recognized a third "tongue" of the surrounding ocean, to separate the continents of Europe and Asia from each other.

I believe the work of "pseudo-Aristotle" was connected to this outlook. Here is an interesting quotation about the matter, written by one of history's greatest geographers. Please note that the western Mediteranean sea is called "this well-known sea which is called the OCEAN by many."

quote from: http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol6No1/HV6N1Takahashi.html
citing Bar Hebraes:
But., Min. V.i.1: That sea which surrounds the whole earth like a single island is called the Atlantic. In the west a narrow mouth is open to it at the Stelae (STLS), or Pillars, of Hercules. Through it it enters the Habitable World as if into some harbour and forms this well-known sea which is called the Oceanus [sic] by many.17 ... V.i.2.: In the south of this sea there are two gulfs and in them are two islands called the Greater and Lesser Syrtes. In its northern (side) are three gulfs, the Sardinian (SDRWNYQWN cod. F, SRDWNYQWN ceteri), the Galatian (G’L’TYQWN cod. F) and the Adriatic (’DRY’NWS cod. F), and after these a slanting gulf called the Sicilian (SYQYLYQWN).

the corresponding quote from pseudo-Aristotle is:
Cf. De mundo syr. 139.16-21, 139.23-140.1 [< gr. 393a 16-21, 23-28]: That sea which is outside the whole Habitable World is called the Atlantic and the Oceanus. It also flows around us here. Because on the west a narrow mouth (fumo aliso) is open to it from the inside – at what are called the Stelae (STLWS) of Hercules – its flow proceeds into this sea by us, as if into some harbour, and thus widens out little by little here, spreading out until it embraces (lobek < perilambánô) the large gulfs which adjoin each other. … It is said first to widen out to the right after proceeding from the Stelae (ST’LS) of Hercules and is divided into two gulfs and passes the islands called the Syrtes, one of which they call the Greater Syrtes and the other the Lesser Syrtes. On the other, northern, side it does not widen out immediately in the same way, but makes there too three gulfs (cubbin),18 that called the Sardinian (SWRDWNYQWN), that called the Galatian (G’LTYQWN) and the Great Adriatic (’DRY’S rabbo). After these is another slanting gulf which is called the Sicilian (SQYLYQWN).


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:35:24 pm







dhill757

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Excellent referencing, as usual, Atalante, to which I'll also once again add this quote from Critias:

quote:
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"The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia. This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north."
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If we conclude the ancient knew their geography, we can also assume that they knew the difference between an island and a peninsula.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:38:07 pm







dhill757

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Riven,
Here is an interview with one of the Russian scientists who visited the Ampere Seamounts in the 1980's. Apparently, they have been there in 1974, 1978, 1984 and 1986. That's a lot of visits, and the information in the article seems to correspond with the recent interest in the area of the ocean just to the east. I read a quote today from Dr. Maxine Asher's website where she also says that there are "four sunken cities in the area just to the west of Gibraltar."


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Searching for the Lost Continent
07/09/2003 16:45



Russian scientist believes, Atlantis lies between Gibraltar and the Azores.
Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor Alexander Gorodnitsky has recently celebrated his 70th birthday.  This is a world-known scientist from the Russian Institute of Oceanology. Alexander Gorodnitsky is also known in Russia as a poet and a song writer.
Alexander Gorodnitsky chaired the laboratory of the marine geophysics at the Arctic Geology Research Institute in Leningrad. He took part in a lot of expeditions in various areas of the World Ocean, he explored the ocean at the depth of five kilometers in underwater vehicles. He was the first scientist in the world to calculate the lithosphere power. The professor published more than 260 scientific works, including eight studies about the geology and geophysics of the ocean floor.

You wrote a song about Atlases, you read books about Atlantis. What is it: a return to the old romantic hobby, or something more serious?

It is probably both. Vyacheslav Kudryavtsev, Director of the Metahistory Institute, believes, there is a mouth of an ancient river on the continental slope to the south-west of the British Isles. Kudryavtsev thinks, an ancient town might have existed on the banks of the river too. He is determined to go there to explore that place. There is no actual evidence to prove that supposition, but a theory says that the Greenland ice melted in the beginning of the historic time, and the Gulf Stream made it to the north. The continent with such a beautiful name - Atlantis - was flooded as a result of the ocean level change. It seemed to be very interesting to me, especially after we came across a strange construction under the water - it looked like the ruins of an ancient city.

We have all necessary equipment at our disposal at the Oceanology Institute: we have underwater probes and vehicles, which allow to submerge to the depth of the ocean. We have already developed the project of the mission, freighted a ship, we have even obtained a permission from the UK. We just need $200,000 for the expedition, but Russian sponsors have refused to help us.
Why breaking a lance - a lot of people believe that there is no Atlantis at all, because there has not been any evidence found to prove the existence of the ancient continent.

The absence of findings is not supposed to be the base to say no to further attempts and works. It simply testifies to the low level of the research. About 15 years ago scientists found a proof that a large ancient civilization used to exist - the huge Hittite Kingdom.

I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.

Yes, it is true, but there were a lot of other scientists, who were trying to find Atlantis, Jacques Yves Cousteau, for example.

It was Cousteau, who explored the sea floor around Santorin volcano and found the ruins of an ancient state there. A lot of people believed that it was Atlantis. However, such a point of view contradicted to Plato's words, who said that Atlantis was situated on the other side of Pillar of Hercules. From the point of view of the modern geology, I dare to prove that the underwater mountain chain between Gibraltar and the Azores is the lost continent. Canaries and Green Cape islands are the last peaks of Atlantis.

Atlas stands next to Pillar of Hercules, which means that ancient people had reasons for that. Of course, it would be ridiculous to think that we will find a golden statue or ruins of ancient towns. Any expedition has a chance to be a success, because there is always an opportunity to discover something new. If we manage to prove that Europe used to spread far behind the Pyrenees, it will change the perception of the human history. In addition to it, it is a great chance for Russian scientists to discover Atlantis!

Scientists say, the angle of inclination of the axis of the equator is changing, which will eventually make continents collide with each other. The collision will cause a monstrous earthquake, the land will sink under the water, tsunamis will flood practically everything. What is your attitude to such forecasts?

They are nonsense. The stability of continent plates tectonics is determined with endogenous (internal) factors. As far as the Earth's axis is concerned, one may not worry about it for the coming 100,000 years. It will remain as it is now and will not cause an earthquake that would be capable of destroying continents.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:39:28 pm





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(http://www.piramidesdeguimar.net/images/piram_3b.jpg)



Here is a really interesting page featuring the pyramids of Tenerife!



http://www.piramidesdeguimar.net/ingles/pagina.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:41:22 pm







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Source: 
National Science Foundation
Date: 
2000-12-12



Huge New Hydrothermal Vent System Found On Seafloor; Surprise Discovery Dubbed "Lost City"






A new hydrothermal vent field, which scientists have dubbed "The Lost City," was discovered December 5th on an undersea mountain in the Atlantic Ocean. The unexpected discovery occurred at 30 degrees North on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during an oceanographic cruise aboard the research vessel Atlantis. A team of scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Duke University, the University of Washington and other institutions conducted the National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported expedition. "We thought that we had seen the entire spectrum of hydrothermal activity on the seafloor, but this major discovery reminds us that the ocean still has much to reveal, "says Margaret Leinen, NSF assistant director for geosciences.

"These structures, which tower 180 feet above the seafloor, are the largest hydrothermal chimneys of their kind ever observed," said Deborah Kelley, a University of Washington geologist and co-principal investigator on the cruise.

"If this vent field was on land, it would be a national park," added Duke University structural geologist Jeff Karson, a second co-principal investigator who, along with Kelly, dove in the submersible Alvin to the site.

Perhaps most surprising is that the venting structures are composed of carbonate minerals and silica, in contrast to most other mid-ocean ridge hot spring deposits which are formed by iron and sulfur-based minerals. The low-temperature hydrothermal fluids may have unusual chemistries because they emanate from mantle rocks.

Nothing like this submarine hydrothermal field has ever been previously observed, say the scientists. These events are unique, they believe, because they rest on one-million-year-old ocean crust formed tens of kilometers beneath the seafloor, and because of their incredible size. Dense macrofaunal communities such as clams, shrimps, mussels, and tube worms, which typify most other mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal environments, appear to be absent in this field.

The Lost City Field was discovered unexpectedly while studying geological and hydrothermal processes that built an unusually tall, 12,000-foot-mountain at this site. In this area, deep mantle rocks called serpentinized peridotites, and rocks crystallized in subseafloor magma chambers, have been uplifted several miles from beneath the seafloor along large faults that expose them at the surface of the mountain.

"As so often happens, we were pursuing one set of questions concerning building of the mountain and we stumbled onto a very important new discovery," said Donna Blackman, a geophysicist from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and chief scientist of the expedition. She added that "the venting towers are very spectacular and, although they bring up a whole new set of questions, we will learn about the evolution of the mountain itself as we study the vents carefully in the future."

Observations using the submersible Alvin and deep-towed Vehicle Argo, operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, show that the field hosts numerous active and inactive hydrothermal vents. The steep-sided, 180-foot-tall deposits are composed of multiple spires that reach 30 feet in width at their tops. They are commonly capped by white, feathery hydrothermal precipitates. The tops and sides of the massive edifices are awash in fluids that reach temperatures up to 160 degrees.

From the sides of the structures, abundant arrays of delicate, white flanges emerge. Similar to cave deposits, complex, intergrown stalagmites rise several meters above the flange roofs.

Underneath the flanges, trapped pools of warm fluid support dense mats of microbial communities that wave within the rising fluids. Downslope, hundreds of overlapping flanges form hydrothermal deposits reminiscent of hot spring deposits in Yellowstone National Park. During the Alvin dive, expedition leader Patrick Hickey collected rocks, fluids, and biological samples for shorebased analyses.

"By studying such environments, we may learn about ancient hydrothermal systems and the life that they support," suggested Kelley.

For more photos and graphics, see http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/mar.


------------------------------------------------------------------------

This story has been adapted from a news release issued by National Science Foundation.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:43:09 pm







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Source: 
University Of Washington
Date: 
2003-07-25





             Hydrothermal Vent Systems Could Have Persisted Millions Of Years, Incubated Life






The staying power of seafloor hydrothermal vent systems like the bizarre Lost City vent field is one reason they also may have been incubators of Earth's earliest life, scientists report in a paper published in the July 25 issue of Science.


Discovered just 2½ years ago during a National Science Foundation-funded expedition in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, Lost City has the tallest vents ever seen – the 18-story behemoth at the site dwarfs most vents elsewhere by at least 100 feet. Water is circulated through the vent field by heat from serpentinization, a chemical reaction between seawater and the mantle rock on which Lost City sits, rather than by heat from volcanic activity or magma, responsible for driving hydrothermal venting at sites scientists have been studying since the early 1970s.

If hydrothermal venting can occur without volcanism, it greatly increases the places on the seafloor of early Earth where microbial life could have started. It also means explorers may have more places than previously thought to look for microbial life in the universe.

Although the Lost City vent field is a youthful 30,000 years old, Lost City-type systems might be able to persist hundreds of thousands, possibly millions, of years, says lead author Gretchen Früh-Green of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and co-authors from the University of Washington, Duke University and National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. One can imagine how such stable, long-lived systems pumping out heat, minerals and organic compounds for millennia might improve the chances for life to spark and to be sustained until it could take hold, say these scientists.

"It's difficult to know if life might have started as a result of one or both kinds of venting," says Deborah Kelley, University of Washington oceanographer, "but chances are good that these systems were involved in sustaining life on and within the seafloor very early in Earth's history."

As far as longevity and stability, it's possible that black-smoker systems might last as long as 100,000 years but it's unlikely, Kelley says. That's because black-smoker systems typically form where new seafloor is being created, a process that – even if a volcanic eruption doesn’t bury a hydrothermal vent field in lava – will eventually shove the seafloor bearing the vents away from the source of volcanic heat needed to power them.

Lost City is already nine miles from the nearest volcanically active spreading center and sits on 1.5 million-year-old crust. Seawater permeating deeply into the fractured surface of the mantle rocks transforms olivine into a new mineral, serpentine. The heat generated during this process is not as great as that found at volcanically active sites – where fluids can reach 700 F – but it is enough to power hydrothermal circulation and produce vent fluids of 105 to 170 F.

Tectonics, the movement of the Earth's great plates, contributes to the fracturing of the mantle rock. But a big reason this kind of system is so self-sustaining, the Science report says, is that fracturing also happens because rocks undergoing serpentinization increase in volume 20 percent to 40 percent. Kelley likens it to water seeping into tiny cracks in roads, then freezing and expanding to cause ruts and frost heaves in the pavement.

Scientists think many Lost City-type systems were possible on early Earth because so much of the mantle had yet to be skinned over with crust, putting it in contact with seawater and making serpentinization possible, Kelley says.

Lost City is the only vent field of its kind known today but scientists say more could exist. Within a 60-mile radius of Lost City are three similar mountains and there are other, potential sites along thousands of miles of ridges in the mid-Atlantic, Indian Ocean and Arctic.

Beyond Earth, peridotite – the mantle material that reacts with seawater during serpentinization – is abundant on all the terrestrial planets in our solar system, says Jeff Karson, Duke University professor. "Peridotite can be exposed by tectonic processes or by major cratering events. This means that Lost City-type venting could occur, or has occurred, in oceans on other planets, and such venting would have the potential to support microbial systems."

Lost City-type systems also may be conducive to life because their fluids are high pH and rich with organic compounds compared to black-smoker systems.

Black smokers get their name because it can appear as if smoke is billowing from the vents. What's actually being seen are dark minerals precipitating when scalding hot vent waters meet the icy-cold ocean depths. Water venting at Lost City, in comparison, is hot enough to shimmer but not "smoke." Because of the different chemistry, black-smoker vents are a darkly mottled mix of sulfide minerals whereas the Lost City vents are nearly 100 percent carbonate, the same material as limestone in caves, and range in colors from white to cream to gray.

The field, named Lost City in part because it sits on a seafloor mountain named the Atlantis Massif, was discovered Dec. 4, 2000, when scientists weren't even looking for hydrothermal vents.

"The discovery of the Lost City vent field is a wonderful example of serendipity in science – studying one problem and discovering something totally new and unexpected," says David Epp, program director in NSF's marine geology and geophysics program. "The detailed work is just beginning and should change the way people think about vent systems."

This spring, the NSF funded the first major scientific expedition to Lost City since its discovery. Led by Kelley and Karson, the expedition is documented at: http://www.lostcity.washington.edu/

Other Science co-authors are the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 's Stefano Bernasconi, University of Washington's Kristin Ludwig and Giora Proskurowski, and National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration 's David Butterfield.


------------------------------------------------------------------------

This story has been adapted from a news release issued by University Of Washington.



http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/07/030725080845.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:44:33 pm







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                                      Scientists Seeking Secrets Of "Lost City"





The remarkable hydrothermal vent structures serendipitously discovered last December in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, including a massive 18-story vent taller than any seen before, are formed in a very different way than ocean-floor vents studied since the 1970s, according to findings published July 12 in the journal Nature. The circulation of fluids that forms this new class of hydrothermal vents apparently is driven by heat generated when seawater reacts with mantle rocks, not by volcanic heat.


No one has previously seen a field quite like this but Deborah Kelley, a University of Washington oceanographer and lead author of the Nature paper, says this kind of vent may be common on the seafloor. If so, scientists may have underestimated the extent of hydrothermal venting, the amount of heat and chemicals pouring into the world's oceans and the abundance of life that thrives in such conditions.

"Rarely does something like this come along that drives home how much we still have to learn about our own planet," Kelley says. "We need to shed our biases in some sense about what we think we already know."

The Lost City Field, named partly because it sits on the seafloor mountain Atlantis Massif, was discovered Dec. 4. The expedition was funded by the National Science Foundation and led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Donna Blackman, UW's Kelley and Duke University's Jeffrey Karson. Blackman and Karson are among the paper's co-authors.

Lost City is like other hydrothermal vent systems where seawater circulates beneath the seafloor gaining heat and chemicals until there is enough heat for the fluids to rise buoyantly and vent back into the ocean. As the warm fluids mix with cold seawater the chemicals separate from the vent fluids and solidify, sometimes piling up into impressive mounds, spires and chimneys of minerals.

It was immediately clear, however, that the Lost City Field was unlike other hydrothermal vent systems in a number of ways. First, there was the height attained by some of the structures – the mighty 180-foot vent scientists named Poseidon compares to previously studied vents that mostly reach 80 feet or less. The new vents are nearly 100 percent carbonate, the same material as limestone in caves, and range in color from a beautiful clean white to cream or gray, in contrast to black smoker vents that are a darkly mottled mix of sulfide minerals. And perhaps the Lost City's most distinctive feature is that it is sitting on 1.5 million-year-old crust formed from mantle material.

"We did not realize that hydrothermal activity of this sort could be taking place on seafloor generated millions of years ago," says Margaret Leinen, assistant director for geosciences at the National Science Foundation.

Most previously known vents form along the youngest part of spreading "centers," areas where tectonic forces pull apart the seafloor and magma flows up into the space sometimes during volcanic eruption. Heat from the underlying magma chambers drives hydrothermal vent circulation and generates water temperatures as high as 400°C.

Lost City is in a part of the ocean where magma chambers are present only rarely and volcanic eruptions happen perhaps every 5,000 to 20,000 years, compared to fast-spreading centers where eruptions may occur every five to 10 years. In the area of the Lost City, spreading and faulting during the last 1 million to 1.5 million years has stripped the mountain down to the underlying mantle rocks. Hydrothermal circulation appears to be driven by seawater that permeates into the deeply fractured surface and transforms olivine in the mantle rocks into a new mineral, serpentine, in a process called serpentinization.

The heat generated during serpentinization appears to drive hydrothermal circulation at the Lost City, Kelley says. The process produces low temperature fluids of 40 to 75°C that are rich in methane and hydrogen.

Papers published in the early 1990s noted that methane-hydrogen signatures were common over slow- or ultra-slow-spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where Lost City is. That led scientists to believe that venting was occurring, but there had been no example like the Lost City Field before now, Kelley says.

If the Nature paper is right about the forces driving hydrothermal circulation at the Lost City Field, Kelley says it's easy to imagine there could be many more such systems. Within a mere 50-mile radius of the Atlantis Massif are three similar mountains subject to the same fracturing, the same intrusion of seawater and perhaps the same reactions with mantle material. And those four represent only a tiny fraction of the potential sites along the 6,200 mile Mid-Atlantic Ridge, as well as the Indian ridges and the Arctic Ridge, also considered slow- and ultraslow-spreading centers.

Although large animals that typify other vent environments appear to be rare at Lost City, microbial life seems to thrive there. The microbial samples collected at Lost City show a community that is diverse and so dense in places that magnification reveals rocks so covered with microorganisms that one can't see the minerals, Kelley says. "These environments may host a significant and important amount of microbial life, if these systems prove to be common and operate for long periods on old ocean crust."

Other authors of the paper are Gretchen Fruh-Green of the Institute for Mineralogy and Petrology in Zurich; Pete Rivizzigno of Duke; David Butterfield, Marvin Lilley, Eric Olson, Mathew Schrenk, Kevin Roe and Geoff Lebon, all from the University of Washington or affiliated with the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and the shipboard party on the expedition last December.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:46:04 pm







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                                                             Atlantic Ocean





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Earth's five Oceans

* Atlantic Ocean
* Arctic Ocean
* Indian Ocean
* Pacific Ocean
* Southern Ocean


The Atlantic Ocean is Earth's second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. The ocean's name, derived from Greek mythology, means the "Sea of Atlas".

This ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending in a north-south direction and is divided into the North Atlantic and South Atlantic by equatorial counter currents at about 8° north latitude. Bounded by North and South America on the west and Europe and Africa on the east, the Atlantic is linked to the Pacific Ocean by the Arctic Ocean on the north and the Drake Passage on the south. An artificial connection between the Atlantic and Pacific is also provided by the Panama Canal. On the east, the dividing line between the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean is the 20° east meridian. The Atlantic is separated from the Arctic Ocean by a line from Greenland to southernmost Svalbard to northern Norway.

Covering approximately 20% of Earth's surface, the Atlantic Ocean is second only to the Pacific in size. With its adjacent seas it occupies an area of about 106,450,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq. miles); without them, it has an area of 82,362,000 km2 (31,800,000 sq mi). The land area that drains into the Atlantic is four times that of either the Pacific or Indian oceans. The volume of the Atlantic Ocean with its adjacent seas is 354,700,000 km3 (85,093,000 cu. miles) and without them 323,600,000 km3 (77,632,000 cu. miles).

The average depth of the Atlantic, with its adjacent seas, is 3,332 m (10,932 ft); without them it is 3,926 m (12,877 ft). The greatest depth, 8,605 m (28,232 ft), is in the Puerto Rico Trench. The width of the Atlantic varies from 2,848 km (1,769 miles) between Brazil and Liberia to about 4,830 km (3,000 miles) between the United States and northern Africa.

The Atlantic Ocean has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. These include the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Islands in the Atlantic Ocean include Svalbard, Greenland, Iceland, Rockall, Great Britain, Ireland, Fernando de Noronha, the Azores, the Madeira Islands, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Bermuda, the West Indies, Ascension, St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia Island.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
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                                                         Ocean Bottom





The principal feature of the bottom topography of the Atlantic Ocean is a great submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It extends from Iceland in the north to approximately 58° south latitude, reaching a maximum width of about 1,600 km (1,000 miles). A great rift valley also extends along the ridge over most of its length. The depth of water over the ridge is less than 2,700 m (8,900 ft) in most places, and several mountain peaks rise above the water, forming islands. The South Atlantic Ocean has an additional submarine ridge, the Walvis Ridge.

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge separates the Atlantic Ocean into two large troughs with depths averaging between 3,660 and 5,485 m (12,000 and 18,000 ft). Transverse ridges running between the continents and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge divide the ocean floor into numerous basins. Some of the larger basins are the Guiana, North American, Cape Verde, and Canaries basins in the North Atlantic. The largest South Atlantic basins are the Angola, Cape, Argentina, and Brazil basins.

The deep ocean floor is thought to be fairly flat, although numerous seamounts and some guyots exist. Several deeps or trenches are also found on the ocean floor. The Puerto Rico Trench, in the North Atlantic, is the deepest. In the south Atlantic, the South Sandwich Trench reaches a depth of 8,428 m (27,651 ft). A third major trench, the Romanche Trench], is located near the equator and reaches a depth of about 7,760 m (24,455 ft). The shelves along the margins of the continents constitute about 11% of the bottom topography. In addition, a number of deep channels cut across the continental rise.

Ocean sediments are composed of terrigenous, pelagic, and authigenic material. Terrigenous deposits consist of sand, mud, and rock particles formed by erosion, weathering, and volcanic activity on land and then washed to sea. These materials are largely found on the continental shelves and are thickest off the mouths of large rivers or off desert coasts. Pelagic deposits, which contain the remains of organisms that sink to the ocean floor, include red clays and Globigerina, pteropod, and siliceous oozes. Covering most of the ocean floor and ranging in thickness from 60 m (200 ft) to 3,300 m (10,900 ft), they are thickest in the convergence belts and in the zones of upwelling. Authigenic deposits consist of such materials as manganese nodules. They occur where sedimentation proceeds slowly or where currents sort the deposits.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
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                                                      Water Characteristics





The salinity of the surface waters in the open ocean ranges from 33 to 37 parts per thousand and varies with latitude and season. Although the minimum salinity values are found just north of the equator, in general the lowest values are in the high latitudes and along coasts where large rivers flow intothe ocean. Maximum salinity values occur at about 25° north latitude. Surface salinity values are influenced by evaporation, precipitation, river inflow, and melting of sea ice.

Surface water temperatures, which vary with latitude, current systems, and season and reflect the latitudinal distribution of solar energy, range from less than 2° to 29°C (28° to 84° F). Maximum temperatures occur north of the equator, and minimum values are found in the polar regions. In the middle latitudes, the area of maximum temperature variations, values may vary by 7 to 8°C (12.6 to 14.4°F).

The Atlantic Ocean consists of four major water masses. The North and South Atlantic central waters constitute the surface waters. The sub-Antarctic intermediate water extends to depths of 1,000 m (3,300 ft). The North Atlantic deep water reaches depths of as much as 4,000 m (13,200 ft). The Antarctic bottom water occupies ocean basins at depths greater than 4,000 m (13,200 ft).

Due to the Coriolis force, water in the North Atlantic circulates in a clockwise direction, whereas water circulation in the South Atlantic is counter clockwise. The South tides in the Atlantic Ocean are semi-diurnal; that is, two high tides occur during each 24 lunar hours. The tides are a general wave that moves from south to north. In latitudes above 40° north some east-west oscillation occurs.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
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                                                           Climate





The climate of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent land areas is influenced by the temperatures of the surface waters and water currents as well as the winds blowing across the waters. Because of the oceans' great capacity for retaining heat, maritime climates are moderate and free of extreme seasonal variations. Precipitation can be approximated from coastal weather data and air temperature from the water temperatures. The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation. Climatic zones vary with latitude; the warmest climatic zones stretch across the Atlantic north of the equator. The coldest zones are in the high latitudes, with the coldest regions corresponding to the areas covered by sea ice. Ocean currents contribute to climatic control by transporting warm and cold waters to other regions. Adjacent land areas are affected by the winds that are cooled or warmed when blowing over these currents. The Gulf Stream, for example, warms the atmosphere of the British Isles and northwestern Europe, and the cold water currents contribute to heavy fog off the coast of northeastern Canada (the Grand Banks area) and the northwestern coast of Africa. In general, winds tend to transport moisture and warm or cool air over land areas. Hurricanes develop in the southern part of the North Atlantic Ocean.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
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                                                     History and Economy





The Atlantic Ocean appears to be the youngest of the world's oceans. Evidence indicates that it did not exist prior to 100 million years ago, when the continents that formed from the breakup of the ancestral supercontinent, Pangaea, were being rafted apart by the process of seafloor spreading. The Atlantic has been extensively explored since the earliest settlements were established along its shores. The Vikings, Portuguese, and Christopher Columbus were the most famous among its early explorers. After Columbus, European exploration rapidly accelerated, and many new trade routes were established. As a result, the Atlantic became and remains the major artery between Europe and the Americas (known as transatlantic trade). Numerous scientific explorations have been undertaken, including those by the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont Geological Observatory, and the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office.

The ocean has also contributed significantly to the development and economy of the countries around it. Besides its major "transatlantic" transportation and communication routes, the Atlantic offers abundant petroleum deposits in the sedimentary rocks of the continental shelves and the world's richest fishing resources, especially in the waters covering the shelves. The major species of fish caught are cod, haddock, hake, herring, and mackerel. The most productive areas include the Grand Banks off Newfoundland, the shelf area off Nova Scotia, Georges Bank off Cape Cod, the Bahama Banks, the waters around Iceland, the Irish Sea, the Dogger bank of the North Sea, and the Falkland Banks. Eel, lobster, and whales have also been taken in great quantities. All these factors, taken together, tremendously enhance the Atlantic's great commercial value. Because of the threats to the ocean environment presented by oil spills, plastic debris, and the incineration of toxic wastes at sea, various international treaties exist to reduce some forms of pollution.



* In 1919, the American NC-4 became the first airplane to cross the Atlantic (though it made a couple landings on islands along the way).

* Later in 1919, a British airplane piloted by two men named Alcock and Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight from Newfoundland to Ireland.

* In 1921, the British were the first to cross the Atlantic in an airship.

* In 1927, Charles Lindbergh made the first solo non-stop transatlantic flight in an airplane (between New York City and Paris).

* After rowing for 81 days and 2,962 miles, on December 3, 1999 Tori Murden became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by rowboat alone when she reached Guadeloupe from the Canary Islands.



Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean, and the Americas

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World



Area:



* total: 76.762 million km2

* note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies


Area - comparative: slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November. Storms are common in the North Atlantic during northern winters, making ocean crossings more difficult and dangerous.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:53:40 pm







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Terrain


surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counter-clockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin first discovered by the Challenger Expedition.



Elevation extremes

* lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
* highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources

oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards

icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes north of the equator (May to December)

Environment – current issues

Endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is killing dolphins, albatrosses and other seabirds (petrels, auks), hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea

Geography – note

Major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean (previously known as the Ethiopic Ocean). During the Cold War the so called Greenland-Iceland-UK (GIUK) Gap was a major strategic concern, the seabed in that area was laid with extensive hydrophone systems to track Soviet submarines.

Ports and harbours

Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Cork (Republic of Ireland), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), Liverpool (UK), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Newport News (US) Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway), Peiraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Santos (Brazil), Southampton (UK), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation – note

Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

External links

* This info from Public Domain.

* See http://oceanographer.navy.mil/warning.html Thanks US Navy Oceanographer

* CIA – The World Factbook – Atlantic Ocean


(http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/zh.html)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Ocean  (http://oceanographer.navy.mil/warning.html)


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:55:20 pm







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                                                               Sea





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A sea (pronounced see) is a large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean. The term is also used for large, usually saline, lakes that lack a natural outlet, such as the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Galilee. The term is used in a less geographically precise manner as synonymous with ocean, as in the tropical sea or down to the sea shore, or even sea water referring to water of the ocean.

Many seas are marginal seas.
Contents [showhide]
1 List of seas, divided by ocean
1.1 Pacific Ocean
1.2 Atlantic Ocean
1.3 Indian Ocean
1.4 Arctic Ocean
1.5 Southern Ocean
1.6 Landlocked seas


List of seas, divided by ocean

Pacific Ocean

* Bering Sea
* Gulf of Alaska
* Sea of Cortez (aka Gulf of California)
* Sea of Okhotsk
* Sea of Japan
* Seto Inland Sea
* East China Sea
* South China Sea
* Sulu Sea
* Celebes Sea
* Bohol Sea (aka Mindanao Sea)
* Philippine Sea
* Flores Sea
* Banda Sea
* Arafura Sea
* Timor Sea
* Tasman Sea
* Yellow Sea
* Coral Sea

Atlantic Ocean

* Hudson Bay

* James Bay


* Baffin Bay
* Gulf of St. Lawrence
* Caribbean Sea
* Gulf of Mexico
* Sargasso Sea
* North Sea
* Baltic Sea

* Gulf of Bothnia


* Irish Sea
* Mediterranean Sea

* Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
* Black Sea

* Sea of Azov


* Ionian Sea
* Ligurian Sea
* Mirtoon Sea
* Tyrrhenian Sea
* Gulf of Sidra
* Sea of Marmara
* Sea of Crete


* Bay of Biscay
* Gulf of Guinea


Indian Ocean

* Red Sea
* Gulf of Aden
* Persian Gulf
* Gulf of Oman
* Arabian Sea
* Bay of Bengal
* Java Sea

[edit]


Arctic Ocean

* Barents Sea
* Kara Sea
* Beaufort Sea

* Amundsen Gulf


* Chukchi Sea
* Laptev Sea
* East Siberian Sea

Southern Ocean

* Weddell Sea
* Ross Sea

Landlocked seas

* Aral Sea
* Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee


Extraterrestrial seas

Lunar maria are vast basaltic plains on the Moon that were thought to be bodies of water by early astronomers, who referred to them as "seas."

Liquid water is thought to be present under the surface of several moons, most notably Europa.

Liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, though it may be more accurate to describe them as "lakes" rather than "seas". The distribution of these liquid regions will hopefully be better known after the arrival of the Cassini probe.

Science

The term "sea" has also been used in quantum physics. Dirac sea is an interpretation of the negative energy states that comprises the vacuum.

See also

* ocean, river, geography, firths of Scotland, inlet, sea salt,
* ship, International Maritime Organization

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 05:59:59 pm







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                                                          Azores





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Azores (or Açores in Portuguese) are an archipelago of Portuguese islands situated in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,500 km from Lisbon and about 3,900 km from the east coast of North America.

The nine Azorean Islands are extends for more than 600 km, and are guided in the northwest - Southeastern direction. The vast extension of the islands defines an immense exclusive economical zone (EEZ) of 1,1 million squared kilometers. The point more western point of this area, places it 2100 miles of the North American continent.

Even if Portugal is a unitary nation, the Azorean Islands are granted with a autonomous region. Sometimes visitors confuse the islands to be a Portuguese dependency or a country, which is seen has offensive by the locals.
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Municipalities
4 Geography
5 Demographics





                                                           History






Old map of Azores Islands

In 1427, one of the captains sailing for Henry the Navigator discovered the Azores, possibly Gonçalo Velho, but this is not certain.

Beginning in 1868, Portugal issued its stamps overprinted with "AÇORES" for use in the islands. Between 1892 and 1906, it also issued separate stamps for the three administrative districts of the time.

Angra consisted of Terceira, São Jorge, and Graciosa, with the capital at Angra do Heroismo on Terceira.

Horta consisted of Pico, Faial, Flores, and Corvo, with the capital at Horta on Faial.

Ponta Delgada consisted of São Miguel and Santa Maria, with the capital at Ponta Delgada on São Miguel.

From 1938 to 1978, the archipelago was divided into three districts, quite equivalent (except in area) to those in the Portuguese mainland. The division was quite arbitrary, and didn’t follow the natural island groups, rather reflecting the location of each district capital on the three main cities (neither of each on the western group).

In 1978 the Azores became an Autonomous Region and the Azorean districts (Angra, Horta, Ponta Delgada) were suppressed.

Politics

Flag of Azores

The Azores is a Portuguese Autonomous Region since 1976, the executive section of the autonomy is located in Ponta Delgada, the legislative in Horta and the judicial in Angra do heroísmo. The President of the Azorean Autonomous Region is Carlos Cesar.

Municipalities

The Azores are divided in 19 municipalities (concelhos), each municipality is further divided into parishes(freguesias). The Azores has a total of 156 parishes.

There are also 5 cities: Ponta Delgada and Ribeira Grande in São Miguel Island; Angra do Heroísmo and Praia da Vitória in Terceira, and Horta in Faial.

Santa Maria

* Vila do Porto


São Miguel

* Lagoa, Nordeste, Ponta Delgada, Povoação, Ribeira Grande and Vila Franca do Campo


Terceira

* Angra do Heroísmo and Vila da Praia da Vitória


Graciosa

* Santa Cruz da Graciosa


São Jorge

* Calheta and Velas


Pico

* Lajes do Pico, Madalena and São Roque do Pico


Faial

* Horta


Flores

* Lajes das Flores and Santa Cruz das Flores


Corvo

* Corvo

Geography



Azorean islands by size
island size
(km2) as of 2003



São Miguel Island 744,60

Pico Island 444,80

Terceira Island 400,30

São Jorge Island 243,70

Faial Island 173,10

Flores Island 141,00

Santa Maria Island 96,90

Graciosa Island 60,70

Corvo Island 17,10



The archipelago is spread out in the area of the parallel that passes through Lisbon (39º, 43'/39º, 55' North Latitude), giving it a moderate climate, with mild annual oscillation. The Azores lie in the Palearctic ecozone, forming a unique biome among the world's Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, with many endemic species of plants. The nine islands have a total area of 2,355 km2. Their individual areas vary between 747 km2 (São Miguel) and 17 km2 (Corvo). Three islands (São Miguel, Pico and Terceira) are bigger in size when compared to Malta (compose by three different islands). São Miguel Island alone, being twice has big.



The nine islands are divided into three groups:



* The Eastern Group of São Miguel, Santa Maria and Formigas Islets

* The Central Group of Terceira, Graciosa, São Jorge, Pico and Faial

* The Western Group of Flores and Corvo.


The volcanic origin of all the islands is revealed by their volcanic cones and craters. Pico, a volcano that stands 2,351 metres high on the island of the same name, has the highest altitude in the Azores.

The Azores had a population of 238,767 in 31 December 2002 and a population density of 106 persons/km2.

Demographics


Azorean islands by population
island population
(2002) main



city/town Muncicipalities



São Miguel Island 130,154 Ponta Delgada 6

Terceira Island 54,996 Angra do Heroísmo 2

Pico Island 14,579 Madalena 3

Faial Island 14,934 Horta 1

São Jorge Island 9,522 Velas 2

Santa Maria Island 5,490 Vila do Porto 1

Graciosa Island 4,708 Santa Cruz da Graciosa 1

Flores Island 3,949 Santa Cruz das Flores 2

Corvo Island 435 Vila do Corvo 1


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azores"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:01:28 pm







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                                                         Madeira Islands





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Madeira, a group of Portuguese islands in the north Atlantic Ocean, lies between the paralels of 32º 22' 20'' and 33º 7' 50'' and in a longitude between the 16º 16' 30 W and 17º 16' 39'' W. Madeira Islands consists of two inhabited islands named Madeira and Porto Santo, three uninhabited small islands named collectively the Desertas, and another two uninhabited islands named the Selvagens, Selvagem. Discovered and settled by the Portuguese in 1418, Madeira is a Portuguese autonomous region.
Contents [showhide]
1 Islands and main Islets
2 Geography and climate
3 Culture and people
4 History
5 Postage stamps
6 Transportation
7 External link

Islands and main Islets

* Madeira Island
* Porto Santo Island
* Deserta Grande Island
* Selvagem Grande Island
* Bugio Island
* Selvagem Pequena Island
* Savage's Fora Islet
* Deserta's Chão Islet

Geography and climate

Funchal, the main city of Madeira Island, is on the south coast of the principal island, in 32° 37' 45 N lat. 16° 55' 20 W long. Madeira Islands has 6 cities: Funchal, Porto Santo, Machico, Câmara de Lobos, Santa Cruz and Santana.

The Madeira archipelago lies about 360 miles from the coast of Africa, 535 miles from Lisbon, 240 from Tenerife, and 480 from Santa Maria, the nearest of the Azores.

Madeira is the largest island of the group with 741 km 2, has a length of 30 geographical miles (57 km), an extreme breadth of 13 miles (22 km), and a coastline of 80 or 90 miles. Its longer axis lies east and west, in which direction it is traversed by a mountain chain, the backbone of the island, having a mean altitude of 4000 feet, up to which many deep ravines penetrate from both coasts.

On the south there is very little left of the indigenous forest which once clothed the whole island and gave it the name it bears (Madeira means "wood" in Portuguese), but on the north some of the valleys still contain native trees of fine growth. A long narrow and comparatively low rocky promontory forms the eastern extremity of the island, and here there is to be seen a tract of calcareous sand, known as the Fossil Bed, containg land shells and numerous bodies resembling the roots of trees, probably produced by infiltration.

Its geographical position and its mountainous landscape, permits a very pleasing climate. Tempetures are about 22 degrees Celsius in the summer and circa 16 degrees Celcius during the winter. With Its mild humidity, the weather of the Island is classified has subtropical. Influenced by the Golf Stream, sea water temperature is 22 degrees Celcius during the summer and 16, in the winter. The islands are of vulcanic origin.

The archipelago has a valuable natural areas, recognized by UNESCO has Word Natural Patrimony.

Culture and people

The islands are noted as the source of Madeira wine. The islands are also known by the Portuguese shoes, flowers and sub-tropical fruits.

There are circa 250,000 inhabitants (1991) in the two main islands, only 4,800 live in Porto Santo Island. The population density is 337 inhabitants per square kilometre in Madeira and 112 in Porto Santo. Most of the early settlers were from the Portuguese regions of the Algarve and Minho. The islands have historical monuments, streets and plazas (praças) with many gardens and typical small towns, known has vilas.

History

It has been conjectured, but on insufficient evidence, that the Phoenecians discovered Madeira at a very early period. Pliny mentions certain Purple or Mauretanian Islands, the position of which with reference to the Fortunate Islands or Canaries might seem to indicate Madeira islands. There is a romantic story, of doubtful truth, to the effect that two lovers, Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet, fleeing from England to France in 1346, were driven off their course by a violent storm, and cast on the coast of Madeira at the place subsequently named Machico, in memory of one of them. On the evidence of a portulano dated 1351, preserved at Florence, Italy, it would appear that Madeira had been discovered long previous to that date by Portuguese vessels under Genoese captains. In 1419 two of the captains of Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven by a storm to the island called by them Porto Santo, or Holy Port, in gratitude for their rescue from shipwreck. The next year an expedition was sent to populate the island, and, Madeira being descried, they made for it, and took possession on behalf of the Portuguese crown.

The islands started to be settled circa 1432 or 1433. In September 23, 1433, the name ILHA DA MADEIRA (Madeira Island) appears in a map, by the first time, in a document.

In 1921, the Austro-Hungarian Emperor Charles I was deported to Madeira, after an unsuccessful coup d'état. He died there one year later.

Postage stamps

In 1868, Portugal issued postage stamps for Madeira, consisting of the current stamps of Portugal overprinted "MADEIRA". This continued until 1928, when a series for Madeira was issued; but this was the last to be produced until 1980 (stamps of Portugal having been valid in Madeira since 1898), when Portugal began issuing stamps inscribed "Portugal Madeira" that were valid in both Madeira and Portugal, similar to those issued for the Azores.

Transportation

The Islands has two airports, one being in Funchal, Madeira Island and the other in Porto Santo City in Porto Santo Island. Flights to the islands are mostly made from Lisbon, but there are direct flights from other European capitals. The European Union citizens of the Shengen area, can enter in the islands freely. While others need identification. The transportations between the two main islands is done by plane or by ferry-boat, that allow the transportation of vihacles. Visiting the interior of this islands, is today very easy, due to large development of this islands during Portugal's economical boom. There are modern roads, reaching all the interresting areas of the islands, there's also a good transportation network.


External link

* Pictures of Madeira (http://www.sophie.org.uk/Madeira/madeira.htm)
* Natural Park of Madeira (http://www.pnm.pt)


(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-08-2004).]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:03:33 pm







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                                                            Canary Islands





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Canaries)
Comunidad Autónoma de
Canarias
(In Detail)

Capitals Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Area


 - total

 - % of Spain Ranked 13th


7 447 km2

1,5%
Population


 - Total (2003)
 - % of Spain

 - Density Ranked 8th


1 843 755
4,4%

247,58/km2
Demonym


 - English

 - Spanish


Canary Islander
canario/a

Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982
ISO 3166-2 ES-CN

Parliamentary
representation

 Congress seats
 Senate seats

 

14
2
President Adán Martín Menis (CC)
Gobierno de Canarias (http://www.gobcan.es)

The Canary Islands are an archipelago of seven islands of volcanic origin in the Atlantic Ocean, off the northwestern coast of Africa. The islands belong to Spain, and form an autonomous community of that country.
Contents [showhide]
1 Physical geography
2 Political geography
3 History
4 Economy


Physical geography

The islands and their capitals are:

* Gran Canaria (capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria);
* Tenerife (capital Santa Cruz de Tenerife);
* Lanzarote (capital Arrecife);
* La Palma (capital Santa Cruz de La Palma);
* La Gomera (capital San Sebastián de La Gomera);
* El Hierro (capital Valverde);
* Fuerteventura (capital Puerto del Rosario).


The nearest island is 108 km from the northwest African coast.

The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira, and the Savage Isles. The Teide volcano on Tenerife is the highest mountain in Spain. According to the position of the islands with respect to the trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or very dry. Several native species are conserved, like the drago tree Dracaena draco and the Laurisilva forests.

Four of Spain's 13 national parks are located in the Canary Islands, more than any other autonomous community:

* Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente on La Palma,
* Parque Nacional Garajonay on La Gomera,
* Parque Nacional del Teide on Tenerife,
* Parque Nacional Timanfaya on Lanzarote.

Political geography

The Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands consists of two provinces, Las Palmas and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, whose capitals (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife) are co-capitals of the autonomous community. Each of the seven major islands is ruled by a assembly named cabildo insular.


History

The Canary Islands are supposed to have given birth to the Greek myth of the Garden of Hesperides.

The islands were named Canaria (Latin canis, dog) because of the descriptions of the large numbers of wild dogs roaming the islands, first reported by the Roman scholar Pliny. The bird canary was named after the islands. Being initially dominated by , Norman adventurers and Portugal, the islands were finally conquered by Castile towards the end of the 15th century, and the local (possibly Berber) people —called guanches— subsequently diminished in number until their extinction or mixing with the immigrants.

The Canary Islands were first discovered by ancient Greek and Roman seafarers, yet it was not until the early 1400's that anyone made a serious attempt to conquer the Canaries.

In 1402, the French explorer Jean de Béthencourt led an expedition to the islands, landing first on the north side of Lanzarote. From there, he conqured Fuerteventura and Hierro. Béthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands but recognized King Henry III of Castile, who had provided aid during the conquest, as his overlord.

Béthencourt also established a base on the island of Gomera, but it would be many years before the island was truly conquered. The people of Gomera, as well as the Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Palma people, resisted the Spanish invaders for almost a century.

By 1495, the islands had fallen to Spanish rule. The town of Santa Cruz, on La Palma, became a stopping point for the Spanish conquerors, traders, and missionaries on their way to the New World.

The islands became very wealthy and soon attracted merchants and adventurers from all over Europe. Magnificent palaces and churches were built on La Palma during this busy, prosperous period. Of particular interest to visitors is the Church of El Salvador, one of the island's finest examples of the architecture of the 1500's.

In 1977, 583 people were killed in a major aviation accident known as the Tenerife disaster.


Economy

The economy is based on tourism and tropical agriculture (banana, tobacco) for exportation to Europe and the Americas. They receive about 10 million tourists per year. Ecologists are concerned that the resources, especially in the drier islands, are being overexploited.

The combination of high mountains, belonging to Europe, and clean sky has made the Roque de los Muchachos (in La Palma island) peak a leading placement for telescopes like the Grantecan.

The islands are outside European Union customs territory, though politically within the EU. The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code IC is reserved for representing them in customs affairs. Goods subject to Spanish customs and excise duties and VAT, such as tobacco or electronic goods, are therefore significantly cheaper in the Canaries. The islands do not have a separate Internet country code from the rest of Spain.

Canarian time is GMT, one hour less than that of mainland Spain and the same as that of London.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in

External links Pictures from the Canary Islands (http://home.worldonline.nl/~hharmsen/)

CANARY ISLANDS/LOUISIANA HISTORICAL INFORMATION: http://www.acadian-cajun.com/canary.htm
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canary_Islands" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaries


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:05:17 pm







dhill757

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                                                           Cape Verde





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cape Verde (Portuguese: Cabo Verde) is a republic located on an archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean, off the western coast of Africa. The previously-uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both groups.

"Cape Verde" is named for Cap-Vert, now in Senegal, the westernmost point of Africa.
República de Cabo Verde
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Unity, Work, Progress
Official language Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese creoles
Capital and Largest City Praia
President Pedro Pires
Prime Minister José Maria Neves
Area
 - Total
 - % water Ranked 146th
4,033 km2
Negligible
Population


 - Total (2001)

 - Density Ranked 164th


401,343

101/km2
GDP (PPP)


 - Total

 - GDP/head


600 millions $

1,400 $
Currency CV Escudo
Time zone UTC -1
Independence


 - Declared
(from Portugal)
July 5, 1975
National anthem Cântico da Liberdade
Internet TLD .CV
Calling Code 238
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Municipalities
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Language
8.1 Creole Links


9 Miscellaneous topics
10 External links and references
[edit]


History

Main article: History of Cape Verde

Cape Verde was uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived in 1456, and the islands were thus made part of the Portuguese empire. Due to its location off the coast of Africa, Cape Verde became an important port, and was a major center of the slave trade.

In 1975, the islands achieved independence, partially due to the efforts of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC). After independence, the PAIGC attempted to unite Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau into one nation, the PAIGC controlling both governments, but a coup in the latter nation in 1980 ended these plans. In Cape Verde itself the PAICV (affiliated with the PAIGC) ruled until elections were held in 1991 that resulted in a change of government. The PAICV won back power in 2001.
[edit]


Politics

Main article: Politics of Cape Verde

The government of Cape Verde is based on a Constitution that was established in 1980. Elections are held for both the Prime Minister and President, who both rule for 5-year terms. Members of the General Assembly are elected as well, and they appoint the Supreme Court along with the President and Prime Minister.

See also: President of Cape Verde


Municipalities

Main article: Municipalities of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is divided into 17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho): Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paúl, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, São Domingos, São Filipe, São Miguel, São Nicolau, São Vicente, Tarrafal
[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is an archipelago off the coast of Africa. The volcanic islands that compose the archipelago are small and mountainous. An active volcano exists on one of the islands, Fogo.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is a small nation with that lacks resources and has experienced severe droughts as well as water shortages. Agriculture is somewhat stymied by lack of rain, and is restricted to only four islands for most of the year. Most of the nation's GDP is from the services industry.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Cape Verde

Most inhabitants of Cape Verde are descendants of the Portuguese who ruled the nation, and African slaves who were often transported from there. Interestingly, more citizens of Cape Verde live abroad than in the nation, and this reflects the poor economy of Cape Verde.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Cape Verde

The culture of Cape Verde reflects its African roots. It is well known for its diverse forms of music, that are reflective of the diverse origins of Cape Verde's residents. Indigenously, the term "Cabo" is used to refer to residents as well as the culture of Cape Verde.

See also: List of writers from Cape Verde

Language

* Official Language: Portuguese
* Mother Tongue: Creole (Crioulo, Criol, Krioulo, Caboverdiano)
* Cape Verde consists of 10 islands, each of the 9 inhabited islands has its own Creole. We can distinguish between two main groups:
* The Sotavento Creoles: Creole of Santiago (Badiu (http://www.priberam.pt/dcvpo/dcvpo.aspx)), Maio, Fogo und Brava (http://www.bcv.cv/_conteudo/dinheiro/nota/1999/2000.htm#).
* The Barlavento Creoles: Creole of São Vicente (Criol de Soncente (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beispiele_zum_kapverdianischen_Kreol_von_S%E3o_Vicente)), São Nicolau (http://www.terravista.pt/fernoronha/2651/crioulo.html), Sal, Boavista and Santo Antão (http://membres.lycos.fr/pontadosol/pontadosol/presentsite.htm)

Creole Links

* Sergio Frusoni (Creole of São Vicente) (http://www.unb.br/il/liv/public/frusoni.htm)
* Adriano Gominho (Creole of São Nicolau) (http://www.terravista.pt/fernoronha/2651/crioulo.html)
* "Morna aguada" from Eugenio Tavares (Creole of Brava) (http://www.bcv.cv/_conteudo/dinheiro/nota/1999/2000.htm#)
* Extracts from 'OS LUSIDAS' in the creole of Santo Antão (http://www.capeverdeancreoleinstitute.org/lusiadas_na_kriolu.htm)


* Perspective on Capeverdean Crioulo by Robert French (http://www.clubetabanka.com/cv/creole.asp)

Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in Cape Verde
* Transportation in Cape Verde
* Military of Cape Verde
* Foreign relations of Cape Verde
* Community of Portuguese Language Countries
* Public holidays in Cape Verde


External links and references

* Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.
* Embassy of Cape Verde in the United States (http://www.capeverdeusa.org/)
* International Searchengine for Cabo Verde (http://kapverden.nano-web.de/search/search.pl)
* Cape Verde Photogallery (http://kapverden.nano-web.de/gallery)

Edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in

Other areas: Canary Islands | Madeira Islands | Mayotte | Réunion | Saint Helena | Western Sahara


Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)
Angola | Brazil | Cape Verde | East Timor | Guinea-Bissau | Mozambique | Portugal | São Tomé and Príncipe

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Portuguese former colonies

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Verde"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Verde


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:06:43 pm







dhill757

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                                                             Bermuda





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Bermuda is a self-governing island Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in the Atlantic Ocean.


Bermuda
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Quo Fata Ferunt
(Latin: Whither the Fates carry [us])
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Hamilton
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief Sir John Vereker
Premier Alex Scott
Area 58.8 km2
Population


-Total(2003 E)
 - Density

64,482
1 096/km2
Currency Bermuda dollar on par with US dollar
Time zone UTC -4
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .BM
Calling Code 1 (Area code 441)

In the early 20th century, as modern transportation and communication systems developed, Bermuda became a popular destination for wealthy US, Canadian, and British tourists. In addition, the tariff enacted by the United States against its trading partners in 1930 cut off Bermuda's once-thriving agricultural export trade--primarily fresh vegetables to the US--spurring the overseas territory to develop its tourist industry, which is second behind international business in terms of economic importance to the island.

During World War II, Bermuda became important as a military base because of its location in the Atlantic Ocean. In 1941, the United States signed a lend-lease agreement with the United Kingdom giving the British surplus U.S. Navy destroyers in exchange for 99-year lease rights to establish naval and air bases in Bermuda. The bases consisted of 5.8 square kilometers (2.25 sq. mi.) of land largely reclaimed from the sea. The US Naval Air Station was on St. David's Island, while the US Naval Air Station Annex was at the western end of the island in the Great Sound.

Effective September 1, 1995, both bases were closed, as were British and Canadian bases on the island. Unresolved issues concerning the 1995 withdrawal of US forces-- primarily related to environmental factors--delayed the formal return of the base lands to the Government of Bermuda. The United States formally returned the base lands in 2002.

There are two incorporated municipalities in Bermuda; the City of Hamilton, and the Town of St George. There are also a number of localities which are sometimes termed villages, among them Flatts and Somerset.

* History of Bermuda
* Geography of Bermuda
* Demographics of Bermuda
* Politics of Bermuda
* Economy of Bermuda
* Communications in Bermuda
* Transportation in Bermuda
* Military of Bermuda
* Bermudian English
* Culture of Bermuda (see also: Music of Bermuda)


Famous Bermudians:

* Clive Best
* Heather Nova

External links

* Envirotalk.org (http://www.envirotalk.org/cgi-bin/iB/ikonboard.cgi) A discussion forum focusing on environmental issues in Bermuda and around the world.
* Bermuda 4U (http://www.bermuda4u.com) - A comprehensive and independent guide to Bermuda
* A Limey In Bermuda (http://www.limeyinbermuda.com) Life in Bermuda from the perspective of a British expat
* Bermuda Online (http://www.bermuda-online.org/) is a privately maintained site which contains much useful material
* Bermuda Online Links (http://www.bermuda-online.org/links.htm) A collection of useful Bermuda-related links
* Insiders Guide to Bermuda (http://www.insiders.com/bermuda/) A good visitor-oriented site


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bermuda"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bermuda


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:08:24 pm







dhill757

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                                                              Caribbean





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from West Indies)



The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. These islands curve southward from the bottom tip of Florida to the Northwest of Venezuela in South America. There are at least 7000 islands, islets, reefs and cayes in the region. They are organized into twenty-five territories including sovereign states, overseas departments and dependencies.

The name "West Indies" originates from Christopher Columbus' idea that he had landed in India when he had in fact reached the Americas. The Caribbean consists of the Antilles and the Bahamas and is part of North America.

At one time there was a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of the English-speaking Caribbean islands of the region.

Present-day territories of the Caribbean

* Anguilla (British dependency)
* Antigua and Barbuda

* Antigua
* Barbuda


* Aruba (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
* Bahamas

* Andros
* Cat Island
* Eleuthera
* Grand Bahama
* New Providence, with the capital Nassau.


* Barbados
* British Virgin Islands (British dependency, shares the Virgin Islands with the U.S. Virgin Islands.)
* Cayman Islands (British dependency)

* Cayman Brac
* Grand Cayman, with the capital George Town
* Little Cayman


* Cuba
* Dominica
* Grenada (shares the Grenadines group with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

* Petite Martinique
* Carriacou


* Guadeloupe (overseas department of France)

* Basse-Terre
* Grande-Terre
* Iles des Saintes

* Terre de Haut
* Terre de Bas


* Marie-Galante
* Iles de la Petite Terre
* La Désirade
* Saint-Barthélemy, also Saint Barts
* Saint-Martin (part of the island Saint Martin shared with the Netherlands Antilles; note the dash)


* Hispaniola

* Dominican Republic
* Haiti


* Haiti
* Jamaica
* Martinique (overseas department of France)
* Mexico is not a Caribbean country, but has some islands in the Caribbean sea:

* Cancún
* Isla Mujeres
* Isla Cozumel


* Montserrat (British dependency)
* Netherlands Antilles (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

* Bonaire
* Curaçao
* Saba
* Sint Eustatius
* Sint Maarten (part of the island Saint Martin shared with Guadeloupe)


* Puerto Rico (commonwealth associated with US)
* Saint Kitts and Nevis

* Saint Kitts
* Nevis


* Saint Lucia
* Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (shares the Grenadines group with Grenada)

* Bequia
* Canouan Island
* Mustique
* Palm Island
* Saint Vincent
* Union Island
* Young Island


* Suriname
* Trinidad and Tobago

* Tobago
* Trinidad


* Turks and Caicos Islands (British dependency)

* Grand Turk
* Providenciales


* U.S. Virgin Islands (territory of the USA, shares the Virgin Islands with the British Virgin Islands)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Indies


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:09:52 pm







dhill757

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                                                          Tristan da Cunha




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Tristan da Cunha is a remote island in the south Atlantic Ocean, at latitude 37°S, longitude 12°W. It is a dependency of St. Helena (United Kingdom), from which it is 2,000 km distant. In 1961, a volcanic eruption on the island resulted in the bulk of the population (a few hundred people) being evacuated to Britain, though most have since returned. It is extremely difficult to access the island, due to both its remoteness and the fact that the island is surrounded by cliffs over 600 metres (2000 feet) high.

Residents of the island are known as Tristanians.
Contents [showhide]
1 Geography
2 Population
3 History of Tristan da Cunha
4 External links

Geography

The name 'Tristan da Cunha' is also used for the archipelago, which consists of

* Tristan da Cunha, proper
* Nightingale Islands
* Inaccessible Island
* the remote Gough Island (also called Diego Alvarez), 350 km away.
* Middle Island
* Stoltenhoff


The main island is quite mountainous; the only flat area contains the town of Edinburgh. The highest point, The Peak (2010 m), is covered by snow in winter.

Tristan da Cunha is a nesting place of Wandering Albatrosses.

Population

There are around 300 inhabitants, all carrying one of seven surnames, though surnames are not used in practice. They speak English and are Anglicans (there are two parishes). There are some health problems because of endogamy, including asthma and glaucoma, largely due to the inevitable marriages among distantly related couples, for example marriages between second degree cousins, that comes with having such a small gene pool. Almost all the inhabitants work for the local government. The islands are largely self-sufficient. A ship arrives every 3 or 4 months with supplies and news from the exterior.

There is no airport, and only a small fishing port.

There is no television, but TV sets are used to watch videotapes, though there is no video rental service. There are no newspapers.

There is one school, one hospital, one post office, one museum, one café, one pub and one swimming pool.

After the age of 16, those who wish to can continue studies in Britain.

As of 2003, there are no permissions for establishment of foreigners.

The archipelago's main source of foreign income is selling stamps to stamp collectors. For this reason, TA and TAA have an exceptional reservation under ISO 3166-1 on behalf of the UPU to represent Tristan da Cunha. Another source of income is the fishing of lobsters for export to Japan and the United States.

History of Tristan da Cunha

The archipelago was discovered in 1506 by a Portuguese mariner, Tristão da Cunha, who named the main island after himself. Ilha de Tristão da Cunha was later anglicised to Tristan da Cunha Island. He was unable to land.

The first survey of the archipelago was made by the French frigate L'Heure du Berger in 1767. Soundings were taken and a rough survey of the coastline was made. The presence of water at the large waterfall of Big Watron and in a lake on the north coast were noted, and the results of the survey were published by a Royal Navy hydrographer in 1781.

The first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert, from Salem, Massachusetts who arrived at the islands in 1810. He declared the islands his property and named them the Islands of Refreshment. His rule was short lived, as he died in a boating accident in 1812. However, the great wealth he earned selling elephant seal oil to passing ships is supposedly still hidden somewhere on Tristan da Cunha.

In 1815 the British formally annexed the islands, mostly as a measure to ensure that the French couldn't use the islands as a base for a rescue operation to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on St Helena.

To this day, Tristanians remain proud members of the British Commonwealth.

External links

* History (http://www.btinternet.com/~sa_sa/tristan_da_cunha/tristan_history.html)
* Visiting info (http://website.lineone.net/~sthelena/tristaninfo.htm) put together by the former British administrator
* Personal travelogue (http://www.cristytrembly.com/dacunha.html) of a visit to Tristan
* The Longboats (http://www.btinternet.com/~sa_sa/tristan_da_cunha/tristan_longboat.html) of Tristan
* Many photos (http://home.swipnet.se/~w-17282/tristan)
* Many links (http://www.geocities.com/britlink/tristan2.htm)
* General background (http://geowww.gcn.ou.edu/~bweaver/Ascension/tdc.htm), some photos, great bibliography
* an even more complete bibliography (http://www.sthelena.se/miles/List13_Tristan.htm)
* The Tristan Yahoo! Group (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/tristan-da-cunha)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tristan_da_Cunha


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:11:22 pm







dhill757

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   posted 09-08-2004 07:17 PM                       
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                                                               Svalbard




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Svalbard, a Norwegian dependency, lies in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe. It consists of a group of islands ranging from 74° to 81° North, and 10° to 34° East; it forms the northernmost part of Norway.
Svalbard
(In Detail)
Motto: None
Official language Norwegian
Capital Longyearbyen
King Harald V
Governor Odd Olsen Ingerø
Area
 - Total Ranked 122th
62,049 km2
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density Ranked 230th
2,811
0.04/km2
Independence None (Norwegian dependency)
Currency Norwegian krone
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Ja, vi elsker dette landet
Internet TLD .NO (.SJ allocated but not used (http://www.norid.no/domenenavnbaser/bv-sj.html))
Calling Code 47
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economics
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 External links


History

Main article: History of Svalbard

Vikings and/or Russians may have discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. Traditional Norse accounts exist of a land known as Svalbard - literally "cold edge". But the Dutchman Willem Barents made the first indisputable discovery of Svalbard in 1596. The islands served as an international whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries. They also provided the headquarters for many Arctic exploration expeditions. The archipelago was comprehensively geologically mapped by teams from Cambridge and other universities, led primarily by W. Brian Harland from the 1940s to 1980s.

Politics

Main article: Government of Svalbard

By the terms of the Svalbard Treaty of February 9, 1920, international diplomacy recognized Norwegian sovereignty and designated the area as demilitarized. Norway took over administration of Svalbard in 1925. However, under the terms of this unique treaty, citizens of various other countries have rights to exploit mineral deposits and other natural resources "on a footing of absolute equality". As a result, a permanent Russian settlement, more or less autonomous, grew up at Barentsburg. The Russians abandoned another settlement at Pyramiden in 2000. At one time, the Russian (or Soviet) population of Svalbard considerably exceeded the Norwegian population, although this no longer applies.

An appointed Norwegian governor, the sysselmann, based in the town of Longyearbyen, administers the territory.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Svalbard

Svalbard consists of a group of islands in the Arctic Ocean; ranging from 74° to 81° North, and 10° to 34° East, it forms the northernmost part of Norway. The islands cover an area of 62,050 km2. Three large islands dominate: Spitsbergen (39,000 km2), North East Land (14,600 km2) and Edge Island (5,000 km2).

Large parts of Svalbard feature glaciation. Indeed, the name 'Svalbard' means 'cold coast'. However, the North Atlantic Current moderates the Arctic climate, keeping the surrounding waters open and navigable most of the year. Svalbard lies north of the Arctic Circle. In Longyearbyen, the midnight sun lasts from April 20 to August 23, and perpetual darkness lasts from October 26 to February 15.

Svalbard also serves as the breeding ground of the barnacle goose and a variety of other birds; best seen from cruise ships. Four mammal species inhabit the archipelago: the Svalbard field mouse Microtus epiroticus, the Arctic fox, the Svalbard reindeer (a distinct sub-species), and polar bears. Since polar bears occur very commonly on Svalbard, all people need to take precautions when outside the settlements: this includes carrying a rifle. Nevertheless, the law protects polar bears, forbidding anyone to harm or disturb them.

Map

Settlements

* Barentsburg (??????????) (Russian settlement)
* Bjørnøya
* Grumant (???????) (Russian settlement, abandoned in 1961, revival of mining operations announced in 2003)
* Isfjord radio
* Longyearbyen
* Ny-Ålesund
* Pyramiden (????????) (Russian settlement, abandoned in 2000)
* Smeerenburg (Dutch settlement, abandoned around 1660)
* Sveagruva


No roads link the settlements on the island; transportation mechanisms include boat, plane, helicopter, and snowmobile.

Economics

Main article: Economics of Svalbard

Economic activity centres on coal mining, supplemented by fishing and trapping. In the final decades of the 20th century, tourism, research, higher education, and some high-tech enterprises like satellite relay-stations have grown significantly. Norway claims an exclusive fishing zone of 200 nautical miles; Russia does not recognize this.

The Svalbard Undersea Cable System which started operation in January 2004 provides dual 1,440 km fiber optic lines from Svalbard to Harstad via Andøy, needed for communicating with polar orbiting satellite stations on Svalbard, some owned by NASA and NOAA.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Svalbard

The population of Svalbard comprises approximately 2,400 (including a large proportion of Russian and Ukrainian citizens).

Culture

Main article: Culture of Svalbard

External links

* Governor of Svalbard (http://www.sysselmannen.svalbard.no/) - Official site


General information on Svalbard (http://go.to/spitsbergen)

* The Svalbard FAQ (http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html)
* The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 (http://odin.dep.no/jd/engelsk/publ/p10001858/012001-040007/index-ved001-b-f-a.html)
* CIA world factbook on Svalbard (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sv.html)


* includes images of Svalbard (http://www.spitsbergen.cjb.net)
* Svalbard - A Polar Experience (http://home.online.no/~okleven/)
* Svalbard, The land with gold coasts (http://www.willassen.no/guide/omraader/svalbard/index.en.html)
* The Svalbardsyk Homepage (http://dpwww.epfl.ch/instituts/ipt/berglund/svalbard.html)
* Svalbard Satellite Station website (http://www.svalsat.com/)
* Pulling out of Pyramiden (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/905956.stm)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svalbard"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:12:57 pm







dhill757

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                                                               Greenland





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Greenland (disambiguation).

Greenland (in Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat, literal meaning: "Our Land" and in Danish: Grønland), located in the North Atlantic Ocean, is the world's largest island (Australia is a continent). About 84 percent of its surface is covered by ice.

Greenland was one of the Norwegian Crown colonies until 1814, when it went to Denmark. Greenland became an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1953. It was granted home rule (hjemmestyre) by the Danish parliament in May 1, 1979. The law went into effect the following year. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains as Greenland's Head of state.
Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenlandic)
Grønland (Danish)
(In Detail)
Motto: None
Official languages Kalaallisut, Danish
Capital Nuuk (Godthåb)
Monarch Margrethe II
Prime Minister Hans Enoksen
Area
 - Total
 - % ice Ranked 14th
2,166,086 km2
81.1%
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density Ranked 210th
56,385
0.2/km2
Independence None (Danish dependency. Self-governing since 1979.)
Currency Danish krone
Time zone UTC 0 to -4
National anthem 
Internet TLD .GL
Calling Code 299
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See Also
9 References
10 External links

History

Main article: History of Greenland

It is unknown when the native inhabitants of Greenland arrived, or why they decided to settle such a desolate place. Icelandic settlers found the land uninhabited when they arrived at the beginning of the second millennium. They established three settlements near the very south-western tip of the island, where they thrived for the next centuries.

The name Greenland comes from those Scandinavian settlers. In the Viking sagas, it is said that Eiríkur Rau<eth>i (Erik the Red) was exiled from Iceland for murder. He, along with his family and slaves, set out in longships to find the land that was rumoured to be to the north-west. After settling there, he named the land Greenland in order to attract more people to settle there. This proved successful, and the settlements seemed to be getting relatively well along with the new coming Inuit, and a Christian Bishop was sent. In 1386, Greenland became part of the Kalmar Union and later of the double monarchy of Denmark-Norway.

After almost five hundred years, the settlements simply vanished, probably due to famine during the 15th century in the Little Ice Age, when climatic conditions deteriorated. Bones from this late period were found to be in a condition consistent with malnutrition.

Denmark retained possession of the moribund colony at the Treaty of Kiel in 1815.


Politics

Main article: Politics of Greenland

Greenland's unicameral parliament is called Landsting. It has 31 seats and members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms. Two representatives are also elected to the Danish Parliament, the Folketing. The government has pledged to hold a referendum on full independence in 2005.

Administratively, the country is parted in three districts, which again include 18 municipalities. The districts are Avannaarsua (Northern Greenland), with one municipality, Tunu (East Greenland) with two and Kitaa (West Greenland) with 15. One military district, Pituffik, is not included among the municipalities.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Greenland

Map of Greenland

The extreme north of Greenland is not covered by an ice cap (indicated as pale blue in the map to the right), because the air there is too dry to produce snow, which is essential in the production and maintenance of an ice cap.

If the Greenland ice cap were to completely melt away, Greenland would most likely be an archipelago instead of an island-continent like Australia.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Greenland

Greenland suffered negative economic growth in the early 1990s, but since 1993 the economy has improved. The Greenland Home Rule Government (GHRG) has pursued a tight fiscal policy since the late 1980s which has helped create surpluses in the public budget and low inflation. Since 1990, Greenland has registered a foreign trade deficit following the closure of the last remaining lead and zinc mine in 1990. Greenland today is critically dependent on fishing and fish exports; the shrimp fishery is by far the largest income earner. Despite resumption of several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in Greenland's economy. About half the government revenues come from grants from the Danish Government, an important supplement of GDP.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Greenland

Culture

Main article: Culture of Greenland

Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in Greenland
* Transportation in Greenland
* Military of Greenland
* Foreign relations of Greenland
* List of universities in Greenland

References

* CIA World Factbook 2000

External links

* Greenland Homerule (http://dk.nanoq.gl/) - Official site

* Greenland (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gl.html) - CIA World Factbook



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenland"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:14:42 pm







dhill757

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                                                           Iceland





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For alternative uses, see Iceland (disambiguation).

The Republic of Iceland is an island nation in the northern Atlantic Ocean, located between Greenland and Scotland, northwest of the Faroe Islands.
Ly´<eth>veldi<eth> Ísland
(In Detail)

(SVG Format (http://www.sodipodi.com/clipart/flags/iceland.svg))
(Full size)
National motto: none
Official language None. Icelandic de facto.
Capital Reykjavík
President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson
Prime Minister Daví<eth> Oddsson
Area
 - Total
 - % water Ranked 104th
103,125 km2
2.7%
Population
 - Total (December 31, 2003)
 - Density Ranked 169th
290,570
2.82/km2
Independence Sovereignty - December 1, 1918
Republic - June 17, 1944
Currency Króna (kr)
Time zone UTC
National anthem Lofsöngur
Internet TLD .IS
Calling Code 354
Table of contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Administrative division
3.1 Municipalities
3.2 Counties
3.3 District Courts
3.4 Constituencies

4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
7.1 See also

8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of Iceland

Iceland was first settled by Scandinavians, mainly Norwegians, and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th century. It boasts the world's longest running parliament, Al<thorn>ingi, which was established in 930.

Iceland remained independent for over 300 years, and was subsequently ruled by Norway and Denmark, formally as a Norwegian crown colony until 1814 when the united kingdoms of Denmark and Norway were separated by the treaty of Kiel, and Iceland was kept by Denmark as a dependency. Limited home rule was granted by the Danish government in 1874, and protectorate like independence and sovereignty over domestic matters followed in 1918, foreign relations and defense remained in the authority of the Danish and the Danish king remained the sovereign of the nation until 1944, when the current republic was founded.


Politics

Main article: Politics of Iceland

Iceland's ancient parliament, Al<thorn>ingi, has been in place since medieval times. It has 63 members, each of whom is elected by the population every four years. The head of government is the prime minister, who together with his cabinet takes care of the executive part of government. The cabinet is appointed by the president after general elections to Al<thorn>ingi, however this process is usually conducted by the leaders of the political parties, who decide what parties will form the cabinet and how the seats are distributed under the condition that it has a majority support in Al<thorn>ingi. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves in reasonable time does the president exercises this power and appoints the cabinet himself, this has only happened once in the history of the republic. The governments of Iceland have always been coalitions with two or more parties involved since a single political party has never received a majority of seats in Al<thorn>ingi. The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial office that serves as a diplomat, figurehead and head of state. The extent of the political powers possessed by the office are disputed by legal scholars in Iceland, several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers but other provisions and traditions seem to suggest otherwise.

The president is elected every four years (last 2004), the cabinet is elected every four years (last 2003) and town council elections are held every four years too (last 2002).

Related topics:

* List of political parties in Iceland
* Prime minister of Iceland
* President of Iceland


Administrative division


Municipalities

Main article: Municipalities of Iceland

There are 104 municipalities in Iceland that govern most local matters like schools, transportation and zoning.

Counties

Main article: Counties of Iceland

The 23 counties are mostly a historic division. Today Iceland is split up between 26 Magistrates that are the highest authority over the local police (except in Reykjavík where there is a special office of police commissioner) and carry out administrative functions such as declaring bankruptcy and marrying people outside of the church.

District Courts

Iceland is split up into eight district court jurisdictions. According to a United Nations document on Iceland:


The Law on the Separation of Judicial and Executive Powers at the District Level No. 92/1989 laid the foundation for a changed judicial system. The law established eight district courts, one in each electoral area of the country. These courts have jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal cases, issue bankruptcy decisions and resolve disputes which arise during magistrates' major proceedings. Judicial authorities also resolve all disputes concerning the extent of administrative powers. After 1 July 1992 district court judges perform only judicial functions. The judicial authority previously wielded by magistrates outside Reykjavik has now been transferred to the new district courts.


List of District Courts

1. Reykjavík District Court
2. Reykjanes District Court
3. West District Court
4. Westfjords District Court
5. Northwest District Court
6. Northeast District Court
7. East District Court
8. South District Court


Constituencies

Main article: Constituencies of Iceland

Until 2003, the constituencies for the parliament elections were the same as the district court jurisdictions but by an amendment to the constitution they were changed so that today there are only 6 constituencies. The change was made in order to balance the weight of different districts of the country since a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavík city area, the imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system but it still exists.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Iceland & List of settlements in Iceland

Iceland is located on a geological hot spot on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has many active volcanoes, notably the Hekla, and around 10% of the island is glaciated. Iceland has many geysers (itself an Icelandic word) and the widespread availability of geothermal power means residents of most towns have hot water and home heat for a low price. (See also: Volcanoes of Iceland) Electricity is generally very cheap because of the many rivers and waterfalls which are also used for the generation of electrical power. (See also: Rivers of Iceland, Waterfalls of Iceland, Lakes of Iceland)

The island itself has many fjords along the coastline, where also most cities are situated, because the island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland are an uninhabitable desert. The main towns are the capital Reykjavík, Keflavík, where the national airport is situated, and Akureyri. The island of Grímsey, on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland.(See also: Fjords of Iceland)

Unlike neighbouring Greenland, Iceland is considered to be a part of Europe, not of America. The island is the world's 18th largest island.

The island has four national parks: Jökulsárgljúfur National Park, Skaftafell National Park, Snæfellsnes National Park and <THORN>ingvellir.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Iceland

The economy depends heavily on the fishing industry, which provides over 60% of export earnings and employs 8% of the work force. In the absence of other natural resources (except for abundant hydro-electric and geothermal power), Iceland's economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to drops in world prices for its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon.

The only natural resource conversion is the manufacture of cement. Most buildings are concrete with expensive imported wood used only sparingly and where necessary.

The center-right government plans to continue its policies of reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and privatizing state-owned industries. The government remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over their fishing resources.

Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, and new developments in software production, biotechnology, and financial services are taking place. The tourism sector is also expanding, with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale-watching. Growth has slowed between 2000 and 2002, but is expected to pick up in 2003.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Iceland

The isolated location of Iceland has resulted in limited immigration and limited genetic inflow in its human population over hundreds of years. The resulting genetic similarity is being exploited today for genetic studies.

The language spoken is Icelandic, a Scandinavian language, and the religion is predominantly Lutheran.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Iceland

Some famous Icelanders include pop singer Björk; avant-garde rock band Sigur Rós; and novelist Halldór Laxness, winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1955.
[edit]


See also

* Music of Iceland
* List of Icelandic authors
* Artists of Iceland

* List of Icelanders
* Communications in Iceland
* Geothermal power in Iceland
* Transportation in Iceland
* Military of Iceland
* Foreign relations of Iceland
* Stamps and postal history of Iceland
* Naming conventions of Iceland
* List of universities in Iceland
* Icelandic nationalism
* Reporters without borders worldwide press freedom index 2002: rank 1 out of 139 countries (4 way tie)


External links

* Picture gallery from www.islandsmyndir.is (http://www.islandsmyndir.is)
* Official gateway to Iceland and the Icelandic Foreign Service. (http://www.iceland.org/)
* Information about Al<thorn>ingi (Parliament) (http://www.althingi.is/vefur/upplens.html)
* The Trade Council of Iceland (http://www.icetrade.is/english/default.htm)
* Physics Department of Icelandic Meteological Office (includes earthquake list_ (http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/englishweb/index.html) (in English and Icelandic)
* Travel information from the Public Roads Administration (http://www.vegagerdin.is/vefur2.nsf/pages/english.html) (in English and Icelandic)
* Volcanoes in Iceland (http://volcano.und.edu/)
* Air quality in Iceland (http://english.ust.is/of-interest/airquality/)
* University of Iceland (Reykjavik) (http://www2.hi.is/page/hi_is_english_frontpage)
* Reykjavik University (http://www.ru.is/template7.asp?PageID=507)
* Íslenska - Magazine for Icelandic language and culture (http://www.islenska.de


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2007, 06:15:57 pm






dhill757

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                                                              Rockall





From Wikipedia

Location of Rockall

Rockall is a small, rocky island in the North Atlantic but is probably better known as one of the British Sea Areas. Its status is disputed, being claimed by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Denmark and Iceland. By itself, the island does not have much importance, but the seas around it are considered very valuable. Therefore, it is also an important question whether Rockall is considered habitable. If so, its owner can claim 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone; if not, the claim can go no further than Rockall's territorial waters.

The origin of the name is debatable but it has been suggested that it derives from the Gaelic "Sgeir (http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb33.html#sgeir) Rocail (http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb31.html#rocail)" which is often translated as "Roaring Rock" although "rocail" is more usually translated as "tearing" or "ripping" (see link).

The rock is the summit of an extinct volcano and is located at 57°35'48"N 13°41'19"W, about 480 km (300 miles) west of Manish Point, North Uist in Scotland. The rock is about 83 feet (25 metres) wide at its base and rises sheer to a height of approximately 22 metres (72 feet). It is regularly washed over by large storm waves, particularly in winter. There is a small ledge of 3.5 metres by 1.3 metres (11 feet by 4 feet), known as Hall's Ledge, 4 metres (13 feet) from the summit. The rock's only permanent inhabitants are periwinkles and other marine molluscs. Small numbers of seabirds, mainly Fulmars, Gannets, Kittiwakes, and Guillemots, use the rock for resting in summer, and Gannets and Guillemots occasionally breed successfully if the summer is calm with no storm waves washing over the rock.

The earliest recorded human landing on the island was in 1810; the next was not until 1888. On 18 September 1955 the island was officially annexed by Britain when Lieutenant Commander Desmond Scott RN from HMS Vidal was deposited on the island by a Royal Navy helicopter. He cemented in a brass plaque and hoisted the Union Jack to stake the British claim. On 10 February 1972 the Isle of Rockall Act received Royal Assent to make the island part of Inverness-shire, fully incorporating it into the United Kingdom. A navigational beacon was later installed on the island and Britain declared that no ship would be allowed within a 50-mile radius of the rock. In 1985 former SAS member and survival expert Tom Mclean lived on the island for 40 days to affirm Britain's right to the island.

Greenpeace occupied the islet for a short time in 1997, calling it Waveland, to protest against oil exploration. The project continued until 1999, when the company sponsoring it collapsed and the experiment ended.

Rockall is also close to the Darwin Mounds, deep-water coral mounds about 185 km (115 miles) north-west of Cape Wrath.


Reference

* Birds breeding on Rockall. British Birds 86: 16-17, 320-321 (1993).

External links

* Greenpeace press release (http://www.greenpeace.org/majordomo/index-press-releases/1997/msg00182.html)
* "Official" Waveland site (http://www.waveland.org/)
* The Rockall Times (http://www.therockalltimes.co.uk/) Surreal news site with a Rockall theme


------------------------------------------------------------------------

* An Irish/Celtic band, "The House Band", has an album called Rockall, named after the place.
* Rockall is also the name of the land where Anthony Swithin's series "The Perilous Quest for Lyonesse" takes place.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockall"


http://forums.atlantisrising.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=1;t=000958;p=2


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:13:55 pm








dhill757

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                                                          Fernando de Noronha





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, midway from South America to Africa, around 220 miles (354 km) away from the Brazilian coast. It is a dependency of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco.
[edit]


Geography

The main islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains . Consisting of 21 islands, islets and rocks of volcanic origin, the main island has an area of 7.1 square miles (18 km2), being 6.2 miles (10 km) long and 2.2 miles (3.5 km) at its maximum width. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 2480 feet (756 m) below the surface. The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the islands of Rata, Sela Gineta, Cabeluda and São Jose, together with the islets of Leão and Viúva make up the rest.

The climate is tropical, with two well defined seasons: the rainy season from January to August, and the dry season for the rest of the year. The land vegetation of the islands is made up mostly of vines and bushes.

As occurs on other isolated ecosystems, the fauna of the Archipelago is as unique as it is exuberant. Among the common species on the islands, one can spot sea tortoises, dolphins, albatrosses, among many others.
[edit]


History

Many controversies mark the archipelago's discovery. It's original name, Ilha da Quaresma (Lent Island), it is known to have been sighted by expeditions from the years 1501, 1502 and 1503. The Viscount of Santarém, however, attributed the discovery to Gaspar de Lemos, captain of the supply ship of Pedro Alvares Cabral's fleet, sent back to Portugal with news of the discovery of Brazil. Modern historians, however, attribut the discovery of the archipelago to the 1501-1502 expedition led by Fernão de Loronha.

The first to actually describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who travelled with a Portuguese expedition to Brazil in the year 1503. In 1534, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, it was held by the French. In 1628, it was invaded by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for its troops which occupied Northeastern Brazil. The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Michiel de Pauw, one of the directors of the Dutch West Indies Company. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal.

Finding it uninhabited and completely abandoned in 1736, the French East Indies Company took the island and renamed it Isle Dauphine. It was retaken one year later. The first major military outposts were set-up on the archipelago on the following years. Around 1770, the first permanent settlement, Vila dos Remédios, was founded.

As Brazil became independent, very little changed for Fernando de Noronha.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the English arrived to provide technical cooperation in telegraphy (The South American Company). Later the French came with the French Cable and the Italians with Intalcable. In 1942, during World War II, the archipelago was made a Federal Territory, and political and ordinary prisoners were sent to the local prison. In 1988 approximately 70% of the archipelago was declared a national park, with the goal of preserving the land and sea environment.

Nowadays, Fernando de Noronha's economy depends on tourism, restricted by the limitations of its delicate ecosystem. In addition to the historical interest noted above, the archipelago has been the subject of the attention of various scientists dedicated to the study of its flora, fauna, geology, etc.

Source: http://www.fernandodenoronha.com.br/
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_de_Noronha


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:15:24 pm







dhill757

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                                                          Ascension Island





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, a dependency of Saint Helena. The capital is Georgetown.

The United States maintains missile tracking sites on the island. The island served as a refueling station for the British fleet during the Falklands War.

It is famous as a nesting site for Atlantic sea turtles.

It is home to Wideawake Field, built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, as a refueling and staging station for aircraft flying between the Americas and Africa. Wideawake is also used by the RAF as a bridge to the Falkland Islands.

In 1982 when Argentine forces invaded the Falklands, Ascension Island proved essential to British forces in their efforts to retake the islands from Argentina. Wideawake airfield became the busiest airport in the world as the RAF flew in supplies to aid the Task Force. A squadron of RAF Harriers was based on the island to repel any possible Argentine attack. The British bombers flew a series of long-range bombing attacks from Ascension Island, against the Falkland Islands (operation Black Buck).

There is no native population in Ascension Island.

It is likely the island was named after the day of its discovery.

External link

* Ascension Island Government (http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/)


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:16:44 pm







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                                                               Saint Helena




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Saint Helena (Britain))
For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation).


Saint Helena is an island in the Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom. It is also the name of this island together with Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island.

290
Saint Helena
coat of arms
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: ?
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Jamestown
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief David Hollamby
Area 410 km2
Population


 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density

7,367
18/km2
Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP)
Time zone UTC +0
National anthem God Save the Queen, My St. Helena Island (unofficial)
Internet TLD .sh
Calling Code


The island served as a strategic island for ships on their way to the Indian Ocean before the Suez Canal was built.

St. Helena has a small population that remains loyal to Britain. However, the island's dimunitive size and geopolitical insignificance has led many Islanders to accuse the British government of ignoring the island. The island's economy was a one crop economy for many years, but is now very weak, and is almost entirely sustained solely on aid from London.

Napoleon Bonaparte ended his life in exile on St. Helena, and the St. Helena tourist industry is heavily based around the promotion of this particular aspect of the island's history. Prominent Anglo-Boer War prisoners, including General Piet Cronje were detained on St. Helena

* History of Saint Helena
* Geography of Saint Helena
* Demographics of Saint Helena
* Politics of Saint Helena
* Economy of Saint Helena
* Communications on Saint Helena
* Transportation on Saint Helena
* Military of Saint Helena

External links

* Saint Helena - The Official Government Website (http://www.sainthelena.gov.sh)
* Saint Helena (http://www.sthelena.se) -- St. Helena Foundation

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:18:28 pm







dhill757

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                                                              Falkland Islands




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Falkland Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic consisting of two main islands known as East Falkland and West Falkland and a number of smaller islands. Sovereignty of the islands is also claimed by Argentina where the islands are known as Malvinas. The capital Port Stanley is on East Falkland.
The Falkland Islands
(In Detail) (In Detail)
Motto: Desire the right
Official language English
Capital Port Stanley
Governor Howard Pearce
Chief Executive Chris Simpkins
Area
 - Total
 - % water not ranked
12,173 km2
-
Population
 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density not ranked
2,967
0.24/km2
Currency Falkland pound (FKP; fixed to GBP)
Time zone UTC -4 (DST -3)
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .FK
Calling Code 500
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See also
9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Falkland Islands

Several claims have been made that numerous navigators have sighted the Falkland Islands for the first time but the Dutch sailor Sebald van Weert has been credited with the first sighting in 1600, though the British and Spanish maintain their own respective explorers discovered the islands earlier. They remained practically unsettled until the 19th century. Argentina set up a penal colony in the islands in 1820, and in 1829 named Luis Vernet as the islands' governor, in order to colonise them. The United Kingdom took the islands in 1833, but Argentina maintained its claim. Various tensions led to an Argentine invasion in 1982. The island was later retaken by the UK. See: Falklands War.

Politics

Main article: Politics of the Falkland Islands

Executive authority comes from the Queen and is exercised by the governor on her behalf. Defence is the responsibility of the UK. There is a constitution, which was put into force in 1985. Under the constitution, eight Legislative Councillors, five from Stanley and three from Camp, are elected every four years.

The Executive Council, which advises the governor, consists of the Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and three Legislative Councillors, which are elected by the other Legislative Councillors. The Legislative Council consists of Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and the eight Legislative Councillors. The Governor is ex officio the presiding officer or speaker of the Council.

The loss of the war against Britain over control of the islands led to the collapse of the Argentine military dictatorship in 1983. Disputes over control of the islands still continue. In 2001, British Prime Minister Tony Blair was the first to visit Argentina since the war. On the 22nd anniversary of the war, Argentina’s President Néstor Kirchner gave a speech insisting that the islands would once again be part of Argentina. Kirchner, since becoming president in 2003, has made the islands a top priority. In June 2003 the issue was brought before a United Nations committee, and attempts have been made to open talks with Britain to resolve the issue of the islands. Falkland Islanders themselves continue to view themselves as British, despite Argentine claims.

Map of the Falkland Islands[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of the Falkland Islands

The islands are 300 miles (483 km) from the South American mainland.There are two main islands, East Falkland (Soledad) and West Falkland (Gran Malvina) and 200 small islands. The total land area is 12,173 sq km.

Economy

Main article: Economy of the Falkland Islands

The largest industries are fishing and agriculture. The islands have oil reserves that are believed to be quite substantial, but yet to be exploited

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Falkland Islands

The population is 2,967 (July 2003 estimated).


Culture

Main article: Culture of the Falkland Islands


Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in the Falkland Islands
* Transportation in the Falkland Islands
* Military of the Falkland Islands
* Stamps and postal history of the Falkland Islands


* Battle of the Falkland Islands - naval engagement of the First World War
* Falklands War - conflict between Argentina and United Kingdom
* Major Samuel Stransham


External links

* Falkland Islands Government (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/)
* Penguin News (weekly newspaper) (http://www.penguin-news.com/)
* Falkland Islands News Network (http://www.falklandnews.com/)
* Falkland Islands Portal (http://www.falklandislands.com/)
* Falkland Islands Tourism (http://www.tourism.org.fk/)
* Jason Islands Banknotes (http://www.numismondo.com/pm/jas/)
* Falkland Islands detailed map (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/coastal-shipping/falkland-islands-map.jpg)
* Falkland Islands Information Portal (http://www.falklands.info/)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:19:47 pm







dhill757

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                                         South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from South Georgia Island)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. They are administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. Lamont, representing Queen Elizabeth II. Defense is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Since 1982, the territory celebrates Liberation Day on June 14. A constitution was adopted October 3, 1985. The legal system is based on English Common Law.

During World War II (Autumn 1943 - Autumn 1944) the island housed a small (14 people) Norwegian military garrison to protect the island from Japanese invasion.

The research station at King Edward Point, near the former Norwegian whaling station of Grytviken, became a small military garrison after the Falklands War. This returned to civilian use in 2001 and is operated by the British Antarctic Survey. The British Antarctic Survey also has a biological station on Bird Island, off the northwest end of South Georgia. The South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited.

NASA satellite image of South Georgia island covered with snow.

South Georgia lies in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1390 km south by east of the Falkland Islands, in 54-55°S, 36-38°W. It has a land area of 4066 km2 (1600 sq. mi). It is mountainous, with 11 peaks over 2,000 m high, their slopes furrowed with deep gorges filled with glaciers. Geologically, it consists of gneiss and argillaceous schists, with no trace of fossils, showing that the island is, like the Falkland Islands, a surviving fragment of some greater land-mass now vanished, most probably indicating a former extension of the Andean system. At Royal Bay, on the south-east side, was stationed the German expedition sent out to observe the transit of Venus in 1882. The island would be well suited for cattle or sheep farming but for its damp, foggy climate.

The climate in the islands is variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow. Most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes. Mount Paget on South Georgia is 2,934 m high. The islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism. The north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Georgia.

Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK. The territory has revenues of less than $300,000 against expenditures of nearly $500,000. The territory uses data code SX, and has the Internet country code (top-level domain) GS.

The 11 smaller islands forming the South Sandwich archipelago are, from north to south:

* Zavodovski
* Leskov (the smallest)
* Visokoi
* Candlemas
* Vindication
* Saunders
* Montagu (the largest)
* Bristol
* Bellingshausen
* Cook
* Thule

See also

* Sub-antarctic islands


External links

* King Edward Point research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/King_Edward_Point/index.html)
* Bird Island research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/Bird_Island/)
* CIA World Factbook entry (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sx.html)
* South Georgia official website (http://www.sgisland.org/pages/sghome.htm)

Overseas territories of the United Kingdom
Anguilla | Bermuda | British Antarctic Territory | British Indian Ocean Territory | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Falkland Islands | Gibraltar | Montserrat | Pitcairn Islands | Saint Helena | South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands | Turks and Caicos Islands
Sovereign Base Areas


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:21:26 pm







dhill757

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                                                            Gulf Stream





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm, swift Atlantic ocean current that flows along the coast of the Eastern United States and makes Ireland, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries warmer than they would be otherwise. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico and runs past the east coast of the United States towards Newfoundland. Its extension toward Europe is called the North Atlantic drift. The Gulf Stream is one of the strongest ocean currents known. It transports 1.4 Petawatts of power.

The term "Gulf Stream" is sometimes used about the sum of what is described above and the North Atlantic drift.

As it travels north, some of the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream evaporates. This increases the salinity of the water in the stream, and in the North Atlantic Ocean the water is so cold and heavy with salt that it begins to sink. It then becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream.

The effect of the Gulf Stream is sufficient to cause certain parts of the west of Britain and Ireland to be an average of several degrees warmer than most other parts of those countries. Indeed, in Cornwall, and particularly the Isles of Scilly, its effects are such that plants associated with much warmer climes, such as palm trees are able to survive the rigours of northern winters. Logan Botanic Garden in Scotland benefits strongly from the Gulf Stream, allowing their specimens of Gunnera Manicata to grow to over 3 metres tall.

With the recent phenomenon of global warming, some scientists have expressed concern about the sink mechanism outlined above. Specifically, fresh water resulting from the melting of the Arctic polar cap could dilute the Gulf Stream and make it light enough not to sink. The result would be a huge climate change in northern Europe, with unknown consequences. Some fossil remnants hint at the possibility that a similar event has already happened several times in the past, but fossil evidence is questioned. After an initial rejection, the scientific community is evaluating this theory more seriously, as data about historic climate show sudden changes between cold and warm periods.


References

* Corona Magazine Issue 124: Science (http://www.corona-magazine.de/archiv/corona124.html#wissenschaft) (German, Transported amount of power)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:23:45 pm







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                                                     Tropical cyclone





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Hurricane)
This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses see Hurricane (disambiguation) or Typhoon (disambiguation).


Hurricane Anita approaching landfall on the coast of Mexico, September 1977

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (informally, a typhoon or hurricane) is a type of low-pressure system which generally forms in the tropics.

Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating area of clouds, wind, and thunderstorm activity. The primary energy source of a tropical cyclone is the release of heat of condensation from water condensing at high altitudes. Because of this, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine.

This use of condensation as a driving force is the primary difference setting tropical cyclones apart from other meteorological phenomena, such as mid-latitude cyclones, which draw energy mostly from pre-existing temperature gradients in the atmosphere. To drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must stay over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. The evaporation of this moisture is driven by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure present in the storm, resulting in a sustaining cycle.

The release of heat in the upper levels of the storm causes a temperature inversion of fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature in the lower troposphere. Because of this, tropical cyclones are referred to as "warm core" storms. Note, however, that the term "warm core" applies to the upper atmosphere - the area under a hurricane at the earth's surface is normally a few degrees cooler than normal due to clouds and precipitation.



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                                               Classification and terminology





Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region.

A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots or 38 mi/h or 62 km/h).

Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 metres per second (34-63 knots or 39-73 mi/h or 62-117 km/h ).

The term used to describe tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds exceeding 33 metres per second, varies depending on region, as follows:

* hurricane in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, and the South Pacific Ocean east of 160°E
* typhoon in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline
* severe tropical cyclone in the Southwest Pacific Ocean west of 160°E or Southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E
* severe cyclonic storm in the North Indian Ocean
* tropical cyclone in the Southwest Indian Ocean


(This terminology is defined in WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; available online from http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm).

In the UK and Europe some severe north-east Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even although they rarely originate in the tropics. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force windspeeds but are not given individual names.

In other places in the world, hurricanes have been called Willy-Willies (singular Willy-Willy) in Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Chubasco in Mexico, and Taino in Haiti.

Hurricanes are categorized on a 1-to-5 scale according to the strength of their winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. A Category 1 storm has the lowest wind speeds, while a Category 5 hurricane has the strongest. These are relative terms, because lower category storms can sometimes inflict greater damage than higher category storms, depending on where they strike and the particular hazards they bring. In fact, tropical storms can also produce significant damage and loss of life, mainly due to flooding.

National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 or above as Major Hurricanes. Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mph (241 km/hr) as Super Typhoons.

The definition of sustained winds recommended by the WMO is that of a ten-minute average, and that definition is adopted by most countries. However, a few countries use different definitions: the United States, for example, defines sustained winds based on a 1-minute average wind measured at about 10 metres (33 ft) above the surface.

The ingredients for a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon.

There is also a polar counterpart to the tropical cyclone, called an arctic cyclone.

Location

Almost all tropical cyclones form within 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Since the Coriolis effect initiates tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form within about 10 degrees of the equator (where the Coriolis effect is weakest). However it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if another source of initial rotation is provided. These conditions are extremely rare and such storms are believed to form at a rate of less than one a century.

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity known as the Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:28:30 pm







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                                               UNDERWATER RUINS IN THE ATLANTIC






quote:
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A word of caution: there is a pretty robust Atlantis community out there who circulate their own stories of submerged cities and issue their own press releases. Those releases can be picked up as fact and are endlessly repeated. It's nice to have objective sources when possible.
In some cases, structures found near current land masses could have been submerged due to purely local floods, but even in those cases, the problem remains; who built them? Certainly not the “primitive” peoples that the current time line claims were living in these locales.

For instance, in the Americas a short time ago men were not thought to have been here before 5,000 years ago. To date, scientists fight to try not to have the date pushed out beyond 15,000 years. Those people were not thought to have been responsible for these advanced structures.

On the other hand, the presumed megalithic structures off the coast of Cuba are 2,500 feet (1/2 mile) below the ocean. Other megalithic structures are being located miles from current shorelines. Here are a couple of shorts about even more anomalous finds deep in the ocean.

“In 1966, an oceanographic research expedition led by Dr. Robert J. Menzies of Duke University aboard the vessel Anton Brunn photographed what appeared to be carved rock columns under 6,000 feet of ocean in the Milne-Edward Deep, a depression that reaches a depth of 19,000 feet.

A cautious Dr. Menzies admitted that the discovery of what may be the ruins of an ancient city could be “one of the most exciting discoveries of this century, insofar as ruins go.

Some of the columns are half buried in mud while others stand upright. Many of them appear to have a kind of writing on them.””


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http://www.s8int.com/water6.html]http://www.s8int.com/water6.html
...Source: Atlantis Rising by Brad Steiger

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-09-2004).]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:29:49 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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"In 1973 a U.S. deep sea submersible craft photographed Roman Columns that seemed part of a temple structure at the bottom of one of the deepest parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Click and drag photo to on the right to resize.Photo: Roman, Greek and Egyptian-style Columns 6000 Feet Under The Sea!
Rather than ending up in some scientific journal or being debated on a university campus, the photo was published in an obscure book about the supposed lost continent of Atlantis.

While the photo may have certainly served the purpose of the book’s author, would it not have served history and archeology even more if published and debated in those circles?"..Source Unexplained:News


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:31:10 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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                                                  RESEARCHES BY THE SOVIETS





Ancient remains in the Atlantic, in 1979

Announcement of the discovery of the sunken Amber mountain, in 1984

The discovery of a smooth marble plate in 1985.

  During the end of March in 1979, some Soviet researchers announced the success of their research in the Atlantic Ocean by saying “Plato showed us the way to the lost Atlantis”. The soviet boat of underwater researches, named “Vityaz”, anchored to the river Tagus of Portugal. Dr. Andrey Aksenov, assistant manager of the Institute of Oceanography of Soviet Academy, called reporters on the boat and announced a discovery:

"In the sea area, 900 km from the Portugal coasts, there have been found, on a sunken mountain, a plateau in strange formations. After a close examination with our scientific instruments, we discovered that in this area there are remains, probably of a sunken city. We spotted almost clearly half-demolished walls and giant stairs, even if they were covered with seaweed and other sea plants. We took many photos, by which eight of them show the huge symmetrical escalation, and they will be sent to Moscow for special elaboration...."

The Soviets of “Vityaz” told to Mr Vaskonselo, manager of the National Fishing Institute of Portugal, that they are certain they have discovered a sunken part of the lost Atlantis. Dr. Aksenov also mentioned that this discovery is only the beginning of a whole research which will be centered to this place of the Atlantic. Besides, this is the place that Plato defined the existence and disappearance of Atlantis.

The research boat “Vityaz” continued its mission by scanning the bottom of the Atlantic, westward of Madera. In this area, under the surface of the sea, it is extended the mountain Amber. It is a strange mountain in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and due to its shape attracts all those Atlantologists, who study Atlantis by Plato scripts.

In 1984 the Soviets of “Vityaz” finished their long researches and gave the information that the mountain Amber, found beneath water, has once been a large island above the surface of the sea.

Unfortunately, they did not announce the details and evidence on which they had been based...

In September 1985, there has been announced by the soviet and foreign tabloids that the Russians pulled out of 4500 meters in the Atlantic, a strange piece of marble. The research was carried out by the oceanographers of the soviet boat “Academic Boris Petrov”.

This discovery has troubled a lot the research group of the boat.

From the very early studies on this object, it has been found out that it was a smooth plate of marble colored from both sides in white-yellowish. Its shape proves that it had been smoothed by a man. They estimated that this object exists in the ocean for many thousand years. Leon Hitrov, scientist of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chief of the mission pointed out:

“This finding is of great importance. I will personally take on its analysis in the Laboratory of Analytic Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. This scientific test will show if the plate was a part of a structure of an unknown civilization or if according to all evidence, it comes from the legendary and powerful nation of the Atlantians”.

Unfortunately, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, from all we know, has not announced something officially. There are rumors that the “secret” researches continue in the Atlantic Ocean, not only by Russians but by Americans.


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http://www.atlantida.gr/engSovietResearch.htm#research


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:32:46 pm







dhill757

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Here are some of the reports of underwater ruins gathered throughout the years of all the various ruins reported to be at the bottom of the Atlantic. Of course, many are of a dubious nature. I'll list them all now, get into what we actually know of them later:



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                                     City on the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Spain


                                              Dr. Maxine Asher's Expedition in 1973





UPI Report

Pyramid explored by Dr. Ray Brown on the sea floor off the Bahamas in 1970. Brown was accompanied by 4 divers who also found roads, domes, rectangular buildings, unidentified metallic instruments, and a statue holding a "mysterious" crystal containing miniature pyramids. The metal devices and crystals were taken to Florida for analysis at a university there. What was discovered was that the crystal amplified energy that passed through it.

It is made in a method unknown to the scientists who analyzed it. It was found in a mysteriously lit up chamber inside the underwater pyramid with some kind of ray gun like instrument pointed at it. Kirlian photographs, which record impressions beyond our limited range of vision, showed an eye inside the crystal not visible to the naked eye.

What technology could build a long blacktop paved road for hundreds of miles that was still in good condition over 10,000 years later! This road was found underwater off the East Coast by the deep diving submarine Aluminaut and contained magnesium oxide.

In 1977, a mysterious discovery was made on the floor of the Atlantic concerning an unknown technology. A 650-foot pyramid was mysteriously lit up, with sparkling white water surrounding it that turned deep green, a shocking contrast to the dark black waters at that depth. The discovery was photographed by Arl Marahall's expedition off Cay Sal.

Dr. William Bell's 1958 photos taken on the bottom of the Atlantic showed a six-foot spire protruding from a couple of circular gear-like bases with peculiar light emanations from the bottom of the shaft. Were these the remnants of the Eternal Flame spoken of by the ancients, powered by an inter-dimensional cosmic energy taken out of the atmosphere by a form of crystal conductor at the apex of pyramids or towers?

Pyramids larger than any building in the world made in our modern times have been found on the bottom the Atlantic Ocean and in China, and one in Egypt that our own technology has failed to match.

These Pyramids have cement that our scientists admit is superior to what we use today. The writings of the ancients describe pyramids as Time Capsules containing the history and technology of the Empire of the Sun and latter day Atlantis.

A huge pyramid, in 10,000 feet of Atlantic water, was reported to have been found with a pulsating crystal on top of it, by Tony Benik's expedition. The group also found an opaque crystal tablet there, and reported that when a light was beamed through it, mysterious inscriptions became visible.

More underwater pyramids were found off Central America, Yucatan, and Louisiana, where domes were found in the Straits of Florida. A marble Greek style building was found between Florida and Cuba. And what about the column that radiated energy Dr. Zink found in the Bahamas and Zink also brought up other artifacts from his dives over Atlantis, and he was interviewed by Mind International agent Steve Forsberg.

One of the most amazing finds on the bottom of the Atlantic was reported by Captain Reyes Miraga's crew on the salvage ship Talia from Spain. They video-taped miles of pillared temples, buildings, and statues and wide curving boulevards, with smaller avenues branching out from the center like spokes in a wheel, with majestic temples and pyramids. Much of this city, as well as the city found off Spain by Dr. Maxine Asher's expedition and later by Professor Akayonove's expedition (all photographed), show a startling similarity to Plato's description of Atlantis!

An urn brought to the surface by Dr. Asher's expedition.

More than 30 separate ruins have been found on the bottom of the Atlantic since 1956, and in ancient libraries, several old maps showing Atlantis and its island chain have been found. The islands are known as Aryan, Og. Poseid, and Antigua and the nation was Atlan. Garden City, or Poseid, was reportedly the capital of a continent stretching from off of North Africa and Europe to off Florida with a tropical climate on the western and southern shores, and a cool climate on the north and east.

Ruins of roads and buildings found off Bimini Island in the 1960's by the photographed and published expeditions of Dr. Mansan Valentine. Steven Forsberg, co-founder of the Lahaina Times newspaper dove into these ruins in 1982 to witness them first hand. Similar ruins were also photographed off Cay Sal in the Bahamas. The ruins are of the same construction as the oldest city ever found on land, according; to archaeologists, in Tiajuanaco, Bolivia, where a calendar was uncovered that shows the exact position of the stars and planets 27,000 years ago. This is more than 20,000 years BEFORE the oldest civilizations in school history books!

Similar underwater ruins found off Morocco and photographed 50 to 60 feet underwater.

Dr. David Zink found in 1957, off the Bahamas coast, a stylized marble head, building block cast in a mold and a construction piece drilled by a bit, as well as a stone column that he reported radiated energy. Forsberg of M.I.N.D. interviewed Dr. Zink and obtained the photographs.

A ruined harbor like complex discovered on the sea floor off Bimini Captain John Alexander.

The deep sea diving submarine Aluminaut discovered a well preserved paved road on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean make of blacktop magnesium oxide, running along the sea floor from Florida to South Carolina.

Temple pillars, buildings, statues, wide curving boulevards with smaller avenues branching out like spokes in a wheel, majestic temples and pyramids videotaped by Captain Reyes Miraga on the Spanish named salvage ship "Talia".

A huge 11 room pyramid found 10,000 feet under water in the mid Atlantic Ocean with a huge crystal top, as reported by Tony Benlk.

Several acres of white marble-like ruins found on tile ocean floor off Cuba reported by Lieceser Hemingway.

Mysterious dome structures reportedly seen in clear water by several pilots in the Straits of Florida.

Soviet expeditions to the Atlantic Ampere Seamount resulted in photographs of ruins destroyed by lava (like the Aztecs and Mayans wrote Atlan was destroyed by). This discovery was in the New York Times May 21, 1978. The photos were developed by the Academy's Petrovsky Marakuyev and reported by the deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Professor Aksyonove, who also reported ruins found off Cadiz, Spain in the same area as Dr., Maxine Asher's previous discovery.

1981 expedition of P. Cappellano discovered mysterious ruins with strange symbols on them on the sea floor off the Canary Islands.

1977 report of a huge pyramid found off Cay Sal in the Bahamas, photographed by Ari Marshall's expedition, about 150 feet underwater. The pyramid was about 650 feet high. Mysteriously, the surrounding water was lit by sparkling white water flowing out of the openings in the pyramid and surrounded by green water, instead of the black water everywhere else at that depth.

The foundations of a 100 by 75 foot structure photographed on the sea bottom off Andros Island.

A sunken city about 400 miles off Portugal found by Soviet expeditions led by Boris Asturua, with buildings made of extremely strong concrete and plastics. He said "the remains of streets suggests the use of monorails for transportation". He added that he brought up a statue.

Pillars found on the Atlantic floor in 1969 by Robert Fero and Michael Grumley, a chunk of which was carved from rock NOT found anywhere in that part of the world. 20. A road off the Bahamas explored by Dr. Manson Valentine.

Dimitri Rebikoff, using his underwater platform and a special collecting lens, reported ruins found encircling an underwater freshwater spring.

Marble Acropolis underwater across five acres of fluted columns raised on pillars.

Twenty researchers, including archaeologists, a marine biologist, geologist, and cartographer dove onto ruins on the sea floor off Bimini in 1975 and brought back artifacts from which they concluded that the walls and roads were made of materials not found in that part of the world.


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http://www.crystalinks.com/atlantisasher.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:34:41 pm







dhill757

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Here is what Dr. Maxine Asher says about her discoveries:



The truth is that four cities lie underwater from Cadiz to Gibraltar, and these cities are submerged at least 120 feet and resting on the continental shelf. Using the yardarm of 10 feet for every 1000 years of recorded history, we can observe highly developed sunken cities, the remains of which are at least 9000 years old or older (see Internet Website www.atlantisresearch.com). If these remains are not Atlantis, then such evidence still requires that we acknowledge civilization's beginnings at least 5000 years before the earliest Egyptian cities.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:35:59 pm







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To which the Russian scientist Alexander Gorodnitsky, Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor from the Russian Institute of Oceanology also adds in a 2003 interview:



"I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:37:11 pm







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A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))

In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.)


http://www.atlantissource.com/home/forgotten_article.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:38:26 pm








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it is interesting to note that the famous Piri Reis map shows a large island in this location, and the geology of recent core samples, taken from the ocean floor in this area, is of continental rather than oceanic type rock:
Geological structure of the Strakhov fracture zone (equatorial segment of the Mid-Atlantic ridge)

G. B. Udintsev, A. F. Beresnev, V. M. Golod, A. V. Kol'tsova, N. A. Kurentsova, and M. V. Zakharov

Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

G. V. Agapova

Institute of Geology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

L. P. Volokitina

P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

V. G. Udintsev

Shmidt Institute of Earth Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow



http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/AlisonJ1-p10.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:41:14 pm







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Quote from Dr. Asher's website:

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The underwater film footage which appears on the website was taken from 1993 to1995 by Spanish diver Francisco Salazar Casero. More film from the same underwater area has been taken and will be placed on the website in 2003.  In addition to this footage, Dr. Asher owns underwater film from the Bahamas believed to be Atlantis, videos of television shows she has made on Atlantis, other film taken over time in Spain,5000 color slides connected to Atlantis, 15 computer disks filled with scientific reports about Atlantis and countless other visuals.  This film repository will contribute greatly to the enormous success of any feature film on Atlantis, since it lends credibility to the Atlantis' story. 


The ruins presented here are 120 feet down, lying on the continental shelf off the coast of Spain and are believed to be vestiges of the city of Atlantis. The dating is approximately 9,000 B.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:42:47 pm







Author  Topic: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 
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Fernando de Noronha
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, midway from South America to Africa, around 220 miles (354 km) away from the Brazilian coast. It is a dependency of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco.
[edit]


Geography

The main islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains . Consisting of 21 islands, islets and rocks of volcanic origin, the main island has an area of 7.1 square miles (18 km2), being 6.2 miles (10 km) long and 2.2 miles (3.5 km) at its maximum width. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 2480 feet (756 m) below the surface. The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the islands of Rata, Sela Gineta, Cabeluda and São Jose, together with the islets of Leão and Viúva make up the rest.

The climate is tropical, with two well defined seasons: the rainy season from January to August, and the dry season for the rest of the year. The land vegetation of the islands is made up mostly of vines and bushes.

As occurs on other isolated ecosystems, the fauna of the Archipelago is as unique as it is exuberant. Among the common species on the islands, one can spot sea tortoises, dolphins, albatrosses, among many others.
[edit]


History

Many controversies mark the archipelago's discovery. It's original name, Ilha da Quaresma (Lent Island), it is known to have been sighted by expeditions from the years 1501, 1502 and 1503. The Viscount of Santarém, however, attributed the discovery to Gaspar de Lemos, captain of the supply ship of Pedro Alvares Cabral's fleet, sent back to Portugal with news of the discovery of Brazil. Modern historians, however, attribut the discovery of the archipelago to the 1501-1502 expedition led by Fernão de Loronha.

The first to actually describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who travelled with a Portuguese expedition to Brazil in the year 1503. In 1534, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, it was held by the French. In 1628, it was invaded by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for its troops which occupied Northeastern Brazil. The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Michiel de Pauw, one of the directors of the Dutch West Indies Company. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal.

Finding it uninhabited and completely abandoned in 1736, the French East Indies Company took the island and renamed it Isle Dauphine. It was retaken one year later. The first major military outposts were set-up on the archipelago on the following years. Around 1770, the first permanent settlement, Vila dos Remédios, was founded.

As Brazil became independent, very little changed for Fernando de Noronha.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the English arrived to provide technical cooperation in telegraphy (The South American Company). Later the French came with the French Cable and the Italians with Intalcable. In 1942, during World War II, the archipelago was made a Federal Territory, and political and ordinary prisoners were sent to the local prison. In 1988 approximately 70% of the archipelago was declared a national park, with the goal of preserving the land and sea environment.

Nowadays, Fernando de Noronha's economy depends on tourism, restricted by the limitations of its delicate ecosystem. In addition to the historical interest noted above, the archipelago has been the subject of the attention of various scientists dedicated to the study of its flora, fauna, geology, etc.

Source: http://www.fernandodenoronha.com.br/
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_de_Noronha"



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Ascension Island
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, a dependency of Saint Helena. The capital is Georgetown.

The United States maintains missile tracking sites on the island. The island served as a refueling station for the British fleet during the Falklands War.

It is famous as a nesting site for Atlantic sea turtles.

It is home to Wideawake Field, built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, as a refueling and staging station for aircraft flying between the Americas and Africa. Wideawake is also used by the RAF as a bridge to the Falkland Islands.

In 1982 when Argentine forces invaded the Falklands, Ascension Island proved essential to British forces in their efforts to retake the islands from Argentina. Wideawake airfield became the busiest airport in the world as the RAF flew in supplies to aid the Task Force. A squadron of RAF Harriers was based on the island to repel any possible Argentine attack. The British bombers flew a series of long-range bombing attacks from Ascension Island, against the Falkland Islands (operation Black Buck).

There is no native population in Ascension Island.

It is likely the island was named after the day of its discovery.

External link

* Ascension Island Government (http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/)


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island"





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Saint Helena
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Saint Helena (Britain))
For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation).


Saint Helena is an island in the Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom. It is also the name of this island together with Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island.

290
Saint Helena
coat of arms
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: ?
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Jamestown
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief David Hollamby
Area 410 km2
Population


 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density

7,367
18/km2
Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP)
Time zone UTC +0
National anthem God Save the Queen, My St. Helena Island (unofficial)
Internet TLD .sh
Calling Code


The island served as a strategic island for ships on their way to the Indian Ocean before the Suez Canal was built.

St. Helena has a small population that remains loyal to Britain. However, the island's dimunitive size and geopolitical insignificance has led many Islanders to accuse the British government of ignoring the island. The island's economy was a one crop economy for many years, but is now very weak, and is almost entirely sustained solely on aid from London.

Napoleon Bonaparte ended his life in exile on St. Helena, and the St. Helena tourist industry is heavily based around the promotion of this particular aspect of the island's history. Prominent Anglo-Boer War prisoners, including General Piet Cronje were detained on St. Helena

* History of Saint Helena
* Geography of Saint Helena
* Demographics of Saint Helena
* Politics of Saint Helena
* Economy of Saint Helena
* Communications on Saint Helena
* Transportation on Saint Helena
* Military of Saint Helena

External links

* Saint Helena - The Official Government Website (http://www.sainthelena.gov.sh)
* Saint Helena (http://www.sthelena.se) -- St. Helena Foundation

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in



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Falkland Islands
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Falkland Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic consisting of two main islands known as East Falkland and West Falkland and a number of smaller islands. Sovereignty of the islands is also claimed by Argentina where the islands are known as Malvinas. The capital Port Stanley is on East Falkland.
The Falkland Islands
(In Detail) (In Detail)
Motto: Desire the right
Official language English
Capital Port Stanley
Governor Howard Pearce
Chief Executive Chris Simpkins
Area
 - Total
 - % water not ranked
12,173 km2
-
Population
 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density not ranked
2,967
0.24/km2
Currency Falkland pound (FKP; fixed to GBP)
Time zone UTC -4 (DST -3)
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .FK
Calling Code 500
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See also
9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Falkland Islands

Several claims have been made that numerous navigators have sighted the Falkland Islands for the first time but the Dutch sailor Sebald van Weert has been credited with the first sighting in 1600, though the British and Spanish maintain their own respective explorers discovered the islands earlier. They remained practically unsettled until the 19th century. Argentina set up a penal colony in the islands in 1820, and in 1829 named Luis Vernet as the islands' governor, in order to colonise them. The United Kingdom took the islands in 1833, but Argentina maintained its claim. Various tensions led to an Argentine invasion in 1982. The island was later retaken by the UK. See: Falklands War.

Politics

Main article: Politics of the Falkland Islands

Executive authority comes from the Queen and is exercised by the governor on her behalf. Defence is the responsibility of the UK. There is a constitution, which was put into force in 1985. Under the constitution, eight Legislative Councillors, five from Stanley and three from Camp, are elected every four years.

The Executive Council, which advises the governor, consists of the Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and three Legislative Councillors, which are elected by the other Legislative Councillors. The Legislative Council consists of Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and the eight Legislative Councillors. The Governor is ex officio the presiding officer or speaker of the Council.

The loss of the war against Britain over control of the islands led to the collapse of the Argentine military dictatorship in 1983. Disputes over control of the islands still continue. In 2001, British Prime Minister Tony Blair was the first to visit Argentina since the war. On the 22nd anniversary of the war, Argentina’s President Néstor Kirchner gave a speech insisting that the islands would once again be part of Argentina. Kirchner, since becoming president in 2003, has made the islands a top priority. In June 2003 the issue was brought before a United Nations committee, and attempts have been made to open talks with Britain to resolve the issue of the islands. Falkland Islanders themselves continue to view themselves as British, despite Argentine claims.

Map of the Falkland Islands[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of the Falkland Islands

The islands are 300 miles (483 km) from the South American mainland.There are two main islands, East Falkland (Soledad) and West Falkland (Gran Malvina) and 200 small islands. The total land area is 12,173 sq km.

Economy

Main article: Economy of the Falkland Islands

The largest industries are fishing and agriculture. The islands have oil reserves that are believed to be quite substantial, but yet to be exploited

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Falkland Islands

The population is 2,967 (July 2003 estimated).


Culture

Main article: Culture of the Falkland Islands


Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in the Falkland Islands
* Transportation in the Falkland Islands
* Military of the Falkland Islands
* Stamps and postal history of the Falkland Islands


* Battle of the Falkland Islands - naval engagement of the First World War
* Falklands War - conflict between Argentina and United Kingdom
* Major Samuel Stransham


External links

* Falkland Islands Government (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/)
* Penguin News (weekly newspaper) (http://www.penguin-news.com/)
* Falkland Islands News Network (http://www.falklandnews.com/)
* Falkland Islands Portal (http://www.falklandislands.com/)
* Falkland Islands Tourism (http://www.tourism.org.fk/)
* Jason Islands Banknotes (http://www.numismondo.com/pm/jas/)
* Falkland Islands detailed map (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/coastal-shipping/falkland-islands-map.jpg)
* Falkland Islands Information Portal (http://www.falklands.info/)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands"



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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from South Georgia Island)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. They are administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. Lamont, representing Queen Elizabeth II. Defense is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Since 1982, the territory celebrates Liberation Day on June 14. A constitution was adopted October 3, 1985. The legal system is based on English Common Law.

During World War II (Autumn 1943 - Autumn 1944) the island housed a small (14 people) Norwegian military garrison to protect the island from Japanese invasion.

The research station at King Edward Point, near the former Norwegian whaling station of Grytviken, became a small military garrison after the Falklands War. This returned to civilian use in 2001 and is operated by the British Antarctic Survey. The British Antarctic Survey also has a biological station on Bird Island, off the northwest end of South Georgia. The South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited.

NASA satellite image of South Georgia island covered with snow.

South Georgia lies in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1390 km south by east of the Falkland Islands, in 54-55°S, 36-38°W. It has a land area of 4066 km2 (1600 sq. mi). It is mountainous, with 11 peaks over 2,000 m high, their slopes furrowed with deep gorges filled with glaciers. Geologically, it consists of gneiss and argillaceous schists, with no trace of fossils, showing that the island is, like the Falkland Islands, a surviving fragment of some greater land-mass now vanished, most probably indicating a former extension of the Andean system. At Royal Bay, on the south-east side, was stationed the German expedition sent out to observe the transit of Venus in 1882. The island would be well suited for cattle or sheep farming but for its damp, foggy climate.

The climate in the islands is variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow. Most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes. Mount Paget on South Georgia is 2,934 m high. The islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism. The north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Georgia.

Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK. The territory has revenues of less than $300,000 against expenditures of nearly $500,000. The territory uses data code SX, and has the Internet country code (top-level domain) GS.

The 11 smaller islands forming the South Sandwich archipelago are, from north to south:

* Zavodovski
* Leskov (the smallest)
* Visokoi
* Candlemas
* Vindication
* Saunders
* Montagu (the largest)
* Bristol
* Bellingshausen
* Cook
* Thule

See also

* Sub-antarctic islands


External links

* King Edward Point research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/King_Edward_Point/index.html)
* Bird Island research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/Bird_Island/)
* CIA World Factbook entry (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sx.html)
* South Georgia official website (http://www.sgisland.org/pages/sghome.htm)

Overseas territories of the United Kingdom
Anguilla | Bermuda | British Antarctic Territory | British Indian Ocean Territory | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Falkland Islands | Gibraltar | Montserrat | Pitcairn Islands | Saint Helena | South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands | Turks and Caicos Islands
Sovereign Base Areas


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands"





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Gulf Stream
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm, swift Atlantic ocean current that flows along the coast of the Eastern United States and makes Ireland, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries warmer than they would be otherwise. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico and runs past the east coast of the United States towards Newfoundland. Its extension toward Europe is called the North Atlantic drift. The Gulf Stream is one of the strongest ocean currents known. It transports 1.4 Petawatts of power.

The term "Gulf Stream" is sometimes used about the sum of what is described above and the North Atlantic drift.

As it travels north, some of the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream evaporates. This increases the salinity of the water in the stream, and in the North Atlantic Ocean the water is so cold and heavy with salt that it begins to sink. It then becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream.

The effect of the Gulf Stream is sufficient to cause certain parts of the west of Britain and Ireland to be an average of several degrees warmer than most other parts of those countries. Indeed, in Cornwall, and particularly the Isles of Scilly, its effects are such that plants associated with much warmer climes, such as palm trees are able to survive the rigours of northern winters. Logan Botanic Garden in Scotland benefits strongly from the Gulf Stream, allowing their specimens of Gunnera Manicata to grow to over 3 metres tall.

With the recent phenomenon of global warming, some scientists have expressed concern about the sink mechanism outlined above. Specifically, fresh water resulting from the melting of the Arctic polar cap could dilute the Gulf Stream and make it light enough not to sink. The result would be a huge climate change in northern Europe, with unknown consequences. Some fossil remnants hint at the possibility that a similar event has already happened several times in the past, but fossil evidence is questioned. After an initial rejection, the scientific community is evaluating this theory more seriously, as data about historic climate show sudden changes between cold and warm periods.


References

* Corona Magazine Issue 124: Science (http://www.corona-magazine.de/archiv/corona124.html#wissenschaft) (German, Transported amount of power)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream"


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Tropical cyclone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Hurricane)
This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses see Hurricane (disambiguation) or Typhoon (disambiguation).


Hurricane Anita approaching landfall on the coast of Mexico, September 1977

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (informally, a typhoon or hurricane) is a type of low-pressure system which generally forms in the tropics.

Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating area of clouds, wind, and thunderstorm activity. The primary energy source of a tropical cyclone is the release of heat of condensation from water condensing at high altitudes. Because of this, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine.

This use of condensation as a driving force is the primary difference setting tropical cyclones apart from other meteorological phenomena, such as mid-latitude cyclones, which draw energy mostly from pre-existing temperature gradients in the atmosphere. To drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must stay over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. The evaporation of this moisture is driven by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure present in the storm, resulting in a sustaining cycle.

The release of heat in the upper levels of the storm causes a temperature inversion of fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature in the lower troposphere. Because of this, tropical cyclones are referred to as "warm core" storms. Note, however, that the term "warm core" applies to the upper atmosphere - the area under a hurricane at the earth's surface is normally a few degrees cooler than normal due to clouds and precipitation.



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Classification and terminology
Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region.

A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots or 38 mi/h or 62 km/h).

Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 metres per second (34-63 knots or 39-73 mi/h or 62-117 km/h ).

The term used to describe tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds exceeding 33 metres per second, varies depending on region, as follows:

* hurricane in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, and the South Pacific Ocean east of 160°E
* typhoon in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline
* severe tropical cyclone in the Southwest Pacific Ocean west of 160°E or Southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E
* severe cyclonic storm in the North Indian Ocean
* tropical cyclone in the Southwest Indian Ocean


(This terminology is defined in WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; available online from http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm).

In the UK and Europe some severe north-east Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even although they rarely originate in the tropics. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force windspeeds but are not given individual names.

In other places in the world, hurricanes have been called Willy-Willies (singular Willy-Willy) in Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Chubasco in Mexico, and Taino in Haiti.

Hurricanes are categorized on a 1-to-5 scale according to the strength of their winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. A Category 1 storm has the lowest wind speeds, while a Category 5 hurricane has the strongest. These are relative terms, because lower category storms can sometimes inflict greater damage than higher category storms, depending on where they strike and the particular hazards they bring. In fact, tropical storms can also produce significant damage and loss of life, mainly due to flooding.

National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 or above as Major Hurricanes. Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mph (241 km/hr) as Super Typhoons.

The definition of sustained winds recommended by the WMO is that of a ten-minute average, and that definition is adopted by most countries. However, a few countries use different definitions: the United States, for example, defines sustained winds based on a 1-minute average wind measured at about 10 metres (33 ft) above the surface.

The ingredients for a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon.

There is also a polar counterpart to the tropical cyclone, called an arctic cyclone.

Location

Almost all tropical cyclones form within 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Since the Coriolis effect initiates tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form within about 10 degrees of the equator (where the Coriolis effect is weakest). However it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if another source of initial rotation is provided. These conditions are extremely rare and such storms are believed to form at a rate of less than one a century.

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity known as the Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year.



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Timing
Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer when water temperatures are warmest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns.

In the north Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking in early September. The northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar timeframe to the Atlantic. The northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. In the north Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.

In the southern hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October, and ends in May. Southern hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March.

Structure

A strong tropical cyclone consists of the following components.

* Surface low: All tropical cyclones rotate around an area of low atmospheric pressure near the earth's surface. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level.
* Central Dense Overcast (CDO): The Central Dense Overcast is a dense shield of rain bands and thunderstorm activity surrounding the central low. Tropical cyclones with symmetrical CDO tend to be strong and well developed.
* Eye: A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds (however, the sea may be extremely violent). Eyes are home to the coldest temperatures of the storm at the surface, and the warmest temperatures at the upper levels. The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 8 km to 200 km in diameter. In weaker cyclones, the CDO covers the circulation center, resulting in no visible eye.
* Eyewall: The eyewall is a circular band of intense convection and winds immediately surrounding the eye. It is home to the most severe conditions in a tropical cyclone. Intense cyclones show eye-wall replacement cycles, in which outer eye walls form to replace inner ones. The mechanisms which make this occur are still not fully understood.
* Outflow: the upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds headed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves - a characteristic unique to tropical cyclones.

Formation and development

The formation of tropical cyclone is still the topic of extensive research, and is still not fully understood. Five factors are necessary to make tropical cyclone formation possible:

1. Sea surface temperatures above 26.5 degrees Celsius to at least a depth of 50 meters. Warm waters are the energy source for tropical cyclones. When these storms move over land or cooler areas of water they weaken rapidly.
2. Upper level conditions must be conducive to thunderstorm formation. Temperatures in the atmosphere must decrease quickly with height, and the mid-troposphere must be relatively moist.
3. A source of convergence. This is most frequently provided by tropical waves - non rotating areas of thunderstorms which move through the world's tropical oceans.
4. A distance of more than 10 degrees from the Equator. The Coriolis Effect initiates and helps maintain the rotation of a tropical cyclone. The absence of this effect at and near the equator prohibits development.
5. Lack of vertical wind shear (change in wind velocity over height). High levels of wind shear can break apart the vertical structure of a tropical cyclone, prohibiting development.


Tropical cyclones can occasionally form despite not meeting these conditions. A combination of a pre-existing disturbance, upper level divergence, and a monsoon related cold spell lead to the creation of Typhoon Vamei at only 1.5 degrees north of the equator in 2001. It is estimated that the factors leading to the formation of this typhoon repeat themselves only once every 400 years.

When a tropical cyclone of the Atlantic reaches higher latitudes and takes an eastward course, it may develop into a frontal cyclone. Such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes are often violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach Europe as an European windstorm.

Effects

The aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, the costliest tropical cyclone in American history.

A mature tropical cyclone can release heat at a rate upwards of 2x1019 watts. This two hundred times the total rate of human electrical production, and is equivalent to detonating a 10 megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes. Tropical cyclones on the open sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and sometimes sinking ships. However, the most devastating effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall. A tropical cyclone moving over land can do direct damage in 4 ways.

* High winds - Hurricane strength winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, etc. High winds also turn loose debris into flying projectiles, making the outdoor environment even more dangerous.
* Storm surge - Tropical cyclones cause an increase in sea level which can flood coastal communities.
* Heavy rain - The thunderstorm activity in a tropical cyclone causes intense rainfall. Rivers and streams flood, roads become impassable, and landslides can occur.
* Tornado activity - The broad rotation of a hurricane often spawns tornadoes. While these tornadoes are normally not as strong as their non-tropical counterparts, they can still cause tremendous damage.


Often, the secondary effects of a tropical cyclone are equally damaging. They include:

* Disease - The wet environment in the aftermath of a tropical cyclone, combined with the destruction of sanitation facilities and a warm tropical climate can induce epidemics of disease which claim lives long after the storm passes.
* Power outages - Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens of thousands of people, prohibiting vital communication and hampering rescue efforts.
* Transportation difficulties - Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it.

Hurricanes in the Atlantic

Each year, an average of ten tropical storms develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. Many of these remain over the ocean. On average, six of these storms become hurricanes each year. In an average 3-year period, roughly five hurricanes strike the United States coastline, killing approximately 50 to 100 people anywhere from Texas to Maine. Of these, two are typically "major" or "intense" hurricanes (winds greater than 175 km/h or 110 mi/h). Hurricane season officially runs from June 1st through November 30th.

Hurricanes also strike Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean island nations, often doing intense damage: they are deadlier when over warmer water, and the United States is better able to evacuate people from threatened areas than many other nations.

In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch caused severe flooding and mudslides in Honduras, killing at least 10,000 people and changing the landscape enough that entirely new maps of the nation were needed.

In August, 1992, Hurricane Andrew became the most destructive hurricane in the history of the United States of America.

The first recorded South Atlantic hurricane

On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first-ever hurricane observed in the south Atlantic Ocean. Previous South Atlantic cyclones in 1991 and 2004 reached only tropical storm strength. Hurricanes may have formed there prior to 1960 but were not observed until weather satellites began monitoring the

Notable cyclones

On Christmas Day 1974, Tropical cyclone Tracy hit Darwin, Australia. It was the most devastating natural disaster to have ever hit an Australian city. Around 90% of the homes in Darwin were destroyed. Fifty people died in Darwin, and sixteen at sea. Authorities managed to evacuate most of Darwin. Although cyclone Tracy was quite small, it was very severe, with winds of up to 217 kilometres per hour. The damage was estimated to be close to $A 400 million, which (at current exchange rates) is approximately equal to $US 280 million.

A 100-mph tropical cyclone hit the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 13, 1970, which killed an estimated 500,000 people (this is regarded as the 20th century's worst cyclone disaster).

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas as an estimated category 4 storm, killed 6,000-12,000 people. It remains the United States' deadliest natural disaster.


Naming of tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones with winds exceeding 33 metres per second are given names. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region. The lists are decided upon either by national meteorological organizations, or by committees of the World Meteorological Organization.

To help in their identification, in the early 1950's the practice of naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated by the United States National Hurricane Center and are now maintained by the WMO. In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she", names used were exclusively female. The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", etc. However, since tropical storms and hurricanes are primarily destructive, some considered this practice sexist. The National Weather Service responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of male names to the nomenclature. Currently, female and male names during a given season are assigned alternately, still in alphabetic order. The "gender" of the first storm of the season also alternates year to year. The lists of names is prepared in advance, and reused periodically, except that the names of particularly destructive storms are "retired".

Other sets of names are used in the Eastern North Pacific, Central North Pacific, and the Western North Pacific, maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names. The Seychelles Meteorological Service maintains a list for the Southwest Indian Ocean.

See also

* arctic cyclone
* Beaufort scale
* list of Atlantic hurricane seasons.
* list of notable tropical cyclones
* lists of tropical cyclone names

External links

An excellent hurricane FAQ (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqHED.html)

* Global climatology of tropical cyclones (http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm)
* List of available tropical cyclone names (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B2.html)
* List of retired tropical cyclone names (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B3.html)
* Naming hurricanes (http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/basics/naming.shtml)
* Unisys historical and contemporary hurricane track data (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/) e.g. Atlantic 1968 (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1968/index.html)
* Worldwide tropical cyclone tracks, 1979-1988 (http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/figures_ch1/figure1.9.htm)
* Worldwide tropical cyclone basins (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/6RSMCs.jpg)
* 1995 Mediterranean "Hurricane" (http://www.mindspring.com/~jbeven/intr0008.htm)
* Tropical cyclone peak activity rates for different basins (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/G1.html)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane



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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 10:58 PM                       
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UNDERWATER RUINS IN THE ATLANTIC

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A word of caution: their is a pretty robust Atlantis community out there who circulate there own stories of submerged cities and issue there own press releases. Those releases can be picked up as fact and are endlessly repeated. It's nice to have objective sources when possible.
In some cases, structures found near current land masses could have been submerged due to purely local floods, but even in those cases, the problem remains; who built them? Certainly not the “primitive” peoples that the current time line claims were living in these locales.

For instance, in the Americas a short time ago men were not thought to have been here before 5,000 years ago. To date, scientists fight to try not to have the date pushed out beyond 15,000 years. Those people were not thought to have been responsible for these advanced structures.

On the other hand, the presumed megalithic structures off the coast of Cuba are 2,500 feet (1/2 mile) below the ocean. Other megalithic structures are being located miles from current shorelines. Here are a couple of shorts about even more anomalous finds deep in the ocean.

“In 1966, an oceanographic research expedition led by Dr. Robert J. Menzies of Duke University aboard the vessel Anton Brunn photographed what appeared to be carved rock columns under 6,000 feet of ocean in the Milne-Edward Deep, a depression that reaches a depth of 19,000 feet.

A cautious Dr. Menzies admitted that the discovery of what may be the ruins of an ancient city could be “one of the most exciting discoveries of this century, insofar as ruins go.

Some of the columns are half buried in mud while others stand upright. Many of them appear to have a kind of writing on them.””


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http://www.s8int.com/water6.html]http://www.s8int.com/water6.html
...Source: Atlantis Rising by Brad Steiger

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-09-2004).]


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dhill757

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quote:
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"In 1973 a U.S. deep sea submersible craft photographed Roman Columns that seemed part of a temple structure at the bottom of one of the deepest parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Click and drag photo to on the right to resize.Photo: Roman, Greek and Egyptian-style Columns 6000 Feet Under The Sea!
Rather than ending up in some scientific journal or being debated on a university campus, the photo was published in an obscure book about the supposed lost continent of Atlantis.
While the photo may have certainly served the purpose of the book’s author, would it not have served history and archeology even more if published and debated in those circles?"..Source Unexplained:News


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dhill757

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quote:
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RESEARCHES BY THE SOVIETS
Ancient remains in the Atlantic, in 1979

Announcement of the discovery of the sunken Amber mountain, in 1984

The discovery of a smooth marble plate in 1985.

  During the end of March in 1979, some Soviet researchers announced the success of their research in the Atlantic Ocean by saying “Plato showed us the way to the lost Atlantis”. The soviet boat of underwater researches, named “Vityaz”, anchored to the river Tagus of Portugal. Dr. Andrey Aksenov, assistant manager of the Institute of Oceanography of Soviet Academy, called reporters on the boat and announced a discovery:

"In the sea area, 900 km from the Portugal coasts, there have been found, on a sunken mountain, a plateau in strange formations. After a close examination with our scientific instruments, we discovered that in this area there are remains, probably of a sunken city. We spotted almost clearly half-demolished walls and giant stairs, even if they were covered with seaweed and other sea plants. We took many photos, by which eight of them show the huge symmetrical escalation, and they will be sent to Moscow for special elaboration...."

The Soviets of “Vityaz” told to Mr Vaskonselo, manager of the National Fishing Institute of Portugal, that they are certain they have discovered a sunken part of the lost Atlantis. Dr. Aksenov also mentioned that this discovery is only the beginning of a whole research which will be centered to this place of the Atlantic. Besides, this is the place that Plato defined the existence and disappearance of Atlantis.

The research boat “Vityaz” continued its mission by scanning the bottom of the Atlantic, westward of Madera. In this area, under the surface of the sea, it is extended the mountain Amber. It is a strange mountain in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and due to its shape attracts all those Atlantologists, who study Atlantis by Plato scripts.

In 1984 the Soviets of “Vityaz” finished their long researches and gave the information that the mountain Amber, found beneath water, has once been a large island above the surface of the sea.

Unfortunately, they did not announce the details and evidence on which they had been based...

In September 1985, there has been announced by the soviet and foreign tabloids that the Russians pulled out of 4500 meters in the Atlantic, a strange piece of marble. The research was carried out by the oceanographers of the soviet boat “Academic Boris Petrov”.

This discovery has troubled a lot the research group of the boat.

From the very early studies on this object, it has been found out that it was a smooth plate of marble colored from both sides in white-yellowish. Its shape proves that it had been smoothed by a man. They estimated that this object exists in the ocean for many thousand years. Leon Hitrov, scientist of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chief of the mission pointed out:

“This finding is of great importance. I will personally take on its analysis in the Laboratory of Analytic Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. This scientific test will show if the plate was a part of a structure of an unknown civilization or if according to all evidence, it comes from the legendary and powerful nation of the Atlantians”.

Unfortunately, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, from all we know, has not announced something officially. There are rumors that the “secret” researches continue in the Atlantic Ocean, not only by Russians but by Americans.


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http://www.atlantida.gr/engSovietResearch.htm#research


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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:30 PM                       
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Here are some of the reports of underwater ruins gathered throughout the years of all the various ruins reported to be at the bottom of the Atlantic. Of course, many are of a dubious nature. I'll list them all now, get into what we actually know of them later:



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City on the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Spain

Dr. Maxine Asher's Expedition in 1973

UPI Report

Pyramid explored by Dr. Ray Brown on the sea floor off the Bahamas in 1970. Brown was accompanied by 4 divers who also found roads, domes, rectangular buildings, unidentified metallic instruments, and a statue holding a "mysterious" crystal containing miniature pyramids. The metal devices and crystals were taken to Florida for analysis at a university there. What was discovered was that the crystal amplified energy that passed through it.

It is made in a method unknown to the scientists who analyzed it. It was found in a mysteriously lit up chamber inside the underwater pyramid with some kind of ray gun like instrument pointed at it. Kirlian photographs, which record impressions beyond our limited range of vision, showed an eye inside the crystal not visible to the naked eye.

What technology could build a long blacktop paved road for hundreds of miles that was still in good condition over 10,000 years later! This road was found underwater off the East Coast by the deep diving submarine Aluminaut and contained magnesium oxide.

In 1977, a mysterious discovery was made on the floor of the Atlantic concerning an unknown technology. A 650-foot pyramid was mysteriously lit up, with sparkling white water surrounding it that turned deep green, a shocking contrast to the dark black waters at that depth. The discovery was photographed by Arl Marahall's expedition off Cay Sal.

Dr. William Bell's 1958 photos taken on the bottom of the Atlantic showed a six-foot spire protruding from a couple of circular gear-like bases with peculiar light emanations from the bottom of the shaft. Were these the remnants of the Eternal Flame spoken of by the ancients, powered by an inter-dimensional cosmic energy taken out of the atmosphere by a form of crystal conductor at the apex of pyramids or towers?

Pyramids larger than any building in the world made in our modern times have been found on the bottom the Atlantic Ocean and in China, and one in Egypt that our own technology has failed to match.

These Pyramids have cement that our scientists admit is superior to what we use today. The writings of the ancients describe pyramids as Time Capsules containing the history and technology of the Empire of the Sun and latter day Atlantis.

A huge pyramid, in 10,000 feet of Atlantic water, was reported to have been found with a pulsating crystal on top of it, by Tony Benik's expedition. The group also found an opaque crystal tablet there, and reported that when a light was beamed through it, mysterious inscriptions became visible.

More underwater pyramids were found off Central America, Yucatan, and Louisiana, where domes were found in the Straits of Florida. A marble Greek style building was found between Florida and Cuba. And what about the column that radiated energy Dr. Zink found in the Bahamas and Zink also brought up other artifacts from his dives over Atlantis, and he was interviewed by Mind International agent Steve Forsberg.

One of the most amazing finds on the bottom of the Atlantic was reported by Captain Reyes Miraga's crew on the salvage ship Talia from Spain. They video-taped miles of pillared temples, buildings, and statues and wide curving boulevards, with smaller avenues branching out from the center like spokes in a wheel, with majestic temples and pyramids. Much of this city, as well as the city found off Spain by Dr. Maxine Asher's expedition and later by Professor Akayonove's expedition (all photographed), show a startling similarity to Plato's description of Atlantis!

An urn brought to the surface by Dr. Asher's expedition.

More than 30 separate ruins have been found on the bottom of the Atlantic since 1956, and in ancient libraries, several old maps showing Atlantis and its island chain have been found. The islands are known as Aryan, Og. Poseid, and Antigua and the nation was Atlan. Garden City, or Poseid, was reportedly the capital of a continent stretching from off of North Africa and Europe to off Florida with a tropical climate on the western and southern shores, and a cool climate on the north and east.

Ruins of roads and buildings found off Bimini Island in the 1960's by the photographed and published expeditions of Dr. Mansan Valentine. Steven Forsberg, co-founder of the Lahaina Times newspaper dove into these ruins in 1982 to witness them first hand. Similar ruins were also photographed off Cay Sal in the Bahamas. The ruins are of the same construction as the oldest city ever found on land, according; to archaeologists, in Tiajuanaco, Bolivia, where a calendar was uncovered that shows the exact position of the stars and planets 27,000 years ago. This is more than 20,000 years BEFORE the oldest civilizations in school history books!

Similar underwater ruins found off Morocco and photographed 50 to 60 feet underwater.

Dr. David Zink found in 1957, off the Bahamas coast, a stylized marble head, building block cast in a mold and a construction piece drilled by a bit, as well as a stone column that he reported radiated energy. Forsberg of M.I.N.D. interviewed Dr. Zink and obtained the photographs.

A ruined harbor like complex discovered on the sea floor off Bimini Captain John Alexander.

The deep sea diving submarine Aluminaut discovered a well preserved paved road on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean make of blacktop magnesium oxide, running along the sea floor from Florida to South Carolina.

Temple pillars, buildings, statues, wide curving boulevards with smaller avenues branching out like spokes in a wheel, majestic temples and pyramids videotaped by Captain Reyes Miraga on the Spanish named salvage ship "Talia".

A huge 11 room pyramid found 10,000 feet under water in the mid Atlantic Ocean with a huge crystal top, as reported by Tony Benlk.

Several acres of white marble-like ruins found on tile ocean floor off Cuba reported by Lieceser Hemingway.

Mysterious dome structures reportedly seen in clear water by several pilots in the Straits of Florida.

Soviet expeditions to the Atlantic Ampere Seamount resulted in photographs of ruins destroyed by lava (like the Aztecs and Mayans wrote Atlan was destroyed by). This discovery was in the New York Times May 21, 1978. The photos were developed by the Academy's Petrovsky Marakuyev and reported by the deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Professor Aksyonove, who also reported ruins found off Cadiz, Spain in the same area as Dr., Maxine Asher's previous discovery.

1981 expedition of P. Cappellano discovered mysterious ruins with strange symbols on them on the sea floor off the Canary Islands.

1977 report of a huge pyramid found off Cay Sal in the Bahamas, photographed by Ari Marshall's expedition, about 150 feet underwater. The pyramid was about 650 feet high. Mysteriously, the surrounding water was lit by sparkling white water flowing out of the openings in the pyramid and surrounded by green water, instead of the black water everywhere else at that depth.

The foundations of a 100 by 75 foot structure photographed on the sea bottom off Andros Island.

A sunken city about 400 miles off Portugal found by Soviet expeditions led by Boris Asturua, with buildings made of extremely strong concrete and plastics. He said "the remains of streets suggests the use of monorails for transportation". He added that he brought up a statue.

Pillars found on the Atlantic floor in 1969 by Robert Fero and Michael Grumley, a chunk of which was carved from rock NOT found anywhere in that part of the world. 20. A road off the Bahamas explored by Dr. Manson Valentine.

Dimitri Rebikoff, using his underwater platform and a special collecting lens, reported ruins found encircling an underwater freshwater spring.

Marble Acropolis underwater across five acres of fluted columns raised on pillars.

Twenty researchers, including archaeologists, a marine biologist, geologist, and cartographer dove onto ruins on the sea floor off Bimini in 1975 and brought back artifacts from which they concluded that the walls and roads were made of materials not found in that part of the world.


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http://www.crystalinks.com/atlantisasher.html




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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:34 PM                       
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Here is what Dr. Maxine Asher says about her discoveries:
The truth is that four cities lie underwater from Cadiz to Gibraltar, and these cities are submerged at least 120 feet and resting on the continental shelf. Using the yardarm of 10 feet for every 1000 years of recorded history, we can observe highly developed sunken cities, the remains of which are at least 9000 years old or older (see Internet Website www.atlantisresearch.com). If these remains are not Atlantis, then such evidence still requires that we acknowledge civilization's beginnings at least 5000 years before the earliest Egyptian cities.


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dhill757

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To which the Russian scientist Alexander Gorodnitsky, Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor from the Russian Institute of Oceanology also adds in a 2003 interview:
"I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.


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dhill757

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A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))
In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.) http://www.atlantissource.com/home/forgotten_article.htm



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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:46:47 pm







dhill757

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                              QUOTE FROM CRITIAS, PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF ATLANTIS:





"The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia.This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north."


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:48:38 pm







dhill757

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I submit that Atlantis stretched from the Mid to the east Atlantic, with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge being the mountaintops that Plato spoke of and the large rectangular plain to the east, between the Azores and Gibralter, is now submerged underwater.
I haven't even got into the Mid-Atlantic Ridge yet, but there is geological evidence that that area was above water in the time period places Atlantis, even if no cities have been discovered there.

The old saying: There is no evidence of a sunken landmass in the Atlantic.

To which I give this information by the geologist Christopher O'Brien:

   


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With a knowledge of ancient river systems, the O'Briens were able to reconstruct a land profile which revealed an Azorean landmass 'about the size and shape of Spain', with high mountain ranges rising over 3655 metres above sea-level, as well as impressive rivers that run 'in curving valley systems'.
Quote
There is the LAND MASS..!

Quote
Furthermore, they have pointed out that:
 
In the southeast, a feature which we have called 'The Great Plain' covered an area in excess of 3500 square miles [9065 square kilometres], and was watered by a river comparable in size to the River Thames in England. It has, as we shall see, points in common with a great plain described by Plato in his Critias, as being a feature of the island of Atlantis.

The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the Azores once formed part of a much greater landmass which sank beneath the waves and is now situated 'many thousands of feet' below the current sea-level.


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As mentioned earliuer, mastodon and mammoth bones have been dredged up from the sea along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the "elephants" that Plato spoke of.

As for the ruins, both Asher and the Russians have suggested that there are ruins in the eastern Atlantic, stretching towards Gibraltar. Both the Russians and Asher have pictures (even if we still can't find the Russians...)

It would be unreasonable to suggest we'll find pristine underwater cities along the lines of Jules Verne. If it was destroyed in earthquakes and tsunsamis, then there might not be a lot left, especially after 12,000 years. The pictures I've seen of the ruins of the Ampere Seamounts are about what we might expect - dark and covered in lava and ocean silt.

Much has been made of Cadiz and other underwater cities near Spain, the coast of Morocco has similar ruins that no one speaks about. These might be Atlantis, but more likely were settlements.

The only way to reach Atlantis in the depths it might be located is in a submarine, one cannot dive there. Russian submarines have been there, and, more to the point, they keep coming back - 1974, 1979, 1984, throughout the 1990's. For all we know, American submarines have been there. too.

The list I've given of ruins doubtless has some red herrings on it, but if even one of those account is true, the pyramid in the middle of the Atlantic, for instance, it might rewrite history as we know it. Civilization began in the Mediterranean..? Not if we find evidence of it first in the Atlantic!~

The pieces are all there, in the middle of the ocean, waiting to be put together, as I've always maintained, as of this year, we are simply not digging deeply enough...


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:50:15 pm







docyabut
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Drhill, you`d think that if anyone,or the russians thought Atlantis was really there, there would be someone looking for it. As of today I know of no one,well except one, Riven  and I`not totaly ruling it out. 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:51:44 pm







dhill757

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   posted 09-16-2004 10:17 PM                       
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Docy,
Riven and I aren't the only ones looking for it out there, everyone is looking for it out there. Having supplied the dates of the Russian and Asher expeditions, I don't know what else to tell you.

To quote James Bramwell:


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"Either Atlantis is an island in the Atlantic or it's not Atlantis at all." -James Bramwell,

Lost Atlantis, 1937


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:53:46 pm







vdhill757

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quote:
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                                    Divers Find Ancient Skeleton in Mexico (AP)





  Posted Thursday, September 9, 2004, 9:00 pm
By JOHN RICE, Associated Press Writer

MEXICO CITY - Divers making dangerous probes through underwater caves near the Caribbean coast have discovered what appears to be one of oldest human skeletons in the Americas, archaeologists announced at a seminar that was ending on Friday.


The report by a team from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History exploits a new way of investigating the past. Most coastal settlements by early Americans now lie deep beneath the sea, which during the Ice Age was hundreds of feet lower than now.

Researchers at the international "Early Man in America" seminar here also reported other ancient finds — including a California bone that is a rival for the title of the oldest in the Americas.

The discoveries fall close to the start of the time that traditional theories say a so-called Clovis culture could have moved from Asia to Alaska over a temporary land corridor that began to open about 13,500 years ago.

Many academics argue that new discoveries, especially in South America, prove the Clovis people found existing inhabitants, who may have arrived by hopscotching past the northern ice fields in small boats.

Arturo Gonzalez said his team discovered at least three skeletons in caves along the Caribbean coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula in 2001 and 2002. Photos showed two remarkably well preserved.

"It's something that I had been dreaming of for many years," said Gonzalez, 39, who has combined diving and research since he was a teenager. "To find a person who had walked those caves was like a treasure."

Gonzalez said the bones must date from before the time that waters gradually seeped through the caves 8,000 to 9,000 years ago as Ice Age glaciers melted and sea level rose by about 400 feet worldwide.

Tests on charcoal found beside one female skeleton would place it at least 10,000 years ago. An expert at the University of California, Riverside, dated it as 11,670 radiocarbon years old — which would translate to well over 13,000 calendar years.

If confirmed, "that would be the oldest" radio carbon date in the Americas obtained from a human bone, said archaeology textbook author Stuart Fiedel.

Fiedel, a defender of the "Clovis first" school, said the oldest estimate for the cave find still fits the Clovis time frame, though narrowly.

Larry Murphy, chief of the Submerged Resources Center for the U.S. National Park Service, said in a telephone interview that the Mexican exploration was "one of the first systematic studies of human materials associated with a submarine cave."

The discovery helps prove that humans inhabited the Yucatan at least 5,000 years before the famed Maya culture began building monuments at sites such as nearby Tulum.

Gonzalez said the skeleton did not appear to be Mayan, but with no tools yet found, almost nothing is known of those first inhabitants.

Gonzalez said cave divers had sometimes mentioned seeing skeletons and he convinced skeptical officials to finance a survey of the water holes that dot the Yucatan, a limestone shelf.

Extensive, flooded caves wind off from some of those holes. Many were above ground during the Ice Age and Gonzalez speculated people may have used them as paths down to fresh water.

Gonzalez said the oldest find was made 404 yards into a cave, more than 65 feet below sea level, during expeditions that can be extremely dangerous.
 


It took repeated trips to record the sites and excavate the bones, which then required two years of preservation.

Team co-director Carmen Rojas said the divers had 40 minutes to wind their way through the cave to the site, 20 minutes to work there and 40 minutes to swim back, followed by 20 to 60 minutes of decompression time.

"You train five years for those 20 minutes," she said.

Meanwhile, John Johnson of the University of California, Santa Barbara, said an elaborate restudy of a woman's femur found on Santa Rosa Island in California's Channel Islands established a calendar-year age of 13,200 to 13,500 years. It had been calculated at about 1,000 years less when found in 1959.
Both discoveries would be significantly older than the skeleton known Kennewick Man — 9,300-year-old paleoindian remains found by teenagers along a Washington state riverbank in 1996.
Until now, the Americas have produced only 25 bones or skeletons dated as more than 8,000 years old, said Silvia Gonzalez of John Moores University in Liverpool, England. But she told the conference that she would soon publish a paper establishing that humans occupied a site near Puebla east of Mexico City 21,000 to 28,000 years ago.


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http://sciencenews.orb6.com/stories/ap/20040910/mexico_first_americans.php


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:55:41 pm






dhill757

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Here is the passage from "Atlantis, the Antediluvian World" that first places Atlantis specifically along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, courtesy, of course, of Ignatius Donnelly. Let's look at it first, then get into the specifics later. Donnelly, of course, is the author most credited with the modern renewal of interest in Atlantis:

quote:
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Sacred Texts  Atlantis 
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p. 46

CHAPTER. V.

                                                    THE TESTIMONY OF THE SEA.





SUPPOSE we were to find in mid-Atlantic, in front of the Mediterranean, in the neighborhood of the Azores, the remains of an immense island, sunk beneath the sea--one thousand miles in width, and two or three thousand miles long--would it not go far to confirm the statement of Plato that, "beyond the strait where you place the Pillars of Hercules, there was an island larger than Asia (Minor) and Libya combined," called Atlantis? And suppose we found that the Azores were the mountain peaks of this drowned island, and were torn and rent by tremendous volcanic convulsions; while around them, descending into the sea, were found great strata of lava; and the whole face of the sunken land was covered for thousands of miles with volcanic débris, would we not be obliged to confess that these facts furnished strong corroborative proofs of the truth of Plato's statement, that "in one day and one fatal night there came mighty earthquakes and inundations which ingulfed that mighty people? Atlantis disappeared beneath the sea; and then that sea became inaccessible on account of the quantity of mud which the ingulfed island left in its place."

And all these things recent investigation has proved conclusively. Deep-sea soundings have been made by ships of different nations; the United States ship Dolphin, the German frigate Gazelle, and the British ships Hydra, Porcupine, and Challenger have mapped out the bottom of the Atlantic, and the result is the revelation of a great elevation, reaching from a point on the coast of the British Islands southwardly to the coast of South America, at Cape Orange, thence south-eastwardly

p. 47

 


Click to view
MAP OF ATLANTIS, WITH ITS ISLANDS AND CONNECTING RIDGES, FROM DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS.

 

p. 49

to the coast of Africa, and thence southwardly to Tristan d'Acunha. I give one map showing the profile of this elevation in the frontispiece, and another map, showing the outlines of the submerged land, on page 47. It rises about 9000 feet above the great Atlantic depths around it, and in the Azores, St. Paul's Rocks, Ascension, and Tristan d'Acunha it reaches the surface of the ocean.

Evidence that this elevation was once dry land is found in the fact that "the inequalities, the mountains and valleys of its surface, could never have been produced in accordance with any laws for the deposition of sediment, nor by submarine elevation; but, on the contrary, must have been carved by agencies acting above the water level." (Scientific American, July 28th, 1877.)

Mr. J. Starke Gardner, the eminent English geologist, is of the opinion that in the Eocene Period a great extension of land existed to the west of Cornwall. Referring to the location of the "Dolphin" and "Challenger" ridges, he asserts that "a great tract of land formerly existed where the sea now is, and that Cornwall, the Scilly and Channel Islands, Ireland and Brittany, are the remains of its highest summits." (Popular Science Review, July, 1878.)

Here, then, we have the backbone of the ancient continent which once occupied the whole of the Atlantic Ocean, and from whose washings Europe and America were constructed; the deepest parts of the ocean, 3500 fathoms deep, represent those portions which sunk first, to wit, the plains to the east and west of the central mountain range; some of the loftiest peaks of this range--the Azores, St. Paul's, Ascension, Tristan d'Acunba--are still above the ocean level; while the great body of Atlantis lies a few hundred fathoms beneath the sea. In these "connecting ridges" we see the pathway which once extended between the New World and the Old, and by means of which the plants and animals of one continent travelled to the other; and by the same avenues black men found their

p. 50

way, as we will show hereafter, from Africa to America, and red men from America to Africa.

And, as I have shown, the same great law which gradually depressed the Atlantic continent, and raised the lands east and west of it, is still at work: the coast of Greenland, which may be regarded as the northern extremity of the Atlantic continent, is still sinking "so rapidly that ancient buildings on low rock-islands are now submerged, and the Greenlander has learned by experience never to build near the water's edge," ("North Amer. of Antiq.," p. 504.) The same subsidence is going on along the shore of South Carolina and Georgia, while the north of Europe and the Atlantic coast of South America are rising rapidly. Along the latter raised beaches, 1180 miles long and from 100 to 1300 feet high, have been traced.

When these connecting ridges extended from America to Europe and Africa, they shut off the flow of the tropical waters of the ocean to the north: there was then no "Gulf Stream;" the land-locked ocean that laved the shores of Northern Europe was then intensely cold; and the result was the Glacial Period. When the barriers of Atlantis sunk sufficiently to permit the natural expansion of the heated water of the tropics to the north, the ice and snow which covered Europe gradually disappeared; the Gulf Stream flowed around Atlantis, and it still retains the circular motion first imparted to it by the presence of that island.

The officers of the Challenger found the entire ridge of Atlantis covered with volcanic deposits; these are the subsided mud which, as Plato tells us, rendered the sea impassable after the destruction of the island.

It does not follow that, at the time Atlantis was finally ingulfed, the ridges connecting it with America and Africa rose above the water-level; these may have gradually subsided into the sea, or have gone down in cataclysms such as are described in the Central American books. The Atlantis of Plato may have been confined to the "Dolphin Ridge" of our map.

p. 51

 


Click to view
ANCIENT ISLANDS BETWEEN ATLANTIS AND THE MEDITERRANIAN, FROM DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS.

 

p. 53

The United States sloop Gettysburg has also made some remarkable discoveries in a neighboring field. I quote from John James Wild (in Nature, March 1st, 1877, p. 377):

"The recently announced discovery by Commander Gorringe, of the United States sloop Gettysburg, of a bank of soundings bearing N. 85° W., and distant 130 miles from Cape St. Vincent, during the last voyage of the vessel across the Atlantic, taken in connection with previous soundings obtained in the same region of the North Atlantic, suggests the probable existence of a submarine ridge or plateau connecting the island of Madeira with the coast of Portugal, and the probable subaerial connection in prehistoric times of that island with the south-western extremity of Europe." . . . "These soundings reveal the existence of a channel of an average depth of from 2000 to 3000 fathoms, extending in a northeasterly direction from its entrance between Madeira and the Canary Islands toward Cape St. Vincent. . . . Commander Gorringe, when about 150 miles from the Strait of Gibraltar, found that the soundings decreased from 2700 fathoms to 1600 fathoms in the distance of a few miles. The subsequent soundings (five miles apart) gave 900, 500, 400, and 100 fathoms; and eventually a depth of 32 fathoms was obtained, in which the vessel anchored. The bottom was found to consist of live pink coral, and the position of the bank in lat. 36° 29' N., long. 11° 33' W."

The map on page 51 shows the position of these elevations. They must have been originally islands;--stepping-stones, as it were, between Atlantis and the coast of Europe.

Sir C. Wyville Thomson found that the specimens of the fauna of the coast of Brazil, brought up in his dredging-machine, are similar to those of the western coast of Southern Europe. This is accounted for by the connecting ridges reaching from Europe to South America.

A member of the Challenger staff, in a lecture delivered in London, soon after the termination of the expedition, gave it as his opinion that the great submarine plateau is the remains of "the lost Atlantis."


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:57:31 pm
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dhill,
Have you checked out RAGNAROK by Donnelly also on the Sacred Texts site. There is a lot to be gained from wading through it, concerning the pre-"Atlantian" times.

 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 01:58:44 pm
Author  Topic: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 
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Fernando de Noronha
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, midway from South America to Africa, around 220 miles (354 km) away from the Brazilian coast. It is a dependency of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco.
[edit]


Geography

The main islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains . Consisting of 21 islands, islets and rocks of volcanic origin, the main island has an area of 7.1 square miles (18 km2), being 6.2 miles (10 km) long and 2.2 miles (3.5 km) at its maximum width. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 2480 feet (756 m) below the surface. The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the islands of Rata, Sela Gineta, Cabeluda and São Jose, together with the islets of Leão and Viúva make up the rest.

The climate is tropical, with two well defined seasons: the rainy season from January to August, and the dry season for the rest of the year. The land vegetation of the islands is made up mostly of vines and bushes.

As occurs on other isolated ecosystems, the fauna of the Archipelago is as unique as it is exuberant. Among the common species on the islands, one can spot sea tortoises, dolphins, albatrosses, among many others.
[edit]


History

Many controversies mark the archipelago's discovery. It's original name, Ilha da Quaresma (Lent Island), it is known to have been sighted by expeditions from the years 1501, 1502 and 1503. The Viscount of Santarém, however, attributed the discovery to Gaspar de Lemos, captain of the supply ship of Pedro Alvares Cabral's fleet, sent back to Portugal with news of the discovery of Brazil. Modern historians, however, attribut the discovery of the archipelago to the 1501-1502 expedition led by Fernão de Loronha.

The first to actually describe the island was Amerigo Vespucci, who travelled with a Portuguese expedition to Brazil in the year 1503. In 1534, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, it was held by the French. In 1628, it was invaded by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for its troops which occupied Northeastern Brazil. The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Michiel de Pauw, one of the directors of the Dutch West Indies Company. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal.

Finding it uninhabited and completely abandoned in 1736, the French East Indies Company took the island and renamed it Isle Dauphine. It was retaken one year later. The first major military outposts were set-up on the archipelago on the following years. Around 1770, the first permanent settlement, Vila dos Remédios, was founded.

As Brazil became independent, very little changed for Fernando de Noronha.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the English arrived to provide technical cooperation in telegraphy (The South American Company). Later the French came with the French Cable and the Italians with Intalcable. In 1942, during World War II, the archipelago was made a Federal Territory, and political and ordinary prisoners were sent to the local prison. In 1988 approximately 70% of the archipelago was declared a national park, with the goal of preserving the land and sea environment.

Nowadays, Fernando de Noronha's economy depends on tourism, restricted by the limitations of its delicate ecosystem. In addition to the historical interest noted above, the archipelago has been the subject of the attention of various scientists dedicated to the study of its flora, fauna, geology, etc.

Source: http://www.fernandodenoronha.com.br/
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_de_Noronha"



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Ascension Island
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ascension Island is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, a dependency of Saint Helena. The capital is Georgetown.

The United States maintains missile tracking sites on the island. The island served as a refueling station for the British fleet during the Falklands War.

It is famous as a nesting site for Atlantic sea turtles.

It is home to Wideawake Field, built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, as a refueling and staging station for aircraft flying between the Americas and Africa. Wideawake is also used by the RAF as a bridge to the Falkland Islands.

In 1982 when Argentine forces invaded the Falklands, Ascension Island proved essential to British forces in their efforts to retake the islands from Argentina. Wideawake airfield became the busiest airport in the world as the RAF flew in supplies to aid the Task Force. A squadron of RAF Harriers was based on the island to repel any possible Argentine attack. The British bombers flew a series of long-range bombing attacks from Ascension Island, against the Falkland Islands (operation Black Buck).

There is no native population in Ascension Island.

It is likely the island was named after the day of its discovery.

External link

* Ascension Island Government (http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/)


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island"





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Saint Helena
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Saint Helena (Britain))
For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation).


Saint Helena is an island in the Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom. It is also the name of this island together with Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island.

290
Saint Helena
coat of arms
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: ?
Official language English
Political status Overseas territory of the UK
Capital Jamestown
Governor and
Commander-in-Chief David Hollamby
Area 410 km2
Population


 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density

7,367
18/km2
Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP)
Time zone UTC +0
National anthem God Save the Queen, My St. Helena Island (unofficial)
Internet TLD .sh
Calling Code


The island served as a strategic island for ships on their way to the Indian Ocean before the Suez Canal was built.

St. Helena has a small population that remains loyal to Britain. However, the island's dimunitive size and geopolitical insignificance has led many Islanders to accuse the British government of ignoring the island. The island's economy was a one crop economy for many years, but is now very weak, and is almost entirely sustained solely on aid from London.

Napoleon Bonaparte ended his life in exile on St. Helena, and the St. Helena tourist industry is heavily based around the promotion of this particular aspect of the island's history. Prominent Anglo-Boer War prisoners, including General Piet Cronje were detained on St. Helena

* History of Saint Helena
* Geography of Saint Helena
* Demographics of Saint Helena
* Politics of Saint Helena
* Economy of Saint Helena
* Communications on Saint Helena
* Transportation on Saint Helena
* Military of Saint Helena

External links

* Saint Helena - The Official Government Website (http://www.sainthelena.gov.sh)
* Saint Helena (http://www.sthelena.se) -- St. Helena Foundation

(http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Africa&action=edit) Countries in



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Falkland Islands
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Falkland Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic consisting of two main islands known as East Falkland and West Falkland and a number of smaller islands. Sovereignty of the islands is also claimed by Argentina where the islands are known as Malvinas. The capital Port Stanley is on East Falkland.
The Falkland Islands
(In Detail) (In Detail)
Motto: Desire the right
Official language English
Capital Port Stanley
Governor Howard Pearce
Chief Executive Chris Simpkins
Area
 - Total
 - % water not ranked
12,173 km2
-
Population
 - Total (2003 E)
 - Density not ranked
2,967
0.24/km2
Currency Falkland pound (FKP; fixed to GBP)
Time zone UTC -4 (DST -3)
National anthem God Save the Queen
Internet TLD .FK
Calling Code 500
Contents [showhide]
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 See also
9 External links

History

Main article: History of the Falkland Islands

Several claims have been made that numerous navigators have sighted the Falkland Islands for the first time but the Dutch sailor Sebald van Weert has been credited with the first sighting in 1600, though the British and Spanish maintain their own respective explorers discovered the islands earlier. They remained practically unsettled until the 19th century. Argentina set up a penal colony in the islands in 1820, and in 1829 named Luis Vernet as the islands' governor, in order to colonise them. The United Kingdom took the islands in 1833, but Argentina maintained its claim. Various tensions led to an Argentine invasion in 1982. The island was later retaken by the UK. See: Falklands War.

Politics

Main article: Politics of the Falkland Islands

Executive authority comes from the Queen and is exercised by the governor on her behalf. Defence is the responsibility of the UK. There is a constitution, which was put into force in 1985. Under the constitution, eight Legislative Councillors, five from Stanley and three from Camp, are elected every four years.

The Executive Council, which advises the governor, consists of the Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and three Legislative Councillors, which are elected by the other Legislative Councillors. The Legislative Council consists of Chief Executive, Financial Secretary and the eight Legislative Councillors. The Governor is ex officio the presiding officer or speaker of the Council.

The loss of the war against Britain over control of the islands led to the collapse of the Argentine military dictatorship in 1983. Disputes over control of the islands still continue. In 2001, British Prime Minister Tony Blair was the first to visit Argentina since the war. On the 22nd anniversary of the war, Argentina’s President Néstor Kirchner gave a speech insisting that the islands would once again be part of Argentina. Kirchner, since becoming president in 2003, has made the islands a top priority. In June 2003 the issue was brought before a United Nations committee, and attempts have been made to open talks with Britain to resolve the issue of the islands. Falkland Islanders themselves continue to view themselves as British, despite Argentine claims.

Map of the Falkland Islands[edit]


Geography

Main article: Geography of the Falkland Islands

The islands are 300 miles (483 km) from the South American mainland.There are two main islands, East Falkland (Soledad) and West Falkland (Gran Malvina) and 200 small islands. The total land area is 12,173 sq km.

Economy

Main article: Economy of the Falkland Islands

The largest industries are fishing and agriculture. The islands have oil reserves that are believed to be quite substantial, but yet to be exploited

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the Falkland Islands

The population is 2,967 (July 2003 estimated).


Culture

Main article: Culture of the Falkland Islands


Miscellaneous topics

* Communications in the Falkland Islands
* Transportation in the Falkland Islands
* Military of the Falkland Islands
* Stamps and postal history of the Falkland Islands


* Battle of the Falkland Islands - naval engagement of the First World War
* Falklands War - conflict between Argentina and United Kingdom
* Major Samuel Stransham


External links

* Falkland Islands Government (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/)
* Penguin News (weekly newspaper) (http://www.penguin-news.com/)
* Falkland Islands News Network (http://www.falklandnews.com/)
* Falkland Islands Portal (http://www.falklandislands.com/)
* Falkland Islands Tourism (http://www.tourism.org.fk/)
* Jason Islands Banknotes (http://www.numismondo.com/pm/jas/)
* Falkland Islands detailed map (http://www.falklands.gov.fk/coastal-shipping/falkland-islands-map.jpg)
* Falkland Islands Information Portal (http://www.falklands.info/)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands"



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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from South Georgia Island)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. They are administered from the Falkland Islands by UK civil commissioner Donald A. Lamont, representing Queen Elizabeth II. Defense is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Since 1982, the territory celebrates Liberation Day on June 14. A constitution was adopted October 3, 1985. The legal system is based on English Common Law.

During World War II (Autumn 1943 - Autumn 1944) the island housed a small (14 people) Norwegian military garrison to protect the island from Japanese invasion.

The research station at King Edward Point, near the former Norwegian whaling station of Grytviken, became a small military garrison after the Falklands War. This returned to civilian use in 2001 and is operated by the British Antarctic Survey. The British Antarctic Survey also has a biological station on Bird Island, off the northwest end of South Georgia. The South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited.

NASA satellite image of South Georgia island covered with snow.

South Georgia lies in the South Atlantic Ocean, about 1390 km south by east of the Falkland Islands, in 54-55°S, 36-38°W. It has a land area of 4066 km2 (1600 sq. mi). It is mountainous, with 11 peaks over 2,000 m high, their slopes furrowed with deep gorges filled with glaciers. Geologically, it consists of gneiss and argillaceous schists, with no trace of fossils, showing that the island is, like the Falkland Islands, a surviving fragment of some greater land-mass now vanished, most probably indicating a former extension of the Andean system. At Royal Bay, on the south-east side, was stationed the German expedition sent out to observe the transit of Venus in 1882. The island would be well suited for cattle or sheep farming but for its damp, foggy climate.

The climate in the islands is variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow. Most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes. Mount Paget on South Georgia is 2,934 m high. The islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism. The north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Georgia.

Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK. The territory has revenues of less than $300,000 against expenditures of nearly $500,000. The territory uses data code SX, and has the Internet country code (top-level domain) GS.

The 11 smaller islands forming the South Sandwich archipelago are, from north to south:

* Zavodovski
* Leskov (the smallest)
* Visokoi
* Candlemas
* Vindication
* Saunders
* Montagu (the largest)
* Bristol
* Bellingshausen
* Cook
* Thule

See also

* Sub-antarctic islands


External links

* King Edward Point research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/King_Edward_Point/index.html)
* Bird Island research station (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/Living_and_Working/Stations/Bird_Island/)
* CIA World Factbook entry (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sx.html)
* South Georgia official website (http://www.sgisland.org/pages/sghome.htm)

Overseas territories of the United Kingdom
Anguilla | Bermuda | British Antarctic Territory | British Indian Ocean Territory | British Virgin Islands | Cayman Islands | Falkland Islands | Gibraltar | Montserrat | Pitcairn Islands | Saint Helena | South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands | Turks and Caicos Islands
Sovereign Base Areas


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Georgia_and_the_South_Sandwich_Islands"





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Gulf Stream
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm, swift Atlantic ocean current that flows along the coast of the Eastern United States and makes Ireland, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries warmer than they would be otherwise. It originates in the Gulf of Mexico and runs past the east coast of the United States towards Newfoundland. Its extension toward Europe is called the North Atlantic drift. The Gulf Stream is one of the strongest ocean currents known. It transports 1.4 Petawatts of power.

The term "Gulf Stream" is sometimes used about the sum of what is described above and the North Atlantic drift.

As it travels north, some of the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream evaporates. This increases the salinity of the water in the stream, and in the North Atlantic Ocean the water is so cold and heavy with salt that it begins to sink. It then becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream.

The effect of the Gulf Stream is sufficient to cause certain parts of the west of Britain and Ireland to be an average of several degrees warmer than most other parts of those countries. Indeed, in Cornwall, and particularly the Isles of Scilly, its effects are such that plants associated with much warmer climes, such as palm trees are able to survive the rigours of northern winters. Logan Botanic Garden in Scotland benefits strongly from the Gulf Stream, allowing their specimens of Gunnera Manicata to grow to over 3 metres tall.

With the recent phenomenon of global warming, some scientists have expressed concern about the sink mechanism outlined above. Specifically, fresh water resulting from the melting of the Arctic polar cap could dilute the Gulf Stream and make it light enough not to sink. The result would be a huge climate change in northern Europe, with unknown consequences. Some fossil remnants hint at the possibility that a similar event has already happened several times in the past, but fossil evidence is questioned. After an initial rejection, the scientific community is evaluating this theory more seriously, as data about historic climate show sudden changes between cold and warm periods.


References

* Corona Magazine Issue 124: Science (http://www.corona-magazine.de/archiv/corona124.html#wissenschaft) (German, Transported amount of power)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Stream"


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Tropical cyclone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Hurricane)
This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses see Hurricane (disambiguation) or Typhoon (disambiguation).


Hurricane Anita approaching landfall on the coast of Mexico, September 1977

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (informally, a typhoon or hurricane) is a type of low-pressure system which generally forms in the tropics.

Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating area of clouds, wind, and thunderstorm activity. The primary energy source of a tropical cyclone is the release of heat of condensation from water condensing at high altitudes. Because of this, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine.

This use of condensation as a driving force is the primary difference setting tropical cyclones apart from other meteorological phenomena, such as mid-latitude cyclones, which draw energy mostly from pre-existing temperature gradients in the atmosphere. To drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must stay over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. The evaporation of this moisture is driven by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure present in the storm, resulting in a sustaining cycle.

The release of heat in the upper levels of the storm causes a temperature inversion of fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius above the ambient temperature in the lower troposphere. Because of this, tropical cyclones are referred to as "warm core" storms. Note, however, that the term "warm core" applies to the upper atmosphere - the area under a hurricane at the earth's surface is normally a few degrees cooler than normal due to clouds and precipitation.



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Classification and terminology
Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region.

A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots or 38 mi/h or 62 km/h).

Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985

A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 metres per second (34-63 knots or 39-73 mi/h or 62-117 km/h ).

The term used to describe tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds exceeding 33 metres per second, varies depending on region, as follows:

* hurricane in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, and the South Pacific Ocean east of 160°E
* typhoon in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline
* severe tropical cyclone in the Southwest Pacific Ocean west of 160°E or Southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E
* severe cyclonic storm in the North Indian Ocean
* tropical cyclone in the Southwest Indian Ocean


(This terminology is defined in WMO/TC-No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland; available online from http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm).

In the UK and Europe some severe north-east Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even although they rarely originate in the tropics. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force windspeeds but are not given individual names.

In other places in the world, hurricanes have been called Willy-Willies (singular Willy-Willy) in Australia, Baguio in the Philippines, Chubasco in Mexico, and Taino in Haiti.

Hurricanes are categorized on a 1-to-5 scale according to the strength of their winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. A Category 1 storm has the lowest wind speeds, while a Category 5 hurricane has the strongest. These are relative terms, because lower category storms can sometimes inflict greater damage than higher category storms, depending on where they strike and the particular hazards they bring. In fact, tropical storms can also produce significant damage and loss of life, mainly due to flooding.

National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 or above as Major Hurricanes. Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mph (241 km/hr) as Super Typhoons.

The definition of sustained winds recommended by the WMO is that of a ten-minute average, and that definition is adopted by most countries. However, a few countries use different definitions: the United States, for example, defines sustained winds based on a 1-minute average wind measured at about 10 metres (33 ft) above the surface.

The ingredients for a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. If the right conditions persist long enough, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon.

There is also a polar counterpart to the tropical cyclone, called an arctic cyclone.

Location

Almost all tropical cyclones form within 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. Since the Coriolis effect initiates tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form within about 10 degrees of the equator (where the Coriolis effect is weakest). However it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if another source of initial rotation is provided. These conditions are extremely rare and such storms are believed to form at a rate of less than one a century.

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity known as the Inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year.



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dhill757

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Timing
Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer when water temperatures are warmest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns.

In the north Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking in early September. The northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar timeframe to the Atlantic. The northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. In the north Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.

In the southern hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October, and ends in May. Southern hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March.

Structure

A strong tropical cyclone consists of the following components.

* Surface low: All tropical cyclones rotate around an area of low atmospheric pressure near the earth's surface. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level.
* Central Dense Overcast (CDO): The Central Dense Overcast is a dense shield of rain bands and thunderstorm activity surrounding the central low. Tropical cyclones with symmetrical CDO tend to be strong and well developed.
* Eye: A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds (however, the sea may be extremely violent). Eyes are home to the coldest temperatures of the storm at the surface, and the warmest temperatures at the upper levels. The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 8 km to 200 km in diameter. In weaker cyclones, the CDO covers the circulation center, resulting in no visible eye.
* Eyewall: The eyewall is a circular band of intense convection and winds immediately surrounding the eye. It is home to the most severe conditions in a tropical cyclone. Intense cyclones show eye-wall replacement cycles, in which outer eye walls form to replace inner ones. The mechanisms which make this occur are still not fully understood.
* Outflow: the upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds headed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves - a characteristic unique to tropical cyclones.

Formation and development

The formation of tropical cyclone is still the topic of extensive research, and is still not fully understood. Five factors are necessary to make tropical cyclone formation possible:

1. Sea surface temperatures above 26.5 degrees Celsius to at least a depth of 50 meters. Warm waters are the energy source for tropical cyclones. When these storms move over land or cooler areas of water they weaken rapidly.
2. Upper level conditions must be conducive to thunderstorm formation. Temperatures in the atmosphere must decrease quickly with height, and the mid-troposphere must be relatively moist.
3. A source of convergence. This is most frequently provided by tropical waves - non rotating areas of thunderstorms which move through the world's tropical oceans.
4. A distance of more than 10 degrees from the Equator. The Coriolis Effect initiates and helps maintain the rotation of a tropical cyclone. The absence of this effect at and near the equator prohibits development.
5. Lack of vertical wind shear (change in wind velocity over height). High levels of wind shear can break apart the vertical structure of a tropical cyclone, prohibiting development.


Tropical cyclones can occasionally form despite not meeting these conditions. A combination of a pre-existing disturbance, upper level divergence, and a monsoon related cold spell lead to the creation of Typhoon Vamei at only 1.5 degrees north of the equator in 2001. It is estimated that the factors leading to the formation of this typhoon repeat themselves only once every 400 years.

When a tropical cyclone of the Atlantic reaches higher latitudes and takes an eastward course, it may develop into a frontal cyclone. Such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes are often violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach Europe as an European windstorm.

Effects

The aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, the costliest tropical cyclone in American history.

A mature tropical cyclone can release heat at a rate upwards of 2x1019 watts. This two hundred times the total rate of human electrical production, and is equivalent to detonating a 10 megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes. Tropical cyclones on the open sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and sometimes sinking ships. However, the most devastating effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall. A tropical cyclone moving over land can do direct damage in 4 ways.

* High winds - Hurricane strength winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, etc. High winds also turn loose debris into flying projectiles, making the outdoor environment even more dangerous.
* Storm surge - Tropical cyclones cause an increase in sea level which can flood coastal communities.
* Heavy rain - The thunderstorm activity in a tropical cyclone causes intense rainfall. Rivers and streams flood, roads become impassable, and landslides can occur.
* Tornado activity - The broad rotation of a hurricane often spawns tornadoes. While these tornadoes are normally not as strong as their non-tropical counterparts, they can still cause tremendous damage.


Often, the secondary effects of a tropical cyclone are equally damaging. They include:

* Disease - The wet environment in the aftermath of a tropical cyclone, combined with the destruction of sanitation facilities and a warm tropical climate can induce epidemics of disease which claim lives long after the storm passes.
* Power outages - Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens of thousands of people, prohibiting vital communication and hampering rescue efforts.
* Transportation difficulties - Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it.

Hurricanes in the Atlantic

Each year, an average of ten tropical storms develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. Many of these remain over the ocean. On average, six of these storms become hurricanes each year. In an average 3-year period, roughly five hurricanes strike the United States coastline, killing approximately 50 to 100 people anywhere from Texas to Maine. Of these, two are typically "major" or "intense" hurricanes (winds greater than 175 km/h or 110 mi/h). Hurricane season officially runs from June 1st through November 30th.

Hurricanes also strike Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean island nations, often doing intense damage: they are deadlier when over warmer water, and the United States is better able to evacuate people from threatened areas than many other nations.

In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch caused severe flooding and mudslides in Honduras, killing at least 10,000 people and changing the landscape enough that entirely new maps of the nation were needed.

In August, 1992, Hurricane Andrew became the most destructive hurricane in the history of the United States of America.

The first recorded South Atlantic hurricane

On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first-ever hurricane observed in the south Atlantic Ocean. Previous South Atlantic cyclones in 1991 and 2004 reached only tropical storm strength. Hurricanes may have formed there prior to 1960 but were not observed until weather satellites began monitoring the

Notable cyclones

On Christmas Day 1974, Tropical cyclone Tracy hit Darwin, Australia. It was the most devastating natural disaster to have ever hit an Australian city. Around 90% of the homes in Darwin were destroyed. Fifty people died in Darwin, and sixteen at sea. Authorities managed to evacuate most of Darwin. Although cyclone Tracy was quite small, it was very severe, with winds of up to 217 kilometres per hour. The damage was estimated to be close to $A 400 million, which (at current exchange rates) is approximately equal to $US 280 million.

A 100-mph tropical cyclone hit the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 13, 1970, which killed an estimated 500,000 people (this is regarded as the 20th century's worst cyclone disaster).

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas as an estimated category 4 storm, killed 6,000-12,000 people. It remains the United States' deadliest natural disaster.


Naming of tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones with winds exceeding 33 metres per second are given names. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region. The lists are decided upon either by national meteorological organizations, or by committees of the World Meteorological Organization.

To help in their identification, in the early 1950's the practice of naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated by the United States National Hurricane Center and are now maintained by the WMO. In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she", names used were exclusively female. The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", etc. However, since tropical storms and hurricanes are primarily destructive, some considered this practice sexist. The National Weather Service responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of male names to the nomenclature. Currently, female and male names during a given season are assigned alternately, still in alphabetic order. The "gender" of the first storm of the season also alternates year to year. The lists of names is prepared in advance, and reused periodically, except that the names of particularly destructive storms are "retired".

Other sets of names are used in the Eastern North Pacific, Central North Pacific, and the Western North Pacific, maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names. The Seychelles Meteorological Service maintains a list for the Southwest Indian Ocean.

See also

* arctic cyclone
* Beaufort scale
* list of Atlantic hurricane seasons.
* list of notable tropical cyclones
* lists of tropical cyclone names

External links

An excellent hurricane FAQ (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqHED.html)

* Global climatology of tropical cyclones (http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/ch1_3.htm)
* List of available tropical cyclone names (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B2.html)
* List of retired tropical cyclone names (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B3.html)
* Naming hurricanes (http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/basics/naming.shtml)
* Unisys historical and contemporary hurricane track data (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/) e.g. Atlantic 1968 (http://weather.unisys.com/hurricane/atlantic/1968/index.html)
* Worldwide tropical cyclone tracks, 1979-1988 (http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/pubs/tcguide/ch1/figures_ch1/figure1.9.htm)
* Worldwide tropical cyclone basins (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/6RSMCs.jpg)
* 1995 Mediterranean "Hurricane" (http://www.mindspring.com/~jbeven/intr0008.htm)
* Tropical cyclone peak activity rates for different basins (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/G1.html)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane



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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 10:58 PM                       
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UNDERWATER RUINS IN THE ATLANTIC

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A word of caution: their is a pretty robust Atlantis community out there who circulate there own stories of submerged cities and issue there own press releases. Those releases can be picked up as fact and are endlessly repeated. It's nice to have objective sources when possible.
In some cases, structures found near current land masses could have been submerged due to purely local floods, but even in those cases, the problem remains; who built them? Certainly not the “primitive” peoples that the current time line claims were living in these locales.

For instance, in the Americas a short time ago men were not thought to have been here before 5,000 years ago. To date, scientists fight to try not to have the date pushed out beyond 15,000 years. Those people were not thought to have been responsible for these advanced structures.

On the other hand, the presumed megalithic structures off the coast of Cuba are 2,500 feet (1/2 mile) below the ocean. Other megalithic structures are being located miles from current shorelines. Here are a couple of shorts about even more anomalous finds deep in the ocean.

“In 1966, an oceanographic research expedition led by Dr. Robert J. Menzies of Duke University aboard the vessel Anton Brunn photographed what appeared to be carved rock columns under 6,000 feet of ocean in the Milne-Edward Deep, a depression that reaches a depth of 19,000 feet.

A cautious Dr. Menzies admitted that the discovery of what may be the ruins of an ancient city could be “one of the most exciting discoveries of this century, insofar as ruins go.

Some of the columns are half buried in mud while others stand upright. Many of them appear to have a kind of writing on them.””


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http://www.s8int.com/water6.html]http://www.s8int.com/water6.html
...Source: Atlantis Rising by Brad Steiger

[This message has been edited by dhill757 (edited 09-09-2004).]


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dhill757

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"In 1973 a U.S. deep sea submersible craft photographed Roman Columns that seemed part of a temple structure at the bottom of one of the deepest parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Click and drag photo to on the right to resize.Photo: Roman, Greek and Egyptian-style Columns 6000 Feet Under The Sea!
Rather than ending up in some scientific journal or being debated on a university campus, the photo was published in an obscure book about the supposed lost continent of Atlantis.
While the photo may have certainly served the purpose of the book’s author, would it not have served history and archeology even more if published and debated in those circles?"..Source Unexplained:News


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dhill757

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RESEARCHES BY THE SOVIETS
Ancient remains in the Atlantic, in 1979

Announcement of the discovery of the sunken Amber mountain, in 1984

The discovery of a smooth marble plate in 1985.

  During the end of March in 1979, some Soviet researchers announced the success of their research in the Atlantic Ocean by saying “Plato showed us the way to the lost Atlantis”. The soviet boat of underwater researches, named “Vityaz”, anchored to the river Tagus of Portugal. Dr. Andrey Aksenov, assistant manager of the Institute of Oceanography of Soviet Academy, called reporters on the boat and announced a discovery:

"In the sea area, 900 km from the Portugal coasts, there have been found, on a sunken mountain, a plateau in strange formations. After a close examination with our scientific instruments, we discovered that in this area there are remains, probably of a sunken city. We spotted almost clearly half-demolished walls and giant stairs, even if they were covered with seaweed and other sea plants. We took many photos, by which eight of them show the huge symmetrical escalation, and they will be sent to Moscow for special elaboration...."

The Soviets of “Vityaz” told to Mr Vaskonselo, manager of the National Fishing Institute of Portugal, that they are certain they have discovered a sunken part of the lost Atlantis. Dr. Aksenov also mentioned that this discovery is only the beginning of a whole research which will be centered to this place of the Atlantic. Besides, this is the place that Plato defined the existence and disappearance of Atlantis.

The research boat “Vityaz” continued its mission by scanning the bottom of the Atlantic, westward of Madera. In this area, under the surface of the sea, it is extended the mountain Amber. It is a strange mountain in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and due to its shape attracts all those Atlantologists, who study Atlantis by Plato scripts.

In 1984 the Soviets of “Vityaz” finished their long researches and gave the information that the mountain Amber, found beneath water, has once been a large island above the surface of the sea.

Unfortunately, they did not announce the details and evidence on which they had been based...

In September 1985, there has been announced by the soviet and foreign tabloids that the Russians pulled out of 4500 meters in the Atlantic, a strange piece of marble. The research was carried out by the oceanographers of the soviet boat “Academic Boris Petrov”.

This discovery has troubled a lot the research group of the boat.

From the very early studies on this object, it has been found out that it was a smooth plate of marble colored from both sides in white-yellowish. Its shape proves that it had been smoothed by a man. They estimated that this object exists in the ocean for many thousand years. Leon Hitrov, scientist of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and chief of the mission pointed out:

“This finding is of great importance. I will personally take on its analysis in the Laboratory of Analytic Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. This scientific test will show if the plate was a part of a structure of an unknown civilization or if according to all evidence, it comes from the legendary and powerful nation of the Atlantians”.

Unfortunately, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, from all we know, has not announced something officially. There are rumors that the “secret” researches continue in the Atlantic Ocean, not only by Russians but by Americans.


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http://www.atlantida.gr/engSovietResearch.htm#research


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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:30 PM                       
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Here are some of the reports of underwater ruins gathered throughout the years of all the various ruins reported to be at the bottom of the Atlantic. Of course, many are of a dubious nature. I'll list them all now, get into what we actually know of them later:



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City on the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean off Spain

Dr. Maxine Asher's Expedition in 1973

UPI Report

Pyramid explored by Dr. Ray Brown on the sea floor off the Bahamas in 1970. Brown was accompanied by 4 divers who also found roads, domes, rectangular buildings, unidentified metallic instruments, and a statue holding a "mysterious" crystal containing miniature pyramids. The metal devices and crystals were taken to Florida for analysis at a university there. What was discovered was that the crystal amplified energy that passed through it.

It is made in a method unknown to the scientists who analyzed it. It was found in a mysteriously lit up chamber inside the underwater pyramid with some kind of ray gun like instrument pointed at it. Kirlian photographs, which record impressions beyond our limited range of vision, showed an eye inside the crystal not visible to the naked eye.

What technology could build a long blacktop paved road for hundreds of miles that was still in good condition over 10,000 years later! This road was found underwater off the East Coast by the deep diving submarine Aluminaut and contained magnesium oxide.

In 1977, a mysterious discovery was made on the floor of the Atlantic concerning an unknown technology. A 650-foot pyramid was mysteriously lit up, with sparkling white water surrounding it that turned deep green, a shocking contrast to the dark black waters at that depth. The discovery was photographed by Arl Marahall's expedition off Cay Sal.

Dr. William Bell's 1958 photos taken on the bottom of the Atlantic showed a six-foot spire protruding from a couple of circular gear-like bases with peculiar light emanations from the bottom of the shaft. Were these the remnants of the Eternal Flame spoken of by the ancients, powered by an inter-dimensional cosmic energy taken out of the atmosphere by a form of crystal conductor at the apex of pyramids or towers?

Pyramids larger than any building in the world made in our modern times have been found on the bottom the Atlantic Ocean and in China, and one in Egypt that our own technology has failed to match.

These Pyramids have cement that our scientists admit is superior to what we use today. The writings of the ancients describe pyramids as Time Capsules containing the history and technology of the Empire of the Sun and latter day Atlantis.

A huge pyramid, in 10,000 feet of Atlantic water, was reported to have been found with a pulsating crystal on top of it, by Tony Benik's expedition. The group also found an opaque crystal tablet there, and reported that when a light was beamed through it, mysterious inscriptions became visible.

More underwater pyramids were found off Central America, Yucatan, and Louisiana, where domes were found in the Straits of Florida. A marble Greek style building was found between Florida and Cuba. And what about the column that radiated energy Dr. Zink found in the Bahamas and Zink also brought up other artifacts from his dives over Atlantis, and he was interviewed by Mind International agent Steve Forsberg.

One of the most amazing finds on the bottom of the Atlantic was reported by Captain Reyes Miraga's crew on the salvage ship Talia from Spain. They video-taped miles of pillared temples, buildings, and statues and wide curving boulevards, with smaller avenues branching out from the center like spokes in a wheel, with majestic temples and pyramids. Much of this city, as well as the city found off Spain by Dr. Maxine Asher's expedition and later by Professor Akayonove's expedition (all photographed), show a startling similarity to Plato's description of Atlantis!

An urn brought to the surface by Dr. Asher's expedition.

More than 30 separate ruins have been found on the bottom of the Atlantic since 1956, and in ancient libraries, several old maps showing Atlantis and its island chain have been found. The islands are known as Aryan, Og. Poseid, and Antigua and the nation was Atlan. Garden City, or Poseid, was reportedly the capital of a continent stretching from off of North Africa and Europe to off Florida with a tropical climate on the western and southern shores, and a cool climate on the north and east.

Ruins of roads and buildings found off Bimini Island in the 1960's by the photographed and published expeditions of Dr. Mansan Valentine. Steven Forsberg, co-founder of the Lahaina Times newspaper dove into these ruins in 1982 to witness them first hand. Similar ruins were also photographed off Cay Sal in the Bahamas. The ruins are of the same construction as the oldest city ever found on land, according; to archaeologists, in Tiajuanaco, Bolivia, where a calendar was uncovered that shows the exact position of the stars and planets 27,000 years ago. This is more than 20,000 years BEFORE the oldest civilizations in school history books!

Similar underwater ruins found off Morocco and photographed 50 to 60 feet underwater.

Dr. David Zink found in 1957, off the Bahamas coast, a stylized marble head, building block cast in a mold and a construction piece drilled by a bit, as well as a stone column that he reported radiated energy. Forsberg of M.I.N.D. interviewed Dr. Zink and obtained the photographs.

A ruined harbor like complex discovered on the sea floor off Bimini Captain John Alexander.

The deep sea diving submarine Aluminaut discovered a well preserved paved road on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean make of blacktop magnesium oxide, running along the sea floor from Florida to South Carolina.

Temple pillars, buildings, statues, wide curving boulevards with smaller avenues branching out like spokes in a wheel, majestic temples and pyramids videotaped by Captain Reyes Miraga on the Spanish named salvage ship "Talia".

A huge 11 room pyramid found 10,000 feet under water in the mid Atlantic Ocean with a huge crystal top, as reported by Tony Benlk.

Several acres of white marble-like ruins found on tile ocean floor off Cuba reported by Lieceser Hemingway.

Mysterious dome structures reportedly seen in clear water by several pilots in the Straits of Florida.

Soviet expeditions to the Atlantic Ampere Seamount resulted in photographs of ruins destroyed by lava (like the Aztecs and Mayans wrote Atlan was destroyed by). This discovery was in the New York Times May 21, 1978. The photos were developed by the Academy's Petrovsky Marakuyev and reported by the deputy Director of the Soviet Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Professor Aksyonove, who also reported ruins found off Cadiz, Spain in the same area as Dr., Maxine Asher's previous discovery.

1981 expedition of P. Cappellano discovered mysterious ruins with strange symbols on them on the sea floor off the Canary Islands.

1977 report of a huge pyramid found off Cay Sal in the Bahamas, photographed by Ari Marshall's expedition, about 150 feet underwater. The pyramid was about 650 feet high. Mysteriously, the surrounding water was lit by sparkling white water flowing out of the openings in the pyramid and surrounded by green water, instead of the black water everywhere else at that depth.

The foundations of a 100 by 75 foot structure photographed on the sea bottom off Andros Island.

A sunken city about 400 miles off Portugal found by Soviet expeditions led by Boris Asturua, with buildings made of extremely strong concrete and plastics. He said "the remains of streets suggests the use of monorails for transportation". He added that he brought up a statue.

Pillars found on the Atlantic floor in 1969 by Robert Fero and Michael Grumley, a chunk of which was carved from rock NOT found anywhere in that part of the world. 20. A road off the Bahamas explored by Dr. Manson Valentine.

Dimitri Rebikoff, using his underwater platform and a special collecting lens, reported ruins found encircling an underwater freshwater spring.

Marble Acropolis underwater across five acres of fluted columns raised on pillars.

Twenty researchers, including archaeologists, a marine biologist, geologist, and cartographer dove onto ruins on the sea floor off Bimini in 1975 and brought back artifacts from which they concluded that the walls and roads were made of materials not found in that part of the world.


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http://www.crystalinks.com/atlantisasher.html




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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:34 PM                       
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Here is what Dr. Maxine Asher says about her discoveries:
The truth is that four cities lie underwater from Cadiz to Gibraltar, and these cities are submerged at least 120 feet and resting on the continental shelf. Using the yardarm of 10 feet for every 1000 years of recorded history, we can observe highly developed sunken cities, the remains of which are at least 9000 years old or older (see Internet Website www.atlantisresearch.com). If these remains are not Atlantis, then such evidence still requires that we acknowledge civilization's beginnings at least 5000 years before the earliest Egyptian cities.


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   posted 09-09-2004 11:49 PM                       
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To which the Russian scientist Alexander Gorodnitsky, Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, professor from the Russian Institute of Oceanology also adds in a 2003 interview:
"I think that the lost continent is situated somewhere between Gibraltar and the Azores. In 1984 and 1986 our expedition was working on the slopes of Mount Ampere, when we found very strange constructions at the depth of only 100 meters - they looked like rooms and walls. I submerged to see that myself, made some sketches. Other geologists drew alters or walls - that was what they had seen, we could not take any photographs at that time. At first it seemed to me that those rooms and walls had been created by the nature, but the rooms were equal in size. The human psychology is organized very specifically: if someone had said that professor Gorodnitsky found the lost continent, no one would have believed such a message.


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dhill757

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   posted 09-09-2004 11:55 PM                       
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A small piece of volcanic agglomerate was dredged from 400 fathoms on the north slope. About a ton of flat pteropod limestone cobbles was dredged from the summit area. One of the cobbles gave an apparent radiocarbon age of 12,000 years ±900 (J.L. Kulp). The state of lithification of the limestone suggests that it may have been lithified under subaerial [i.e. above water, on land surface] conditions and that the sea mount may have been an island within the past 12,000 years. (Heezen, Bruce C., et al, "Flat-Topped Atlantis, Cruiser, And Great Meteor Sea Mounts" in Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 65:1261, 1954 (Protogonos issue 9))
In later studies, evidence was found for the remnants of a "sunken block of continent" in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. An articlein New Scientist 1975 summarizes the result. (Anonymous, New Scientist,66:540, 1975)

(from Unknown Earth: A Handbook of Geological Enigmas by William R. Corliss.) http://www.atlantissource.com/home/forgotten_article.htm



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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:00:07 pm
docyabut
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Drhill,we know there were two migrations out of Afria 100,000,and 80,000 years ago. Its seems there are now two migrations to the Americas. One through the Bering Straits and one from Australia. There are islands all across the south pacific to the Americas.However there is still no evidence that man crossed the Atlantic.
Did the First Americans Come From, Er, Australia?

EXETER, England (Reuters) - Anthropologists stepped into a hornets' nest on Monday, revealing research that suggests the original inhabitants of America may in fact have come from what is now known as Australia.


The claim will be extremely unwelcome to today's native Americans who came overland from Siberia and say they were there first.


But Silvia Gonzalez from John Moores University in Liverpool said skeletal evidence pointed strongly to this unpalatable truth and hinted that recovered DNA would corroborate it.


"This is very contentious," Gonzalez, a Mexican, said with a smile at the annual meeting of the British association for the Advancement of Science. "They (native Americans) cannot claim to have been the first people there."


She said there was very strong evidence that the first migration came from Australia via Japan and Polynesia and down the Pacific Coast of America.


Skulls of a people with distinctively long and narrow heads discovered in Mexico and California predated by several thousand years the more rounded features of the skulls of native Americans.


One particularly well preserved skull of a long-face woman had been carbon dated to 12,700 years ago, whereas the oldest accurately dated native American skull was only about 9,000 years old.


"We have extracted her DNA. It is going to be a bomb," she said, declining to give details but adding that the tests carried out so far were being replicated to make sure they were accurate.


She said there were tales from Spanish missionaries of an isolated coastal community of long-face people in Baja California of a completely different race and rituals from other communities in America at the time.


These last survivors were wiped out by diseases imported by the Spanish conquerors, Gonzalez said.


The research is one of 11 different projects in America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East being funded over a four-year period by Britain's Natural Environment Research Council.


The projects, focusing on diet, dating and dispersal of people down the millennia in the face of climate change, aim to rewrite anthropology.


"We want to make headlines from heads," said Professor Clive **** of Southampton university. "DNA will give us a completely new map of the world and how we peopled it."
http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&cid=564&ncid=564&e=12&u=/nm/20040906/ts_nm/science_migrations_dc_1



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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:01:37 pm
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Doc: Arguably older bones have been found in several locations in both north and south america. Due to the age these bones appeared to be, scientists of the time immediately jumped to the conclusion that they were frauds or at the very lest, grossly mistaken. Methinks some of these finds should be reevaluated. See Forbidden Archeology by Creamo and Thompson.
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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:04:16 pm
docyabut
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http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/mom/groves.html
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docyabut
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Brig, Forbidden Archeology, by Michael A. Cremo and Richard L. Thompson does have its flaws   


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:06:45 pm








atalante
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Docyabut,

There is a growing controversy about Pre-Clovis occupation of the Americas.
Here is a link which suggests the pre-Clovis immigrants came across the south Pacific somewhat after 33,000 BC.


http://www.carleton.ca/Museum/beringia/preclovis.html

 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:08:03 pm







dhill757

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Forbidden Archaeology may have some errors in it, but if even half those reports are true, it means a major rewriting of human history, something scientists, of course, aren't prepared to do!

For my purposes, just the fact that Indonesia and Australia show signs of habitation as early as forty thousand years ago prove that sea travel to an Atlantic island was possible. Are there still bones in the Atlantic..? Well, they just found them in the Caribbean. And, as I said, Mastodon and Woolly Mammoth bones have been dredged up all along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Essan raised a more interesting point, if you ask me. Why would people go to the raised Mid-Atlantic Ridge to settle, if it was just a barren rock in the middle of the ocean.

To which I say, maybe it wasn't. Maybe Atlantis even stretched down in the ocean closer towards the equator, in the space of ocean between South America and Africa. No one had checked there yet and the ocean is even much deeper.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:12:17 pm

docyabut
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Until now, the Americas have produced only 25 bones or skeletons dated as more than 8,000 years old. 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:15:01 pm







Psycho

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Only 25 human bones in the Americas before 8,000 b.c.?

Docyabut, where do you get your information from, an old textbook?


This article takes an Australia based "migration" but found 27 skeletons alone at one site, each one older than 8,000 b.c.:

quote:
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                                              Who discovered the Americas?




 
Zeeya Merali



Skull analysis suggests Australians got there first.

From the BA Festival of Science, Exeter, UK.

Traditional colonization theories hold that the first wave of humans to migrate to the Americas came from Siberia.


The first colonizers of the Americas came from Australia, according to archaeologists who have analysed skulls from 12,000-year-old skeletons found in California. The finding contradicts the traditional view that the first immigrants were the ancestors of modern Native Americans.

The skulls, taken from skeletal remains found in the desert of the Baja California peninsula in Mexico, are long and narrow. "This is completely different to the Native Americans' rounder skull shape," explains lead researcher Silvia Gonzalez from the Liverpool John Moores University, UK.

The skeletons are housed by the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. They were embedded in volcanic deposits that deteriorated the structure of the bones and made them difficult to date accurately. But the skulls' intriguing form has driven researchers to work out how old they are.

Gonzalez and her team announced their first set of results on 6 September at the Exeter-based Festival of Science, run by the British Association for the Advancement of Science. They have managed to radiocarbon date 4 of the 27 skeletons. So far, the oldest, belonging to an individual called Peñon Woman III, is 12,700 years old.


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http://www.nature.com/news/2004/040906/full/040906-5.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:16:30 pm







Psycho

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Here's one that supports the Atlantic "migration":

quote:
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Possible Atlantic crossings
Two eminent archeologists say that North America's first inhabitants may have been from Europe's Iberian Peninsula. This view is in contrast to the theory discussed elsewhere in this article that the first settlers came across a land Bridge from Asia some 13,500 years ago establishing a culture called "Clovis". The country's first inhabitants may have crossed the Atlantic some 18,000 years ago from the area which is now present day Spain, Portugal, and southwestern France. According to Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, these pre-modern explorers called Solutreans are believed to have settled the Eastern Seaboard and over the next six mellenia their culture spread as far as the American deserts, the Canadian tundra, and perhaps even into South America. The researchers say the Solutreans may not have been the only paleo-explorers to reach the Western Hemisphere. Archaeological sites have been discovered in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, as well as Monte Verde, Chile which had been settled 12,500 to 16,0000 B.C (When the first (?) Europeans went to South America in the 1500's, the indigenous people fought that they were the same people who built their ancient civilisation, they described them as a divine race of bearded Whites). The projectile points and other artifacts found at these sites are identical to those found on the other side of the Atlantic.

The Disappearance of the First Whites In America

The case for Whites in pre-Amerind North America therefore appears credible: all that must be answered is what happened to them. The evidence indicates that the first Whites in America were either killed in open warfare with Amerinds (who may have arrived simultaneously or afterwards); and that the remaining Whites were absorbed into what became the numerically dominant Amerind groupings. The existence of the Lineage X gene string supports the latter.

The first Whites in America therefore disappeared, along with their culture, through a process of racial integration, leaving behind only tantalising clues such as skeletons and other artifacts as evidence of their existence. For politically correct reasons these matters would never receive full-scale adoption in school text-books or the curriculum.



The British National Party, http://www.bnp.to]http://www.bnp.to



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http://www.racerealist.com/lostwhiteamerica.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:17:55 pm
docyabut
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Phycho wake up!  read my statement again.
Until now, the Americas have produced only 25 bones or skeletons dated as more than 8,000 years old. The link-
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20040906/firstamerican.html


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docyabut
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Possible Atlantic crossings? Maybe?
Another guesso report 

 
 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:19:37 pm







Psycho

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Hate to tell you this, Docy, but all science is pretty much "guesso." Even what you look at as the "best fossil evidence." Why haven't they found more skeletons? Well, they have, but they don't get the same press as "Kennewick Man."


quote:
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                                                      The First Americans





New digs and old bones reveal an ancient land that was a mosaic of peoples, including Asians and Europeans. Now a debate rages: who got here first?
By Sharon Begley and Andrew Murr
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The standard story of the peopling of the Americas holds that wanderers from Northeast Asia fanned out across the Great Plains, into the Southwest and eventually the East to become the founding populations of today's Native Americans. Stone spear points found in Clovis, N.M., in the 1930s were dated at 11,000 years ago and hailed as evidence of the oldest human settlement in the New World. The story was so tidy that any skeletons that seemed to challenge this "Clovis model" were shoved back into the closet by the mandarins of American anthropology; any stone tools that seemed older than Clovis were dismissed as misdated. Clovis had American archeology in a stranglehold; James Adovasio of Mercyhurst College in Pennsylvania calls its defenders the "Clovis mafia."

The small band of hunter-gatherers made its summer camp on the riverbank, at the northern end of the region through which they followed the seasonal game. The location, 45 miles southeast of what is now Richmond, Va., was ideal: winds from the north kept the flying insects down. Some of the band would spend their days striking long, slender quartz flakes from stone cores; others made triangular and pentagonal spear points for the hunt. It was 15,050 years ago; the erstwhile "First Americans" would not make the trek across the Bering Strait for 3,500 more years.

Now there are too many skeletons in the closet to ignore. Pushed by a 1990 federal law that requires museums to return Native American remains to their tribes, scientists - called in to figure out who belongs to whom - have amassed a database of "craniometric profiles." Each of the 2,000 or so profiles consists of some 90 skull measurements, such as distance between the eyes, that indicate ancestry. For most skeletons, it has been pretty straightforward to tell a Hopi from a Crow. But some skulls stand out like pale-skinned, redheaded cousins at a family reunion of olive-skinned brunettes. The oldest American found so far, an 11,500-year-old skeleton from central Brazil, resembles southern Asians and Australians, anthropologist Walter Neves of the University of So Paulo reported last year. One skull from Lime Creek, Neb., and two from Minnesota - all 7,840 to 8,900 years old - resemble South Asians or Europeans. Some of the other misfits: Buhl Woman, found in 1989, died 10,600 years ago at the age of 19 or so. "She doesn't fit into any modern group," says anthropologist Richard Jantz of the University of Tennessee, "but is most similar to today's Polynesians."

Spirit Caveman bears less resemblance to American Indians than he does to any other ethnic group except African Bushmen. His face is not flattened or wide, his nose is not narrow - all traits of Amerindians. He "does not show affinity to any Amerindian sample [we used]," conclude Jantz and Douglas Owsley of the Smithsonian. Instead, with his long head, wide nose, forward face and strong chin, he resembles the Aboriginal Ainu of Japan or other East Asians.

Kennewick Man, found on July 28, 1996, by two college students watching a hydroplane race on the Columbia River in Washington, looks almost nothing like a Native American. His face is narrow, with a prominent nose, an upper jaw that juts out slightly and a long, narrow braincase. Although early reports described him as Caucasoid or even European (which led the Asatru Folk Assembly, followers of an ancient Nordic religion, to claim him), in fact the 8,000-year-old man most resembles a cross between the Ainu and the Polynesians.

America, it seems, was a mosaic of peoples and cultures even 11,000 years ago. Based on their study of 11 ancient skulls, conclude Owsley and Jantz in a paper to be published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, America was home to "at least three distinct groups ... None of the fossils [except for one] shows any particular affinity to modern Native Americans ... [Skull measurements] depart from contemporary American Indians, often in the direction of Europeans or South Asians."

One explanation for the lack of a family resemblance between the oldest Americans and today's Amerindians is that the original Americans might simply have changed in appearance over the generations. "You'd expect them to look different," says anthropologist David Hurst Thomas of the American Museum of Natural History. "They're separated by 9,000 years of evolution." A more radical explanation is that the First Americans - perhaps from Polynesia, perhaps from Europe [related Reuters story] - left no descendants. Whoever got here first, in other words, were not the ancestors of today's Pequot, Shoshone and other tribes. Instead, they were obliterated by later arrivals who made war or made love: killing them or mating with them. Kennewick Man, for instance, had a stone spear point in his hip. Its shape suggests it came from what scientists call the Cascade culture, people who were just moving into the area. "It may be a sign of ethnic conflict," says anthropologist James Chatters, who first inspected K Man.

The possibility that today's Native Americans are not the descendants of the original Americans is not going down easily. "If you tell the Native Americans that they weren't first," says Thomas, "you're asking for trouble." That conclusion, even if proved, has no direct legal ramifications for Native Americans' hard-won gains, such as the right to fish ancestral waters and the right to establish casinos. "But it may be just a step before legislation starts being rolled back," Thomas warns. Some Americans resent the newfound wealth of some tribes, and "if the discoveries make today's Native Americans just another Ellis Island group, it makes it hard for them to preserve their sovereignty."

Already, Native Americans are protesting this line of research. The Shoshone-Bannock demanded custody of Buhl Woman and reburied her. The Northern Paiute are asking that Spirit Caveman be reburied, and the Umatilla of Washington want Kennewick Man. "We know that our people have been part of this land since the beginning of time," said Armand Minthorn, a Umatilla religious leader, in a statement. "Scientists believe that because [Kennewick Man's] head measurement does not match ours, he is not Native American. Our elders have told us that Indian people did not always look the way we do today."

The determined band passed up the quartz in the nearby deposits, trekking beyond the Green River in what is now Wyoming and Utah, all the way to the northern Bighorn, 600 miles away. There they found the obsidian and quartz crystal they would fashion into stone points and flakes - and never use. Instead, they would bury their caches on a layer of compacted red ocher. Their neighbors had equally strong preferences, but for them the quest was not for exotic materials but for sources imbued with spiritual significance. Rejecting the local quartz, they climbed the peaks to chip out red jasper found at 9,000 feet and flake it into stone tools that they, too, would cache, unused. Stones that lay nearer their gods would make a fitting offering.

For years, no authority would accept any deviation from the party line that the First Americans were the Clovis people of 11,000 years ago. But in 1977, archeologist Tom Dillehay of the University of Kentucky began excavating a site deep in the Chilean hills called Monte Verde. There, some 30 hunter-gatherers lived beside a creek 35 miles inland of the Pacific until a rising peat bog pushed them out - and preserved the site like volcanic ash over Pompeii. The band lived in low, tentlike structures lashed together with cord and covered with bark and mastodon hide to keep out the rain, says Dillehay. Outside were work areas, and fire pits lined with clay. A hut set apart from the others may have served as either a paleohospital or a Stone Age Studio 54: inside, Dillehay found five chewed quid made of boldo leaves, which contain both an analgesic and a mild hallucinogen. Boldo was clearly prized: the nearest supply lay more than 100 miles north, so either someone made a long trek or arranged trades with distant inlanders. Belying the image of the original Americans as full-time big-game hunters, the Monte Verdeans ate a varied diet: freshwater mussels and crawfish, wild potato, fruits and nuts, small game like birds that they brought down with stones and the occasional mastodon that they felled with fire-hardened lances. But the paradigm killer was this: Monte Verde was inhabited 12,500 years ago - 1,000 years before the original Americans supposedly flocked across the Bering Strait.

For years archeologists dismissed Dillehay's claim. At scientific conferences, he recalls, "others would be introduced as doctor this and doctor that. I was always 'the guy who is excavating Monte Verde.' Some people wouldn't even shake my hand." Even worse, the Clovis model had such a stranglehold that scientists "would dig until they hit the Clovis level and just stop." Few looked for older bones and tools. Four or five possible pre-Clovis sites in South America were never reported because the scientists feared that doing so would wreck their reputations.

That changed two years ago, when archeology's pooh-bahs finally accepted that Monte Verde was indeed 12,500 years old. The floodgates opened. Sites once dismissed as misdated are being re-examined. At Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Avella, Pa., for instance, where for 26 years Adovasio has been excavating under an overhang that juts out from a rock face 43 feet above the ground, scientists are now reconsidering his claim that the charcoal, stone tools and woven material buried there are at least 14,000 and possibly 17,000 years old. At Saltville, in western Virginia, archeologists are studying what may be a Stone Age mastodon feast. Stone and bone tools (including an ivory-polisher), mastodon bones and fire-cracked rock along an ancient riverbank have been unearthed from a layer that may be 14,000 years old. Saltville has a distinguished pedigree: a friend sent Thomas Jefferson a mastodon tooth from the site in 1782.

Jefferson was curious enough about the prehistory of America that when he dispatched Lewis and Clark to survey the West, he asked them to look for signs of ancient settlements. He might have turned his curiosity closer to home. Archeologists led by Michael Johnson had stopped digging at Cactus Hill in Virginia when they found Clovis material, dated at 10,920 years old, three feet down. But with the theory of the First Americans shifting beneath their feet, they dug deeper - and came upon stone blades and cores (the rock chunks from which flakes are struck) in a layer 15,050 years old. "This looks like a good candidate for a Clovis precursor to me," says the Smithsonian's Stanford. Like Johnson, archeologist Albert Goodyear of the University of South Carolina had never felt much need to dig below the Clovis layer in his Topper site on the Savannah River. But last spring he and colleagues found, beneath the Clovis layer, stone blades and flakes by the score in layers three feet down - a depth that, he estimates, corresponds to more than 12,000 years. "This is pretty substantial evidence," says Goodyear, "that people were here long before we thought."

And they may have come from somewhere no scientists in their right mind would have considered only a few years ago: a French Connection. There are striking similarities between the stone tools attributed to the Clovis culture, in the Americas, and the stone tools attributed to the so-called Solutrean culture of France and the Iberian Peninsula. Both made beveled, crosshatched bone rods, notes archeologist Bruce Bradley. Both made idiosyncratic spear points of mammoth ivory. Both made triangular stone scrapers. Yes, two separate peoples might have invented the same thing, as David Meltzer of Southern Methodist University points out: "These similarities may represent finding the same answer to the same problem" of killing and butchering game. But there's a twist. "The oldest of these tools in America," says Bradley, "are in the East and Southeast, not the Southwest" - where they should be if the Clovis people trickled in from Siberia and then fanned out across the continent. And since glaciers did not retreat from America's midsection until 11,500 years ago, anyone inhabiting the Eastern Seaboard before then must have come from the East rather than the Bering Strait.

How? Crossing the open Atlantic would have posed a perhaps insurmountable challenge, even though people traveled in boats from southern Asia to Australia at least 40,000 years ago. "We don't give early people enough credit," says Stanford. "Yeah, they lived in caves - but they were pretty smart, too." Smart enough, perhaps, to have navigated along the ice sheet and seasonal pack ice that spanned the ocean from England to Nova Scotia. "They could have made it if they worked the glacier for seals and water birds," says Johnson. "They would have seen migratory birds flying west; they would have known there was land in that direction." Similarly, the Asians who reached America from the West may have been seafarers, too.

Deep in the craggy uplands 450 feet above the Amazon, the people of Caverna da Pedra Pintada look nothing like the stereotype of the First Americans as bison-fur-wearing big-game hunters. This band drew sustenance from the river and the forest, dining on turtles, frogs, snakes, fish and fresh-water mussels, as well as Brazil nuts and palm nuts. And they did more. The cave floor is splattered with gobs of red and yellow iron-based paint, dripped 11,000 years ago. The Stone Age artists created exuberant scenes of snakes and other animals and even handprints - designs? signatures? - including children's.

"We are rewriting the textbooks on the First Americans," says Stanford. The new edition will show that "the peopling of the Americas was never as simple as simple-minded paradigms said." Instead, it will tell of an America that beckoned to far-flung people long before the Mayflower or the Santa Maria or the Viking ships, of an unknown continent so alluring that men and women endowed with a technology no more sophisticated than sharp rocks braved Siberian tundra and Atlantic ice packs to get here. It is still the New World. But it is thousands of years older than we thought - home to settlers so diverse that it was, even millenniums ago, the world's melting pot.

Copyright © Newsweek, April 26, 1999



http://www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/firstamer.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:21:36 pm







Psycho

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  posted 09-21-2004 12:31 PM                       
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As for what those people looked like:

quote:
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Physical Features of Skulls Older than 8,000 Years From the Americas





Cheekbones are not pronounced.

Long skull (measured front to back).

Rather prominent noses with high bridges.

Narrow faces with deeper contours.

No shovelling on the incisors.

Little or no facial prognathism (facial forwardness).

Small bilobed or bifurcate chin



When taken as a whole, the skulls of the very ancient inhabitants of the Americas display features more typical of what some scientists call "Caucasoid" traits than "Mongoloid" traits. But by "Caucasoid" scientists do NOT mean they are "Caucasian" in the sense of "white" people today. Rather, they are using the term "Caucasoid" to refer to a branch of ancient, but anatomically modern, peoples who were the ancestors of several branches of historically known people: Europeans, southwest Asians, Indians from the subcontinent of India, west-central Asians, and the Ainu of Japan.

By selecting from the list below you can read a little bit about several of the ancient Americans, as well as see reconstructions of what some of them may have looked like. The reconstructions were carried out by forensic anthropologists using methods developed to aid police and humanitarian groups in various world areas to flesh out human skeletal remains. While such matters as skin, hair, and eye color, or the exact number and place of facial wrinkles is more a matter of intuition than science, the actual fleshing out of the skulls has, over time, been shown to be highly accurate.



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http://www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/amerskeletons.html

The author doesn't want to come right out and say it but it sure sounds like they could have been European to me!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:24:57 pm







Psycho

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"Since many of the archeological sites likely to shed light on their hypotheses are underwater, the logistics of gathering data are quite complicated."

So true..! Many of the ancient people of the Americas would have built by the sea and most of those sites would now be submerged, not just in the Americas and Cuba but along the coastline of Africa and Europe, too. I would think that more of these discoveries will be made in the future!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:26:46 pm






dhill757

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Good information, Psycho. Actually, Docyabut, because of their depth in the water (2,297 feet), the Cuban site has been dated to anywhere from 15,000 b.c. to even earlier. 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:28:22 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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                                      The Mid-Atlantic Ridge – Atlantis revisited





(Detail from the world topografic map at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov.)

As regards our purpose: the effective possibility of finding Atlantis, the last expedition in the mentioned area of the Atlantic Ocean saw an American team searching the MAR in the period November 14 – December 14, 2000. Responsible for the team were the professors Donna Blackman (Scripps Institute of Oceanography), Jeff Karson (University of Washington) and Deborah Kelley (Duke University), and other experts from a total of eight different American universities participated in the project. The "R/V Atlantis" was the research ship provided by the US Academic Navy – and the aim of the expedition was to study the mineralogical composition as well as the topographical evolution of the so-called "Atlantis Massif".

The instrument that would allow the experts to study the ridge at close quarters, was "Alvin", a small bathyscaphe capable of diving to great depths and equipped with a mechanical arm for the removal of rock samples. Furthermore, sophisticated sonar and video instruments on the "R/V Atlantis" would contribute to illuminating the results of the research from other angles.

The choice of the area where the research would be concentrated was not casual. Probably previous cartographic studies of images elaborated by satellites have helped the experts select an area where they might obtain the results they were aiming at.

This research area, however, does not correspond entirely with the area indicated in the above NASA map (fig. 1), though perhaps except for the extreme north-eastern area of the chosen spot. The geographical location of the area is c. 30 degrees north. The MAR expedition’s web-site, http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/mar/ , explains the purpose of the same:

"The unusual thing about the area under study is a large mountain, called the Atlantis Massif, just west of the Mid-Atlantic spreading center at 30°N. The peak of the mountain is 1,700 m (5,000') higherthan the usual spreading ridge crest. The width of the mountain is 4-6 times greater than that of most abyssal hills. It is clear that this mountain is a new addition to Earth's crust since it is part of very young and newly created seafloor. The mission is to find out why and how it formed. What forces are responsible for the great height to which rock has been uplifted at this site? What caused a change in the usual style of oceanic crustal formation? When might this area return to its normal state? These are the many questions the scientists seek to answer."

If the American research team had decided to concentrate their studies in an area located more north-easternly of the Atlantis Massif, they might have discovered other things – perhaps also of an archaeological nature – but the mentioned scientific expedition of course clearly states that their main interests concerned the geological features of the MAR. From the maps of the "National Geophysic Data Center" (NGDC: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov ) it is possible to observe very clearly that a little further towards north-east, a much more interesting relief is located, from an archaeological point of view – it is in fact an area where the attempted recovery of objects might offer evidence of a submerged civilization. Let us observe the maps which are available on the Internet at the NGDC-site (the images are small details of much larger maps, which have not been manipulated in any way. The maps have been developed by the NGDC for didactic and scientific purposes.)

In the right (eastern) part of this image we find the Iberian Peninsula, Gibraltar, and part of the north-west African coast. The Spanish and Portuguese islands off the African coast may be observed – and further to the left we see a section of the mid-atlantic ridge. The area outlined by the while oval corresponds to an area which probably represents the reliefs of a huge island which now lies below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean. This area also includes the Azores.

The reliefs which are so clearly observed in the above image are even clearer in a splendid image of the entire planet, where the factor of the Earth’s curvature logically improves the visual prospective  http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/relief_slides2.html )

It has been possible to study the underwater mountain ranges only since 1973 – in fact, ever since the beginning of the space age the various satellites have been providing spectacular images which indicate without any doubt hitherto unknown details concerning the Earth’s crust and the submarine reliefs. Here, we clearly see a submerged shape similar to a peninsula which points in south-west direction, towards the northern coasts of South America. The same reliefs that we find schematically sketched in the first map of this article, the NASA map, are more clearly visible, here.

It seems natural to ask, if so many archaeologists are in search of a scoop - why have none of them ever gone directly in this place, to study the mid-atlantic ridge in a place where aerial images show such an evident island/peninsula shape?

In an attempt to explain this ‘lack of interest’ (or, granted, maybe we should say, ‘lack of funds’?), admittedly we only have very few references to point to, in order to feel certain that an expedition with the aim of finding Atlantis would yield the results hoped for. Besides Plato’s writings which have already been thoroughly discussed by many persons and organisations on the Internet, we have only one alternative source that offers any conclusive material on Atlantis. However, to compensate for its ‘solitude’, this source directly states the geographical coordinates of the lost island of Atlantis.

The shape of the island can reasonably well be compared to a diagonally elongated, inverted Latin "S" – the upper curve at the right, and the lower at the right. The island’s northernmost point extended to about latitude 40° North, longitude 34° West. The island extended south to about latitude 25 ½ ° North, and west to longitude 47° West, latitude 27 ½ ° North, and eastward to about longitude 28° West. …"

- and the detailed information to establish Atlantis’ exact location continue. On the base of this information we may sketch the following map (the shape of the island is only approximate):

In the book "Toward the Light" we furthermore find the information that if we trace an imaginary line from the English town of Plymouth to the centre of the island of Trinidad close to the South American coast, such a line would cut through the length of the submerged island and touch its easternmost and southernmost points. The largest part of the island would lie west of this line.

What would the oceanographers/archaeologists find if they actually decided to research the mentioned area, with bathyscaphs equipped with cameras, sophisticated sonars, etc.?
**********************

Other links for those who want to learn more about the geological nature of ocean floor of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge – the experts’ comments may be found at the following URLs:

· From "Science for Everyone", a ‘field study’ of the MAR containing interesting data on the eruptive processes and the tectonic movements typical of the area: http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/eosdksmith.html 

· Exceptional images at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html 
The entire site http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov displays various types of geographical maps. A web site worth visiting.


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http://www.altrementi.com/english/literary/mid-atl_ridge.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:29:58 pm







via mars 2
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nice piece psycho. i have travelled the va countryside for years. i have noticed unusual outcroppings and other geo features that made me get out of my truck and trapse for hours on end. i consider myself quite observant and tend to think in the ways of an outdoorsman when juxtapositioning myself back in time, so to speak. this has allowed me to get a feel for what may have been going on at that time. call it an uncanny ability or whatever. i have found magnetic anomoly type areas, etc. just by traversing the area and being receptive.

one of my favorite areas used to be by fort pickett, although i'm also partial to an area down near wytheville. i'm not so sure the military liked me hanging around the southern part of town. what would one think of a stranger walking around gov property?

funny how the military owns certain tracts of land - many with known paleo sites. not just in va, but west va, tenn, etc.

i have been trying to hook up with a guy from the park authority of fairfax, who lives down the road from me, so that i can volunteer on some of the "road trips". once i dump some ip on the public and go into semi-retirement mode. one of these days.

then maybe i can check back with ar in a couple of years with observations, etc.
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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:31:13 pm







Boreas
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   posted 09-24-2004 05:55 PM                       
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For the time being there are more repports cueing up to confirm that there were indigenious setlements in the Americas, DURING ice-time. This is from AP-News:

"Divers find traces
of ancient Americans
13,000-year-old bones reveal archaeological frontier"
By JOHN RICE
Associated Press Writer
The Associated Press
Updated: 6:32 p.m. ET Sept. 9, 2004


Most coastal settlements by early Americans now lie deep beneath the sea, which during the Ice Age was hundreds of feet lower than now.

Researchers at the international "Early Man in America" seminar here also reported other ancient finds — including a California bone that is a rival for the title of the oldest in the Americas.

The discoveries fall close to the start of the time that traditional theories say a so-called Clovis culture could have moved from Asia to Alaska over a temporary land corridor that began to open about 13,500 years ago.

Many academics say new discoveries, especially in South America, prove that the Clovis people found existing inhabitants, who may have arrived by hopscotching past the northern ice fields in small boats.

Skeletal ‘treasure’
Arturo Gonzalez said his team discovered at least three skeletons in caves along the Caribbean coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula in 2001 and 2002. Photos showed two remarkably well-preserved.

"It's something that I had been dreaming of for many years," said Gonzalez, 39, who has combined diving and research since he was a teenager. "To find a person who had walked those caves was like a treasure."

Gonzalez said the bones must date from before the time that waters gradually seeped through the caves 8,000 to 9,000 years ago, as Ice Age glaciers melted and sea level rose by about 400 feet (120 meters) worldwide.

Tests on charcoal found beside one female skeleton would place it at least 10,000 years ago. An expert at the University of California, Riverside, dated it as 11,670 radiocarbon years old — which would translate to well over 13,000 calendar years.

Debating the age
If confirmed, "that would be the oldest" radiocarbon date in the Americas obtained from a human bone, said archaeology textbook author Stuart Fiedel.

Fiedel, a defender of the "Clovis first" school, said the oldest estimate for the cave find still fits the Clovis time frame, though narrowly.

Larry Murphy, chief of the Submerged Resources Center for the U.S. National Park Service, said in a telephone interview that the Mexican exploration was "one of the first systematic studies of human materials associated with a submarine cave."

The discovery helps prove that humans inhabited the Yucatan at least 5,000 years before the famed Maya culture began building monuments at sites such as nearby Tulum.

Gonzalez said the skeleton did not appear to be Mayan, but with no tools yet found, almost nothing is known of those first inhabitants.

Convincing the skeptics
Gonzalez said cave divers had sometimes mentioned seeing skeletons, and he persuaded skeptical officials to finance a survey of the water holes that dot the Yucatan, a limestone shelf.

Extensive, flooded caves wind off from some of those holes. Many were above ground during the Ice Age, and Gonzalez speculated people may have used them as paths down to fresh water.

Gonzalez said the oldest find was made 404 yards (123 meters) into a cave, more than 65 feet (20 meters) below sea level, during expeditions that can be extremely dangerous.

It took repeated trips to record the sites and excavate the bones, which then required two years of preservation.

Team co-director Carmen Rojas said the divers had 40 minutes to wind their way through the cave to the site, 20 minutes to work there and 40 minutes to swim back, followed by 20 to 60 minutes of decompression time.

"You train five years for those 20 minutes," she said.

Further discoveries
Meanwhile, John Johnson of the University of California, Santa Barbara, said an elaborate restudy of a woman's femur found on Santa Rosa Island in California's Channel Islands established a calendar-year age of 13,200 to 13,500 years. It had been calculated at about 1,000 years less when found in 1959.

Both discoveries would be significantly older than the skeleton known as Kennewick Man — 9,300-year-old remains found by teenagers along a Washington state riverbank in 1996.

Until now, the Americas have produced only 25 bones or skeletons dated as more than 8,000 years old, said Silvia Gonzalez of John Moores University in Liverpool, England. But she told the conference that she would soon publish a paper establishing that humans occupied a site near Puebla east of Mexico City 21,000 to 28,000 years ago.

--------------------------------------------

Just to remind about the "lost civilisation" that recently have been found on the eastern side of the Atlantic, more than 40.000 years old. And, by the way, - their "central habitat" is located to have been on an island at the size close to todays Greenland. We also know that this island WAS overrun by water, - at the time when all oceans actually rised by 120 meters.

But I`ll guess some of this is kind of "ol`news" by now...

Regards


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:32:22 pm







Psycho

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  posted 09-27-2004 09:52 AM                       
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------




-
Via,



{QUOTE]funny how the military owns certain tracts of land - many with known paleo sites. not just in va, but west va, tenn, etc.[/QUOTE]

So true, I've been saying for years that the government has had it's hand in the archaeological stew, for whatever reason. Call it what you wish, I call it "conspiracy!"


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:34:43 pm







Psycho

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  posted 09-27-2004 10:01 AM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Boreas, here is another article supporting the earlier America!



quote:
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Sci/Tech



from the September 23, 2004 edition
Signs of an earlier American

By Peter N. Spotts | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor

Al Goodyear is holding his breath in anticipation. Within days, the affable archaeologist expects to read the results of lab tests indicating that stone tools he recently found in South Carolina are 25,000 years old - or older.
Such results would be explosive. They would imply that humans lived on this continent before the last ice age, far earlier than previously believed. Even if the dates came in younger than 25,000 years old, researchers say, the find would add to the mounting body of evidence that humans trod North and South America at least 2,000 years before the earliest-known inhabitants, known as the Clovis culture.



DIGGING DEEPER: At the Topper site in South Carolina, artifacts have been found more than six feet below the level of the Clovis, thought to be the first Americans.
DARYL P. MILLER/ UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA




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Dr. Goodyear's efforts are among the latest from a growing group of archaeologists and anthropologists who have become emboldened to buck conventional wisdom and probe far deeper into the hemisphere's past than many of their predecessors did. What they are finding not only could rewrite old chapters in the history of two continents, it could write new ones.

"With all these new discoveries, it's almost a rebirth of excitement in the field. All sorts of new ideas are coming forward about migration routes and timing of arrival," says Michael Waters, a geoarchaeologist at Texas A&M University who is involved in several pre-Clovis digs around the United States. "You still have to be careful. Every claim of pre-Clovis occupation needs to be looked at quite carefully."

And they are. When stunning discoveries surface in North America's paleolithic past, they can ignite debates conducted with all the gentility of the Stanley Cup finals - as Goodyear knows.

"When these dates come back, I'll be hiding in a coal mine. I've already got a little Groucho Marx disguise I'm going to put on," quips the University of South Carolina scientist, who along with colleagues is working what's called the Topper site in Allendale County, S.C., along the Savannah River.

For decades, the Clovis culture has held sway as the oldest in the New World. Evidence for this group's presence was first unearthed in 1936 near Clovis, N.M. A second site that emerged in Arizona in 1959, and others since. A uniquely fluted spear point became the culture's icon. Radiocarbon dating at Clovis sites so far has bracketed their presence from roughly 11,200 to around 10,800 radiocarbon years ago. (Archaeologists prefer expressing dates in radiocarbon years because converting to modern calendar years becomes tricky beyond a certain age threshold.)

Searching for Big Foot

As evidence for the Clovis culture's presence cropped up throughout the continent and the sites became the subject of intense study, the notion that Clovis people were the oldest immigrants to the Western Hemisphere became firmly entrenched. Although some research teams periodically claimed to have found older sites, their evidence was shaky or later proved to have a less radical explanation. To claim a pre-Clovis find was akin to claiming to spot Big Foot.

Researchers often hesitated "to dig below the Clovis horizon for fear of ridicule," Dr. Waters says.

By many accounts, the turning point came seven years ago when anthropologist Tom Dillehay published the second of two encyclopedic volumes of results from a site in southern Chile known as Monte Verde. His team's evidence pointed to a human presence there 13,000 years ago. Other sites began to appear with evidence for pre-Clovis occupation that many saw as more credible than evidence from earlier efforts.

One of these sites, known as Mud Lake, sits near Kenosha, Wis. It was discovered by accident in January 1936, the same year as the first find of a Clovis point, when a Works Progress Administration crew was digging a drainage ditch and unearthed most of a foreleg from a juvenile mammoth. Turned over to the Kenosha Historical Society, it sat there until 1990, when an amateur archaeologist noted cut marks on the bones. Bones from nearby sites, known as the Fenske and Shaefer sites, showed similar markings. In 1992 and 1993, researchers excavated Shaefer and found bones with cut marks on them and stone tools underneath a pelvis bone. Radiocarbon dates on the bones and on plant material at the same level of the dig ranged from 12,500 to 12,300 years ago, nudging them beyond the Clovis time scale.

Dates from the Mud Lake bone were more stunning, says Dan Joyce, senior curator at the Kenosha Public Museum. Purported hunters slew the mammoth 13,450 years ago. He remains cautious about the presence of hunters. Cut marks are suggestive, but not conclusive. This past August, he and his team searched for the rest of their mammoth. But so far it has remained elusive enough to earn the beast the sobriquet Waldo, after the children's "Where's Waldo?" series.

While Dr. Joyce and his colleagues were planning their hunt for Waldo, Goodyear was taking a deeper look at Topper, a site he had been studying for 20 years. An adherent to the Clovis-first idea, he began to rethink his position after reading a site report from Cactus Hill, a pre-Clovis site in Virginia, in 1998.

His subsequent work at Topper uncovered what looked to be industrial-scale toolmaking well below the level at which Clovis artifacts were found. With no organic material available to radiocarbon-date the level, the team had to use a different technique that stunned them with date estimates of 16,000 to 20,000 years ago.

In May, he took his crew back to Topper for another, deeper look. They found what they interpret as tools in a layer roughly two meters (6.5 feet) below their earlier pre-Clovis finds. The soils and geology suggest that the artifacts are several thousand years older, he says. But nothing beats radiocarbon dates. Fortuitously, they found a sample of wood charcoal to derive three radiocarbon dates.

"I'd be very surprised if they're less than 25,000 years old, but I'm preparing myself mentally for the possibility that they could be a lot older," perhaps as old as 30,000 or 40,000 years, he says.

Such finds raise intriguing questions. Clovis groups were thought to have crossed a broad land bridge across the Bering Strait, hiking through breaks in the glaciers to what is now the lower 48. But if people lived on the continent at least 2,000 years earlier, they would have arrived at a time when the glaciers were impassable. This has led some to argue for a sea route along the land bridge and then the western coastline. Others suggest some may have come from Australia or the Iberian peninsula.

But is it civilization?

Not everyone is convinced by the evidence so far for pre-Clovis finds, although some doubters don't rule out the possibility that some groups where here earlier.

"The tools people find are not self-evidently hunting or butchering tools" in the way Clovis artifacts are, says Stuart Fiedel, an archaeologist with the Louis Berger Group in Washington, D.C.

Like Vikings making landfall in North America before any other modern European group, pre-Clovis sites don't seem to represent the first long-term colonization of the Western Hemisphere, he says. Interest in Clovis grew out of their apparent role as a continent-wide colonizing population and a key to the origins of the native Americans Europeans encountered after they arrived.

But others see potentially deeper insights coming from pre-Clovis finds.

"This could help us get a better handle on the amount of genetic variability we see in the descendants of these populations," says David Meltzer, an archaeologist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. It also could reset the clock for the development of civilizations in the New World.


The First Americans: By land or by sea? Researchers have put forth at least four explanations for how people first came to the Americas. Recent discoveries suggest humans came to the Americas at least 10,000 years earlier than has been thought hitherto, researchers say. That means they must have come by sea rather than by land across the Bering Strait.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0923/p13s01-stgn.html


[This message has been edited by Psycho (edited 09-27-2004).]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:35:58 pm
docyabut
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Rate Member   posted 09-27-2004 10:39 AM                       
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Stone tools? Nature made? So where are the bodies that go along with these 25,000 year old tools 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:36:55 pm
rockessence

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   posted 09-27-2004 08:30 PM                       
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doc,
The Bock saga tells that the dead were always cremated in rites in earliest times, with the ashes carried to the "family tree", and it appears that only later were there burials, probably only far outside of Uuden-maa (the center).

It seems possible to me that the saving of the body form may have originally been to carry out the ritual burning and carrying of the ashes to the tree back in the home-land. Maybe that is what led to the custom of burials in caves and other caches.

Anyway, the lack of bodies could certainly be explained by cremation.

 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:38:13 pm







Psycho

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  posted 09-28-2004 10:06 AM                       
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quote:
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So where are the bodies that go along with these 25,000 year old tools
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Ever the skeptic, eh?
They'll find them! Interesting program I saw last night about a shipload of immigrants that were killed in a shipwreck near Sicily in about 1996. They found the wreck, they found the collapsed bodies of the victims, but the bones were all gone (being at the bottom of the sea). Point is, even bones in themselves are not permanent!

Add to that the idea that most ancient people probably built near the sea and that many of those sites might be submerged and you could also add that some of those bones might now be underwater.

Each discovery seems to be pushing back the date of the settlement in the new world back even more.

There's an old saying, Rome wasn't built in a day!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:39:26 pm







dhill757

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   posted 10-04-2004 09:45 PM                       
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Great point about ancient cremation, Rockessence!



Here is an article I promised Essan a long time ago. It has to do with the bones of ancient mastadons and mammoths washing up along the coasts of the Atlantic. These bones come from the ocean floor along the coastline of the Carolinas. Follow the link and the article has some pictures. These same bones have also been seen in the Azores, but I'm still looking for those specific pictures.

This article comes from the Regional Review in1939, incidentally:


quote:
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Volume III - No. 3

September, 1939
In the ordinary course of events, the ocean is the great receiver ---- the world's greatest collector. It collects the sediments that are eroded from the land by streams, winds, waves and glaciers. As the earth's most populous burial ground, it receives the shells and bodies of countless organisms that swim in it or drift upon its surface. It also, upon occasion, receives the bodies of animals that lived upon the land. During times of Widespread upheaval many or these things are restored to the land, but only rarely does the ocean itself become an active agent in a process of giving back to the land the bones of animals that once roamed upon it. It is our purpose here to describe such a case. At Edisto Beach State Park in South Carolina the bones and teeth of long-extinct animals --- animals that lived upon the land in the Ice Age --- are being excavated from the ocean floor and washed ashore by storm waves of the modern Atlantic.

There is, of course, no actual migration as in the fanciful sketch which appears on this page, but the event nevertheless has some of the elements of an anachronism. Ancient animals are being washed ashore by the sea which, contrary to its custom, is acting as the giver rather than the receiver. If this situation is not anachronistic it certainly is paradoxical --- a reversal of a normal process of nature. The cavalcade of animals that comes piecemeal to the shores of Edisto includes beasts that seem strangely un-American. It includes elephants --- Woolly Mammoths and Mastodons --- Ground Sloths, Giant Beavers, Tapirs, Giant Armadillos, Royal Bison. It includes horses that lived and died here long before the Spaniards brought the first of our present stock in the early 16th century. But these venerable inhabitants of South Carolina are not un-American. It is we who are the newcomers! Associated with the forms mentioned above are others that are more familiar, such as the teeth of bears, antlers of elk and deer, and plates of large land turtles together with the bones of still other animals that lived in the sea. In this last group are the globular ear bones of whales, curved ribs of sea cows that were the ancestors of the rare individuals still living along the coast of southern Florida, plates of alligator and marine turtles, along with teeth of sharks and spines of rays that lived in periods before the Ice Age. During the summer of 1937 Student Technician Hugh M. Rutledge, with the help of volunteers from the CCC camp, collected more than 1,500 vertebrate fossils of which he identified more than 200. The following summer Student Technician Rudolph A. Jaworski added nearly a thousand specimens to the collection. We may well pause and wonder. How did such a motley crew of early Americans find their way into a common graveyard?

Before we can arrive at a satisfactory answer to this question we shall have to learn a little more about the existing situation at Edisto Beach. In picturing the ocean at Edisto as a giver we were being overly generous with that relentless foe of the land. Edisto lies in a broad reentrant in the coast line --- an arc, concave landward, that extends 180 miles from Charleston to the Florida boundary. In this arc today at Edisto, the waves are eating into the land at the measured rate of 15 feet a year, and there is clear evidence to indicate that the process has been going on for a long time.


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http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/regional_review/vol3-3b.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:40:43 pm







dhill757

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   posted 10-04-2004 09:48 PM                       
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The article continued:

quote:
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On the present beach at Edisto a bed of green mud outcrops close to low tide level. During his early investigations in the area Mr. Rutledge discovered bones in this layer of mud. Believing the bones to be fossil he carefully excavated them, pleased with the prospect of obtaining a complete skeleton. To his dismay the skeleton proved to be that of a very modern cow! Since the cow could not have become buried in the mud at the present site of outcrop, this strange occurrence indicates that what is now the beach was once marsh land and that the sea has moved inland a considerable distance within historic times. The ocean exacts a stiff price for our collection of old bones!
A glance at a Hydrographic Chart gives us additional information of interest. The sea off Edisto is very shallow, the "continental shelf" being about 70 miles wide. All the sea bottom within five miles of shore is less than 40 feet deep. If sea level were to be lowered 150 feet the shore would be extended 55 miles! This point is significant and will be referred to later. From actual observations we know little about the materials that form the sea floor but we do know that the flat strip of country forming the present coast is underlain by marine deposits of the Ice Age. From this strip --- known as the Pamlico Terrace --- marine shells have been collected to levels 12 feet above low tide. This assemblage includes a large number of species that live today only in warmer latitudes.1 We shall show later that this fact is not extraordinary, for the shells lived during an inter-glacial epoch when the sea stood higher and the climate was warmer.

We do not know the exact thickness of the Ice Age deposits at Edisto Beach but the fossiliferous portion is probably only a few feet thick and probably lies close to sea level. At Coffin Point 10 miles to the southwest, where the Service's core drill put down an exploratory well, we entered sediments at a depth of 72 feet that appeared to be definitely older than the Ice Age. This gives us at least a maximum figure for this general area and one that compares favorably with other drilling records. The deposits of the Ice Age consist of beds of dark mud with some sand and shell. The vertebrate fossils are impregnated with mineral matter and their outer surfaces are stained nearly black by organic material. Some of the larger ones come ashore encrusted with sand and recent marine shells, indicating that they have lain exposed on the sea bottom for some time before being cast upon the beach.

Before continuing our description of the process of excavation let us consider the conditions that existed in the world during the Ice Age. In that period tremendous quantities of water were taken out of the oceans and locked up on the land in the form of glacial ice. About one-sixth of all the lands now in existence were blanketed with ice. About one-half of North America was covered. The ice extended from Alaska to Greenland and southward to the Ohio and Missouri Rivers. South Carolina was not glaciated but it felt the effects in a somewhat cooler climate and in the fact that the sea was lowered at least 150 feet, possibly much more. This latter, as previously mentioned, greatly extended the land area to the southeast. From what is now the coast of South Carolina a broad flat extended seaward for more than 50 miles. This area lay close to sea level and parts of it doubtless were swampy traps for unwary animals, as are parts of the Coastal Plain today.

We should mention at this point there was not just one epoch of glaciation --- there were four. These cold epochs were separated by warmer inter-glacial epochs. During these times the ice melted, the glaciers retreated northward and sea level came back to normal. In South Carolina during each warm epoch the sea rose to cover the shelf that had been exposed during the preceding glacial stage. Sea animals flourished and shell beds were formed. As the glaciers re-advanced the sea retreated and the land animals that lived along the margin of the glaciers retreated southward ahead of the invading ice. They inhabited parts of the newly exposed land and left their bones to mingle with those of sea animals. These changes took place slowly, of course, and it is estimated that the entire Ice Age (not counting the present epoch, which may be just another inter-glacial stage) occupied a span of 2,000,000 years.

The fact that the Edisto deposits that now are being excavated contain the remains of bison and bears --- animals that apparently did not migrate into America until the closing stages of the Ice Age --- suggests that our deposit is fairly young. It is difficult to determine the exact age because the fauna that is being washed up is considerably mixed. The waves may have access to two or more thin deposits of different ages. Some of the sharks' teeth belong to species that antedate the Ice Age but these teeth are resistant objects that may have been reworked --- mixed up with Ice Age deposits during the Ice Age. Likewise, it is known that some of the typical Ice Age mammals that are now extinct -- American horses, the Giant Sloth, Mastodon, and Woolly Mammoth --- persisted in North America until a few thousand years ago. These particular animals were still in existence following the retreat of the last glacier and some, at least, after the arrival of the earliest human beings on this continent. You may ask, is it, then, not possible that the Edisto waves may uncover human artifacts or actual skeletal remains? It is possible but very unlikely.

We shall not attempt in this brief account to describe the appearance or the habits of all of South Carolina's numerous extinct animals but Mr. Kiener has sketched some of the commoner ones, basing his sketches on well known restorations. Only bones and teeth and plates are found at Edisto and Irving Gladstein has kindly photographed a number of these. Of particular interest are the tiny milk teeth of the elephants2 --- one from the browzing mastodon, the other from the mammoth, a grazing animal. Bones of the former have been found associated with human artifacts in Florida; frozen bodies of the latter have been recovered in arctic regions. The Giant Sloth that lived in the Edisto region bore little resemblance to his modern tree-dwelling relative. The Ice Age sloth was a ground-dweller that stood erect to pull down branches with its claws. It probably lumbered awkwardly on all-fours, walking on the outer edges of its feet. Some of the horses were as large as those living today.

Many believe that the fossils that are being washed up at Edisto are brought to the coast by streams, but to the writer it seems unlikely that such is the case. Nearby streams, such as South Edisto River, are sluggish and carry only fine sediment. It seems doubtful that they could bring down large heavy bones even if aided by tidal currents. Mr. Rutledge, who probably knows the area better than anyone, reported that the largest bone that he found weighed close to 40 pounds. The writer weighed the largest one now in the Edisto Museum --- a fragment of elephant bone --- and found that it weighed 20-1/4 pounds. Mr. Jaworski, who collected 967 specimens, reported that they were most abundant at high tide mark on the Edisto front beach and in the area immediately to the north east. Fossils were comparatively rare on Bay Point and on the beach fronting South Edisto River. Mr. Jaworski also pointed out that bone fragments less than 2/3 inches long were rare. In the writer's opinion, the waves at Edisto are eating into an unusually rich concentration of vertebrate remains buried just below sea level. In this connection it is interesting to note that the nearby Hunting Island beach, which, like Edisto, is receding rapidly landward, has not yielded a single fossil although it has been searched carefully.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) H. G. Richards, "Fauna of the Pleistocene Pamlico Formation of the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain." Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 47, pp. 1638, 1640, 1936.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:45:16 pm







dhill757

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   posted 10-04-2004 10:01 PM                       
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This was an interesting article that wants to place Atlantis in England. Of course, Atlantis wasn't in England, on the other hand, the author makes an interesting case for the origin of the megaliths, the circular symbols that appear on the rocks, and Silbury Hill all having some Atlantean origin:



quote:
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Did Atlantis lay in England?
By E.J. de Meester.

Plato tells about Atlantis in his dialogues Timaeus and Critias. Atlantis was situated on a large island in the Atlantic Ocean, apparently not very far from Europe. How many islands like this are there? I can find only two: Britain and Ireland. The capital was on the south coast and had a harbour. If Atlantis was in England, than it must have been near Portsmouth or perhaps near Exeter, Poole, Brighton of Hastings. Plato writes in Critias: 'The area as a whole was high and the coast was precipitous, but around the city itself there was a plain (...)' This refers clearly to the famous white cliffs of Dover, the first thing visitors see when they come to England, and to the South-English plain.

Atlantis lay in a fertile plain, surrounded by mountains. That is also correct. The plain is said to measure 370 by 550 km - far too large. But one tenth of that, 37 by 55 km, corresponds approximately with a rectangle between Salisbury and Chichester. The plain was divided into 60,000 (6000?) square fields, probably so-called Celtic fields, although the Celts came much later to England (from 550 BC). The city is said to have been round with a diameter of 24 km (2,4 km). The last number corresponds with the dimensions of the inner city of Amsterdam (without the Plantage quarter). The centre would be about as large as the area around the Dam Square.

North of Poole, on the river Avon (derived from 'Atlantis'?), is the famous monument of Stonehenge. It is very strange that nobody connects Stonehenge with Atlantis. Both exert an enormous attraction to all sorts of mystics, hippies, romantics etceteras. There are some theories that identify the Atlantic civilisation with the megalithic civilisation that existed along the Atlantic coast. If Atlantis really existed and was not the Minoan civilisation on Crete, then this is the only possibility.

A round city

An important clue is that Atlantis was a round city with canals, not unlike the inner city of Amsterdam. The Egyptians made everything square. So did the Greeks, although they sometimes built round temples. If Plato had imagined an ideal city, he would probably have designed a rectangular city. But Stonehenge is round and other monuments, like Avebury, are also round; quite different from Greek or Egyptian monuments. A symbol consisting of three concentric circles is often found on megaliths; it could represent Atlantis. Or perhaps Atlantis was built in the shape of this symbol, whatever it means.

Gold has been found in tombs near Stonehenge; that also fits. In Atlantis there is said to have been a race course that could be made long or short. Near Stonehenge two race courses have been found, a long one and a short one (the Stonehenge Cursus, in the middle, and the Lesser Cursus, top left), possibly for chariot races. Even in the Roman era the ancient Britons fought in chariots. Also there were hot and cold sources (like those near Troy, according to Homer); that reminds one of Bath. The round dots on the map are tumuli; the rectangular fields mentioned by Plato are also visible. The Avenue runs from Stonehenge (centre) to the river Avon (bottom right) and perhaps to Atlantis?


There were buildings made of white, black and red stone, hewn from Clito's hill in the middle of the city. Several differently coloured stones are found on the Isle of Wight. Was the Isle of Wight Clito's hill? If Clito's hill was not in the centre of the city, it may be Silbury Hill, an artificial hill, almost 40 mhigh, to the south of Avebury. Perhaps Avebury itself might be Atlantis, because it also has three rings; but then Plato must have been very fanciful indeed. We may assume that the stories about Atlantis are somewhat inaccurate, but not too much.

St. Michael's Mount and Mont St. Michel

If there really was a central hill of stone in the middle of Atlantis, it may have been St. Michael's Mount near Penzance in Cornwall. This is not located in a large plain, but it is possible that it used to be on dry land. Today it lies on the beach. Two things speak in favour of this location. In the first place, there used to be tin mines in Cornwall. Apparently the tin was loaded into ships near St. Michael's Mount. Secondly, there is a legend in Cornwall about a sunken city. It is supposed to have been near the Scilly Islands, but it is quite possible that it really was near St. Michael's Mount. In France there is a similar legend about a sunken city named Ys (=Atlantis?), not far from Mont St. Michel. The two rocks are very similar; it is quite possible that they were confused and that this legend came from Cornwall. Perhaps the rock was surrounded with defensive walls to protect the costly tin from plunderers. A temple for the sea god on the rock is not unlikely. The whole complex may also have been a gigantic lingam (phallus symbol).
Mystics believe that St. Michael's Mount is connected with Stonehenge, Avebury and other monuments by means of 'ley lines', a kind of invisible power lines. The Michael line is supposed to run from St. Michael's Mount (bottom left) through Avebury to the north-east. On the line there are said to be 63 Christian monuments, all dedicated to St. Michael or Mary. I found this in a little Dutch book about crop circles. I don't believe in this New Age stuff myself, but for those who do, it ought to be fascinating.

A problem with St. Michael's Mount is that the plain of Atlantis, which should have been about 37 by 55 km wide, cannot have been there. The sea is also too deep; there is no shallow area which may be a submerged plain. And there are no great mountains to protect the plain against the north and west wind. In these respects the Lyme Bay near Torquay and Lyme Regis is a better choice. The bay is to the east of the high mountains of Dartmoor (the dark spot on the map). To the north of it are also mountains. In Dartmoor there are many ancient remains, probably dating from the early Bronze Age. At Grimspound and Legis Tor there are circular enclosures containing stone hut-circles. Other ancient monuments can be seen at Merrivale, Trowlesworthy Warren, Ditsworthy Warren, Erme Valley and Shovel Down. Near the coast they have probably disappeared long ago.

According to Plato the site of Atlantis is now muddy and difficult to pass for ships. The only spot on the south coast to which this applies is the estuary near Portsmouth, which is also not far from Stonehenge. So that is still the most likely spot.

Elephants or walruses?

The greatest problem is that there are said to have been elephants. In England bones of elephants, tigers, hyenas etc. have been found. In Russia it has been discovered that a small kind of mammoth was still living on Wrangel island until 3700 years ago; elsewere mammoths already died out 11,000 years ago. Were there perhaps still mammoths in Scotland, or were there still memories of the mammoths of the past? The Scottish Highland cattle still look a bit like mammoths! Another possibility is that walruses used to live on the British coasts. Walrus ivory can also be used to make ornamental objects. Such objects have been found in Skara Brae in Scotland. The ceiling of the great temple of Poseidon in Atlantis was covered with ivory. In Skara Brae whale bones were used to build roofs in stead of wood. It would have been very appropriate for a temple of Poseidon to have a roof made of whale bones. A visitor may have mistaken these for elephant tusks.

Another mystery is a metal that was found in Atlantis, called orichalcos (literally 'mountain copper'). Perhaps it is a memory from the time when the trade in tin made the Atlantians rich, although it is described as a red metal. It could also be referring to amber, although amber is not a metal (but fossilized resin) and usually comes from the Baltic Sea. It does not come from the mountains. I can't see any other possibility.

The destruction

So far almost everything fits beautifully. But how about the sudden destruction of Atlantis, which fascinates most Atlantis-seekers so much? England still exists. But it may be that not the whole island was destroyed, but only the capital and perhaps other seaports along the Atlantic coast. The south of England has been slowly sinking down since the last Ice Age; the same is true for the Netherlands. The great flood disaster in Holland in l953 shows only too clearly what can happen. Perhaps Atlantis was destroyed by a combination of very high tide and storm. Another possibility is a tsunami, a tidal wave from an undersea earthquake, perhaps coming from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. A great volcanic eruption on Iceland may also have caused major damage. So there are several possibilities for great disasters, without resorting to nonsense theories. Plato mentions an earthquake,although there are few or no earthquakes in England, but that is understandable because he was a Greek who had never seen the ocean during a violent storm. In Greece, high and low tides are unknown, while earthquakes are only too common.

'A new Atlantis in the making' - this headline was written above an article about New Orleans, which is also threatened by inundations from the Mississippi and the sea. Here, too, the ground is sinking and the dikes along the river prevent the spreading of silt from the river which used to compensate the sinking in Mark Twain's time. In 70 years the ground level has dropped by 1.80 m. Drilling for gas and oil (which did not exist in Atlantis, of course) makes it worse and hurricanes increase the danger. In Alexandria in Egypte the ground has also been sinking for centuries. The remains of Cleopatra's palace are now many metres deep under water.

Simon Day of the University College in London has issued a warning that the coasts of Florida and the Caribbean could be hit by a high tsunami if the volcanic island of La Palma collapses. Something like this could have happened in Atlantis. There are many submarine volcanoes and volcanic islands in the Atlantis Ocean. If a big landslide hits the sea, a super-tsunami hundreds of metres high can be caused. A normal tsunami, caused by a submarine earthquake, is no more than 10 m high and even that can cause disaster, like in l946, when a city on Hawaii was hit by one and more than a hundred people were killed. (There is a tsunami in one of the Pokémon cartoons.) The effect of a super-tsunami is far worse. The BBC programme Horizon of October the 12th 2000 was devoted to this phenomenon. A super-tsunami caused by a landslide on the northern coast of one of the Azores may have hit the coasts of Britain, France, Spain and Portugal and wiped out the Atlantic megalithic culture in one blow.

The stones of Carnac

The famous stones of Carnac in France must be the remains of an important centre of the same culture to which Stonehenge belonged. In the Bay of Morbihan near Carnac there are two stone circles of which one is completely, the other partially under water. Apparently the land here was also flooded by the sea. Carnac is especially famous for the long rows of stones which run towards the sea, parallel to each other. Nobody knows for what purpose they were built.

In a Belgian book about Atlantis which at first sight contained only nonsense I found an interesting suggestion: that the rows of stones served for the storage of ships. It seems that such row exist elsewhere and are always located near water. Perhaps walls of mud or small stones were built between the big stones. I think there must have been walls between the so-called trilithons in Stonehenge too, so that the light entered only through the narrow gaps between the stones. I also think there must have been a roof on top.


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:46:38 pm







dhill757

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Researchers have observed, again by studying contemporary preliterate people, that bands become inefficient when they grow large. Inevitably, as a group expands, people break away and form new bands. As the number of PaleoIndians mounted near the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers, new groups likely separated and headed for other territories. It was during this time of expansion, sometime in the Early PaleoIndian period between 11,500 and 11,000 years ago, that the first people passed through land now occupied by Fort Benning and left the two distinctive Clovis spear points.
What they were doing, where they came from, and where they were going can only be speculated. Perhaps they were trailing big game or searching for a new home or for rock outcrops where they could extract materials for tools. In all probability, they camped on spots with a good view of the wide Chattahoochee River.

Just as with many Clovis spear point discoveries in the Southeast, there was no other evidence-no other tools, no campfire charcoal, no sign of housing-found with the artifacts on Fort Benning. This doesn't mean that Early PaleoIndians didn't burn fires or build shelters. Signs could have been destroyed in the acidic soils or buried under centuries of river sediment. Future excavations may yet reveal such evidence. It is also possible that scientists don't yet recognize all the tools PaleoIndians used.

Whatever drew PaleoIndians to the region, one of their most likely activities was hunting. PaleoIndians in the Southeast ate a variety of foods. They probably gathered nuts and leafy plants, dug up roots, and also hunted small game such as deer and rabbit. There is little doubt, however, that they also tracked large animals, such as the giant sloth-a slow-moving mammal standing up to 18 feet tall-the grizzly bear, and the elephant-like mastodons and mammoths.

Ideas about how PaleoIndians hunted such massive animals comes, in part, from research about African elephants. Other information derives from PaleoIndian sites in the western United States where dry conditions help preserve bone better than in the Southeast. Scientists have found PaleoIndian spear points lodged between mammoth rib bones and embedded in ribs of prehistoric bison, proof of the hunting prowess of early people. PaleoIndian spear points have also been found near mammoth skeletons in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Mastodon bones and fluted points have also been located together in Missouri.

Even in the Southeast, where environmental decomposition complicates discoveries, some limited evidence of PaleoIndian interaction with large Ice Age species exists. Archeologists exploring underwater sites in Florida have recovered a prehistoric bison skull with an embedded spear point fragment and a prehistoric horse skeleton and mammoth bones with cut marks apparently made by humans.

While other signs of hunting are slim, scientists have little doubt that PaleoIndians were pursuing large Ice Age creatures in the South. Scuba divers near St. Simon's Island, Georgia recently surfaced with remains of a giant sloth. The sloth in life stood 14 feet tall and 22 feet long and weighed perhaps six tons. Slow-moving animals that looked somewhat like bears, sloths were vegetarians. They stood on hind legs and reached high into trees, using 12-inch claws to snare tree limbs and pull them within reach.

Another recent find was a fossilized, Ice-Age elephant bone on a beach at Edisto Island, South Carolina. Someone thousands of years ago apparently carved grooves in the bone with a knife. Large prehistoric animals also roamed the area around Fort Benning. Just south of the post in Stewart County, Georgia a mastodon tooth was recovered. Scientists speculate that the mammoth, the mightiest of Ice Age animals, also roamed in the area, though in lesser numbers than the mastodon.

Mammoths stood up to 12 feet tall and weighed thousands of pounds, dwarfing the PaleoIndian hunters. Their tough hides and shaggy hair insulated the creatures from frigid weather. Long, sharp, semicircular tusks, along with massive size and surprising speed, provided protection from enemies. Such formidable defenses meant the mammoths faced no serious predators except for humans.

To hunt the mammoth, the PaleoIndians had to keep careful watch on their intended prey by often lurking downwind at watering holes. The hunters targeted animals that strayed from the herd and those that appeared weakest-the sick, the old, and the young. Even so, attacking a mammoth required courage, intense concentration, and cooperation. Hunters had to rely on surprise by sneaking undetected within a few feet of the animal. When they rose up to attack, they had to be close enough to throw or jab their spears with sufficient force to pierce the mammoth's tough hide. Then they had to scramble out of the way or be crushed because the wounded creature might thrash about or charge with horrifying speed. The noise and confusion of trumpeting mammoths and thundering hooves must have been deafening and terrifying. All the effort and danger proved worthwhile if the hunt was successful because the PaleoIndians were rewarded not only with ample meat, but also with raw materials for housing, clothing, and tools.


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http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/benning-book/ch01.htm]http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/benning-book/ch01.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:47:59 pm







dhill757

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GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
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The Importance of Oceanography

The geological aspect of Atlantis is the most important facet of the whole issue of Atlantis. If the geological story of this planet does not support the existence of a large island in the midst of the North Atlantic, then, to make a long story short, Atlantis is down the tube. Therefore, establishing the feasibility of such a landmass geologically is of paramount importance. In the case of Atlantis, geology and oceanography are closely entwined.

SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIONS

The center of the geological story of Atlantis is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Other related aspects are confined to the ocean bottom in the vicinity of the Ridge. Therefore, these areas will be the focal points of this study. Since I am not an oceanographer myself, I will rely on the special reports and scientific papers of oceanographers and geologists who have done work in these areas in the past.


Don't let anyone tell you that the discovery of Plate Tectonics (involving "continental drift") disproves Atlantis in any way. I've heard professionals in the field make statements like, "This doesn't leave any room for Atlantis!", or "the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is made of basaltic material, it can't be part of a continent!" We will let you decide after you have looked at the evidence.

THE ATLANTIC LANDMASS

Professional geologists have endeavored to make Plate Tectonics (which is the backbone of modern geology) the enemy of Atlantis (Speicher, 1972). Nothing could be further from the truth. Plate Tectonics is what created and what destroyed Atlantis. It is also what has made it such an unreliable dwelling place for plants or animals, and the landmass we have chosen to call Atlantis may have gone in and out of existence several times over a period of many millions of years. It was not always the same size or the same shape, and it doubtless had different catagories of flora and fauna during these different periods of time. It doesn't take long for a landmass to develop some sort of collection of flora and fauna in geological terms. In a mere thousand years, all kinds of trees, grass, weeds and bushes could cover any landmass making its appearence in a temperate or tropical zone. Such growth couldn't care less whether the land was made of continental (sial) or basaltic (sima) material. Or whether it was officially a "continent" or not. Greenland is an island. Plato called Atlantis "a large island". So if it was as large as Greenland (a pretty big place), it would still be an "island".


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:49:43 pm







dhill757

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                                                    PLATE TECTONICS





Did North America and Europe fit together so perfectly that there was no body of water in between? Evidence indicates that there was a "proto-Atlantic Ocean" even before the continents began to spread apart. This evidence was obtained during a series of core drillings by the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory's Deep-Sea Project. During this expedition it was found that sediments off the coasts of North Africa and North America differed in age some 45 million years. Had the continents been joined the sediments would have been the same age (Hayes & Pimm, 1971). The nature of the samples resulted in Dr. Hayes postulating a 400-mile-wide "proto-Atlantic Ocean" extending from Newfoundland down to at least the Bermuda area.


Moreover the phenomenon known as "continental drift," which is due to the action of Plate Tectonics, is an extremely slow process. The breakup which left the Americas and Euro-Africa drifting apart began near the beginning of the Mesozoic Era some 200 million years ago. There has been sufficient room for Atlantis in the North Atlantic Ocean for the last 60 million years--and there is definitive oceanographic data to support this (Ewing, 1948).


Some biologists and zoologists have postulated the existence of a large landmass in the North Atlantic during Miocene times, 12-26 million years ago. Atlantis may have "surfaced" several times during the long geological history of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We are more concerned about the last 3 million years, i.e., during the Pleistocene Epoch, which ended circa. 12,000 years ago.


But what of the objections concerning the light granitic continental material known as sial (silicon-aluminum)? As stated above, a landmass does not have to be made of sial in order to be above ocean levels long enough to acquire vegetation and animal populations. Granted, if consisting predominately of sima (silicon-magnesium) it will be heavier and therefore unstable, but forces powerful enough to lift ocean bottoms for short periods of time (geologically speaking) certainly exist along the geologically turbulent Mid-Atlantis Ridge. The Ridge is the most active area on the face of the earth, and we will examine the evidence that a central Atlantic landmass has indeed existed several times in the geologic past.


But, in spite of what various geologists have said, there is good oceanographic data showing that much of this area along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is composed of sial, in spite of the scientific objections (Leonard, 1979). Dr. W. Maurice Ewing of Columbia University headed up several oceanographic expeditions along the famous Mid-Atlantic Ridge.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:51:20 pm







dhill757

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                                         THE OCEANOGRAPHIC EXPEDITIONS





In 1948 Dr. Ewing, one of the bitter opponants of Atlantis, sailed up and down the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the Woods Hole Oceanographic Expeditions to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Numerous samples of tremolite asbestos were brought up. Ewing made this significant comment: "Such rock is generally considered typical of continents and not of ocean basins." (Ewing, 1948) Important also was the discovery of "beachlike terraces" beneath two miles of ocean water. Ewing cautiously observed: "It is, of course, extremely radical speculation to identify these level stretches more than two miles below the sea surface as former beaches. Such a theory would require the obvious but almost incredible conclusion that the land has subsided two miles or else the sea has risen by that amount" (Ewing, 1948). However, subsequent expeditions only strengthened the "incredible".


According to Ewing, long flat stretches were detected 2 to 20 miles wide and hundreds of miles long. These beach-like areas were always covered with thick sediments, indicating a long period of deposition, although always separated by mountainous "higher ground" with no such sediments. (The Central Highland of the Ridge occasionally approaches four-fifths of a mile from the sea surface.) Ewing observed that deep ocean basins never have thick sediments--which are the result of surf action and river deposition--it is actually shorelines that display thick sediments. More evidence of just how recently such a landmass existed turned up during an expedition the following year.


The follow-up expedition in 1949 turned up numerous core samples from these terraces. These cores contained two different strata of beach sand: the older estimated to be 225,000-325,000 years of age, and the younger 20,000-100,000 years old (Ewing, 1949). Another significant fact is that the deposits were found to be well-sorted by serf action into the usual pattern of shoreline beaches familiar to geologists (Miller & Scholten, 1966). His conclusion was that: "Sometime in the distant past this sand found deep beneath the ocean must have been located on a beach, at or near the surface of the sea" (Ewing, 1949).


During this second Woods Hole Mid-Atlantic Ridge Expedition Dr. Ewing once again dredged up continental type rocks. Sample after sample containing large masses of sial were brought up all along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It became obvious that granite and sedimentary rocks "which originally must have been part of a continent" were abundant (Ewing, 1949). Dr. Bruce Heezen of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory observed that this type of rock indicates "possible sunken land masses".


Geologists have short memories when it comes to Atlantis. A geologist reviewed the Woods Hole expeditions of 1948-1949 barely ten years later and wrote a report on the findings (Cifelli, 1970). I read his report, word for word and cover to cover: not a word was written concerning the numerous findings of continental material (sial) along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dr. Ewing was puzzled, even dismayed, by these particular discoveries; yet he was honest enough to report them. Why were these astounding facts not included in Richard Cifelli's review? Can professional geologists be this one-sided? (You know the answer to that.)


Still another oceanographic expedition, Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition of 1947-1948, yielded core samples containing sand from the Romache Deep of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dr. Otto Mellis did not publish these findings until ten years later (Mellis, 1958). Other geologists have guardedly admitted that the Azore Islands (Central Atlantic) are composed chiefly of continental material, some even conceding that there might be enough continental material (sial) in the mid-Atlantic to make up a landmass the size of Spain (de Camp, 1970). This is not much smaller than the size I have been proposing for the island of Atlantis.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:53:55 pm







dhill757

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                                           PLANTS AND ANIMALS ON ATLANTIS




In 1957, Dr. Rene Malaise of the Riks Museum in Stockholm announced that a colleague, Dr. R. W. Kolbe, had found proof of the geologically recent subsidance of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dr. Kolbe of the Swedish Museum of Natural History had been commissioned to investigate diatoms found in deep-sea cores obtained during the above mentioned Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition. Although the expedition included a globe-encircling study, only those cores taken from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge yeilded the following: Multitudinous shells of fresh-water diatoms (small lake animals) and fossilized remains of terrestrial plants (Kolbe, 1957). Let me repeat that. Land plants and fresh-water animals were found fossilized on the Atlantic Ocean bottom along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.


Dr. Malaise theorized that parts of the Ridge must have existed as large islands up to the end of the last Ice Age or later: i.e., as recently as 10,000-12,000 years ago. He also theorized that these landmasses must have had fresh-water lakes in order to account for the existence of fresh-water animals (Malaise, 1956). Commenting on Malaise' theory, Kolbe writes: ". . . it provides a natural explanation of the layer consisting exclusively of fresh-water diatoms, which is otherwise difficult to comprehend" (Kolbe, 1957).


The six levels of terraces discovered by the Woods Hole expeditions suggest that the Atlantic island was constantly changing shape - as well as being reduced in size - before it finally disappeared at the end of the Ice Age. Such geological changes would have been catastrophic to any life living on such a landmass: the unhappy result of the constant violence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. If the Atlantic landmass happened to be inhabited by humans, these violent disturbances could well have been the cause of the four Cro-Magnon "invasions" outlined on the Anthropological page of this web site. These well documented invasions impacted the western shores of North Africa and Europe (including Great Britain and other Atlantic islands) and occurred during a time frame of 35,000-12,000 years ago (the latter date corresponding closely to the date given by Plato for the demise of Atlantis).


* TOP of Page

Bibliography

Cifelli, Richard, "Age relationships of Mid-Atlantic Ridge sediments," Special Paper No. 124, Geological Society of America, 1970.
de Camp, L. Sprague, "Lost Continents," Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1970.
Ewing, Maurice, "Exploring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. xciv, No. 3, September 1948.
Ewing, Maurice, "New Discoveries on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. xcvi, No. 5, November 1949.
Kolbe, R. W., "Fresh-Water Diatoms from Atlantic Deep-Sea Sediments," Science, Vol. 126, No. 3282, 22 November, 1957.
Leonard, R. Cedric, A Geological Study of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Special Paper No. 1, Cowan Publ., Bethany, 1979.
Leonard, R. Cedric, "Quest for Atlantis," Manor Books Inc., New York, 1979.
Malaise, Rene, Sjunket l and i Atlanten, Ymer, Stockholm, 1956. (See also his Atlantis en Geologisk Verklighet, Bibliofilupplaga, Stockholm, 1951.)
Mellis, Otto, Zur Sedimentation in Der Romache-Tiefe (Ein Beitrag zur Erklarung der Enstellung des Tiefseesandes in Atlantischen Ozean), Geologischen Rundschau, Goteborg, 1958.
Miller, J. P. & Scholten, R., "Ocean, Lakes, and Shoreline Features," Labratory Studies in Geology, No. 225, 1966.
Speicher, John, "Plate Tectonics--A Startling New View of Our Turbulent Earth," Popular Science, Vol. 200, No. 6, June 1972.


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http://www.atlantisquest.com/Geology.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:55:49 pm







atalante
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Dhill,



I know you explore a huge amount of data. Have you already researched and posted about the consequences of relatively small pole shifts?

Today I dug through the Hutton Commentaries on Pole Shift. This is really amazing stuff. If you haven't already gone into this topic in substantial detail, then I highly recommend it to you.

Superficially, the Hutton webpage about poleshift may seen to be involved with Edgar Cayce. But I noticed today that it is easy to "genealize" the data to almost any part of the earth's surface, while still retaining a conection to the basic theme of Atlantis.

Consider for example, the widely different locations of Cuba, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and Cyprus, where Atlantis researchers have recently been looking at plains that are about 2000 feet underwater.

The Hutton Commentary specifically deals with the Bimini predictions (and/or the Cuban 2001 investigations).

The Earth's North pole is drifting toward Bimini (and it has been going in this direction ever since Cayce gave his trance readings). It has been calculated by a serious, conventional scientist that the shape of the geoid (for determining sea level) should "fall" in the direction where the North Pole is heading.

If the North Pole could shift one degree farther "toward" Bimini, then (other things being equal) that would cause sea level at the latitude of Bimini to fall by about 965 feet relative to continental land.

What should Atlantis researchers glean from this type of analysis?

I presume this tells us that a pole shift of 2 degrees "toward" Cuba would make the now-famous Cuban artifacts be near sea level.

Likewize, I presume that a pole shift of 2 degrees "toward" Cyprus would make the Mediterranean Sea Level fall to the approximately the depths where Sarmast thinks Atlantis may have been located.

And furthermore a pole shift of 2 degrees "toward" the mid-Atlantic trench would make the mid-ocean seamounts "seem to be" 2000 feet higher (relative to sea level) than they curently are.

Here is a quote from the Hutton Commentaries about the consequences of a "one degree" poleshift toward Bimini.

quote from: http://www.huttoncommentaries.com/PSResearch/Strain/SmallPoleShift.htm

Strain now continues with the words quoted below, which contain several correspondences with several other Earth-change readings:

"The New Honduras and Nicaragua east coasts of Central America extend to the east for 100-200 miles. The Yucatan Peninsula extends about two degrees further north. The continental shelf off the east Texas and south Louisiana coasts are drained to move the coastline out about two degrees into the Gulf of Mexico. Florida picks up more than its present width from the Gulf of Mexico, while extending the state south to below the Florida Keys. The east coast of the United States from Florida to New Jersey gains about one degree of continental shelf lands from the Atlantic. An area about the size of Pennsylvania is added off Cape Cod as Georges Banks is drained. Even more land appends to Nova Scotia by exposing the Sable Island Bank. Over 300 miles of new continent are added to the east of Newfoundland as the lowered geoid exposes the Grand Banks….An island about the same size as Florida forms by the drainage of the Great Bahama Bank."

The foregoing exposed sea-floors would be created by the draining of continental shelves, and all of the emergence of lands would be due to the mere 1° pole shift. Assuming that the crust in the areas just mentioned is rigid, which it is not, Panama City would rise (relative to the post-shift sea level) some 1030 ft, Tampa 999 ft, Miami 953 ft, Jacksonville 1045 ft, Charleston 1110 ft, Norfolk 1180 ft, New York City 1222 ft, Boston 1228 ft, and Halifax 1230 ft. More later about these seemingly excessive east coast elevation changes.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:57:19 pm








dhill757

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   posted 10-18-2004 12:38 AM                       
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Thanks for the information, Atalante, it was very interesting. Although, Hutton's date for the proposed pole shift, 2001, has already passed, I can see this happening in a future that may be more near than people can envision. I actually found the conclusions you drew from it in terms of how they related to Atlantis and the Cuban artifacts more inciteful than those of the author of that particular article.
Here's another article from one of my favorite websites, the New Scientist, that seems to suggest that climate changes happen much quicker than modern science is giving them credit for:
http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99996470

I don't know if you've ever seen that movie "the Day After Tomorrow." It's a little too fantastic in parts, but gives you the idea what would happen if modern civilization had this kind of rapid climate shift.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 02:58:26 pm







Stacy Dohm

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   posted 11-04-2004 12:32 AM                       
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I saw the "Day After Tomorrow." I didn't think it was that hot. I watched it because I was hoping to get the "feel" of what it must have been like for the Ice Age to end and Atlantis to get submerged. It was so unrealistic, though, that I had a hard time accepting any of it. Very unrealistic! 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 03:01:03 pm







Boreas
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   posted 11-04-2004 08:20 PM                       
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Psycho,



Quote; "Europeans went to South American the 1500's, the indigenous people thought that they were the same people who built their ancient civilisation, they described them as a divine race of bearded Whites".

The famous Thor Heyerdahl spent a lot of years with different indigenious people of Latin- and South-America, as he explored and excavated areas that are still is populated by indians - basically.

As he passed 80 years Mr. Heyerdahl had heard the same story - about "the tall, bearded white brother" - who once came to be "wisemen and teachers of our great ancestors", - from a long row of different villages and tribes of Indians.

Being a Norwegian made it almost impossible - even to Dr. Heyerdahl - to accept the possibility that these "great teachers" and "creators of greatness" could have anything to do with the ancient North-European sailors. Because the pioneers of this sea-culture - and of oversea travels -
are to be found in Scandinavia, as they were the first to create the building-teqniques neccesary to construct sailboats the size of ships - with the neccesary abilities of "riding the waves" - as the forefathers of the Vikings put it.

But slowly, slowy it changed. In the 1960-ties and 70-ties his friend Helge Ingstad and his wife, archaeologist Anne-Stine, - got the due recognition for their discovery of the Norse setlements in Lanse d` Meadows.

That proved that the Norse sailors not only reached New Foundland and Labrador - it meant that they created regular "colonies" there - with a steady communication back east. From the row of discoveries found after that it is highly plausible that more ships would arrive every year, as the Norwegian "Sea-Kings" where allowing the Dukes and Earls to travel westwards, to trade - with the Indians, and to experience their lives and their culture. That way the Kingdom of Norway became known as the "by far the largest of the three Scandinavian kingdoms".

Since ice-time the Norsemen methodically populated all islands in the North-Atlantic - including those offshore the wastcoast of the US. One typical Viking-ship, from around the years 1.000 AC, is actually found in a beach in the Haiti Island.

The indians did not do cross-continental seafaring at all, those days. Nor did the Phoenicans nor the Arabs or Chinese.

Today we can recognize that the Norsemen created permanent setlements, - as far down as Virginia, Florida and some islands down south. As well as the artical, unpopulated areas of mainland N-America and Canada.

It is a well known fact that Greenland was populated long before Iceland. By a duke under the Norwegian Sea-King. As was the Orkney Island, The Hebrides and the Feroe Islands, that were populated at least 7000 years ago. Having the skills and the climatical and navigational knowledge neccesary the old Norsemen could have reached Manhatten and Vinland - now being New York and Virginia long, long before the Viking era.

Later, having conquered Scandinavia - the Vatican took all territory west of Island, from the Norwegians (aprox. 1250), then gave it to the Portugese (Tordesillias, 1501). Already in 1374 had the Porugese sent pirats to plunder and destroy the Duke of Greenland - the last to keep America directly linked to the Scandinavian nobility and royals.

Not to mention the NORSE POPULATION in north-east America. After 1501 the Portugese ruled the district according to needs. Thus the norwegian descendants was enslaved and exploited into extinction. The slave trade of the portugese actually made the call a whole state "Labrador" - that is "Laborers". Without a pay...

With a growing number of ships - and a navy of pirates - Portugal benefitted greatly by their new labor-force, filled with skills and compentence of ship-building - and navigation in artical waters.

Later the English Navy grew big enough to enter the action - and soon the Portugesse where kicked out of all N. America. As you may know it didnt even help - that the Spaniards mobilized heavily, to destroy the English navy and secure a good, Catholic domain over N-America. In the end the Spaniards have to leave too - forming the basis for todays USA. Keep remember Alamo.

---
The Goths and the Celts where tribes that went out from a common offspring of articals. Carrying the oldest boat-culture in the north as they started their exploration and population of Scandinavia and Northern Europe - as of 10.000 years ago.

The center of this area is located in the Baltic Ocean - where it had existed and developed for a minimum of 30.000 years - already. In Scandinavia the Goths were known to be the first fishing-hunting culture - that populated the coasts of Sweden and Norway. Obviously it was this fishing-culture that had the neccesary prerequisites to develop oceanic travels - using very skillfully built ships - of the neccesary size and still the sailing capability of "In ships looking like birds -flying over the waves" according to the Indian stories. And they all came from the east - and they all went back, over the ocean - to the east, when their missons were completed. As they returned by the Gulf-stream, via the southern outpost of the old Norwegian Kingdom, namely villages in Ireland and the entire Isle of Man.

Thus we may see the essential significance of Ireland - as a cross-road of old sea-routes and the main arrival of all returns from America. (Going there required knowledge of the northern route, starting on Feroe Island OR Norway/Iceland. Consequently they had to go as a "round-trip", - Norway (Trondheim) - Feroe Island - Greenland - Virginia/Florida - before returning - WITH the Gulf Stream, - "at the speed of a good wind"...

---
After 30 years of debate and doubt Dr. Heyerdahl stubbornly had to admit that "oops, - it seems that the Bronze Age Scandinavian, the anchestors of the Vikings, actually had reached America, long before anyone could guess. AND, they related to the indians for a long time - in complete peace. Seen as teachers and pioneers of the indian culture - they were obviously highly cherished and respected.
Exchanging culture, merchandize and a general knowledge ("news"?!) of eachother.

---

As the Potugese extinguished the Norse population on Greenland, Newfoundland and others - their fellow norsemen further south lost connection to their own tribe. That meant they imediatly had to become part of the eskimo or the indian communities of the respective lands. Which the eskimos own stories confirm.

Tht means there were an open door to interbreeding between the artic scandinavians and the indigenous indians.

Which is very nicely confirmed by the Indian Elder you refered above; "We indians havent always looked the way we do today".

No wonder that the Indians of the NW US have a clear influence of the Caucasian physiognomy, in clear contrast to their Amazone brethren...

The core of the Indian legends of their "True White Brother" is directly refered to in the Bocksaga too - refering how the Baltic Royals sent their envoys - accompanied by wise-men, shipped by the Norwegians - to visit and take active part in the re-construction of culture, language and global relations.

All European Royal families have legends pointing to the Man of Oden - as their common ancestor. They all got their royal rigth because they were born "Sons of Oden", being off-springs from the very first family of the first artical population. Called The Aser. That lived in an ancient capitol - where Midgard, Asgard and Sibbo were places of meetings and sermons.

As Heyerdahl turned 84 he couldn`t stay put anymore. Having re-examined the Nordic Myths and Sagas - with all their updated references, - he organised and financed a major archeological excavation. Following the road-maps and descriptions of the Icelandic Saga he ended in the old city of As-hov, north of the Black Sea. Called Troy in the Snorre-saga, who also claim that the Aser came from "this Troy" - before they emigrated into Russia and Europe, where they reformed, cultivated and instituted the Royal Houses - and all nobility - that still exists in Europe.

This story is conformed by the most trustworthy of all pre-christian sources that still exist in Euorpe, such as "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles", "Saxo Gramaticus" -and others. They all refere to Oden/Othin/Wotan as the arnfather of their respective kingfamilies.

During christianisation all old idols were downplayed and resented. By force. Especially the old cultureal forebearers - the royals as their power, their symbols and their supremacy- went from being historical to become esoterical. Thus the unique and essential royal, by the title in short refered to as "n`Oden" became "a primitive heathen God", - refered to only as a cause of trouble, and - alas -"primitive superstition".

With that stigmata as a background it was no less than incredibly admireable that the old explorer, Senor Kon-Ti-ki, went looking for the unknown roots of our Eurasian culture and history. Arriving in Asov he could see himself at the frontpage of Time; getting the zest of the matter with the headline; "In Search of The Gods" (Time, august,2001).

Today it may look that he was far ahead of his fellow researchers. It surely looks as we have started to find the Gods. Under shuffles of earth.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 03:03:26 pm








dhill757

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   posted 11-06-2004 03:25 AM                       
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quote:
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            PROOF OF THE FORMER EXISTANCE OF A LARGE ISLAND ON THE MID ATLANTIC RIDGE





River Systems Extract - Azores as a Large Island

In 1971 we carried out an inspection of parts of the South Coast of San Miguel, the largest of the Azorean Islands. At one point, we found the remnants of a large, boulder filled, river-bed truncated by the shoreline. The rounded boulders were smoothly water-worn and massive (up to two feet across). The river bed, if we remember correctly, was some two hundred and fifty feet from bank to bank; but there was now insufficient width of island to sustain such a river. The boulders were so worn that they had, obviously, travelled a considerable distance, and a strong current of water with a head of thousands of feet would have been required to transport them. There was no room on the narrow island for such a current to be fostered - the rivers source must have lain to the north, on the flanks of a high mountain range. The present mountains on San Miguel are only a little over 3,000 feet high; and we estimate that it would have required a fall of at least 10,000 feet to have reduced boulders of that size, and hardness, to the degree of roundness which they profess.

This discovery so intrigued us that we started an investigation of the mapped sea-bed around all of the islands, with remarkable results. We started with the 1:1 million scale Admiralty Chart - Arquipelago dos Acores - the numerous soundings of which gave a very good general view of the configuration of the sea bed over the whole group of Azorean islands, covering, from east to west - Ilheus das Formigas, Santa Maria, Sao Miguel, Terciera, Soa Jrge, Graciosa, Pico (with its 7,613 feet high, conical, volcanic peak). These were supplemented by larger scale charts where they were available.

We started by contouring the sea bed at intervals of 100 fathoms (600 feet), and it immediately became clear that the river systems that now modestly drain the southern flanks of Sao Miguel were merely head-water tributaries whose channels continued far out to sea, joining into one great, winding, submarine valley some 40 miles further to the south. Other islands contributed similar results and, outstanding, were the triple group of Fial, Sao Jorge and Terciera whose combined results spawned two long river-like valleys which joined into one large valley to give a system that extended for 180 miles.

The whole of the Azorean island group was separated and surrounded by a net of submarine valleys that had all the hall-marks of having once been river valley's on the surface. The Azores could - and probably had, within comparatively recent times - sunk by many thousands of feet.

The next step was to decide whether it was possible to detect any particular contours which might point to an ancient shore line pre dating the sinking of the area. In the south, there was a clear break in gradients around the 1,900 fathom (11,400 feet) contour where a very extensive plain dipped sharply into deeper water. In the north, much the same had happened but at a considerably more shallow depth.

It began to look as if a large land mass, 450 miles across from east to west, and 300 miles from north to south, had tilted from north to south and had sunk beneath the waves, leaving only its mountain peaks showing above the waters - peaks which now form the ten islands of the Azores.

After further calculation, we reached the conclusion that the tilting, either before or during foundering, had been of the order of 0.4 degrees, as a result of which the south coast had sunk more than 11,000 feet and the north coast only some 6,000 feet.

We then reconstructed the land profiles to the approximate positions in
which they should have been before the catastrophe. We re-contoured the whole area, raising the north coast by 6,000 feet; the south coast by 11,000 feet; and the intervening area proportionally to the adopted gradient. The result was the outline map shown below.

It was now possible to visualise a great island about the size and shape of Spain, with high mountain ranges rising over 12,000 feet above sea level and impressive rivers running in curving valley systems. In the southeast, a feature which we have called 'The Great Plain' covered an area in excess of 3,500 square miles, and was watered by a river comparable in size to the River Thames in England. It has, and we shall sea, points in common with the great plain described by Plato in his Critias, as being a feature of the Island of Atlantis.

The study on which we have embarked has two parts. The first is to establish that a large island could have existed in mid-Atlantic in Pre-historic times; the second is to determine whether there could have been a connection between the inhabitants of such an island and our heroes - The Shining Ones.

In our judgement, the first of these parts has been successfully determined; and it is proper, therefore, to proceed with an examination of Plato's detailed description of Atlantis and its inhabitants.

Extract from Chapter 18 The Shining Ones by Christian and Barbara Joy O'Brien


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http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/342proof.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 03:05:22 pm







Psycho

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  posted 11-17-2004 12:33 PM                       
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In the spirit of resuming our discussion of the earlier settlement of humans in America:

quote:
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Scientist: Man in Americas earlier than thought
Archaeologists put humans in North America 50,000 years ago





By Marsha Walton and Michael Coren
CNN
Wednesday, November 17, 2004 Posted: 2:17 PM EST (1917 GMT)

(CNN) -- Archaeologists say a site in South Carolina may rewrite the history of how the Americas were settled by pushing back the date of human settlement thousands of years.
An archaeologist from the University of South Carolina today announced radiocarbon tests that dated the first human settlement in North America to 50,000 years ago -- at least 25,000 years before other known human sites on the continent.

"Topper is the oldest radiocarbon dated site in North America," said Albert Goodyear of the University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology.

If true, the find represents a revelation for scientists studying how humans migrated to the Americas.

Most scientists believe humans' first ventures to the New World were across a land bridge from present-day Russia to Alaska about 13,000 years ago. The new evidence suggests humans crossed the land bridge much earlier -- possibly during an ice age -- to the Americas and rapidly colonized the two continents.

"It poses some real problems trying to explain how you have people (arriving) in Central Asia almost at the same time as people in the Eastern United States," said Theodore Schurr, anthropology professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a curator at the school's museum.

"You almost have to hope for instantaneous expansion...We're talking about a very rapid movement of people around the globe."

Schurr said that conclusive evidence of stone tools similar to those in the old world and uncontaminated radiocarbon dating samples would be needed to verify the findings as old as 50,000 years ago.

"If dating is confirmed, then it really does have a significant impact on our previous understanding of New World colonization," he said.

Modern humans, or homo sapiens, emerged between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago in Africa. Modern humans quickly fanned out to Australia and Central Asia about 50,000 years ago and arrived in Europe only about 40,000 years ago. It was thought until recently that no humans arrived in the New World until about 13,000 years ago. Archaic hominids like australopithecines and Neanderthals have never been found in the New World.

University of Wisconsin at Madison professor, geologist Thomas Stafford, said that the shocking results would shake scientists' theories about human development, but would lead to new ideas.

"It's a slow process," he said. "You have preconceived ideas...Until someone rocks the boat, you really don't think about something new."

Goodyear plans to publish his work in a peer-reviewed scientific journal next year which is the standard method by which scientists announce their findings

Until research is peer-reviewed, objective experts in the field have not necessarily had an opportunity to evaluate a scientist's methods, or weigh in on the validity of his conclusions.

Archaeologists will meet in October of 2005 for a conference in Columbia, South Carolina, to discuss the earliest inhabitants of North America, including a visit to the Topper Site.

Goodyear has been excavating the Topper dig site along the Savannah River since the 1980s. He recovered artifacts and tools last May that are expected to push the date of colonization back before most of the earliest known settlements on the continent.

Goodyear dug four meters (13 feet) deeper than the soil layer containing the earliest North American people, known as the Clovis culture, and began uncovering a plethora of tools.

Scientists and volunteers at the site in Allendale have unearthed hundreds of implements, many stone chisels and tools likely used to skin hides, butcher meat, carve antlers, wood and possibly ivory. The tools were fashioned from a substance called chert, a flint like stone that is found in the region.

These discoveries could push that date back thousands -- maybe even tens of thousands -- of years and demand a new explanation for how the Americas were first settled.

Since the 1930s, archaeologists have generally believed North America was settled by hunters following large game over a land bridge from Russia during the last major ice age about 13,000 years ago.

"That had been repeated so many times in textbooks and lectures it became part of the common lore," said Dennis Stanford, curator of archeology at the Smithsonian Institution. "People forgot it was only an unproven hypothesis."

Land-bridge assumption challenged
A growing body of evidence is prompting some scientists to challenge that assumption.

A scattering of sites from South America to Wisconsin have detected human presence before 13,000 years ago -- or the first Clovis sites -- since the first groundbreaking discovery of human artifacts in a cave near Clovis, New Mexico, in 1936.

These discoveries have led archaeologists to support alternative theories -- such as settlement by sea -- for the Americas.

Goodyear and his colleagues began their dig at the Topper Site in the early 1980s with a goal of finding out more about the Clovis people, long thought to be the earliest people to settle the Americas.

Goodyear thought that because of the resources available along the Savannah River and the moderate climate it would be a good place to look for even earlier human settlers than the Clovis people.


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http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/science/11/17/carolina.dig/index.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 03:06:43 pm
docyabut
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Psycho, seen that on the news, however what they are showing does not look like man made tools. The stones still like what nature could have made. 
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Posts: 7896 | From: toledo .ohio | Registered: Mar 2000  |  IP: Logged |   
 
docyabut
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Rate Member   posted 11-17-2004 07:18 PM                       
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The stones still looked like what nature could have made. And where are the
50,000 year old bodies that made these tools?
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rockessence

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   posted 11-17-2004 09:30 PM                       
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Doc,
Probably cremated...
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Posts: 3128 | From: Port Townsend WA 


http://forums.atlantisrising.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=1;t=000958;p=4


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 03:51:20 pm







Psycho

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  posted 11-18-2004 09:41 AM                       
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Oh, I don't know, Docyabut, the prof from UW would seem to disagree with you. It would seem that you now have your evidence (irrefutable and from academic sources) that America was settled by ancient travellers. Incidentally, this would also fit inneatly with the fact that Australia and Indonesia were settled around the same time (40,000 b.c. according to some estimates).
The lower they dig, the older the evidence they find, right?

Evidence of an advanced sea-faring race that was sailing at a time when humanity was still supposed to be living out of the caves, in other words, Atlantis, or something very much like it.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 03:52:46 pm
docyabut
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Rate Member   posted 11-18-2004 05:06 PM                       
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Not everybody agrees
He has a very old geologic formation, but I can't agree with his interpretation of those stones being man-made," said Michael Collins of the Texas Archeological Research Lab at the University of Texas at Austin. Collins disputes that the stone shards at the site show signs of human manipulation.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:43:11 pm







Psycho

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  posted 11-18-2004 09:41 AM                       
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Oh, I don't know, Docyabut, the prof from UW would seem to disagree with you. It would seem that you now have your evidence (irrefutable and from academic sources) that America was settled by ancient travellers. Incidentally, this would also fit inneatly with the fact that Australia and Indonesia were settled around the same time (40,000 b.c. according to some estimates).

The lower they dig, the older the evidence they find, right?

Evidence of an advanced sea-faring race that was sailing at a time when humanity was still supposed to be living out of the caves, in other words, Atlantis, or something very much like it.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:44:16 pm

docyabut
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Rate Member   posted 11-18-2004 05:06 PM                       
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Not everybody agrees
He has a very old geologic formation, but I can't agree with his interpretation of those stones being man-made," said Michael Collins of the Texas Archeological Research Lab at the University of Texas at Austin. Collins disputes that the stone shards at the site show signs of human manipulation.


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docyabut
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From what I`ve` seen of the stones, sorry Phyco they do not look man made
 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:46:19 pm







Psycho

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  posted 11-19-2004 09:20 AM                       
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Well, what does the Texas guy know, he probably voted for Bush! In fact, you both did, didn't you? (Just kidding).



Seriously, they looked "worked" to me, and what do you expect them to look like after 50,000 years? It makes sense that the deeper layers would have the older evidence. As for bodies, the pre-Clovis evidence I posted on the page before this should take care of some of that.

The prevailing wind seems to be that most are accepting the discovery as valid while there are only a few dissenters. Like you!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:48:43 pm







dhill757

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   posted 12-19-2004 09:45 PM                       
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quote:
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The mystery of the eighth continent
By P. Lal
PLATO spoke of it some 2500 years ago. Oceanographers have discovered what look like its vestiges, on the floor of the Atlantic. Writers have written about it. Libraries have catalogued it under the category of legends. The scientific community, by and large, has denied that it ever existed.

Yet, there are reasons to believe that Atlantis, the eighth continent, once existed, in the middle of the Atlantic, roughly between Spain, Africa and the Americas, and sank some 11,500 years ago, into the ocean, where it now rests at the bottom.

According to Plato, Atlantis had a powerful empire, with influence on and trade with, the countries on both sides of the Atlantic, the eastern American and the western African and European coasts. It was larger than Libya and Asia put together (here, Libya means North Africa and Asia means Asia minor and parts of the Middle East), from where one could pass through the whole of the "opposite continent". Plato’s reference to the "Opposite Continent" came to be true 2000 years after him, when America was discovered by Columbus. There is no reason why his account of the Atlantis should also not be true.

Recent discoveries of unidentified ruins under the Atlantic Ocean where great stone roads or platforms were found fitted into place have given credence to the belief that Atlantis once existed. Members of a deep-sea expedition of the then USSR on board the "Academician Petrovsky", a research ship, photographed seafloors in the Atlantic in 1974, near Horseshoe Archipelago, 300 miles west of Gibraltar. The pictures taken on the summit of Ampere Seamount, rising from 10,000 feet within 200 feet of the suface of the sea, showed remarkable features like stone walls, the masonry block of the walls being upto 1.5 metres high, and the width of the walls being 75 cm the stone staircase cut into the cliff of which the five steps were clearly visible, and levelled off stone platform connected to another staircase. Subsequent expeditions have not only confirmed the finds but discovered more of the type over a wider area.

In 1981, an expedition along the underwater shelf off the Canary Islands disclosed large stone slabs set on the sea bottom at a depth of about 50 feet over an area of 900 sq feet. The stones appeared to be carefully set, and wide stone steps led down from the central pavement. An undersea wall, off the Moroccan coast, extending several miles in length, has also been discovered and photographed.

Besides the theory of the drowning of the Atlantis’ due to the rise in the sea level at the end of the last Ice age, the other theories given out for its sudden disappearance include violent earthquakes, seaquakes and volcanic explosions resulting in its sinking into the sea. The mid-Atlantic ridge, dividing the Atlantic into two almost equal parts, is the highest mountain range, under water, and is situated in the most active seismic zone. In the past few hundred years, there have been several known instances of the appearance and disappearance of islands in the Atlantic, due to the seismic activity of its oceanic floor. Thus, in 1622, the city of Villa Franca, capital of the Azorian island of Sao Maguel fell into the sea due to a sudden seismic convulsion. In 1811, a large volcanic island appeared in the Azores, was given the name Sambrina, and then disappeared into the sea after a few years.

It is also speculated that the advanced civilisation of the Atlantis had tapped unknown sources of energy specially those inherent in the tectonic plate movements which are responsible for earthquakes. Unwise utilisation of this source of energy might have led to its being destroyed in a major earthquake.

Whatever the truth about the Atlantis, the same is bound to be known with the application of modern day tools of research and discovery. Till then, it will remain in the realm of speculation, buried at the bottom of the Atlantic.


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http://www.tribuneindia.com/1999/99oct03/sunday/head4.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:51:16 pm







dhill757

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   posted 12-19-2004 09:48 PM                       
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quote:
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1969 begins


                                                    The Site of Atlantis,




By E. Sykes

I have always held that the best chances of finding traces of Atlantis and of its capital The City of the Golden Gates was off the Azores and I am very glad to see that Dr. Malaise in his new book thoroughly agrees with me as does also M. Framdsen, a Danish Engineer who mapped out the Atlantean plain near the Azores. Here to my mind is the only possible chance of finding Atlantean remains, the site of the wonderful metropolis of Plato is now within easy reach thanks to standard commercial underwater equipment of today. The cost of an expedition using television should not exceed $50,000 and would probably be far less. When one realizes that there must be literally hundreds tons of gold and silver lying about, provided that one knows where to look, the idea certainly has some attraction. Obviously remains will be found all over the place as the range of Atlantean influence was wide. But there were but a couple of cities: The City of the Golden Gates and the City of Transparent Walls, if history has not managed to forget the names of any other. But the only one we can site with accuracy is the City of the Golden Gates. E.S. 1969


What Paul le Cour said about the Corvo Equestrian Statue in 1935. E. Sykes 1969

Translated from Atlantis, Paris No. 60 for July August 1935.

"I was recently asked by one of our readers, Dr. Gibault, about a passage in Book 6 of "Memories d' Outre Tombe" by Chateaubriand which runs as follows:

"It is probable that the Azores were known to the Carthaginians; it is certain that a Phoenician Coins were found on Corvo. The first modern seamen to reach the island found there, it is said, an equestrian statue, with the right arm outstretched and pointing to the West, provided, however that this statue is not the type of fabrication, which adorns the earliest portulans….I supposed, that in the manuscript of Natchez, that Chartas, returning from Europe (Book 7 of Natchez), made landfall on Corvo and came across the mysterious statue." Dr. Bibault continued: "Do you not think that perhaps on reality? In that case what kind of monument is in question? Of what period is it? What did it represent? Does it still exist? Why did Chateaubriand query the picture which might well have been reproduction of the statue??" Le Cour stated that at that time he had nothing which would confirm the story or not. However in the 33 years which have elapsed since the article was written we have managed to turn up quite a lot of fresh data. But what one would like to see would be the portulan in which was included the drawing of the statue. Le Cour continued by referring to the stela depicting an Atlantean Temple which was discovered on San Miguel, and of which a photograph was seen shortly before the writing of the article, by M. Matila Ghyka. During his stay on the island he endeavored, without success, to see the photograph in the museum at Los Angeles, but instead learnt from M. Vasco Benisaude that in the multi volume set of the Archives of the Azores which was in his library, there was a mention of the discovery of the grotto containing the stele, on San Miguel. The article concludes that le Cour was still awaiting the receipt of a copy of the photograph from M. Ghyka. He had also heard that the stele was in a museum in Bombay but had no idea how it got there. Inquiries made in 1966-67 to Bombay produced no result, while the son or grandson of M. Benisaude was unable to help us about the records. It seems evident that if it is desired to make a cross check on this story as against that told in the manuscript of Thevet, the only way will be to visit the island of San Miguel. I have no idea who M. Ghyka was or whether he left any papers behind. That the information is still to be found there seems reasonably certain. E. Sykes 1969

A New Deal in Geology, By E. Sykes (a summary)

Dr. Malaise published two Swedish editions on the subject of Atlantis and his main point was:

"Geologically it is impossible for Atlantis not to have existed." And here is the Chapter points-



Our Knowledge of the interior of the Earth.

The Constriction Theory of Nils Odhner.

The Last Ice Age, its causes and the Geographical Effects.

The bed of the Ocean and the submerged land region.

The Mediterranean and the Atlantean Continent.

The Significance of Atlantis in Early Human Culture and its relationship of Early American Man.

Unsolved Problems of the Permo Carboniferous and Earlier Ice Ages.



"His work has no emotional background of any kind, every source can be verified and checked and, what is more he was able to make full use of the sources available at through the Swedish Museum of Natural History during a long and distinguished career there."


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:53:55 pm







dhill757

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Perhaps the Mid Atlantic Ridge was Atlantis. Between 1872-1876, scientists aboard the HMS Challenger discovered the Mid Atlantic Ridge (Encyclopedia Britannica, 25:168:1a). The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a submerged mountain range on the Atlantic Ocean's floor. The ridge extends 10,000 miles from north to south, in an S-shaped path. The ridge reaches a width of 1,000 miles. Some of the mountains of the ridge are above sea level, and are islands. Some of those islands are the Azores, Ascension, and St. Helena (Encyclopedia Britannica, 8:106:2b). Most of the Mid Atlantic Ridge is covered to a depth of 3,000 meters (Galanopoulos, p. 53).

Plato's writings also indicate that numerous artesian wells (natural fountains) were on the earth in ancient times. Perhaps this was the result of the Great Flood, after which the continents were saturated with water that took centuries to drain into the oceans.





From Critias



...[The land] let off into the hollows the streams which it absorbed from the heights, providing everywhere abundant fountains and rivers, of which there may still be observed sacred memorials in places where fountains once existed; and this proves the truth of what I am saying.


(http://www.activemind.com/Mysterious/Topics/Atlantis/critias_page3.html)





                                                      Guanche Legend





The Canary Islands are a group of Spanish-owned islands in the Atlantic Ocean, off the northwest coast of Africa. The aborigines of the Canary Islands, called the "Guanches" (whose culture is now extinct), believed in a Supreme, Almighty and Eternal God. They also believed in a devil (Gil, pp. 31-32). The Guanches were related to the Berbers of North Africa, and were conquered by the Spanish in the 15th century (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2:793:3b).


[The Guanches] ...had a brown complexion, blue or gray eyes, and blondish hair... Their food staples consisted mainly of milk, butter, goat flesh, pork, and some fruits; and their clothing comprised leather tunics or vests made of plaited rushes... they were known to have been monotheists (Encyclopedia Britannica, 5:532:1a).





                                  From Charles Berlitz's book, The Lost Ship of Noah:




The inhabitants of the Canary Islands were white-skinned, of tall and muscular stature, and many were blond-haired and blue-eyed. They were officially discovered in 1395 by Jean de Bethencourt, a French nobleman in the service of Spain. When the Spanish landed they could not communicate with the natives, who spoke no language known to the Spaniards. When the islanders had learned enough Spanish to communicate they told the surprised Spanish visitors that they could not understand where the men and ships had come from as they believed that the Great Flood had drowned everyone in the world except themselves. Once, they said, their ancestors had lived in a large land with great cities, fertile plains, and rivers, but a flood had covered it, and only a few people who had been able to flee to the high mountains had survived. The islands where they now were living once were the mountaintops of their vanished homeland. The waters receded but (and they pointed to the surrounding Atlantic Ocean) were still there. This curious tradition with its suggestion of Atlantis, the Flood, a civilization destroyed by the waters, and survivors who fled to the mountains, was never sufficiently researched by the Spanish conquerors who, within a short time, annihilated the native population in a series of wars. Their language too was lost..." (Berlitz, pp. 132-3).


I pulled the following information off of a Spanish Internet web site in the Summer of 1996. The author is unknown, and I lost the web site URL. I am including this information, however, because it is interesting to note that the Spanish continue to hypothesize as to how the Guanche people originally arrived at the Canary Islands, even though the Guanches themselves told the Spaniards that the Guanches escaped to the mountains from a flood of rising water, and that those mountains became islands when the water remained, stranding the Guanche people. The Spanish, apparently, continue to disbelieve the Guanche legend, which, based on the information presented in this article, may have been the truth. The passage below was originally in Spanish; I translated it into English.


The Europeans 'discovered' the Canary Islands in the first half of the 14th century. They found a people who were later named "Guanches," who today continue to be surrounded with many mysteries. Where did they come from? How did they get to the islands? When did they arrive?


Certainly, they must have arrived via the ocean. They arrived accompanied by their domesticated animals: goats, sheep, pigs, and dogs. They carried wheat and barley with them. They originated from North Africa. They share the same roots as the Berbers of the Atlas region. This simple affirmation has cost rivers of ink and very long discussions, in which archaeology and ethnography mix with politics.
Just as the European conquerors said, the Guanches were "of the white race, tall, muscular, very beautiful, and there were many blondes among them." Their great height, it is understood, was relative to the medium height of the Europeans of that period of time. Regarding the presence of blondes: even today, after many centuries of invasions and mixing of genes, one can find the traits of blonde hair and blue eyes among the Berbers of the African Atlas region...


The ancestors of the Guanches arrived by sea, colonized the islands, and forgot how to use a boat! When the Europeans arrived at the Canaries, they found a people who lived in a neolithic culture, based on sheep herding, fruit harvesting, and very limited farming. This [culture] was common among all of the islands, but on each, [the people] had developed a microcosm to the extent that [the people of each island] had developed their own dialects [of the Guanche language]. The islands disconnected the peoples from each other; the natives did not know how to use boats, and fished only along the coastlines. This is one of the enigmas of the Guanches. How is it possible that a people arrived via the ocean to these small islands, lived surrounded by the ocean, had, on various islands, enormous forests and large trees of premium material for boat building, yet were ignorant of the sea and lived a backward lifestyle? There are a number of hypotheses: perhaps the inhabitants of the Canaries were simply passengers, shepherds transported by mariners, who were later forgotten and lost their luck.
It is unreasonable to think that the Guanche people forgot how to use boats, even to travel among the Canary Islands. It seems that if the Guanche people's ancestors had ever used boats, Guanche oral tradition would have said so. It is more reasonable to think that the Guanches never had boating technology. Again, the above passage shows that Spanish hypothesists continue to ignore the Guanche legend that sea level rose, turning mountains into the Canary Islands. Rather, the Spanish hypothesize that the Guanches somehow arrived by sea via boat, and then forgot how to use boats. Based on the information presented in this article, however, the Guanche legend that sea level rose, stranding the Guanche people on mountains that became islands, may have been the truth.


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http://www.geocities.com/athens/parthenon/3021/peleg.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:57:09 pm







dhill757

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                                                              Keftiu




There is an Egyptian myth similar to Atlantis called "Keftiu" that Koudriavtsev does not mention. Keftiu, was an ancient island nation, an advanced civilization that was the gateway to and ruler of all of the lands to the far west of Egypt (Greece, Libya, and beyond). Egyptian records say that Keftiu was destroyed by the seas in an apocalypse. It is possible that Solon carried the legends of Keftiu to Greece then passed them on to his son and grandson, hence the appearance in Plato's writings.

Ancient records of Keftiu contain a number of similarities to Plato's Atlantis, so he may have been retelling (and renaming) the story of Keftiu.





                                                             Indonesia





Some say the Egyptian story came from an earlier source, namely, from the Hindus in Punt (now Indonesia). Punt was the Ancestral Land (To-wer), the Island of Fire where the Egyptians originated. The Hindus called the sunken continent "Atala" (or "Atalas"), a name remarkably similar to "Atlas" and "Atlantis". In Dravida, "the pristine language of Indonesia", the suffixes "tis" or "tiv" are "mountain" or "island". (pronounced "tiw"). Therefore, Keftiu of the Egyptians is from Kap-tiv = "capital island". We can see that both the words "Keftiu" and "Atlantis" have roots in the ancient Indonesian language. Indonesia itself being a sunken continent makes a strong argument that Indonesia is itself Atlantis.

According to Prof. Arysio Nunes dos Santos. (arysio@atlan.org) of the Atlantis Homepage www.atlan.org during the last Glacial Period water in the continental glaciers made the sea level 330 to 490 feet lower. The shallow bottom of the South China Sea was completely exposed, forming a vast expanse of continental dimensions. Two of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history, Krakatoa and Tambora have been in Indonesia. As the theory goes, a previous eruption of Krakatoa about 10,000 years ago caused a huge Tsunami that did indeed wipe out Atlantis in one terrible day and night. The resulting black soot covered much of the earth including the glaciers. As black surfaces absorb more heat, this caused the glaciers to melt and the seas to rise, permanently covering Indonesia/Atlantis. Plato also mentions seas that are impossible to navigate. This is true of the South China Sea (Indonesia) today due to kelp forests and would have been true due to muck from the volcanic eruption then.

Another supporting claim is that the distribution of O Blood Types shows a migration from Indonesia to Europe via the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans as in the legends of Celts, the Romans and Greeks. The origin of an O-blooded population may be primeval Indonesia and the sunken lands of the region, possibly the site of Atlantis.





                                                       Canary Islands





If you follow the belief that Atlantis is the Hindu "Atala" or "Atalas" then the Purana locates Atala geographically on the seventh (heat, or climate) zone. According to Col. Wilford (the translator) this is 24 to 28 degrees North latitude: the same latitude as the Canary Islands just off the North African coast. One of the more famous Indian works called the Mahabharata, contains several accounts of a powerful islandic empire in the Atlantic. In these accounts, the island named Atala sank to the bottom during a horrendous war. Atala, "the White Island," is described as an "island of great splendor," and located in the "Western Ocean" (Santi Parva, Section CCCXXXVII).

Even more remarkably, there is a circular-shaped capital city (Tripura) as in Plato's account. The famed city, with all its inhabitants, is sent burning to the bottom of the ocean (Karna Parva, Section XXXIII).

As still further support, Atala is said to be inhabited by "white men who never have to sleep or eat". (Santi Parva, Section CCCXXXVII) Herodotus, the Greek historian from 450 B.C. describes a tribe of Atlanteans who "never dream and eat no living thing". (History, Book IV). Finally, the god Poseidon is very much involved in the Atlantis story, and likewise in the Sanskrit accounts Varuna (the Hindu Poseidon) is also very much involved with Atala.

So there you have it. Are any more? Sure!





                                                   Bermuda Triangle





The Bermuda Triangle, is not really much of a triangle at all. It is supposedly bounded by Florida, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico, but take a look at the map of major ship and plane disappearances and you can see that it's more of a blob.

The Bermuda blob shape has also been called the Devil's Triangle and a few other things. ( NEW: See our article on the strange creature known as the Bermuda blob. ) Numerous planes and ships have vanished there without a trace, often in good weather or near a landing site or port. It was named in 1945, after the disappearance of six Navy planes and their crews on December 5, a sunny, calm day with ideal flying conditions. Prior to that scores of ships of all sizes reportedly had vanished in the area. As the theory goes, forces emanating from the unknown ruins of Atlantis are responsible for disrupting the instruments of the craft.

I know of no other reason to connect the Triangle to Atlantis at this time.





                                                          The Azores





The Azores are a group of islands belonging to Portugal located about 900 miles (1500 km) west of the Portuguese coast. Some believe the islands are the mountain tops of the sunken continent of Atlantis.

The climate in Northwest Europe changed radically caused by the arrival of the Gulf Stream at around 10,000 B.C. (the end of the last Ice Age). If a big island in the location of the Azores was stopping the gulf stream from hitting Northwest Europe, then it suddenly sank, this would explain the climate change and the tale of Atlantis.


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http://www.xenophilia.com/zb0011.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 06:59:42 pm







dhill757

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                       Discovery of the Azores





There are accounts that Henry sent his able seaman and knight
Goncalo Velho Cabral, in 1431, with the orders "to sail towards the
setting sun until he came to an island."17 Others say the islands had
been found accidentally by Portuguese sailors returning from a
voyage along the African coast or the Madeiras,18 but this is not
possible because the prevailing winds and ocean currents would not
have allowed it.19 Henry and his school of navigators knew there
were islands located a few hundred miles off the Portuguese coast
because they were shown on a Catalan map. In 1431, Cabral found a
series of volcanic rocks protruding out from under the water which
he named "formigas" or ants. He was just 25 miles from the nearest
Azorean island at the time which apparently was not visable to his
crew or him. He returned to Henry and was sent out immediately
the next year to reexplore the area.20

On August 15, 1432, Cabral found Santa Maria, the easternmost
island of the Azorean archipelago. It was the feast day of the
Assumption of Our Blessed Mother, or Santa Maria, and consequently
named for her.21 The island was lush with forests, streams, and
birdlife.22 Apparently, there were many birds in flight, thought to be
goshawks, and hence, the islands got the Portuguese name "acor" or
hawk. However, there have never been goshawks there according to
ornithologists. Many believe the birds seen were the Azorean
buzzards.23

It is thought too that maybe the name for the islands came from this
statement written by Martin Behaim, the maker of the Nuremburg
globe of 1492: "All birds found in the islands by the first settlers
were so tame that they came to the hand like hawks."24 Another
theory is that the word "raca" or "raka," meaning bird of prey in
Arabic, was translated to the Portugese acor. Raca appeared in an
Arab manuscript designating an island, or islands, in the same
location as the Azores.25

A letter written by Alfonso V, King of Portugal, dated July 2, 1439 is
the first known document with a reference to the Azores. Its content
reveals that there were seven islands and that Henry was given the
right to settle them.26 The next known document is a Majorcan map
of the same year which had seven islands and the date of discovery
was recorded as 1432.27 There have been differing versions
concerning the year-date of the discovery. It appears, after some
analysis by scholars, that 1432 is the correct date.28 Unfortunately,
there were no written accounts of the voyage by the participants.29
In fact, there is little information on the discoveries of the other
eight islands because of the same reason.

Sao Miguel was sighted followed next by Terceira, which means the
"third." Then the central group of islands were found which were
Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Pico, and Faial. And finally the western two
islands of Corvo and Flores were sighted in 1452 which concluded
the discovery of the archipelago.30 There is no evidence that
humankind had ever been on the islands.31 But there are mysteries.
There is the mystery of an equestrian statue on Corvo, and also the
mystery of the Phoenician or Carthagenian coins said to have found
there as well.32

Corvo along with Flores are the two westernmost islands of the
archipelago, and hence, the last inch of European soil. It was here in
the early 1500's, that Damiao de Goes, under the employment of King
Dom Manoel of Portugal, wrote of a statue of a man on horseback
pointing to the west which was clinging to a rocky ledge. The king
asked for a drawing of it, and after seeing the drawing, he sent
someone to bring it back. As the story goes, it was shattered in a
storm en route, but the king received the parts. There too was an
inscription in the rock below the statue, and an impression was taken
of it. But neither the shattered parts of the statue, nor the impression
of the inscription were ever found.33 Was it a hoax? Scholars are still
unsure.

Some have speculated that the statue was really just one of many
rock formations seen on the island and nothing more.34 Others feel it
did exist and could have been evidence of the lost continent of
Atlantis, or of another settlement of ancient peoples. Coins too were
found on Corvo, and their images were published in a journal of the
Society of Gothenberg. They were considered to be of Carthagenian or
Cyrenean origin by the society.35 A twentieth century Portuguese
scholar, made a serious effort to locate the coins. He went to the
convent to which they were first supposedly taken. He also visited
museums where he thought information could be found. But his
investigation turned up nothing.36


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http://wwwlibrary.csustan.edu/bsantos/azores.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:01:29 pm







dhill757

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1951





                                 The City of Brass, by Egerton Sykes (a summary)






The late Mrs. Whishaw held a opinion in her book; "Atlantis in Andalucia", London, 1930, that in the days of far off Atlantis, the copper ore from the mines of Ro Tinto was shipped to the Motherland from the Port of Niebla on that river. She also considered that the use of the ores from that area initiated the pre-bronze age.

"Recent investigations suggest to me that orichalcum, that now unknown metal was used to cover the exterior surface of the great temple of Atlantis, as mentioned by Plato, may have been shinning sheets of brass."

The term orichalcum meant mountain brass, and may well have been applied to a whole series of metals of varying color, ranging from bright red to palest yellow.

"In essence the tale of the City of Brass is of an expedition to the Cyrenian desert in search of a fabled city of the dead, packed with treasure."





The stories about City of Brass include:

The Arabian Nights, who traded and fought with the Cathay, Indies, the Middle east, and Lybia which is like the voyages of Hakluyt, London, 1589-1600. "After hearing the recital of a desert dweller whose grandfather actually saw the city, the party leave on their travels. About half-way, they find an equestrian statue in the sands, which when cleared of obstruction swings round on a pivot and points in the direction of the city. This statue recalls on the one hand the swing figures on the chariot of Wang Ti, the legendary Emperor of China which always pointed south, and also the equestrian statue found on the Island of Corvo in the Azores, by the Portuguese discoverers in the 15th Century, which was broken up for shipment to Lisbon and never seen again. The city when sighted, proved to have two towers covered with sheets of shinning Andalusian brass or copper, which was said to be equal to gold in value. After climbing the walls which were of black marble, the leader of the expedition found yet another brass equestrian statue, which actuated the mechanism opening the gates. Inside there was a staircase of different colored marbles, recalling that at Tiahuanaco." (Bellamy, H. S. 'Built before the Flood, London, 1946)

"The city was found to be tenanted solely by the shriveled bodies of the dead, and by the mummy bodies of the Queen and her court. This story links with the expeditions of Count de Prorok ('Mysteries Sahara'-1, and 'In quest of Lost Worlds'-2), who sought the palace of Queen Tin Hanan of Atlantis, and also with the Queen Antinea of the romance by Benoit."

"Burton ('The Thousand and One Nights, 1885-1888, vol V. pages 1 to 36) considered this story to be related to that of Many Columned Iram, but I do not share this opinion as Iram is linked with the Tower of Babel and with the foundations of Semitic Myth and its relationship to Atlantis is very distant." About 1,300 years ago a tribe migrated from the Sahara across Africa to the Ife Country of Nigeria. "Frobenius (Kniturgeschichte Afrikas, Zurich, 1933)

reports that with them they brought memories of a temple of brass in their ancestral city, and built to their divine ruler a huge temple of Brass with stables to hold ten thousand horses. This temple was in existence until recent times, while the tribe also worshipped a Posidonean god."

"Here we have a trail leading from Rio Tinto Copper mines, through Atlantis to North Africa, and from there to Nigeria a journey lasting some twelve thousand years but always carrying with it proof of the Atlantean civilization and culture."


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http://www.geocities.com/MotorCity/Factory/2583/citybrass.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:03:03 pm







Stacy Dohm

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   posted 12-19-2004 10:35 PM                       
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quote:
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wrote of a statue of a man on horseback
pointing to the west which was clinging to a rocky ledge. The king
asked for a drawing of it, and after seeing the drawing, he sent
someone to bring it back. As the story goes, it was shattered in a
storm en route, but the king received the parts. There too was an
inscription in the rock below the statue, and an impression was taken
of it. But neither the shattered parts of the statue, nor the impression
of the inscription were ever found
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

So, in other words, Dhill, there may have been an earlier civilization living out in the Azores but the evidence of it isn't there anymore?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:04:38 pm







Stacy Dohm

Member
Member # 2189

Member Rated:
   posted 12-19-2004 10:35 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

quote:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





wrote of a statue of a man on horseback
pointing to the west which was clinging to a rocky ledge. The king
asked for a drawing of it, and after seeing the drawing, he sent
someone to bring it back. As the story goes, it was shattered in a
storm en route, but the king received the parts. There too was an
inscription in the rock below the statue, and an impression was taken
of it. But neither the shattered parts of the statue, nor the impression
of the inscription were ever found
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

So, in other words, Dhill, there may have been an earlier civilization living out in the Azores but the evidence of it isn't there anymore?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:06:08 pm







Gwen Parker

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   posted 12-20-2004 10:09 PM                       
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Dhill,
I'd like to believe in the existence of that equestrian statue, too, because ideally I'd also like to place Atlantis in the Atlantic. Unfortunately, it's whole existence may have been exaggerated, as this article so nicely states:


quote:
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                                 Chinese Phantom on Corvo Island, Azores!





By Reverend Ferreira Moreno
Oakland California
Gavin Menzies, a retired Royal Navy officer, in his recently published book entitled "1421, The year China Discovered America", states that the Chinese also discovered the Azores several years before the Portuguese reached the islands.

Menzies, who apparently never went ashore on any of the Azores islands, rests his absurd claim on a piece of information he found while reading the 1638 Madrid edition of "Epitome de las Hist¢rias Portuguesas." Its author, whose correct name is Manuel de Faria e Sousa (1590-1649), wrote about a statue of a rider, carved on the summit of a mountain on Corvo island, but the inscriptions at the bottom "we could not understand."

That's all Menzies needed to brazenly declare that "the Corvo horseman was indeed a Chinese statue, perhaps even of the Emperor Horseback Shu Di." Surprisingly, as Menzies adds, "corroborative evidence that the Chinese may have inhabited the Azores comes from Christopher Columbus, who reported a local story of non-European bodies washed onto the beach at Flores, some twenty miles south of Corvo."

With all due respect to Gavin Menzies, I'm unequivocally convinced he went overboard in his far-fetched conclusions. Neither Columbus nor Sousa ever sailed the channel between Flores and Corvo. The reference to the legendary equestrian statue is an impudent plagiarism from a fictitious story written by Damiao de G¢is (1502-74), who never saw the Azores , even from a distance. Corvo is the smallest of the nine Azorean islands, with an area of less than seven square miles, and an estimated population of 400 people concentrated into one little village.

Caspar Frutuoso (1522-91) and Ant¢nio Cordeiro (1641-1722), both Azorean natives and the islands' earliest historians, classified the story of the statue as merely "antigualha mui not vel", (a very notable legend).

Diogo das Chagas (1575-1667), another native historian, whose brother did parish work in Corvo, made no reference whatsoever to the statue or to Chinese bodies washed ashore "onto the beach at Flores ."

A pair of distinguished English brothers, Joseph and Henry Bullar, wrote a meticulous book about their stay in the Azores (December 1838 to May 1839). In their description of Corvo, there is no mention of the existence of the legendary statue. Raul Brandao (1867-1930), the masterful writer of "As Ilhas Desconhecidas", devotes a whole chapter of his stay on Corvo, (June 17 to 30, 1924), without even a whisper about the statue.

The remotest possibility of a statue having been left on Corvo by ancient Phoenicians or Carthaginians (Centuries before the Chinese), was considered a fable by reputable Azorean historian Manuel Monteiro Velho Arruda.

Consequently, I encourage Gavin Menzies to read the "Collection of Documents Pertaining to the Discovery & Settlement of the Azores ", in which Velho Arruda wrote that as far back as 1317 (a century before the Chinese), "even though at the time there were no official plan to discoveries, the Portuguese may or may not have ventured to sail across the Atlantic ."

The truth remains: Until the Portuguese reached the Azores , the islands were entirely deserted, with no signs of previous human presence.
On this historic account, the late Dr. Jacinto Monteiro (1923-2003) also provided valuable documentation. As other sources of information, I recommend the 15 volumes of "Arquivo dos A‡ores" (Archives), particularly the second (1880) and the Third (1881) volumes, where the phantom statue is debated.

Additional information to dispel Menzies' claim can be found in the 1967 and 1987 editions of "A Ilha do Corvo" by Carlos Alberto Medeiros, as well as in the third volume of "Hist¢ria das Quarto Ilhas" by Silveira Macedo and also in "Not¡cia do Arquip‚lago dos A‡ores" by Garcia Ramos, wherein it is stated that the statue on Corvo "is nothing more than an optical illusion and a caprice of volcanic rocks."

In his "Relat¢rio" about Corvo, Fr. Jos‚ Ant¢nio Camoes (1777-1827), a native of Flores , emphatically denies both the existence of the equestrian statue and the ability of anyone ever climbing to such an inaccessible spot. The renowned scientist Jos‚ Agostinho (1888-1978), after his 1945 archaeological research on Corvo Island, clearly pointed out that the alleged statue is simply a piece of rock which, from a distance, accidentally resembles a rider.

Furthermore and contrary to what Menzies attempts to convey in the appendix of his book, there are neither records nor traditions of underground ruins from old Chinese structures. Fr. Louren‡o Jorge (1882-1918), a native of Corvo who left a manuscript recently published in book form, makes no mention of Chinese ruins. In closing, Fr. Francisco Xavier, who was the pastor of Corvo island from September 2002 to September 2003 and is presently stationed at Five Wounds Church in San Jos‚, CA., assured me that he never heard of, much less sighted, the phantom statue.


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http://www.dightonrock.com/chinesephantomoncorvoislandazore.htm
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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:08:09 pm







dhill757

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Gwen,

The Azores were supposedly unpopulated when they were oiginally discovered, so it would be irrelevant if there were ever any local tales about the statue, right? As for Damiao de G¢is (1502-74), who wrote the account, never even seeing the Azores, well, that is debatable. Maybe we should EACH do a little more research on that and see what we come up with.




Docyabut,

Nice maps, but even from those maps you can see how far away the Canaries are from Morocco. I doubt that they could have swam there at any point in time, or that a landbridge ever existed there, even in Ice Age times (I like that website, too, by the way).



Stacy,

9000 years is a long time. The statue aside for the moment, of course, there could have been some earlier evidence present on the Azores that was taken back to Portugal upon it's discovery. Most things are made of materials that erode over time. Pottery, to my knowledge, would not be one of them. Stone as well.

The legend of a statue originally being there doesn't by itself add up to proof that there was an ancient civlization ever in the Azores, but I did find it "interesting," and wanted to put an entry here about it.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:10:43 pm







dhill757

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Gwen,
More about the statue. Manoel de Faria Sousa was the original chronicler of the statue, not Damio de Goes. And it would seem that, in the same area on Corvo where the Carthaginian coins were discovered, several stone buildings (since destroyed by earthquakes) once stood. That would seem to suggest that the idea that the Azores bore no signs of civilization prior to their discovery is a lie. At the very least, they were settled by the Phoenicians or the Carthaginians. Best case would be that they were settled by an even older civilization.




quote:
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                      Subject: Carthaginian Station on Azores 320 BC (Re: Navigation -- to the New





From: SENECA@argo.rhein-neckar.de

Date: 1997/06/21
Message-ID: <6ZJhhm4Q3SB@argo.rhein-neckar.de>
Newsgroups: soc.history.ancient,sci.skeptic,
sci.archaeology.mesoamerican,sci.archaeology
Out of a book in German: Hennig, Richard: Terrae Incognitae, Leiden 1953,
Vol. III, Chapter 19 (p. 138 c.).

==========




DISCOVERY OF THE AZORES BY THE CARTHAGINIANS AND THE QUESTION OF AN EARLY
KNOWLEDGE OF AMERICA

(Time c. 320 BC, ancient sources not available)



[now Hennig cites a swedish source in german translation, what is like all
other here further translated to english, the german version appended
below]

From Goteborgske Wetenskap og Witterhets Samlingar 1778, I, 106:

"Some annotations to the voyages of the ancient, derived from several
Carthaginian and Cyrenian coins which were found in 1749 on one of the
Azores' islands.

By Johann Podolyn,

In November of 1749, after several days of storm from the west,
which caused part of the foundation of a destroyed stone building on the
beach of the island of Corvo to be exposed by the sea, a broken, black
clay container was discovered in which a lot of coins were found which
were brought to a monastery, where they were spread amongst the curious
natives. Part of the coins were sent off to Lisbon and from there later to
Father Florenz in Madrid.

The number of the coins found in the container is unknown, as is the
number of those sent to Lisbon. 9 coins arrived in Madrid, namely:

2 Carthaginian gold coins, No. 1 and 2
5 Carthaginian copper coins, No. 3 to 7
2 Cyrenian coins of the same metal, No. 8 and 9

Father Florenz gave those coins to me as a present during my visitation of
Madrid in 1761 and reported that the whole discovery had not consisted of
more different kinds than those 9 and that these coins were selected as
the best preserved ones.

It is certain that the coins come partly from Carthage, partly from the
Cyrenaica. They are not very rare, except

[Drawing of the coins, obverse and reverse: The Carthaginian and Cyrenian
coins found in 1749 on the Azores. The two golden ones. Annotation by
Hennig: "These are two so-called serrati, according to Dannenberg's
Numismatics, Leipzig 1891, p. 155, striking is the location where they
were found."]

It is well-known that the Portuguese, first in the time of Alfons V., have
discovered the Azores. There is no clue for the assumption that someone
could have buried the coins there after that time. They must therefore
have arrived there together with some Punic vehicles, whereas I do not
dare to claim that the vehicle sailed there by intention, it could as well
have ended up there by coincidence.

Carthage and several Mauretanian cities sent off some ships over the
Strait of Gibraltar. Hanno's expedition to the African West Coast is
known, and one of these different vehicles might have been driven to Corvo
by constant wind from the east. Faria [annot. Hennig: Manoel de Faria e
Sousa: Epitome de las historias portuguezas, Madrid 1628] says in his
Portuguese History that the Portuguese, which then arrived first in that
country, found a horseman's statue by some foothills whose right hand
pointed to the west. This statue stood, according to Faria, on a stone
pedestal into which unknown letters were carved everywhere. The monument
was destroyed, which was a big loss. Blind eagerness was the cause for
this, as the statue was regarded as a pagan idol.

The statue strengthens my opinion that the islands were not only
accidentally visited by the Phoenicians or the Carthaginians but that they
had already settled there; for you cannot assume that a ship determined
either for trade or for discovery had the whole statue already on board.
You must rather conclude that they arrived there on one vehicle or several
ones, during one voyage or several ones, that the crew liked the land,
that they setteld there, established a municipality, kept up the
connection to their home, and that they achieved a wealth which allowed
them to build the mentioned monument.

It is also possible that the Carthaginians, whose eagerness in trade and
navigation is famous, took an expedition to the west from this island and
that the statue pointing to the west referred to that expedition. Storms,
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions which caused immense damage could also have been the cause for the emigration of the citizens who then erected the monument with the reference to the west in order to show which way
they left. Maybe they knew of any land there. Several speculations and
opinions can be expressed in favour and against, but it seems to be
sufficiently sure that the islands were visited by the ancients. Whether
coincidence or intention was the cause cannot be answered.

---------------

Now discussion of the source by Hennig, p. 145, excerpt:

(...)

A clarification by the Munich numismatologist Prof. Bernhart, to whom the issue unknown until then was presented for a final decision by means of my explanations through my eager colleague Prof. Stechow-Munich, puts an end to the whole discussion. He let, through Stechow's mediation, the
following be reported to me:

"The doubt expressed by some people whether Father Flore was not
cheated by a crook, that the coins in fact did actually not come from the
Azores, was completely unthinkable; the discovery was c e r t a i n l y a
u t h e n t i c, i. e. it came from the Carthaginians. Simply because, at
that time, even the cleverest swindler was not able to put together such
an excellent series of Carthaginian coins from such a narrow period of
time (330-320 BC) correctly. In specialist circles, the Carthaginian and
Cyrenian coins were by far not known well enough, and the numasmatic
science was by far not experienced enough so that it was not even possible
to put together (for instance from pieces found in North Africa or Spain)
a set like that one, which was from such a narrow period of time. If
someone had wanted to create such a fraud at that time, he would have, in
the best case, put together coins from several different centuries; at
that time, no one would probably have noticed the fraud."

This authoritative expert opinion was announced by me in 1937. It is
probably final now. I have therefore spoken of a "numismatic final word"
and drawn the conclusion:

"The discovery of Corvo is proven to be authentic and therefore
the discovery of the Azores by the Carthaginians in late 4th century BC is
finally secured."

In fact, since 1937, under the weight of Bernhart's proofs, no one,
according to my knowledge, ever doubted again that the coins of Corvo
could have been brought to the location of the finding by the
Carthaginians themselves and that it must be an authentic depot finding.

(...)
--------------------

Further on, Hennig accepts the visitation of the Azores by the
Carthaginians, but he believes: "It is very probable that their visit to
the Azores was quite involuntary." He means that a ship was driven there
by a storm. He completely ignores the statement of the source about the
location of the finding: "the foundation of a destroyed stone building on
the beach of the island of Corvo exposed by the sea", according to which
the clay jug with the coins was intentionally buried and not the leftover
of a wreck.

The stone building must have been from ancient times, otherwise the jug
would already have been discovered when the foundation was built. These
circumstances make a repeated visitation of the Azores probable, otherwise
neither money nor buildings would have been left behind.

Hennig regards the horseman's statue as a legend and refers to stories
about the "picture columns of Hercules" and cites Arabian sources about
horseman's statues on islands in the Atlantic. He belives that the report
in the Portuguese History was fed by such legends. He does not even take
into consideration that such legends could come from ancient reports.

A very intersting part in the report regarding the horseman's statue is
that it is supposed to have "stood on a stone pedestal into which unknown
letters were carved everywhere". This is actually a clue to a Phoenician
origin! All other alphabets of that time, even the Arabic, Gothic and
Hebrew ones, were known to the Portuguese, although they perhaps could not read them. But they could not know Phoenician letters, that was the only
script that had died out more than 1000 years ago.

And there is another clue to this, Hennig, p. 146, writes: "Allegedly,
together with the coins of Corvo, mysterious writings in an unknown
language were found, which governor Pedro d'Afonseca is to have reproduced
in wax [Source: Mees, J.: Historie de la decouverte des Iles Acores, Gent
1901, p.25]. But they are, just like the reproduction, unfortunately
missing, and it is not determinable anymore what that was all about."
Hennig confuses language and writing here. The wax reproductions were
necessary to secure the letters, otherwise the writings could also have
been copied through handwriting.

These circumstances exclusively advocate a Phoenician/Carthaginian
discovery of the Azores and at least a temporary installation of a small
settlement (stone buildings) there. As a stopover from and to America it
would have been a perfect place for the support and maintenance of ships.
The finding report of the coins also hints why no traces of it are found today. In 1749, the foundation of the stone building was exposed by the sea during a storm. It was therefore near the beach. It has certainly not been built there because of the danger to be destroyed by the sea.
Apparently, in the past 2000 years, the sea has washed away more and more
of the coast, the Carthaginian settlement was originally probably a few
hundred meters on the land, 1749 the remains were on the beach and today
it is completely under water.

This is not a proof for the discovery of America in the ancient world, but
it is an interesting puzzle piece.

MfG

SENECA


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http://www.trends.ca/~yuku/tran/jseneca.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:12:31 pm







dhill757

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Of course, Atlantis was supposed to have been destroyed by earthquakes. The following makes it clear just how unsettled the earth of the Azores can be:






quote:
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The Shaking, Spewing Earth



The Azores is a lively place to be. There is a continuous chain of
earthquakes and volcanic activity that has had a great effect on its
inhabitants. Many of them have left the islands in horror after
witnessing one of these catacylysmic events. But disasters are bound
to happen when a volcanic environment is home for thousands of
human beings.89

A warning of such calamity was signaled early in man's history on
the islands. When Cabral discovered Sao Miguel in 1444, he saw two
volcanic mountains, one at each end of the island. The next year
when he returned with supplies and additional settlers, he noticed
something was wrong. The western mountain was completely gone!
When he landed, he questioned the men he left behind from the
previous voyage, and found that during his absence, earthquakes
followed by volcanic explosions, collasped the crater. The years that
followed were labeled "the years of the ashes" because ash could be
found several feet deep on parts of the islands, and ash impeded
ocean traffic hundreds of miles at sea. The collasped crater at Sao
Miguel over the centuries has filled with rainwater forming two
lakes, and next to the lakes, a village can be found which was given
the mythological name, Sete Ciadades, or Seven Cities.90

There have been 21 major volcanic eruptions in the past 550 years
collectively occurring on the islands of Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico, Sao
Jorge, and Faial.91 In 1562, there was an eruption on Pico causing the
residents to flee in horror to the other islands. In 1580, on Sao Jorge,
12 people and 4,000 head of cattle were killed.92 In 1630, on Sao
Miguel, 200 people were killed and numerous cattle during an
eruption. In 1811 an volcanic islet, one mile in length, formed off the
coast of Sao Miguel. A British Union Jack was planted on it claiming it
for Great Britain. But the protruding islet sank back into the sea
taking the British flag with it.93 As late as 1957, another volcanic
islet arose off the coast of Faial, but this one connected to the island
destroying a lighthouse in the process.94 As one can see, the Azores is
a living volcanic nightmare that has violently made itself known
often through the island chain's history much to the detriment of its
residents.

The earthquakes have been just as destructive. There have been 18
major temblors on the islands in recorded history.99 One such quake
took place in 1522 when the entire village of Villa Franca, on Sao
Miguel island, having 5,000 residents, and being the center of
government, was engulfed within sixty seconds by land mass thrown
from a hill behind the village. It caused a tidal wave and other
destruction in the adjascent islands. It took a year to dig the village
out and to give Christian burials to its 5,000 victims.100

As recently as 1980, a massive earthquake underneath the ocean
near the islands of Sao Jorge, Terceira, and Graciosa took 60 lives;
destroyed 5,278 homes, 32 churches, 6,000 other structures; and
made 21,296 people homeless.101

This litany of volcanic and earthquake disaster, has indelibly burned
itself into the psyche of the Azorean people. Some remain on the
islands with courage and determination, depending upon their
religious faith to see them through, while others emigrate and with
good reason.

But They are Beautiful!

The Azores islands are like the mythical sirens sailors believe in,
always dangerously beautiful. Most immigrants leave the Azores
with the idea of returning to their verdant isles with their majestic
cliffs, charming villages, and whitewashed homes glistening in the
sun. Many do return, but usually just to visit. However, a few do
make the islands their retirement home after working in the United
States for decades. They have their well-earned social security
checks sent to them.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


http://www.mirapico.dk/azores.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:15:26 pm







Gwen Parker

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Dhill,


I agree that Azorean folklore concerning the statue would seem irrelevant for reasons already discussed. Actually, I already have been searching for the names of the explorers that originally discovered the Azores and have been unable to find them either. I suppose, more research is needed! I will let you know if I find anything.

Concerning the volcanic nature of the Azores and the recent tragedies we have seen with earthquakes and tsunamis in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, I guess we can all see how destructive those kinds of forces can be. My prayers are with all those people.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:18:31 pm







dhill757

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Thanks, Gwen. Here is a description of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that would seem to be both timely and relevant to the discussion of the destruction of Atlantis. The 1755 earthquake wasn't as powerful as the one that struck South Asia, and it's epicenter wasn't in the Azores, but rather southwest of Cape Vincent, but it still gives a good idea about how far-reaching the damage was at the time:

quote:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
Jan T. Kozak, Institue of Rock Mechanics, Czech Academy of Science
Charles D. James, National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering



Note: With permission, this paper is abridged and edited from drafts of a longer work in progress by V. S. Moreira, C. Nunes and J. Kozak on the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755.

Although not the strongest or most deadly earthquake in human history, the 1755 Lisbon earthquake's impact, not only on Portugal but on all of Europe, was profound and lasting. Depictions of the earthquake in art and literature can be found in several European countries, and these were produced and reproduced for centuries following the event, which came to be known as "The Great Lisbon Earthquake."

The earthquake began at 9:30 on November 1st, 1755, and was centered in the Atlantic Ocean, about 200 km WSW of Cape St. Vincent. The total duration of shaking lasted ten minutes and was comprised of three distinct jolts. Effects from the earthquake were far reaching. The worst damage occurred in the south-west of Portugal. Lisbon, the Portuguese capital, was the largest and the most important of the cities damaged. Severe shaking was felt in North Africa and there was heavy loss of life in Fez and Mequinez. Moderate damage was done in Algiers and in southwest Spain. Shaking was also felt in France, Switzerland, and Northern Italy. A devastating fire following the earthquake destroyed a large part of Lisbon, and a very strong tsunami caused heavy destruction along the coasts of Portugal, southwest Spain, and western Morocco.

The oscillation of suspended objects at great distances from the epicenter indicate an enormous area of perceptibility. The observation of seiches as far away as Finland, suggest a magnitude approaching 9.0. Precursory phenomena were reported, including turbid waters in Portugal and Spain, falling water level in wells in Spain, and a decrease in water flow in springs and fountains.

Detailed descriptions of the earthquake's effects in Morocco, were, in some cases, based on Portuguese manuscripts written by priests. The cities of Meknes, Fez, and Marrakesh in the interior, and the coastal towns of Asilah, Larache, Rabat, and Agadir (Santa Cruz during the Portuguese occupation) suffered much damage in the quake. Mosques, synagogues, churches, and many other buildings collapsed in Meknes, where numerous casualties were reported. The convent, church, and Hospital de S. Francisco collapsed completely.






The Fire



Soon after the earthquake, several fires broke out, mostly started by cooking fires and candles. Some of them were rapidly extinguished, especially in the densely populated areas. But many inhabitants fled from their homes and left fires burning. Narrow streets full of fallen debris prevented access to the fire sites. The public squares filled with people and their rescued belongings, but as the fire approached, these squares were abandoned, and the fire reached catastrophic proportions. Looters setting fire to some ransacked houses caused the belief that the fire had a criminal origin. The flames raged for five days.

All of the downtown area, from St. Paul's quarter to St. Roch, and from Carmo and Trindade to the Rossio square area to the Castle and Alfama quarters were burned, along with the Ribeira, Rua Nova, and Rossio quarters. Remolares, Barrio Alto, Limoeiro, and Alfama, were partially burned.

Several buildings which had suffered little damage due to the earthquake were destroyed by the fire. The Royal Palace and the Opera House were totally gutted by the flames. The Patriarchal suffered relatively little damage in the earthquake, and religious services continued there during the afternoon, but the church was evacuated as the fire approached. Later the building was completely burned out.

The Tsunami
Immediately after the earthquake, many inhabitants of Lisbon looked for safety on the sea by boarding ships moored on the river. But about 30 minutes after the quake, a large wave swamped the area near Bugie Tower on the mouth of the Tagus. The area between Junqueria and Alcantara in the western part of the city was the most heavily damaged by the wave, but further destruction occurred upstream. The Cais de Pedra at Rerreiro do Paco and part of the nearby custom house were flattened.

A total of three waves struck the shore, each dragging people and debris out to sea and leaving exposed large stretches of the river bottom. In front of the Terreiro do Paco, the maximum height of the waves was estimated at 6 meters. Boats overcrowded with refugees capsized and sank. In the town Cascais, some 30 km west of Lisbon, the waves wrecked several boats and when the water withdrew, large stretches of sea bottom were left uncovered. In coastal areas such as Peniche, situated about 80 km north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the tsunami. In Setubal, 30 km south of Lisbon, the water reached the first floor of buildings.

The destruction was greatest in Algarve, southern Portugal, where the tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed houses. In some places the waves crested at more than 30 m. Almost all the coastal towns and villages of Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by sandy banks. In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For the coastal regions, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake.

In southwestern Spain, the tsunami caused damage to Cadiz and Huelva, and the waves penetrated the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville. In Gibraltar, the sea rose suddenly by about two meters. In Ceuta the tsunami was strong, but in the Mediterranean Sea, it decreased rapidly. On the other hand, it caused great damage and casualties to the western coast of Morocco, from Tangier, where the waves reached the walled fortifications of the town, to Agadir, where the waters passed over the walls, killing many.

The tsunami reached, with less intensity, the coast of France, Great Britain, Ireland, Belgium and Holland. In Madeira and in the Azores islands damage was extensive and many ships were in danger of being wrecked.

The tsunami crossed the Atlantic Ocean, reaching the Antilles in the afternoon. Reports from Antigua, Martinique, and Barbados note that the sea first rose more than a meter, followed by large waves.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


http://nisee.berkeley.edu/lisbon/


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:19:55 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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                                    A volcanic undersea rock which was formed in land





In 1898, during the installation of a telegraphic line, broke one of the wires which had been installed in 2800 m depth at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean in the place which has been named since then "Telegraph square". While special machinery was trying to remove the edges of the wire from the bottom of the sea a strange rock was brought to the surface. Several years later, Paul Tremie, head of the oceonographical institude of France, organised a conference in Paris. That rock had obviously volcanic origin and the most importand was that it hadn' t been solidified in the bottom of the sea but in the air. That is, it must have come of a volcano whose crater was above sea level. It ,also, had sharp sides which were not been corrosive by water. By analyzing it, Tremie estimated that it must have been 15000 years old. Later undersea foundings confirmed that the same type of rocks existed in a huge area at the depth of the Atlantic Ocean.

(Republication from Anastasia Nanou's article "Searching for Atlantis", in the magazine "MYSTIC-mysteries of the
world", July-August 2000)


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http://www.atlantida.gr/EndiaforaEbrimata.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:21:19 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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                                           The (not so) Fortunate Islands





Around 100 BC, a Roman author and geographer that listened to the name Marcellus, wrote that the legend of
Atlantis was still being preserved on a group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean. In 450 AD Proculus Diadochus, in an
attempt to verify what Marcellus had written so many centuries ago, went on a journey to the Islands of the Blessed
or Fortunate Islands, located at only a day sailing off the coast of Mauretania. He could only acknowledge Marcellus’
findings. For centuries, the Canaries were referred to as the Fortunate Islands, as is shown on various ancient maps
and descriptions. But where would someone ca. 100 BC get such accurate information on the inhabitants of
unexplored islands in a far away corner of the world? Surely, he didn’t go there himself! Could it be the information
came from a much older source?

In his Topographia Christiana, a description of the universe, Cosmas Indicopleustes of Alexandria described the Canary Islands as ‘The land man came from before the great flood’. It has been estimated the work has been written between 535 and 548 AD, in a Sinai cloister. Today, looking at his maps makes scientists smile, because his view of the world was far from accurate, but why would he pick this rather small archipelago as the place where man came from before the flood, inevitably linking it with Plato’s Atlantis. Are we overlooking something? In Critias we read:

“For when there were any survivors, as I have already said, they were men who dwelt in the mountains; and they
were ignorant of the art of writing, and had heard only the names of the chiefs of the land, but very little about their
actions.”

[Critias]


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http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/VandecruysG1.php?p=1


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:22:25 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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The Canary archipelago consists of 7 islands, but when the Portuguese discovered the islands, stories were being told about an eighth island, that was sometimes seen to the West of La Palma, El Hierro and La Gomera. When sailors tried to reach it, the island was covered in mist and disappeared. Stories about ghost islands like this one seem imaginative tales at first, but there may be some form of truth in it. In 1867 an island suddenly rose from the sea near Terceira in the Azores, but only a few days later it was swallowed again by the sea. Maybe the eighth island was not just a story either, because events like this are indeed possible in this region, as the Canaries lay in a highly active volcanic zone.


The seven islands and six islets of the Canaries are in fact the emerged tips of a volcanic mountain range, situated just West of the African Continental Margin and hidden by the Atlantic Ocean. This means that under the surface of the deep blue ocean they are connected. It is a fact that the waters surrounding the islands are very deep, but to say they all rise directly from the ocean floor is just not a correct statement. It would only be true for part of the archipelago, more specifically the western part with Tenerife, La Palma, El Hierro and La Gomera. These islands are indeed volcanic peaks going all the way down to the deep Atlantic floor. Lanzarote, Fuertaventura and the six islets though are flatter islands, yet also volcanic, but emerging from a submarine plateau, known as the Canary Ridge. This
ridge rises approximately 4,600 feet from the bottom of the ocean. Because of the extreme volcanism in this region (the whole archipelago was formed after volcanic eruptions and it is said that the volcanism in the area is the result of a mantle hotspot under the islands), it is possible that once a landmass in this area was above the surface, and did
not just sink because of the rising of the sea level, but more because of seismic activity such as earthquakes and tsunamis combined with or caused by volcanic eruptions at the end of the last Ice Age.


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:23:55 pm







dhill757

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The waters surrounding the Canaries are a true paradise for divers, and certainly not only because of the underwater fauna and flora. It seems like the same volcanic surface we find on the islands continues under water: volcanic rock formations, caves, tunnels, lava reefs. This shows that at some point in history volcanic eruptions and lava floods
changed the appearance of the ocean bottom in this region, maybe even hiding traces of Atlantis under a tick layer of
lava. Lanzarote, for instance, experienced in the 18th century a 6 years long volcanic eruption, altering a significant
part of its surface. Furthermore little is known about the ‘original’ ocean floor: it’s not exceptional for large parts to slide under the mantle again and disappear in the burning depths of the earth. In this process, deep trenches are formed in the ocean. This could have happened in the Canary region as well.

But how dangerous is this area geologically? And are disasters likely to happen there again? Unfortunately the
answer seems to be yes. In an article that appeared in the Guardian Newspaper in August 2001 British and US scientists warn that an eruption of the Cumbre Vieja on La Palma could cause one of the worst disasters in the history of mankind. In that article we read:

“A lump of rock twice the volume of the Isle of Man would slide down theunstable western flank of the mountain at more than 200mph and travel up to 40 miles along the sea floor. This would set off the worst tsunami, or giant wave, ever recorded.” (The Guardian, August 29, 2001)

The damage would be enormous, probably worse than we could ever imagine, easily reaching the African coast and the South of Europe with Portugal and Spain. Buildings would be swept away like card houses. Of course the
Canaries themselves wouldn’t be spared either. Simon Day of the Benfield Greig geohazard research centre at University College London said:

“The first wave is going to come in, maybe take out the first few blocks, take the debris away, flatten the ground.

The next wave takes out blocks progressively further inland. Over a large part of the area that is inundated, you will
be seeing near-total destruction."

Tsunamis are active in the complete water mass from the ocean floor all the way to the surface, unlike regular waves
that only affect the water near the surface. Therefore these giant waves tend to start going faster in deeper parts of the ocean . If this is possible today, it’s certainly an option that at the end of the last Ice Age in this highly volcanic zone tsunamis of the same kind took place, triggered by volcanic eruptions and seismic activity. This could have meant the end of Atlantis, and following Dr. Simon Day’s statement about the effects of the waves, it is not such a big surprise that today we find none or only a few traces of this once great civilization. The remains of Atlantis could be widely spread on the ocean floor by the power of the water, perhaps covered with lava, sand and rocks.


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:24:59 pm







dhill757

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For discoveries in that region we had to wait until 1981, when an expedition lead by Pippo Cappellano found some mysterious ruins with strange carved symbols on the ocean floor near the coast of Lanzarote. At a depth of about 50
feet and over an area of 900 square feet, they found large flat stones that look like they were carefully put into place.
These blocks were followed by wide stone steps. But that’s not all. On the other side, near the Moroccan coast, a
several miles long undersea wall has been discovered and photographed. What is hidden on the bottom of the
Atlantic? Are these the remains of the sunken civilization Atlantis? Like with the Yonaguni structures, many orthodox scientists claim they are natural forms, without adequate research, seemingly to avoid having to admit any mistakes in our history books.
The underwater structures in the Canary region were found at a depth of only 50 feet. That means they were
probably still above water some 2000 years ago. Therefore researchers concluded that Romans, Greeks or
Phoenicians must have built them. But none of them ever colonized the Canaries, so what would drive them to build these structures? There is indeed evidence, like some Roman amphoras, that indicates Europeans stopped by in the region, but their presence was probably of no substantial importance. It seems more logical to follow another path. Not everything of Atlantis sunk, so these structures could still be the last remains of the empire, swallowed by the
sea around the time of Christ.


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:27:21 pm







dhill757

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Anno Domini 1331:


it was the year when the first Portuguese sailor set foot on Canary grounds, rediscovering an
inhabited archipelago that, until then, had existed in almost perfect isolation from the rest of the world. The peaceful
isolation for both the islands and their people would soon come to a brutal end, because many more ships would
follow. But who were these islanders and where did they come from? Fact is that their presence on these islands
was a strange anomaly given their position near the African continent. They were tall, had a light skin colour and often blonde hair: not exactly what you would expect in these regions! They were called ‘Guanches’, from Guan
Chenech or Man from Chenech, as they themselves called the island Tenerife. In time, that name became common for
the inhabitants of the whole archipelago. How and when they got there is unknown, because they even lacked the knowledge to build boats. Scientists said they couldn’t have been there thousands of years before Plato’s time, but new evidence from archaeological examinations indicates a human presence on the islands from at least 4,000 BC (so maybe earlier), redefining the accepted view for inhabitation of the islands.

It looks like the European explorers found the last tribes of pure Cro-Magnon origin, which explains their physical features. The Cro-Magnon’s were Homo Sapiens Sapiens, and lived between 45,000 and 10,000 years ago. They were the first modern people in both physical appearance and intellect. Gradually they replaced the Neanderthals in
Europe. It seems that somehow the Guanches survived the extinction of the Cro-Magnon man, probably because life
was quite easy on their isolated islands. However, their culture seems to be evolving in a downward spiral. Instead
of innovating and advancing technologically and culturally, they seem to degenerate back to a Stone Age culture.

The origin of the Guanches remains a mysterious haze. Researchers linked them with the Berbers from North Africa,
but in Charles Berlitz’s ‘The Lost Ship of Noah’ we read that they told the Spanish that they had always thought they
were alone on the earth and that everyone else drowned in the Great Flood. It is not such a big step to link them with Atlantis, because they believed they once lived in a large land with cities, fertile plains and rivers. At a certain moment in time this prosperous empire was flooded and only a few people managed to escape death by climbing on the volcanic top Teide. The Canary Islands would be the highest peaks of this sunken civilization. This archaic memory is intriguing to say the least.

On various places on the islands ancient inscriptions have been found, but in the 14th Century the Guanches had long
forgotten their meaning. There are important differences in these inscriptions: there seem to be signs resembling the Phoenician and Numidian alphabet, but probably this wasn’t their original script, because I also found pictures of petroglyphs depicting strange symbols that look like a script. It seems like the Guanches simply forgot how to read and write. Adding up the facts definitely rings a bell to anyone who read the Timaeus & Critias dialogues, because the Atlanteans too forgot their knowledge of the written word.

Plato’s writings of how the Kings of Atlantis would meet at a central point on the island to discuss laws and politics
definitely resemble the Guanche culture. Just like the Atlantean kings the Guanche kings would meet at a ‘Tagaror’ or meeting place to vote new laws and hold political debates. The reader will notice how this doesn’t fit for Stone
Age people. On Tenerife there were 9 little kingdoms and a neutral area in the middle. The 9 kings or Menceys as
they called themselves ruled there piece of land as if it was a country. Each kingdom knew three classes: the
monarchy, the nobility and the lower class.These social structures might seem a bit ridiculous because the island is really not that big, but they could be based on a memory from the past they tried to copy on their island. An extract
from Critias explains the link with Atlantis:

“Each of the ten kings in his own division and in his own city had the absolute control of the citizens, and, in most cases, of the laws, punishing and slaying whomsoever he would.

According the Plato the Atlanteans were amongst the best sailors in the world. Despite the fact that the Guanches
didn’t know how to build boats, there is evidence on the islands that once they did have this knowledge. This
evidence comes in the form of rock art like for example in Pico de Don David on Fuertaventura: here we find a very
clear drawing of a large ship. This is certainly not a little boat used on a lake or river, but undoubtedly a vessel that
was perfect for ocean expeditions.

And there is more: a central characteristic of the Atlantean empire was the use of a mixture of red, black and white stones. This extraordinary combination, most probably of volcanic origin, can be found all over the Canaries. On Lanzarote, the Guanches built long, conic pillar-like monuments in red, black and white stone. Due to seismic
activity on the islands all except one collapsed. This remaining monument can be visited at the coast near Arrecife.

These three colour designs are also found in rock paintings like the ones in the Cueva Pintada (painted cave) on Gran
Canaria.

That is the evidence we can confirm today, but there are also reports from temples in the same three colours.

Unfortunately the Christians destroyed all of them. The best-preserved ruin can be found on La Palma. Called Efeguen, their resemblance with Atlantean architecture does not limit itself to just the colour scheme, but also the construction designs. The Efeguen consisted of 2 concentric walls, one inside the other. Then in the centre of the inside wall there was a large altar, placed on a platform. This could be a reference to Poseidon’s altar, placed in a temple in the centre of the city. The resemblance is certainly there, and perhaps the Guanches built these temples, of which they remembered the basic shape from a distant past, as a way to remember and honour their ancestors.


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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:30:26 pm
dhill757

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Influence on Egypt:


The Guanches mummified their dead and the mummification techniques they used were almost identical to those used in ancient Egypt, although fact is that the Egyptians attained a higher form of perfection. Both cultures would balm the bodies before removing the internal organs that were kept aside in special vases. Also the bandages were used the same way, and similar offering in both cultures complete the circle.
Influence on America: there are pyramids on the Canaries that resemble monuments from ‘the opposite continent’
like in Mexico and Peru, and they seem to be aligned to the sunset on the summer solstice. But I wouldn’t exclude a link with Egypt either, because the alignment reminds me of Giza and the basic shape makes me think of for example Djoser’s step Pyramid from the Third Dynasty. Their purpose though was completely different and the Canary pyramids didn’t have an inside.

Influence on Greece: just like the Atlas we know from Greek mythology the Guanche god Achaman ‘he who carried the world’ was depicted as a mountain that separated heaven and earth, or as carrying heaven on his shoulders.
Furthermore the first King of Atlantis was called Atlas. This suggests they were actually one and the same.

When Thor Heyerdahl started investigating the pyramids on the Canaries, many people claimed them to be nothing more than piles of rubbish, despite the fact that the Guanches themselves tell us about these pyramids and their rituals involving these monuments. A central point in their religion was the belief that if their main pyramid collapsed, it would mean the end of their island in the same way Atlantis sunk.

Unlike what many people think, the Canary Islands didn’t get their name from the birds who share their name, but
from the dogs that lived on the islands. The Latin name of the islands was ‘Insulae Canariae’ or Islands of dogs.
These dogs were a central part in the religious culture of the Guanches, with a position just under Achaman, who was
the Canary equivalent of the Greek Atlas. Dogs were also an important part of the Egyptian culture. Take for example their god Anubis, always portrayed as a man with the head of a dog.

The Canary Ridge we described earlier in this survey is such an uplifted part of the earth and much of the religion of the Guanches is also about such a disaster. In their culture there was a group of holy virgins, called the Harimagada. Every year this group jumped in the sea and
drowned. With this voluntary offer they tried to prevent that their island would sink in the sea.

Sopdit, the Egyptian god whose appearance on June 15 in the form of the dog star meant the start of the new year,
was honored as ‘the western’ and the story goes that he documented the history from before the Great Flood, that
destroyed his ‘island-house’ in the far West.



My conclusion is that the Guanches lost their advanced knowledge in a flood, which resulted in the fact that their culture degenerated for many millennia because there was no contact with the outer world. In the mean time, that outer world continued to progress with the Egyptians, and later the Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians. The Guanches were isolated from the rest of the world, and they were heading back towards the Stone Age in their time machine of amnesia.




Sources:



* Timaeus and Critias (360 B.C.): Benjamin Jowett translations

* The Canary Balcony: http://home.pi.be/~p4u00071/canarias/can-eng.html#menuitems

* Atlantisquest: http://www.atlantisquest.com

* Shadowlands website: http://www.theshadowlands.net/atlantis/

* Atlan: http://www.atlan.org/

* Factmonster website: http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0856755.html

* Graham Hancock: Fingerprints of the Gods (1994 edition)

* Andrew Collins’ website: http://www.andrewcollins.net

* The 1911 Encyclopedia: http://43.1911encyclopedia.org

* Sunrise Magazine, August/September 1999

* Lonely Planet website: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/canary_islands/environment.htm

* USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington : http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/CanaryIslands/description_canary_islands_volcanics.html

* Website of Bryan Cousens: Research Adjunct Professor Igneous Petrology and Isotope Geochemistry: http://www.carleton.ca/~bcousens/volcanopage.html

* Wave of disaster warning: http://www.guardian.co.uk/Print/0,3858,4246811,00.html

* New York Times May 21, 1978: article on Soviet expedition on the Atlantic Ampere Seamount, cited on various
sites on the internet.

* Jules Verne: 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea

* Dutch site with information on Guanches & Atlantis: http://www.home.zonnet.nl/pollie_37/Atlantis_2.html

* Jonah G. Lissner: Evidence for the Ancestors of the Guanches as Founders of Predynastic Egypt : http://joe3998.tripod.com/guanches/

* Charles Berlitz: The Lost Ship of Noah

* Talk Origins page on Cro Magnons: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/cromagnon.html

* Info on Djoser’s step pyramid: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/zoser/zoser.html

* Photographs of Djoser’s step pyramid: http://www.waseda.ac.jp/projects/egypt/sites/pyramids/saq03/saq03ph-E.html

* Fred Olsen: Pirámides de Güímar: http://www.fredolsen.es/piramides/index.htm

* Institutum Canarium: http://www.institutum-canarium.org/[/QUOTE]




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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:33:03 pm







dhill757

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Pirámides de Güímar, S.A.U.
C/Chacona, s/n – 38500 Güímar – Tenerife
< Canary Islands – Spain





The Beginning



The existence of the Güímar step pyramids first came to wide public notice when an article was printed in a local newspaper in the early 1990’s.

The information reached the Norwegian anthropologist, Thor Heyerdahl, who is internationally renowned for his transoceanic voyages using vessels of prehistoric design and for his theories concerning human migrations.

Heyerdahl, who dedicated much of his life to researching the cultural origins of ancient civilisations throughout the world, carefully studied photographs of the Güímar Pyramids, and put forward the hypothesis that they had been built in accordance with the same architectural principles as those of both the Old and the New World. The similarity of the pyramids in Güímar to those in Sicily, Mexico, Mesopotamia, Polinesia and Peru induced Heyerdahl to come to Tenerife to study the structures at the site itself.

Various theories exist as to the origin and age of the pyramids. Prior to the arrival of Heyerdahl in Tenerife, two alternative theories were disputed. Some researchers maintained that they were mere heaps of stone left by farmers clearing the land for cultivation, while others claimed that these structures were related to esoteric beliefs. After Thor Heyerdahl´s investigations, some professional archaeologists began to relate the existence of the pyramids to pre-Hispanic civilisations on the island.
In 1991, the Archaeology Department of La Laguna University carried out the first excavations and the Canary Islands’ Astrophysical Institute looked into possible ancient astronomical relationships. These studies revealed that the pyramids were aligned to the winter and summer solstices.

The land on which the Pyramids stand had been earmarked for development in connection with a planned expansion in the upper part of the town, jeopardising the survival of the structures.
Thor Heyerdahl’s interest became a personal commitment when the site of the pyramids was purchased by the Fred. Olsen shipping company in order to protect the structures and create what is today the “Pirámides de Güímar” Ethnographic Park.






                                                A Voyage Through Cultures





CUEVA CHACONA



Excavations were carried out in 1997-98 beneath Pyramid 1 by a team of American and Canarian archaeologists, leading to the discovery of an eight-metre long cave containing remains dating from the times of the Guanches, the pre- Hispanic inhabitants of the island (goat and fish bones, bodkins, earthenware fragments, stone objects and decorative beads from a necklace).

The organic remains were dated using the Carbon-14 method by the Beta Laboratory in Miami. The final report concluded that the cave dated from a period between 680 and 1020 AD



http://www.abouttenerife.com/tenerife/pyramids.asp[/QUOTE]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:34:34 pm







dhill757

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quote:
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Far from being piles of unworked rubble, every stone was turned with its flat side out and placed together by stone masons.

With slopes of the volcano Mt. Teide at their back and facing the Atlantic, the edifices are precisely aligned according to the sunset on the summer solstice, as are other sacred structures in different parts of the world.

Carefully built stairways on the west side of each pyramid lead up to the summit, which is not a pile of stones, but a perfectly flat platform covered with gravel, as though for ceremonial performances and/or sun worship.

The stones were not weather-worn, rounded boulders, such as farmers had found in the fields, but sharp fragments of lava, and some of the corner stones had been trimmed.

Archaeologists from the University of La Laguna were contracted to do test excavations of a ceremonial platform between two of the pyramids. As predicted by Dr. Heyerdahl, they found that rather than being a random pile of stones as they had expected, it was built of blocks, gravel and earth.

Skeptics had to admit that this was definitely some kind of ceremonial architecture. Yet some still refused to admit that such impressive structures could have been built by the Guanche, the original inhabitants of Tenerife, and suggested that they might have been constructed by the early Christian conquistadores as a time measuring device to know when to celebrate the Catholic festivities of St. John.

The Canary Islands are a popular solution to the location of Atlantis, based on their location west of the Mediterranean, and their mountainous terrain - they are part of a volcanic archipelago with marine trenches as deep as 3,000 metres and mountains as high as 3,718 meters above sea level.

Archaeological findings suggest that the original inhabitants were Berbers who arrived from north Africa around 200 B.C. However, some early navigators reported the Canarians as being a race of tall, blond-haired, blue-eyed people, perhaps suggesting northern European or Atlantean origins.   



http://www.crystalinks.com/pyramidspain.html[/QUOTE]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:35:43 pm
Boreas
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The Last two books of the late Dr. Thor Heyerdahl explained the connection between the different climatical wind-patterns of the North and Mid-Atlantic. These are apparently well known to all sailors of the Atlantic. Two times a year the winds tend to blow from Greenland, straigth south - bringing sailors from Ireland to Gibraltar, - or The Azores and The Canary Islands. Because of the plausibility of some old connection he had to admit that the cultural traces and etnical similarity (Between artics and Guanches) pointed a stronger relationship between the Cultural Guanches of Tenerife (and Azores) - and the well-known North-Atlantean ship-culture.
Since the evidents became to overwhelming Dr. Heyerdahl had to admit (sic!) that the connections to the Viking-ship-culture (of England, Denmark, Norway) actually had been present on the Canary Islands.

To a Norwegian historian that was very "strange", - i.e. contradictory to the the traditional comprehension of the Norse, - as a provincial tribe with basicly local connections.

I am happy to hear that the last excavations are - once and for all - proving that the Guanches really were a higher, atlantic culture, - just as Mr. Heyerdahl proclaimed already in 1991, as he got the first excavation organized. At the professors laugther...

Since he was not only ythe first, but also the only (authoritative historian) to recognize the first pyramidal structures of Guimar, as something different than "shamble and occasional structures".

Moreover, - he took the local LEGENDS somewhat seriously. Which made his project of excavations even more suspect to the academical bi-siders.

Today it is finally proved that the entire Island of Tenerife was provided with constructions, - makingt the island into a giga-monument - where the core of the Island, the alpin mountain-top, Mt. "Teide", becomes the midpoint of a imaginative sun-wheel-construction. As unit ("universe") viewable from the sea, as you sail around the Island...

Thereby I think we can bury the debate Heyerdahl stirred by his excavation; wheter the Guanches were a highly cultivated people or not. Somehow, Spanish historians did not really want to undertake the real investigation of that question. Thus many tried to ridicule Senor Kon-Tiki to avoid his further investments. In vain, - off course.


Today it is finally proven that The Guanches - finally extincted at the end of the 15th century, - was the last southern survivors of an ancient high-culture that once sailed the Oceans.

Not only did they bring astronomical, navigational, technical and architectural knowledge, - but they excirsed very advanced skills of masonry. The restored pyramids and monuments actually tells of a culture that bore exstensive knowledge of the world, - as their as-tro-logical monuments show a completed, precise and counscious perspective of the Universe.

May the Rigthous Grace fall upon our memories of Thor the Kon-Ti-Ki.
Guanco Salutè!


[This message has been edited by Boreas (edited 02-12-2005).]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:36:44 pm
Ulf Richter

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Boreas,
I am sure that Thor Heyerdahl´s theories will be more and more recognized also by conventional scientists. It is quite obvious that sea traffic is not only in our times, but was also in ancient times - in the so called Stone Age - much more efficient and common than land traffic.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:37:36 pm







George Erikson
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Boreas, Ulf

I just posted this message to another AR thread. But it belongs here as well. Navigators seemed to have carried the spiral symbol of eternity with them everywhere, including the place that I believe to be the logical link between the Atlantic and the Pacific:

I have encountered spirals of the nature described on Ometepe Island in Lake Nicaragua. (See p. 365 of Atlantis In America: Navigators of the Ancient World). The referenced petroglyph is carved in a large stone about half-way up the slope of the southern of the two large volcanos that form Ometepe Island. On this volcano there have been many "Atlantean" figures excavated (p.363) and the curator of the Ometepe Museum has told me that the statues were found under the ground at a stratigraphic level corresponding to 12,000 YBP.

Lake Nicaragua is an interesting link between the Caribbean and the Pacific. The navigable San Juan river connects it to the Atlantic side while only 12 miles of plain and a few low hills separate it from the Pacific. This site would have been the "Panama Canal" if the Nicaraguans would have consented. The did not at that time, nor would they later consent to a joint exploration with Ivar Zapp and myself.
If Plato's "Island-Continent" with a navigational center has any veracity this would be the leading contender. Ometepe Island is situated at the center of a vast continent (the Americas) yet resembles an island in that a navigator would pass from the Caribbean-Atlantic to a very different body of water, the Pacific, in a very short portage. The height and separation of the waves reaching shore from the Pacific is what sets it apart from all other bodies of water- a feature navigators would not miss. It is what Plato described as "true Ocean". Interestingly, Lake Nicaragua is the home of the only large (12-foot) freshwater sharks, freshwater Marlin, and over 100 other species of sea-life normally only found in the oceans. www.AtlantisInAmerica.com


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:38:41 pm
George Erikson
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See above
www.AtlantisInAmerica.com

[This message has been edited by George Erikson (edited 02-13-2005).]


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George Erikson
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See above.
www.AtlantisInAmerica.com 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:40:05 pm







George Erikson
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Boreas, Alf
This has been posted on a diffrent thread but I believe it belongs here as well. Its in regard to the spiral symbol for eternity (or for the sun) which has been found around the globe... an obvious work of navigators.

I have encountered spirals of the nature described on Ometepe Island in Lake Nicaragua. (See p. 365 of Atlantis In America: Navigators of the Ancient World). The referenced petroglyph is carved in a large stone about half-way up the slope of the southern of the two large volcanos that form Ometepe Island. On this volcano there have been many "Atlantean" figures excavated (p.363) and the curator of the Ometepe Museum has told me that the statues were found under the ground at a stratigraphic level corresponding to 12,000 YBP.
Lake Nicaragua is an interesting link between the Caribbean and the Pacific. The navigable San Juan river connects it to the Atlantic side while only 12 miles of plain and a few low hills separate it from the Pacific. This site would have been the "Panama Canal" if the Nicaraguans would have consented. The did not at that time, nor would they later consent to a joint exploration with Ivar Zapp and myself.
If Plato's "Island-Continent" with a navigational center has any veracity this would be the leading contender. Ometepe Island is situated at the center of a vast continent (the Americas) yet resembles an island in that a navigator would pass from the Caribbean-Atlantic to a very different body of water, the Pacific, in a very short portage. The height and separation of the waves reaching shore from the Pacific is what sets it apart from all other bodies of water- a feature navigators would not miss. It is what Plato described as "true Ocean". Interestingly, Lake Nicaragua is the home of the only large (12-foot) freshwater sharks, freshwater Marlin, and over 100 other species of sea-life normally only found in the oceans. www.AtlantisInAmerica.com

[This message has been edited by George Erikson (edited 02-13-2005).]


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:40:55 pm
Michelle Sandberg

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Check it out, George is right, the same spiral is on Ometepe Island, too:
http://culturelink.info/petro/gallery98.htm
Wonder what it all means..!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:42:39 pm







dhill757

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Boreas,
I didn't even know that Thor Heyerdahl had passed on until you posted that. 04/14/04, from cancer, at the age of 87. Ocean exploration has lost a great man. Also, if he hadn't attracted investment to the pyramids of the Canary Islands, they would probably be in rubble right now. I have to admit that I have been bummed out since I heard that. He was (and is) truly one of my heroes.



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                                         Tristan de Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean





Location: 37.09S, 12.28W
Elevation: 2559 ft. (780 m)
Last Updated: September 27, 2004

Tristan de Cunha is a stratovolcano that forms an island located in the
south-central Atlantic Ocean. The volcano has a 300-m-wide summit crater
and is composed pyroclastic deposits upon a base of low-angle lava
flows. Numerous parasitic cinder cones are also found on the flanks of
the volcano. The only historical eruption of the volcano occurred in
1961. This eruption took place along the north shore and forced the
evacuation of the island's inhabitants.
Last known significant activity: 1962
------------------------------------------------------------------------

2004 Reports
------------------------------------------------------------------------

August 03, 2004

According to a news report, a swarm of earthquakes occurred beneath
Tristan da Cunha during the nights of 28 and 29 July. A scientist
monitoring seismic activity from the Preparatory Commission for the
Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Vienna International
Centre indicated that the main swarm lasted ~8 hours and occurred ~30 km
below the volcano. After the swarm, there were a few individual
earthquakes and then activity tapered off.

This information was summarized from the GVP/USGS Tristan de Cunha
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
------------------------------------------------------------------------ http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/current_volcs/new/tristan.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:45:01 pm
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                                  Volcanic Eruption Could Unleash Giant Tsunamis on U.S.





The Scotsman | December 28, 2004
By John-Paul Ford Rojas

The threat from a collapsing mountain in the Atlantic Ocean could
unleash deadly tidal waves on a similar scale to the Asian tsunami, a
scientist warned today.

Hundreds of millions of people could die in a disaster affecting Britain
and the eastern United States.

Professor Bill McGuire called for an early warning system to be
installed to counter the potential danger.

Researchers have discovered that a chunk of volcano in the Canary
Islands the size of the Isle of Man is on the brink of falling into the
sea.

Scientists believe it could break away when the Cumbre Vieja volcano in
La Palma next erupts.

If that happened a giant tsunami, or massive wave, reaching heights of
more than 500 feet would be sent racing across the Atlantic at the speed
of a passenger jet.

Around nine hours later it would hit the Caribbean islands and the east
coasts of Canada and the US.

After travelling 4,000 miles the wave would be lower and wider but still
around 20 metres ? 50 metres (66ft ? 164ft) high.

Stretching for many miles, it would home in on estuaries and harbours
and sweep up to 20 miles inland, destroying everything in its path.

Boston, New York, Washington DC and Miami would be virtually wiped off
the map and tens of millions of people killed.

Meanwhile the size of the waves reaching Britain would be half as high
as those hitting America but this would still be on the same scale as
those seen in the disaster in the Indian Ocean.

Prof McGuire, director of the Benfield Hazard Research Centre at
University College London, said monitoring might at best give two weeks
warning.

But although the danger had been known about since the 1990s, no-one was
keeping a proper watch on the mountain.

He said that a chunk of the mountain had been teetering on the brink of
collapse since the last volcanic eruption of Cumbre Vieja in 1949.

Prof McGuire said: “We expect during a future eruption that whole mass
to collapse into the North Atlantic.

“You are dealing with a similar situation to the Indian Ocean only on a
much more devastating scale.”

The areas affected would include the entire North Atlantic rim including
north west Africa and southern Europe.

Prof McGuire said it was “certain” this would happen at some stage
although whether the next eruption would be the one to cause the
collapse was not known.

The next eruption could be between 20 and 200 years away.

He said the problem had been known about since the Spanish government
funded a study in the 1990s but authorities had then chosen to ignore
it.

Radar satellite image technology was now needed to find out how much the
unstable mass has been moving.

He added: “It is an issue people are aware of but hopefully the Indian
Ocean business will focus people’s minds a bit more.”

There was no warning system for tsunamis in the Atlantic and although
the ocean was only affected by 2% of those in the world, their impact
could be devastating.

Earthquakes such as one that hit Lisbon in 1755 could also trigger the
giant waves, as they have done in the recent disaster.

The 18th century tremor produced massive waves that caused thousands of
deaths and affected people as far away as the Caribbean.

“My point of view is not that everybody should be worrying about this
but if you know that these things are going to happen you either sit
back and just wait for it to happen or you do something about it,” Prof
McGuire said.


http://www.infowars.com/articles/science/tsunami_volcanic_eruption_us_tsunami.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:47:52 pm







dhill757

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                                                         Atlantic Ocean





Atlantic Ocean, the second largest of the earth's four oceans and the most heavily traveled. Only the Pacific Ocean is larger. It covers about twice the area of the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic is divided into two nominal sections: The part north of the equator is called the North Atlantic; the part south of the equator, the South Atlantic. The ocean's name is derived from Atlas, one of the Titans of Greek mythology.





Boundaries and Size



The Atlantic Ocean is essentially an S-shaped north-south channel, extending from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Antarctic continent in the south and situated between the eastern coast of the American continents and the western coasts of Europe and Africa. The Atlantic Ocean proper has a surface area of about 82 million sq km (about 31,660,000 sq mi). Including its marginal seas-the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the North, Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black seas-the total area is about 106,190,000 sq km (about 41 million sq mi).

The boundary between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean is arbitrarily designated as lying along a system of submarine ridges that extend between the land masses of Baffin Island, Greenland, and Scotland. More clearly defined is the boundary with the Mediterranean Sea at the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Caribbean Sea along the arc of the Antilles. The South Atlantic is arbitrarily separated from the Indian Ocean on the east by the 20° east meridian and from the Pacific on the west along the line of shallowest depth between Cape Horn and the Antarctic Peninsula.





Geologic Formation and Structural Features



The Atlantic began to form during the Jurassic period, about 150 million years ago, when a rift opened up in the supercontinent of Gondwanaland, resulting in the separation of South America and Africa. The separation continues today at the rate of several centimeters a year along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Part of the midoceanic ridge system that girdles the world, it is a submarine ridge extending north to south in a sinuous path midway between the continents. Roughly 1500 km (about 930 mi) wide, the ridge has a more rugged topography than any mountain range on land, and is a frequent site of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The ridge ranges from about 1 to 3 km (about 0.6 to 2 mi) above the ocean bottom.

Along the American, Antarctic, African, and European coasts are the continental shelves-embankments of the debris washed from the continents. Submarine ridges and rises extend roughly east-west between the continental shelves and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, dividing the eastern and western ocean floors into a series of basins, also known as abyssal plains. The three basins on the American side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are more than 5000 m (more than 16,400 ft) deep: the North American Basin, the Brazil Basin, and the Argentina Basin. The Eurafrican side is marked by several basins that are smaller but just as deep: the Iberia, Canaries, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Angola, Cape, and Agulhas basins. The large Atlantic-Antarctic Basin lies between the southernmost extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Antarctic continent.

The Atlantic Ocean has an average depth of 3926 m (12,881 ft). At its deepest point, in the Puerto Rico Trench, the bottom is 8742 m (28,681 ft) below the surface.





Islands



The largest islands of the Atlantic Ocean lie on the continental shelves. Newfoundland is the principal island on the North American shelf; the British Isles are the major island group of the Eurafrican shelf. Other continental islands include the Falkland Islands, the only major group on the South American shelf, and the South Sandwich Islands on the Antarctic shelf.
Oceanic islands, usually of volcanic origin, are less common in the Atlantic Ocean than in the Pacific. Among these are the island arc of the Antilles (including Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba). In the eastern Atlantic, the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde, and the São Tomé-Príncipe group are the peaks of submarine ridges. The Azores, Saint Paul's Rocks, Ascension, and the Tristan da Cunha group are isolated peaks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system; the large island of Iceland is also the result of volcanic action at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Bermuda rises from the floor of the North American Basin, and Saint Helena from the Angola Basin.





Currents



The circulatory system of the surface waters of the Atlantic can be depicted as two large gyres, or circular current systems, one in the North Atlantic and one in the South Atlantic. These currents are primarily wind driven, but are also affected by the rotation of the earth. The currents of the North Atlantic, which include the North Equatorial Current, the Canaries Current, and the Gulf Stream, flow in a clockwise direction. The currents in the South Atlantic, among which are the Brazil, Benguela, and South Equatorial currents, travel in a counterclockwise direction. Each gyre extends from near the equator to about latitude 45°; closer to the poles are the less completely defined counterrotating gyres, one rotating counterclockwise in the Arctic regions of the North Atlantic and one rotating clockwise near Antarctica in the South Atlantic. See Ocean and Oceanography: Ocean Currents.
The Atlantic receives the waters of many of the principal rivers of the world, among them the Saint Lawrence, Mississippi, Orinoco, Amazon, Paraná, Congo, Niger, and Loire, and the rivers emptying into the North, Baltic, and Mediterranean seas. Nevertheless, primarily because of the high salinity of outflow from the Mediterranean, the Atlantic is slightly more saline than the Pacific or Indian oceans.





Temperatures



The Atlantic Ocean may be described as a bed of water colder than 9° C (48° F)-the cold-water sphere-within which lies a bubble of water warmer than 9° C-the warm-water sphere. The warm-water sphere extends between latitude 50° north and latitude 50° south and has an average thickness of about 600 m (about 2000 ft). The most active circulation is found in the uppermost layer of warm water. Below this, circulation becomes increasingly sluggish as the temperature decreases.
Surface temperatures range from 0° C (32° F), found year-round at the Arctic and Antarctic margins, to 27° C (81° F) in the broad belt at the equator. At depths below 2000 m (about 6600 ft), temperatures of 2° C (36° F) are prevalent; in bottom waters, below 4000 m (about 13,200 ft), temperatures of -1° C (30° F) are common.





Marine Resources



A remarkable example of plant life is found in the Sargasso Sea, the oval section of the North Atlantic lying between the West Indies and the Azores and bounded on the west and north by the Gulf Stream. Here extensive patches of brown gulfweed (Sargassum) are found on the relatively still surface waters.
Actively mined mineral resources in the Atlantic include titanium, zircon, and monazite (phosphates of the cerium metals), off the eastern coast of Florida, and tin and iron ore, off the equatorial coast of Africa. The continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic are potentially very rich in fossil fuels. Large amounts of petroleum are already being extracted in the North Sea and in the Caribbean Sea-Gulf of Mexico region; lesser amounts are extracted off the coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.



http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/GeogHist/histories/history/hiscountries/A/atlanticocean.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 23, 2007, 07:49:12 pm






dhill757

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                                          Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean





The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Canary
Islands currently contains 6 volcanoes, sorted below in geographical
(volcano number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------

LA PALMA Stratovolcanoes Canary Islands

HIERRO Shield volcano Canary Islands

TENERIFE Stratovolcano Canary Islands

GRAN CANARIA Fissure vents Canary Islands

FUERTEVENTURA Fissure vents Canary Islands

LANZAROTE Fissure vents



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=1803


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:14:16 am







dhill757

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                                            Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean





The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Cape Verde
Islands currently contains 3 volcanoes, sorted below in geographical
(volcano number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------

FOGO Stratovolcano Cape Verde Islands

BRAVA Stratovolcano Cape Verde Islands

SAO VICENTE Stratovolcano Cape Verde Islands



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=1804


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:16:27 am







dhill757

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   posted 02-16-2005 09:09 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Azores
currently contains 13 volcanoes, sorted below in geographical (volcano
number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------



FLORES Stratovolcano Azores

CORVO Stratovolcano Azores

FAYAL Stratovolcano Azores

PICO Stratovolcano Azores

SAN JORGE Fissure vent Azores

GRACIOSA Stratovolcano Azores

TERCEIRA Stratovolcanoes Azores

DON JOAO DE CASTRO BANK Submarine volcano Azores

SETE CIDADES Stratovolcano San Miguel I

UNNAMED Pyroclastic cones San Miguel I

AGUA DE PAU Stratovolcano San Miguel I

FURNAS Stratovolcano San Miguel I

MONACO BANK Submarine volcano Azores
------------------------------------------------------------------------




The following locations in this region are not related to known Holocene
volcanoes, but have been the subject of a report in the Bulletin of the
Global Volcanism Network:

Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=1802


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:18:00 am







dhill757

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                                           Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean





The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Atlantic
Ocean (central) currently contains 6 volcanoes, sorted below in
geographical (volcano number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNNAMED Submarine volcano ? Central Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Central Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Central Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Central Atlantic Ocean

ASCENSION Stratovolcano Central Atlantic Ocean

TRINDADE Stratovolcano Central Atlantic Ocean



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=18


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:21:10 am







dhill757

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                                              Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean





The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Atlantic
Ocean (central) currently contains 6 volcanoes, sorted below in
geographical (volcano number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------




UNNAMED Submarine volcano ? Central Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Central Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Central Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Central Atlantic Ocean

ASCENSION Stratovolcano Central Atlantic Ocean

TRINDADE Stratovolcano Central Atlantic Ocean



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=18


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:23:25 am







dhill757

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                                            Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean





The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Atlantic
Ocean (southern) currently contains 3 volcanoes, sorted below in
geographical (volcano number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------




TRISTAN DA CUNHA Shield volcano Southern Atlantic Ocean

BOUVET Shield volcano Southern Atlantic Ocean

THOMPSON ISLAND Submarine volcano ? Southern Atlantic Ocean



http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=1806


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:24:58 am







dhill757

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                                                 Volcanoes of the Atlantic Ocean





The Global Volcanism Program Holocene volcano database for Atlantic
Ocean (northern) currently contains 3 volcanoes, sorted below in
geographical (volcano number) order.
Photo Volcano Name Volcano Type Location
------------------------------------------------------------------------




UNNAMED Submarine volcano Northern Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Northern Atlantic Ocean

UNNAMED Submarine volcano Northern Atlantic Ocean
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:26:59 am







Boreas
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   posted 02-18-2005 03:35 PM                       
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Riv,
Have you seen the southern border of the geolittic ice-cap? We may start in the Rockies, down to Colorado, then crossing straigth east to the Appalaches and Virginia. Then what?
Then the edge of the Cap continued - straigth east, rigth into the Atlantic, SOUTH of the 40 altitude. Covering 50 degress, all up to the 90 altitude, being the North Pole.

How far out into the Atlantic Ocean did the ice-cap reach?

From Virginia it went along the 40 altitude, bending sligthly northward until we close in on the 45th LONGITUDE, - straigth south of Greenland. There it started bending northwards - from the 40th to the 52 altitude, hitting Ireland and England who was both massivly covered, except from the southern parts.

The bend have continued to sharpen, as the coal of Newcastle was under ice, the Danish penninsula was NOT. Thus our Scandinavian geologists are drawing the edge of the ice-cap along the east-coast of Brittain across the North Sea to the Scandinavian South Cape, where it continues to cover 95% of Scandinavia, crossing the Botnic Ocean and covering 90-95 % of Finland.

Simultaniously we have had a large continental ice-sheet covering Northern Germany, as well as Austria, Switzerland, Tchechia and Poland, before hitting onwards to the east - north of Ukraine (and the Black Sea) and The Caspian Sea - reaching the Himmalayas and eventually the Pacific Ocean, - at the northern islands of Sakhalin.

According to the last geological update I have seen there was; "no chance of people passing the Bering Straigth before 8.500 BP." Which means that the Meso-Americans do have a past beyond ice-age.

Which means that they were there already BEFORE ice-time. As well as DURING. And AFTER. Plainly and simply, - like 1-2-3.
That this does not fit with the "established views" doesnt change anything. Not at all.

There are recent discoveries in the Americas that clearly shows traces of civil life more than 12.000 and 18.000 years back in time. Now even 30.000 years old fragments are found, claiming to bear witness of human presence.

Than we start understanding that the genetic and cultural variations of North and South America have evolved over tens and hundreds of millenias - to fit with the time when a galactic event occured, producing a cataclysm that turned into ice-age.

Thats how big the ice-cap used to be, about 40-20.000 years ago. Still 12.000 years ago it was all quite intact, - but between 10. and 12.000 years ago something caused a total and dramatic change. The result was the collaps of the giantic ice-cap, - as it broke up into regional sheets and pieces.
From then on the southern edge of the cape came to press south only over land.
If we relate to the different "Cape Agdes" existing on modern maps we may find traces of the later border-lines of the Atlantean sector of the maxima ice-cap.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:28:42 am







docyabut
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Now even 30.000 years old fragments are found, claiming to bear witness of human presence in the Americas? Boreas there is no real evidence of that. 

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Riven

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  posted 02-18-2005 04:50 PM                       
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Apparently the celtic sea shelf ranges in general from 100-200 metres in depth. There are also a number of shallower banks encountered in the deeper parts of the Sea, including Labdie Bank,Jones Bank, and the Great Sole Bank that range upto 1500 metres.
http://www.ngo.grida.no/wwfneap/Publication/briefings/CelticShelf.pdf
It would be safe to say the range is 100-400 metres for the Celtic sea shelf.
http://www.bgs.ac.uk/products/digbath250/
http://www.jncc.gov.uk/PDF/JNCC325-maps_and_plates.pdf


The location for the Amperes seamount Atlantis, would be roughly 800 km (480)miles, from the Straites of Gibraltar.



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Riven

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  posted 02-18-2005 04:55 PM                       
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Here's an excellent Bathymetric map someone posted for me in Hancock's forum;
http://topex.ucsd.edu/srtm30_plus/images/w020n40.Bathmetry.srtm.tiff.jpg
Atlantis primordial hill would lie around 35'N 14'W


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:29:53 am







Riven

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  posted 02-18-2005 05:52 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Atlantis Royal City should lie about 800 kms past the Straites of Gibraltar, around 36' N/14'W. (The Brown dot in the center ahead of the Horseshoe Abyssal plain(Amperes,Gettysburg seamounts) would have served for the site of the enormous canal described by Critias. (100m deep by 300m wide). The primordial hill(Ta-Tenen, Cleito) most likely was slightly above/right of the city(large hilly area).
http://topex.ucsd.edu/srtm30_plus/images/w020n40.Bathmetry.srtm.tiff.jpg
On either side of the Horseshoe Abyssal Canal location, you can see how the 2 Harbours would fit in.

The next (top of picture NE)circular land North of the Gettysburg Seamount (larger area,hill) is the Tore seamount where a meteorite crashed according to geological surveys of the Atol.

The fascinating thing is that around 10,000 bC this land would have been above water where a mean depth on average of 200m could be related to that land now below water.

The Celtic Shelf varies from 100-400m below sea level with mean depths upto 1500m in other abyssal plain locations.
At the bottom right of this next map we also see the Seat of Saturn off the NWestern coast of Portugal.(light green/brown)
http://topex.ucsd.edu/srtm30_plus/images/w020n90.Bathmetry.srtm.tiff.jpg

At the top right corner of this map above Iceland and on the Shores of Greenland you can make out definite circle.
Either an extinct Volcano, which we can see long lava trails or a meteorite impact.
http://topex.ucsd.edu/srtm30_plus/images/w060n90.Bathmetry.srtm.tiff.jpg

http://topex.ucsd.edu/WWW_html/mar_topo.html

This map shows the Azores and that strange land below it that looks like a warrior holding a sword and Cape Verde lower right.
http://topex.ucsd.edu/srtm30_plus/images/w060n40.Bathmetry.srtm.tiff.jpg


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:30:56 am







dhill757

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   posted 02-18-2005 11:28 PM                       
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Riven,
I like the direction your research is taking. In answer to your question, "which lands would be above water at the end of the last Ice Age," that is a difficult question. In addition to the fact that the oceans were nearly four hundred feet lower than they are today, adding more land to the coastliness and expanding the size of islands, there is also something called Tectonic Uplift to factor in. Some areas in the ocean would be raised higher and some lower. If something dramatic happened to end the last Ice Age, then this would fit neatly in with that.

As Rand Flem-Ath says on his website:


quote:
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Evidence for submerged lost civilizations of the Ice Age may be 'deeper' than a simple ocean rising model assumes. Computer models that don't take the tectonic collapse consideration into their calculation can seriously miss the mark. They can give false readings by assuming greater depths are equal to greater age when much of the depth might be accounted for by tectonic collapse.
Such a shift of the crust would be accompanied by volcanoes and earthquakes but vertical shifts should be largely restricted to the tropics. The tectonic uplift and collapse wouldn't happen all at once. There could be significant (many centuries possibly thousands of years) delay in establishing a new equilibrium.
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I put the list of volcanoes in the Atlantic Ocean (most of which have never been named, let alone explored), because I wanted to show just how volcanic and earthquake prone the whole Atlantic ocean is. I have a theory I'm working on concerning the volcanoes, but it's not fully researched yet, so I'm keeping it to myself for now.

You're right, we do need a professional to examine some of this. I will look for some more good Ice Age maps this weekend and see if I can find any that are helpful.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:32:00 am







Boreas
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Dockey,

Agree. The evidences are not clear. But they are certainly older than 8.500 years, rigth?
The geological investigations of the Taimir-area and the Kamchatcka Penninsula have led american geologists (too) admit that a immigration over the Bering-straigth "around 9.000 years ago" to be "merely wishful thinking". Even 8.500 years ago the climate was still "extreme arctic" in this area - not to mention that entire coastline of Alaska was "un-habitable" before 8.500.

And there are still no arhaeological evidences of mesolittic setlements in this supposed "proto-region" of the meso-americans?! The earliest east-coast american so far seems to be the Kennewick-man, some 9.200 BP. If he is Caucasian he could have been arriving to lake Michigan, then via Missouri reached west to the end of the Columbia River, where he was found.

But what the heck. We still dont have any scientific statement regards the etnic background of this man. How can they avoid publishing the genetic analyzis of these remains? Or are we to believe that the US Forensic expertise really cant get a "clean sample" from the complete relics of a man?!


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:32:58 am







rockessence

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Boreas,
You must mean the earliest west coast american...The altercation over the remains is not over yet. At this point the scientists have been granted a small amount of material by the court, and the Tribal concerns have decided not to sue any further at this time...They may assert their rights in the future, but at this point it appears the remains will not be quickly re-buried as was originally asked for.


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Boreas
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Rock,
Yes, and. If he couldnt come from the WEST, - he must have arrived via the EAST coast.
Thats the whole point. If he IS a "Caucasian", - and not only a look-alike...


[This message has been edited by Boreas (edited 02-21-2005).]


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rockessence

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When I first heard of Kenniwick man I was thinking that perhaps that if the timing was co-existant with a climatic optimum, sailors could have come around the Arctic Ocean by way of Asia or by way of No.Canada, then south past the Aleutians down the west coast. Any possibility of that? 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:34:06 am







Boreas
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dh,
Tx for nice words on Dr. Heyerdahl. He was not happy when the stroke hit, - because it disturbed his daily schedule. According to his widow he was very content and happy - during the last weeks with the family. He did reech the understanding that "the truth about our cultural history is already in sigth - now it`s merely a matter of time. Just keep working..."
So, - here are some more stuff that happen to come out on different part of "The Pond", as the sailors use to call the North-Atlantic.

From the Meso-American Utah, today Zion National Park; Circle/Whirl/Three-of-Love, Backpackers, Goats, Dogs, Spirals, The Salmon Serpent – over Spiral and the Exited man. http://www.climb-utah.com/Zion/zionrockart1.htm

From mesolittic/neolittic Europe;
The Three Serpents going together in a whirl. See The “Midgard Serpent” (Note the teeth) and the “Salmon Serpent ” (note the swan-beak).
http://www.gotmus.i.se/fornsalen/bildstenar/bilder/bild_smiss_nar_a1.jpg

The male and female Serpents joins;
http://www.gotmus.i.se/fornsalen/bildstenar/engelska/sanda.htm

Royal person, Snake, Circle, Whirl, Dog, Deer, Three-of-Love, Crown, Sirkel, Triple Triangel (ref. triple-snakes) and Okko.
Scroll down to 6th-10th pictures;
http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~catshaman/19Edda/09Eddagods2.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:35:17 am







dhill757

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Boreas,

I didn't know you knew Thor Heyerdahl, that must have been very interesting. It's still hard to believe the man sailed the Pacific in just a kin-tiki raft. That took a lot of guts. I don't think that anyone can possibly underestimate the contributions he made to ocean exploration. But he wasn't a big believer in Atlantis, though, wasn't he? Also, did you ever talk with about the Bock Saga, and, if so, what was his opinion on it?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:36:11 am







Boreas
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dh,
The first time we discussed this matter was in 1993. His first reflected reply was simply; "Well, that all depends on reliability. If the man is honest or not."
By and by we both -separatly - figured out that the story-teller was actually pointing to completly unknown facts of Nordic history, during the recordings of 1984-87 - that were completly unknown to contermporary science. Such as the existence of a human population and culture in Finland, during ALL of ice-time. Before 1995 there was NO evidence that man walked in Finland before the end of the great ice-age, 9.500-9.900 years ago.

But after the astounding discoveries of 1995
- of the 120.000 years old habitat in SW Finland, exactly as the saga described. Than there were strong reasons to check this saga further. In 1997 did we get the results from the large investigation of the Pechora Bassin, east of the White Sea, confirming a hunter/gather-society of homo sapiens sapiens, just about 40.000 years old.

Thus, in 1995-97 he started going into this part of Eurasian history. In 1999 and 2001 he published his two last books, both about Aser and Vaner - and the historic reality behind these "gods". The interest was very clear - and together with the University at Rostov he organised a larger excavation in Asov, - a city Heyerdahl explained as "Asernas Hov" ("Hall of Aser") - a place explicitly named as a turn-key in the Icelandic Sagas, to find the real location of "Odin".

He just managed to finnish the first stage of this project. The next summer he was scheduled for Gotland, Helsinki and Novgorod, in addition to Asov, the Cuban underwater-city and Samoa, where a 30 metre high pyramid was discovered, etc.

The remark quoted above was his last comment in the matter, - just a week before he got hospitalized. In retrospect I think he felt that his health was swaying at the time, although nobody else could guess. But I sure remember the particular weight (stress) he expressed in that chat - on the importance of proceeding - without doubt or delay.

Thats why I miss the guy the most. With him still around we would have had fewer and less delays...


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:37:05 am







George Erikson
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   posted 02-24-2005 12:08 PM                       
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Boreas,
Kennewick Man (9200 BP)may not be from the east coast. All that has been determined is that he is doliocephalic, having a long and narrow skull. So his ancestors were not the broad-faced, round skulled northern Asians, nor were his descendants amerindians. He may, however, have been from the South Pacific.
www.AtlantisInAmerica.com


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George Erikson
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Kennewick Man is not the only doliocephalic skull that has been found in the Americas. A rescontruction of the cranium of "Luzia" (11,300BP) found by Walter Neves in south-central Brazil, reveals craniofacial patterns of a Polynesian.
33 skulls of Pericue "Indians" - a now extinct tribe that lived in southern Baja California when the Spainsh arrived in the 1520s - have been dated at 10-12,000 YBP. All resemble the Brazilian skull.
A particularly well-preserved skull was recently excavated by Dr. Sylvia Gonzalez. Found in an ancient lakebed near Mexico City the skull, dubbed Penon Woman, has been radiocarbon dated to 12,700 BC. Penon Woman appears similar to "Australians and populations of the south Pacific Rim," says Dr. Gonzalez of Liverpool John Moores University, adding "we've extracted her DNA...it is going to be a bomb." 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:38:33 am







Boreas
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   posted 02-24-2005 01:11 PM                       
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Rock,
The climatical optimum hadnt kicked in yet, - if we go by the Greenland ice-core-tests. They are conclusivly setting 8.000 BP as the very startpoint - and 7.500 as a "sure thing" - in terms of a summer mid-temperature as high/higher than 11,8 C, todays midle in mid-Scandinavia and SW Greenland.
I have heard that this should be the minimum average to get wheat to ripen, - i.e. to exist. Large leaf-threes have about the same minimum to develop ripe seeds, elm at 11,2 and oak at 11,7 - if I remember rigth, - while dwarf-birch, birch and other pollen occur at significantly lower temperatures.

Consequently the Danish researchers have a pretty good clue, as the core-test have been processed for about 15 years already.
Today they process a time-span of 170.000 years, - and there are still many important results/repports to come.

-----


George,
I couldnt find the reference-page of the Kennewick-case. Could you specify the adress?

Ops! DNA? Cant wait for that bomb!

(And - Why cant they admit that they already have detected "a bomb" in the Kennewick-case? The tests that have been made is still not published. The reason given from the responsible institute was "difficult tissue, risk of pollution".

The risk was said to be "pollution" from the researchers themselves, as dna from their body could pollute the tissue before it reached the "microscope". Very funny - seems they been finding somebody with genes like their own. Which makes the whole thing tricky off course, - but its very easy to make a duplicate test, with chineese or japaneese laborants...

The controversial result is probably the real reason to why they need a new "round" of tests - under criterias that are extremly well controlled, checked - and double-checked. In duplo.

Maybe they need Dr. Sanchez` expertise?


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:39:43 am






George Erikson
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   posted 02-24-2005 02:19 PM                       
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Boreas,
Try http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/sci/tech/3634544.stm


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George Erikson
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   posted 02-24-2005 02:27 PM                       
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Also http://www.pbs.org/nova/stoneage/
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Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:41:08 am







dhill757

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   posted 03-01-2005 11:05 PM                       
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quote:
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                                              Scientists to drill beneath oceans





By Robert S. Boyd

Inquirer Washington Bureau


WASHINGTON - In a research program getting under way this summer, shipboard scientists will punch thousands of holes in the ocean bottom and take samples from greater depths than ever before. They will be investigating the biology, chemistry and physics of "inner space," the vast world hidden beneath the seas.

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, led by American and Japanese scientists, begins in June with a 10-month expedition to plumb the crust beneath the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

The layers of rock below the seafloor are an archive of global change, tens of millions of years old, that scientists say can help them understand what's happening to our world today.

Researchers are especially interested in hordes of microbes thriving in a complex "plumbing system" of life-supporting fluids coursing through cracks in the rocks thousands of feet below the ocean bottom. Some organisms may have medical or commercial value.

"There's a whole ecology living down there," said Theodore Moore Jr., an oceanographer at the University of Michigan. "It's very likely some species will be of direct benefit to humans."

Some scientists believe life on Earth may have begun in these gloomy caverns far from sun and air about four billion years ago. If life exists on other planets or moons, they say it may be found in similar dark environments, sheltered from lethal cosmic rays and meteor bombardments.

The new international drilling project, involving researchers from 20 countries, is a stepped-up successor to a smaller, American-led Ocean Drilling Program that ended last fall. Over 18 years, from 1985 to 2003, the U.S. research ship JOIDES
Resolution bored about 2,000 holes at 650 different sites around the world, making many significant scientific observations.

For instance, an expedition a year ago in the tropical Atlantic turned up evidence, buried in seafloor sediment, of repeated episodes of rapid global warming that led to massive plant and animal extinction in the distant past.

"Without exploring the basics of how these systems work, we can't have confidence in our ability to predict their behavior on shorter time scales, like human lifespans," said Margaret Delaney, an ocean scientist at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

As part of the new program, researchers also will investigate how events at the ocean bottom can touch off dangerous earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

"The dynamics of the Earth's interior processes... have a major financial and safety impact," Delaney said in an e-mail.

On its latest voyage, scientists aboard the Resolution successfully matched the chemistry and geology of portions of the seafloor off Newfoundland to similar formations off the coasts of Spain and Portugal. The match confirmed that North
America and Europe once belonged to a single continent that split apart about 145 million years ago, opening the way for the formation of the Atlantic Ocean.

Previous drilling operations have:

Confirmed the theory of plate tectonics, which describes the breakup and movement of the continents.

Discovered the mid-ocean ridge, a 40,000-mile underwater mountain chain encircling the globe like the laces on a baseball.

Studied the great ocean currents that control temperatures on land.

Located traces of enormous sheets of ancient lava as much as 20 miles thick that spewed from undersea volcanoes. One such deposit covered almost four million square miles on the bottom of the Atlantic, stretching from eastern Canada to Spain and Africa's Ivory Coast.

Despite these achievements, most of the ocean floor and interior remain virtually unknown, project scientists acknowledge.

The new program will have two research vessels at its disposal.

A Japanese drill ship, the Chikyu, now under construction, will begin operations in 2006. The U.S. National Science Foundation is seeking $100 million for a more capable vessel to replace the 26-year-old Resolution, which will be retired in
Galveston, Texas, next year.

Before it puts away its drill bits, the Resolution will make one more cruise under the auspices of the international program. The voyage will start June 24 in the Northeast Pacific, studying the biology and geology of the seafloor off the coast of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

Next fall and winter, the Resolution will move to the North Atlantic near the Azores, Greenland and Iceland. It will also try to drill a hole in the seafloor of the Arctic Ocean.

"This will be the first time we've ever done that," Moore said. "We don't have any idea what we're going to find."

The U.S. National Science Foundation, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling are sponsoring the research. Countries in Europe and Asia are expected to share operating costs of $160 million a year when both ships are at work.

"Located traces of enormous sheets of ancient lava as much as 20 miles thick that spewed from undersea volcanoes. One such deposit covered almost four million square miles on the bottom of the Atlantic, stretching from eastern Canada to Spain and Africa's Ivory Coast."

"For instance, an expedition a year ago in the tropical Atlantic turned up evidence, buried in seafloor sediment, of repeated episodes of rapid global warming that led to massive plant and animal extinction in the distant past."

Both these could have something to do with Atlantis. Depending on how long it took for the lava to accumulate, Atlantis could be beneath the lava. "Repeated episodes of global warming that led to mass plant and animal extinction" also implies times where the Ice age could have come to an end quickly, bringing about massive tsunamis and flooding. Whatever we think we know, it is plain from the article that we still need to learn a lot more about the oceans.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:42:40 am







dhill757

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quote:
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                                             A 'Lost City' Found Under the Sea





Towering white mineral chimneys and feathery spires mark the field deep in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Far, far below the surface there is a strange new world never before known to human beings. It's been named the Lost City for the mythical world of Atlantis.

Populated by see-through shrimp, crabs, and some very unusual life forms, the Lost City is a field of thermal vents that was discovered by accident in 2000 when researchers were looking at undersea areas near the midocean ridge. In 2003, scientists explored the area through 19 eight-hour dives in the deep-sea submersible Alvin and in 2005 recorded what they saw in the journal Science.

The discovery shows "how little we know about the ocean," lead researcher Deborah S. Kelley of the University of Washington told The Associated Press in an interview. "I have been working on black smokers for about 20 years, and you sort of think you have a good idea what's going on. But the ocean is a big place, and there are still important opportunities for discovery."

The Lost City, which is at roughly the same latitude as Jacksonville, Fla. and is perched on the plateau of a mammoth undersea mountain, has startled scientists with its different environment and residents. Black smokers they know. These white chimneys are something entirely new. AP reports that black smokers are chimney-like structures that form when very hot water--700 degrees Fahrenheit--breaks through the ocean floor and comes into contact with frigidly cold ocean water. Minerals crystallize in this very acidic environment and that gives the chimneys their black color. But the Lost City is different. The temperature of the escaping fluids is a lukewarm 150 degrees to 170 degrees. In addition, the environment is extraordinarily alkaline. All this makes the crystalline chimneys white.
When the scientists got a good look at the inhabitants of the Lost City and this new type of ecosystem, they must have felt as if they had journeyed to a different planet. Among the 65 creatures are miniature shrimp and crabs, most of which are transparent or translucent, that are less than a half-inch in size. There are also tubeworms, water fleas, mats of bacteria, and snails. One scientist who was not associated with the research team called the amount of living organisms found inside the Lost City's chimneys astonishing.

It's possible the undersea vents mimic conditions on the primordial earth when life first formed so they may provide some of the best insights into that process, reports The Seattle Times.

This undersea work was funded by National Science Foundation, the NASA Astrobiology Institute and the Swiss National Science Foundation. In addition to the University of Washington, researchers from Duke University; ETH-Zentrum in Zurich, Switzerland; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology participated.


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http://cnn.netscape.cnn.com/news/package.jsp?name=fte/lostcity/lostcity


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:43:39 am







Riven

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  posted 03-11-2005 12:34 PM                       
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Theosophical Maps of Atlantis
http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/soa/soamap.htm
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dhill757

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Great find, Riven, I never noticed them at Sacred Texts before.
It's interesting that they call Atlantis "Ruta" as that was the name for Lemuria on the other side of the world.


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Mauricius
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late reply, but still :P

let's not forget that in 2005, we have unique species of animals in Mozambico(Africa) or NewZealand(Oceania)(Cangaroos and Koalas ONLY in Australia)

an Island usually saves his own fauna

i wouldnt be surprised if Atlantis was in Azores, that they had a "locale" specie of Mammooth OR Elephant ( considering also that if that Island/Continent existed, was surely one of the most close to Africa
(looking at the whole Globe)

who knows.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:46:02 am







dhill757

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Great point, Mauricius, and mastodon and woolly mammoth bones have been dredged up along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the past (helping to prove, to me, anyway, that there was once inhabited land there). Although it might interest Essan to know that I am still looking for the pictures.
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unknown

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Has anyone here read Otto Muck's book "The Secret of Atlantis" he gives some compelling arguments for Atlantis in the Atlantic and a theory to explain the disappearance of the island. A great read I highly recommend for those interested in the study of Atlantis
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Melissa MacQuarrie

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I've read the Otto Muck book and found it very interesting. It's one of the few books that gives a believable explanation for how the catastrophe could have happened (a object from space striking the brittle crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge).
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unknown

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There is also some stuff about how the sinking of atlantis supposedly changed the course of the Gulf stream bringing warm air currents there parcipiting the melting of the ice sheets. I also found the mystery of the Sargossa sea eels intriguing, swimming all the way across the ocean to spawn in fresh water,
[This message has been edited by unknown (edited 03-28-2005).]


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Riven

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I don't think any of you should miss this picture.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/image?lookup=Perseus:image:1987.09.0172
I have posted some info in Tribes relating to Aeantis Athena and the Tribe of Aeantis.


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unknown

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Riven
Interesting, like a little Atlantis in minature.

mountain in background, plain with rings whole bit.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:49:52 am







dhill757

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                                        A Brief time line for the history of Tenerife





paying particular attention to LOS GIGANTES and the Municipality of SANTIAGO DEL TEIDE.

30,000,000 BC The Canary islands are estimated to be around 30 million years old, relatively young by geological standards. The volcanoes that form the islands' backbone saw the light of day at about the time the Atlas Mountains were formed. The highest volcano, Tenerife's Teide at 3718m (12,195ft) is Spain's tallest peak and the third tallest volcano in the world after the two in Hawaii. Where Tenerife now stands today, it is believed that there were 3 islands (what are now) the Anaga, Teno (where Santiago del Teide is now) and Valle San Lorenzo mountain ranges. In a tremendous volcanic process the old central volcano and the great mountain range (Cumbre Dorsal) melted together into what we know today as Tenerife. Presumably the top of the volcano did not explode but collapsed in it's own crater and is now one of the greatest collapsed craters of the world (Las Cañadas). This oval crater is at it's longest distance about 17Km long.


500,000 BC 500.000 years ago the last stage of volcanic activity in Tenerife took place. The 'Pico Viejo' (old peak) erupted first and some time later the higher 'Pico del Teide'.

427-347 BC The existence of the islands was known, or at least postulated, in ancient times, and Plato spoke of Atlantis, a continent that had sunk beneath the ocean floor in a great cataclysm that left only the peaks of its highest mountains above the water. The islands gained an almost mythic reputation, passed down from one classical writer to the next, as a Garden of Eden. This also fits in with the islands' latter day nickname, the Fortunate Islands. TOP *** Back to homepage
200 BC Carbon dating has placed the earliest settlement at around 200 BC, although earlier settlement is possible. One clue, apart from the ancient skulls of the original inhabitants, are the conquering Europeans' 15th century descriptions of locals on Tenerife. According to the tales of the European conquerors, the Guanches were a "highly beautiful white race, tall, muscular, and with a great many blondes amongst their numbers" Their great height must be understood in relation to the average height of Europeans at that time. Guanche was the name by which the natives of Tenerife called themselves. Guan Chenech meant "Man from Chenech", or man from Tenerife. With the passage of time, the term Guanche became identified with all the native peoples of the Canaries. It would seem that the natives of La Palma, seeing the snow-covered peak of the Teide on the horizon, called that island Ten-er-efez, "White Mountain" (from Ten, teno, dun, duna= mountain, and er-efez= white). Suggestions for the origins of the Guanches have ranged from Celtic immigrants from mainland Spain or Portugal, to Norse invaders, supplying a possible explanation for the blonde hair and blue eyes. Berber immigrants from nearby Saharan Africa almost certainly inhabited some of the eastern islands, and place names bear a striking resemblance to Berber tribal languages. Occasionally blue eyes and fair hair crop up among the Berbers as well, so the Guanches' origin is still open to question. The Guanches relied on limited farming, herding, hunting and gathering, and the majority of them lived in caves.
77 AD The name "Canarias" was mentioned by Plutarque and Pline the elder, before the islands disappear from western minds until the 13th century, when they were rediscovered by european navigators

120AD Around 120 AD, Marinus of Tyre wrote that the habitable world was bounded on the west by the Fortunate Islands. The status of the Fortunate Islands as the western edge of the known world was more formally established when Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90 - 168), following Marinus, adopted the Fortunate Islands as the prime meridian for his Geographia. This was the most famous classical map of the world, unsurpassed for almost 1500 years. TOP *** Back to homepage

13th Century AD By the time the Europeans began looking towards Tenerife it was divided into no fewer than nine tiny fiefdoms or Menceys. In Candelaria, the memory of the last nine Kings was kept alive by lava made statues at the beach in front of the Basílica, but the passage of time and erosion corroded and partially destroyed these statues. A few years ago the native artist 'José Abad' from 'La Laguna' made 7 bronze statues with royal scepters, stone weapons, wood spears, slings and other symbolic objects.

The Canaries were rediscovered by a Genovese fleet under Lancelot Malocello.

1341 A detailed survey was made by Nicoloso de Recco of Genoa in 1341.

1402 In 1402, Jean de Béthencourt, from Normandy, occupied, the islands of Lanzarote, Castilla. Fuerteventura, Gomera and Hierro, on behalf of King Henri III Spain but Tenerife, La Palma and Gran Canaria resisted occupation.

1433-1479 A papal bull of 1433 awarded rights over the Canaries to Henry the Navigator of Portugal, but this decision was reversed in 1436, when another papal bull awarded these rights to the crown of Castile. In the Alcovas treaty of 1479, Portugal recognised the rights of the Castilians to the Canaries, in return for Castilian recognition of Portugese sovereignty over Fez and Guinea.

1492 Under the patronage of Isabelle of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon. Christopher Columbus would stop 4 times in these islands on his way to America, between 1492 and 1502, mainly in La Gomera where his mistress lived. TOP *** Back to homepage

3 May 1494 In 1494 Alonso Fernández de Lugo arrived from occupied Gran Canaria and landed at Añaza Beach (today's harbour of Santa Cruz), on the boundary between the kingdoms of Anaga and Güimar. He arrived with Spanish troops, but also with a considerable number of natives of Gran Canaria who had been converted to Christianity. Their island had been part of the Kingdom of Castile for the last 20 years. On the 3 May 1494 a solemn mass was said on the beach, and the "Adelantado" or military governor (official title of Fernández de Lugo), by erecting in a wooden cross, founded the Royal city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife - Holy Cross of Tenerife. His orders were to subdue the last bastion of resistance of the Canary natives – Tenerife. Prior to the landing, the Spaniards had established an agreement with four of the nine Menceys of the island: Güimar, Anaga, Abona and Adeje (which included where Los Gigantes now stands today). These four "kingdoms" submitted peaceably , not just because they had had contact with Spanish missionaries for some time; but more so , because there was no sense of 'common Nation' among the Guanches. There had always been frequent wars or skirmishes between the different tribes or "kingdoms". However, the Great Mencey of Taoro and Island's Main King, Bencomo, the king of Raoro (today La Orotava) refused to accept the occupation and allied with the kingdoms of Daute, Icod, Tacoronte and Tegueste, faced the invaders. Together they formed a plan to ambush the invader. Alonso Fernández de Lugo and his forces unsuspectingly pressed forward into the interior of the island, crossed the Aguere Valley and arrived at the North shore. The area was deserted. The indigenous population had "vanished". Still arrogantly believing there would be no resistance from these ignorant savages he pressed on to Taoro. (Picture=The foundation of Santa Cruz de Tenerife,Painting by Manuel González Méndez, Plenary Session Room, Parliament of the Canary Islands) TOP *** Back to homepage

31 May 1494 On the 31st of May of 1494 the Spaniards walked blindly into the ravine of Acentejo ("Pouring waters") and there they met disaster. Guanches attacked them from the slopes. Using stones and spears against the Spanish blunderbusses and canon, and they fought naked while the conquerors wore armour and shields. In spite of their overwhelming advantage , the Spaniards suffered a terrible defeat. Four out of five Spanish soldiers were killed. Fernández de Lugo, was wounded and surviving only by a miracle, retreated, harried by the Guanches until he was forced to re-embark and sail back to Gran Canaria. The Guanches had won - for the moment. To this day the town built on the site where the massacre occurred is called La Matanza (the slaughter) de Acentejo Today besides the motorway there is a huge stone wall painting with a Guanche blowing the victory signal through a horn to commemorate the event.

1495 Humiliated, Alonso Fernández de Lugo sold all his properties in order to fund a new expedition to Tenerife. In 1495 he landed again in Añaza, where he rebuilt the destroyed fort of Santa Cruz. More cautious after the previous experience, he advanced gradually and he built another fort on the way to the interior of the island: the fort of Gracia (Grace). The Guanches and Castilians met on the plain of Aguere. At the place where the University of La Laguna now stands a terrible battle took place. The Guanches were decimated. Their mistake had been to fight on the plain, where the cavalry - terrible and unknown to them, destroyed them. The Mencey Bencomo and Sigoñe -Military Chief- Tinguaro were killed. The Spaniards advanced along the North shore and the Guanches faced them again in Acentejo, near the place of the Slaughter - La Matanza. This time -thanks to past experience - the Spaniards won, and they founded there the town of "La Victoria de Acentejo" -The Victory of Acentejo.

The conquerors finally arrived at the rich Arautava Valley (La Orotava), heartland of Taoro and here they met the real **** of resistance. Bencomo's son, Bentor, had been proclaimed Mencey. But the situation among the Guanches was catastrophic. An epidemic, called by the Spaniards "Guanche Drowsiness", broke out and decimated the population killing them in their hundreds in just a few weeks. It was probably a European sickness against which the immune system of the Guanches was unprepared, as the illness didn't affect the Spaniards.

25th December 1495. In the place now known as the town of Los Realejos (Little "Reales" or military camps) the Guanches surrendered and Tenerife was annexed to the Crown of Castile. The three-times repeated protocolary proclamation, "Tenerife for their Highnesses the Catholic Queen and King doña Isabel and don Fernando" marked the historic moment. However, some sources of resistance still remained. Skirmishes continued spasmodically for several more years. Mencey Bentor retreated to the cliffs of Tigaiga, at the foot of Teide volcano and above his former kingdom of Taoro. He threw himself to his death, unable to deal with the loss of his freedom and the Guañac, Country. TOP *** Back to homepage

1496 After the victory over the Guanches, de Lugo constructed the metropolis of 'San Cristobal de La Laguna' in 1496, beside a lake which was about seven kilometres away from the bay of 'Añaza'. The next century saw massacres, warfare and Guanches sold off wholesale into slavery, their language had all but disappeared, the survivors had intermarried with the invaders, converted to Christianity and taken Spanish names.

16th Century Most surviving Guanches were baptized. They took christian names and the family names of their conqueror godfathers and godmothers. These baptisms en masse accounted for the disappearance -literally overnight -of Guanche names among the island's population. Just a few Guanche family names are still present centuries later. One is the surname of the direct descendants of the Great Mencey of Taoro, Bencomo. There are others, like Guanche, Ibaute or Baute, and Oramas still to be found in the local telephone directories today! Conversely the names of places, towns, valleys, rocks and mountains are still mostly of Guanche origin: Teide, Ucanca, Tejina, Tegueste, Tacoronte, Orotava, Chimiche, Arico, Adeje, Isora, Arona. Guanche rebels were enslaved and were sold on European auction blocks, but many of them, after having been baptized, appealed to the Crown, and in many cases they were freed and allowed to return to the islands, against the wishes of the colonists who tried constantly to convince the Crown that the Guanches were dangerous, fearing a revolt. Some Guanches refused to live in the towns and villages which were by now built all over the island and preferred to live free as shepherds in the mountains following their traditional ways of life. They were called "rebellious Guanches" (Guanches alzados) by the colonists, although their actions were in no way rebellious at all - they just wanted to be left alone. The conquistadors distributed land and founded towns and villages. Some estates were given to Guanche aristocrats of the tribes which had been friendly to the Spaniards. The natives of Gran Canaria and other islands who helped to the conquest also received homesteading rights. Alonso Fernández de Lugo's crown jewel was the town of San Cristóbal de La Laguna, built in the delightful Aguere Valley. The seat of the Island's Cabildo (Council) was established in the brand-new capital, and in time also the first Islands' university and Tenerife's cathedral and bishop's palace. The population of Tenerife became mixed after a short period of time, with a large influx of European immigrants from several countries. The 16th century, was the time of the Great Spanish World Empire. Flemish, Germans, Italians and Portuguese established themselves in Tenerife. TOP *** Back to homepage

1503 The area where Los Gigantes now stands had been part of the Kingdom of the Mencey (King) of Adeje, and of the “Archmencyato” (high chieftainship) of Tamaimo but after the Spanish conquest it came under the jurisdiction of don Alonso Fernández of Lugo who had been made military governor of the island, during the first subdivisions of the conquered territory. There is a record dated 1503 showing that 100 fanegas (an agricultural measurement roughly equivalent to an acre) of arable land in the valley of Santiago was conceded to Diego Mencey who came from Adeje. It is thought that before his conversion to Christianity Diego had been called Pelinor – and was likely one of the guanche kings who had co-operated with the invaders. A statue of his son Cherfe stands in Santiago del Teide town today.

1508 A deed to the territory of the Valley of Santiago was conceded to Juan Cabeza of Extremadura, who had been granted land rights in the area in 1508. He became the first “Lord of the manor” for the area.

1509 On the 19 April 1509 Alonso Diaz of the Valley of Santiago, the son of Don Diego (formerly Pelinor) after years of struggles and appeals to the crown, managed to obtain a favourable judgment from Fernando II of Aragón and Isabel I of Castille to whom he had taken his petition: that the Governor Alonso Fernández of Lugo return to him 200 goats that said governor had taken by force. The most important economic activity in the area at the time was based around fishing and the sea. The inhabitants utilized the timber from the mountains of Arguayo and the Valley of Santiago to make boats seaworthy, which then sailed from the ports of Garachico and Adeje en route to Lisbon and Cadiz.
1526 One of the first crops to be grown on a large scale was sugar cane. In addition to the need for large cleared areas, sugar production required large amounts of fuel to boil the cane juice: decimating the pine forests of the island. The primary interest of foreign merchants in Tenerife was the export of the sugar in return for the import of cloth. Hakluyt described the trade by Nicholas Thorne of Bristol in 1526, who exchanged sugar, orchil and goatskins for cloth 'both coarse and fine, broad and narrow, of divers sorts and colours'.

1550 The hermitage of Santiago was constructed in “Valle de arriba” just outside where Santiago del Teide town is today.


1560s By the 1560s Tenerife had twelve sugar mills in operation.

1587 The Engineer Leonardo Torriani was sent by King Philip 2nd to fortify the Canary Islands as a precaution against invasion. He Landed at the Port of Santiago in 1587 (little has changed in the old harbour of Puerto Santiago that one can see today)

1569-1599 Spain's control of the Canary islands did not go unchallenged. First Moroccan troops occupied Lanzarote in 1569 and 1586, then Sir Francis Drake tried a little gunboat diplomacy off Las Palmas in 1595. A Dutch fleet reduced Las Palmas to rubble in 1599, TOP *** Back to homepage
April 1657 In April 1657 Admiral Robert Blake got word of a Spanish treasure fleet. He attacked the fleet at Santa Cruz de Tenerife - it was his greatest victory. His captains led the frigates inshore to attack the ships in the harbour. Blake and the larger ships stayed outside and fired upon the guns of the shore forts. The Spanish fleet was destroyed. The English ships were battered, but not one was lost.
1663 The municipality (county) of Santiago del Teide (of which Los Gigantes is part) was known of old as The Valley of Santiago and there had been a hermitage dedicated to Santiago there for for some years. In 1663 don Fernando del Hoyo y Solórzano was made the “Lord of the Manor” of the Valley of Santiago. Formal constitution of the Manor of the Valley of Santiago, was made by the Military Governor Don Fernando del Ovo Solórzano by the Royal concession of 3 july 1663. Said manor was signed over to Fernando del Hoyo after he had donated 3200 silver ducats to the crown . He also measured the extent of the valley in Leagues (1 league equals approx 5.5km) The jurisdiction of his Lordship included the administration of criminal (as opposed to ecclesiastical) law, including the right to incarcerate, hang, spike the heads of, garrotte, whip with a “cat-o-nine-tails”, cut off various extremities, or set free (not likely?) any and all miscreants, adjudged by him to be lawbreakers.
1665-1668 Between 1665 and 1668 the “Casa del Patio”, the property of the family of Hoyo Solózano, and perhaps the most historically and architecturally important building in the Valley of Santiago, was built. La Casa del Patio is found to the north of where the town of Santiago del Teide lies today, it stood in a finca (smallholding or farm) that was over 27,000 sq metres in area, which made up the manor of Valle Santiago.

In February 2003 Work expected to cost some 5 and half million Euros has been started on restoring this building. TOP *** Back to homepage

1676 In 1676 Bishop Bartolomé García Jiménez foresaw the need the create a parish in the region so that the local populace did not have to depend on the parish already established in Buenavista for the various administrative and spiritual tasks undertaken by parish priest, and put his proposal to the Crown, who subsequently gave their approval. Don Fernando del Hoyo y Solórzano the “Lord of the Manor” of the Valley of Santiago at that time offered to construct a new church dedicated to San Fernando, which would incorporate the ancient hermitage.

1679 The inauguration of the Church of Saint Fernando in what is today the town of Santiago del Teide on the 9th September of 1679 saw the creation of a parish of the same name. Its jurisdiction extended from Juan Lopez and Masca up to the ravine of Vera de Erques

1776 On the 30 October 1776 the strong-hold or fort of Adeje conceded to Town council of the Valley of Santiago del Teide, territory previously designated as The Wastelands, which were subsequently passed to the local inhabitants, in exchange for paying a tax to the Town council, and this for almost the next 2 centuries was Its principal source of income.

1778 There was by now frequent interaction between the port of Santiago and the neighbouring Island of La Gomera. In 1778 denizens of Puerto de Santiago earnt 1334 Reals (1000 Reals = 1.5 euros approx) for exporting honey to La Gomera.

5 October 1796 Spain declared war on England

25 May 1797 The attack on Santa Cruz of the 25th May 1797 by the British Navy was not really in response to an invasion strategy on behalf of the British Crown. More likely the Sailors were following the mores of the time, seeking the fabulous riches, which they believed were in the colonists coffers and if circumstances permitted would ransom the good citizens of the town as well.

5 September 1797 On the 5th September 1797, the British Navy attempted a landing in the region of Puerto Santiago. They were repelled by the stones launched at them by the inhabitants of the Valley of Santiago thrown from the heights of the cliffs of Los Gigantes.

25 July 1797 Admiral Sir Horace Nelson attacked Santa Cruz, the capital town of Tenerife and headquarters of the Capitan General (Military Commander and sort of Viceroy of the islands) on 25 July 1797 The battle took place in the harbour and in the town streets. Nelson was hit by gunfire during an attempt to disembark at Santa Cruz' shore. He was defeated and lost his right arm. The declaration of Santa Cruz as an incorporated town was a direct consequence of the victory over the British in their attempts to occupy the site.

2nd half 18th century Dutch maps of the period used the peak of El Teide on Tenerife as their prime meridian. Large areas of pine and laurel forest had been lost to the sugar industry by the 18th century. and when George Glas visited Orotava in 1764 he noted that few mature pines remained. In 1799, the famous German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt (who founded the University at La Laguna) stayed in Tenerife and spoke enthusiastically of the beauty of the area, especially the Orotava valley. Was he the father of Tourism? (Picture=Alexander von Humboldt 1769-1859) TOP *** Back to homepage
1812 The Municipality of the Valley of Santiago del Teide was Created in 1812, when the Parliament of Cadiz (forerunner to the modern day Spanish constitution) over-rode the feudal law of the “Lords of the manor”. Its boundaries extended to the west of the island over an area of 2,25 km2. and including the areas of Casco (El Valle), Valle de Arriba, Las Manchas, Arguayo, El Molledo, El Retamar, Tamaimo, Puerto de Santiago and Los Gigantes, bordered on the North by the municipalities of Icod de Los Vinos, Garachico, el Tanque and Los Silos, to the East by Buenavista del Norte and to the south by Guía de Isora.

1821 The Canaries were declared a province of Spain in 1821. Santa Cruz de Tenerife was declared the official capital, adding fuel to the already low-level bickering between Tenerife and Gran Canaria.
1835 The formal constitution of the Town Council of Valley of Santiago del Teide took place around 1835

Mid 19th Century The inhabitants of Gran Canaria demanded that the province be split into two, which it was for a short and unsuccessful period in the 1840s. Several agricultural commodities followed boom-bust cycles on the islands: sugar cane, wine and then cochineal for making dyes all had their day, followed by bananas and to a lesser extent tomatoes and potatoes. TOP *** Back to homepage
1884 The Town Council started the first school in the Valley of Santiago del Teide in 1884.
1890s Tourists (mainly well-to-do British) began coming to Tenerife in significant numbers towards the end of the last century. At that time tourism was centred around the northern resort town of Puerto de la Cruz and, to a lesser extent, the island's capital Santa Cruz. Both towns boasted a handful of grandiose hotels, the most popular being the Grand Hotel Taoro in Puerto de la Cruz. Built in 1892,
1893 The Medal of Charity, was awarded to Santa Cruz de Tenerife by Queen Regent María Cristina in 1893 during the cholera epidemic, in which the citizens behaved bravely
1890s Until the end of the 19th century the Valley of Santiago enjoyed great prestige from the bull fights which were put on in honour of San Pedro.

1909 The last volcano eruption in Tenerife happened near the village of Santiago del Teide at Chinyero on the 18th November 1909. The traditional Romería of the volcano is still celebrated to the present day in May when the statues of Christ and the Virgin are transported from the church of San Fernando to the place where the lava flow from the last volcanic eruption was diverted away from harming the populace.

http://www.losgigantes.com/losgigantes_local%20history.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:51:12 am







dhill757

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   posted 04-17-2005 02:47 PM                       
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La Palma is an island rich in art and architecture. The legacy of a mixed history of European and American influences, the island's traditional arts and crafts are thriving. And to think that the island was inhabited by the Guanche people- a Stone Age civilisation- less than 500 years ago.

• The Guanches: the aborigenes of La Palma

• Santa Cruz de La Palma: the bride of the sea

• Handicrafts: a caleidoscope full of european and indian influences

• Black pottery: works of an ancient beauty

• Fine silk: made like in ancient China

• Legend: Pared de Roberto

 

The Guanches: the aborigenes of La Palma
The Guanches or Benahoaritas, the correct term, are a fascinating race. A people surrounded by intriguing sagas, the Guanches were tall with fair skin and blonde hair. Women chose their husbands and theft was considered an art. Opinions as to where these people originally came from are divided. What we do know is that the original inhabitants of the island strongly resisted the conquest and were finally subdued aftera struggle which lasted many decades.; On 29th of September 1492, Alonso Fernández de Lugo landed at Tazacorte with his 900 men. His aim to claim La Palma for the Spanish throne. The conquistador met with little resistance and within six months peace was returned to almost the entire island with the exception of the crater, Caldera de Taburiente, which proved invincible under the rule of Tanausú, a brave and experienced warrior. De Lugo suffered great losses and had to resort to false promises to bring Tanausú out of the crater to arrest him. But the last Guanche ruler resisted his fate and went on hunger strike during the journey to Spain. Legend has it that he died before reaching Spain. The fine Guanche legacy is one of the main attractions of the island today. It is not so long ago that these people inhabited the island and if you keep a watchful eye you are sure to stumble across items dating back to that time at every waiting corner; pottery, tools, stone instruments, cave homes, burial sites. More information on Guanche social, economic and religious structures can be obtained in the island museum, in the National Park Visitor's Centre and in La Zarza and La Zarcita, where the first archaeological park of the Canary Islands was opened in March 1998. The cave paintings of La Zarza and La Zarcita with their spirals, meanders, labyrinths and figures are amongst the most fascinating to be found on the island. Another archaeological park is located at the cave of Belmaco, former residence of many generations of the Menceys (chiefs), and now considered the oldest site in La Palma-dating as far back as 4,000 years ago.


 

Santa Cruz de La Palma: the bride of the sea
Cargo and cruising ships, ferries, fishing boats and sailing yachts: the hustle and bustle of the harbour. Not much remains to remind us of that glorious past, but as we stroll through Santa Cruz and look at its palaces and beautiful churches or simply notice its street names we can no longer miss the fact that this city has a history. It all began with Alonso Fernández de Lugo. He conquered the island in 1492 and made his fortune when one year later it was surrendered to the crown of Castille. However, expectations of finding mineral resources, gold, silver and precious stones were soon shattered and other ways of profiting from the new acquisition had to be found: the slave trade, in which the natives of the island met their fate, and the production of sugar cane. At that time sugar was a treasured luxury item in Europe and production created great wealth that attracted to the island skilled labour from Portugal, the Spanish aristocracy and Flemish and Italian trade families. Santa Cruz de La Palma and its port flourished. But that wasn't all. The Canary Islands were strategically positioned and were a port of call on any voyage, especially those crossing the ocean. It was from the Canaries that Columbus set out to discover America, and the islands later became so involved in trade with the West Indies that Seville, which held the monopoly on this area, felt the need to bring in an inspector. He wasn't to be sent just anywhere though - he was to go to La Palma, the most important of the islands in terms of economy. From that time onwards, all ships HAD TO stop off here on the way to and from the New World. Santa Cruz de La Palma became the third largest port in the Spanish Empire after Antwerp and Seville and thus an important shipbuilding industry developed. After sugar and silk were wine, cochineal, tobacco and bananas. Today, La Palma still concentrates on export agriculture. This results in a continuous cycle of short-term substantial profit for the island and, in particular, for the large owners and trade houses, followed by collapses in the market. The history of La Palma is marked with financial ups and downs and constant waves of people immigrating to and from the island. And what was to become of Santa Cruz? In the 17th century La Palma had already lost its position of power to Tenerife. And thus the cosmopolitan trade metropolis of La Palma became the quiet and contemplative colonial town that it is today.


 

Handicrafts: a caleidoscope full of european and indian influences
With the production of embroidery, cigars, silk, ceramics, woven rugs or baskets and wooden, metal, stone and leather goods, arts and crafts form part of everyday life on La Palma. Some of the older techniques used go back to the time of the aborigines. These techniques are evident in the unique matt black tones of the charming ceramic motifs. The techniques used in the production of textiles, however, have European roots which can be seen in wool and linen, handmade silk and world-renowned embroidery. The art of cigar making comes from Latin America - more specifically from Cuba. Winston Churchill himself held the hand-rolled cigars of La Palma in high esteem. We should not be surprised by the existence of such colourful and multifaceted handicraft trade on such a small remote island. After all, Santa Cruz de La Palma [3.2.kultur] was the third largest port of the Spanish Empire in the 16th Century. Every ship en route to and from the New World stopped here, bringing with it new settlers, foreign lifestyles and handicrafts. And the decline in economic power in the 17th Century made it posible for the handicraft trade in La Palma to survive practically unaffected. The beautifully finished crafts make delightful original souvenirs for visitors to the island. They are reminders which may be found in the Theme Centres, small but charming museums in the countryside, sales points where villagers sell their goods directly to the buyer. As well as handicrafts and culinary specialities each of these centres also offers information of interest to the tourist (> Souvenirs [A-Z],> Events [8.17.fiestas]).


 

Black pottery: works of an ancient beauty
The pottery techniques date back to the time of the Guanches [3.1.kultur]. The local pottery is noted for its engravings and also for the dark colour which can only be obtained by burning, reducing temperature and oxygen. Traditionally the vessels were burned outside in an open fire. Today this is done in closed ovens- the only change that modern technique has brought about. Other than this, the pottery is made just as it was back in the times of the Guanches. The tools used are quite simple and the potter's wheel is unknown. The vessels are formed by hand, smoothed with a small metal knife, decorated with the traditional ornamental grooves and glazed with water and grit before they are fired at temperatures reaching 600-700°C for a period of twelve hours. It is in this manner that pots and pans, jugs, vases, small bowls and figures are made. The majority of the vessels made are beautiful reproductions of stone-age vessels and can be found on sale in various parts of the island. Each piece is unique and makes a very special souvenir.


 

Fine silk: made like in ancient China
In La Palma, silk is still made in the same way it was made in ancient China - by hand. This ancient art form which dates back thousands of years was brought to the island by the Portuguese and Andalusians and soon afterwards it became one of the island's biggest exports. Silk was shipped to Europe, to the other side of the Atlantic and even to Asia. Today, 500 years later, La Palma is on the UNESCO Silk Road, as there are now very few manufacturers of this type in Europe. There are 12 steps involved in processing the finest of all fabrics from the caterpillar's cocoon. The cocoons are taken and cooked in a copper pan over an open fire, until the threads unravel and can be placed on a reel with the help of a small brush. This involves spinning, reeling, twisting and reeling once again. The silk is then placed in a hot soap bath to rid it of any roughness and give the silk its incomparable shine. The twists are then dyed - in yellow (Reseda), red (cochineal), grey (Eucalyptus), brown (walnut bark) or cream colours (almond shells) - and woven. In times gone by, evening-dresses were made out of silk: nowadays almost all visitors to the island return home with a tie, foulard or handkerchief made in El Paso, La Palma.


 

Legend: la Pared de Roberto
The legends of the Island of La Palma are inextricably entwined with love. This is the case with the Pared de Roberto, a basalt dyke that rises in the crest of La Caldera [2.1.natur] like a wall. It has been associated with a hair-raising myth since the dawn of time. The old people of the island tell of a beautiful young girl who lived near Taburiente and who was in love with a young man from Tijarafe. They used to meet in the shade of a cedar tree in the La Cumbre de Los Andenes. The young couple lived their idyll of love until the day they were joined for ever in wedlock. Lucifer, however, came between them. Jealous of the young couple's happiness, he built, in a single night, an impenetrable wall between the two, starting at the very edge of the precipice, so they could no longer meet. The young couple found themselves separated by the stone ramparts. Tired of running up and down the length of the rock wall, and of even trying to climb it, the young man from Tijarafe cried: "my soul for a passage through this wall". His challenge was met only with the whisper of the wind. He cried out once more in desperation "my body and soul for a passage through this wall". Little flashes started to burst out of the wall, growing in intensity until the cedar that had been the love tryst of the young couple fell to the ground, opening up cracks in the earth. Infernal creatures poured out of the cracks and dragged the young man down into the abyss along with the cedar tree. The rock wall immediately opened, leaving a gap to pass through. On the following day, some goat herds from a nearby village came by to find the body of the beautiful young girl covered in frost. The girl was buried near Roque de Los Muchachos [7.2.sehenswert], where the blue La Palma violet (Viola palmensis) blossoms every year. Legend says that the young man's body forms part of an enormous basalt pillar, shaped like a palm tree, in the depths of the Caldera. J. R. Pérez-Ramos

http://www.lapalma-magazin.info/magazin/english/kultur2_eng.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:52:31 am







dhill757

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   posted 04-17-2005 02:52 PM                       
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                                                          Canary Islands





History

The islands are estimated to be 30 million years old, which is relatively young by geological standards. Their existence was known, or at least postulated, in ancient times.

Carbon dating has placed the earliest settlement at around 200 BC, although earlier settlement is possible. It was long suggested that Cro-Magnon, the Paleolithic predecessor to Homo sapiens, first inhabited the Canaries, although that is not now generally thought to be the case. One clue, apart from the ancient skulls of the original inhabitants, is the conquering Europeans' 15th-century descriptions of locals. Mainly on Tenerife, they found tall and powerfully built people with blue eyes and long fair hair. These people called themselves Guanches, from guan, 'man', and che or achinch meaning 'white mountain', in reference to the snow-capped Teide volcano. Suggestions for the origins of the Guanches have ranged from Celtic immigrants from mainland Spain or Portugal, to Norse invaders, supplying a possible explanation for the blonde hair and blue eyes. Berber immigrants from nearby Saharan Africa almost certainly inhabited some of the eastern islands, and place names bear a striking resemblance to Berber tribal languages. Occasionally blue eyes and fair hair crop up among the Berbers as well, so the Guanches' origin is still open to question.

By the time the Europeans began looking around the islands in the Middle Ages, they were inhabited by a variety of tribes often hostile to one another. Tenerife alone was divided into no fewer than nine tiny fiefdoms. The Guanches relied on limited farming, herding, hunting and gathering, and the majority of them lived in caves. The first vaguely reliable account of a landing by Europeans comes in the late 13th or early 14th century, when the Genoese captain Lanzarotto Malocello came across the island that would later bear a version of his name: Lanzarote. A host of dreamers looking for the legendary Río de Oro (River of Gold) that many thought flowed into the Atlantic at about the same latitude as the Canaries, missionaries bent on rescuing souls, and slavers looking to fill their holds passed by or came to stay, but it took a Portuguese-Italian mission of 1341 to finally put the Canaries on the map.

The first Europeans to attempt to conquer the Guanches were Normans from France in 1402, and the final campaigns more or less ended in 1495 under a Galician soldier of fortune. The century saw massacres, warfare and Guanches sold off wholesale into slavery, and within another century their language had all but disappeared, and the survivors had intermarried with the invaders, converted to Christianity and taken Spanish names.

Spain's control of the islands did not go unchallenged. First Moroccan troops occupied Lanzarote in 1569 and 1586, then Sir Francis Drake tried a little gunboat diplomacy off Las Palmas in 1595. A Dutch fleet reduced Las Palmas to rubble in 1599, then in 1657 the Brits under Admiral Robert Blake defeated the Spanish at Tenerife. The score: Spanish treasure fleet annihilated, British lose one ship.

Spain managed to hang on though, and the Canaries were declared a province of Spain in 1821. Santa Cruz de Tenerife was declared the official capital, adding fuel to the already low-level bickering between Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The inhabitants of Gran Canaria demanded that the province be split into two, which it was for a short and unsuccessful period in the 1840s. Several agricultural commodities followed boom-bust cycles on the islands: sugar cane, wine and then cochineal for making dyes all had their day, followed by bananas and to a lesser extent tomatoes and potatoes.

The WWI British maritime blockade of Europe destroyed the banana trade, and Canarios voted with their feet and fled the poverty at home in droves for a new life in Latin America.

The short period of hope that followed WWI was dashed when Spain fell into the chaos of civil war in 1936. In March of that year, the Spanish Republic transferred General Franco to the Canaries, under the (well founded) suspicion that he was involved in a plot to overthrow the government. Franco seized the islands in July, then flew to Morocco to continue the fight, leaving the Nationalists to round up Republican sympathisers in the islands.

The Canaries suffered from the same post-war misery as Spain, and again thousands fled, although this time clandestinely and mainly to Venezuela. In the 1950s 16,000 left the country; a third of those who attempted the journey perished in leaky boats. By the early '60s, Franco decided to throw the country's doors open to sun-starved tourists. The latest and greatest boom - and the one that transformed the economy so miraculously and parts of the islands, well, less so - began. Millions of sun-seeking hedonists now flock to the islands annually.

The Coalición Canaria played a large role in the right wing Partido Popular's win at the general elections in 1996. They have lent their support to the government under the condition that consideration be given first and foremost to their needs, putting the interests of the islands before any national considerations.

Having been granted the status of a comunidad autónoma (autonomous region) in 1982, in recent times the Canaries have been leveraging their political strength. The islands made a rare entry into global headlines in April 2004 when 14 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa drowned when their boat collided with another in waters near the Canaries.

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/canary_islands/history.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:54:14 am







rockessence

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dhill,

Facinating! I thought you might be interested in this...

RE: "A people surrounded by intriguing sagas, the Guanches were tall with fair skin and blonde hair. Women chose their husbands "

The Aser and Vaner race from Scandinavia, (of course, after Ice-time, were tall and blond, the first to be so on the planet) burned the dead in pyres, so that there would have been no skeletons to find, and the women chose the father of each of their children in yearly ritual.

Also, the name connection... "White mountain" could easily have been glaciers, which during Ice-time in Scandinavia were more than 2 or 3 kilometers tall.

--------------------
"Illigitimi non carborundum!"
All knowledge is to be used in the manner that will give help and assistance to others, and the desire is that the laws of the Creator be manifested in the physical world. E.Cayce 254-17

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Carolyn Silver

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Rockessence & Dhill757,

The depth of the research each of you has put in here, along with so many of the others, is amazing.

This latest part is about the Canary Islands, but if you look at Morocco, I imagine that was Atlantis-related, too. In fact, the giant stone blocks seen at places like Lixus, Baalbek, and other ancient colonies were probably Atlantean ruins, built atop of by the Phoenicians and the Romans.
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rockessence

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Baal(bek)...According to the Bock saga, the root of the word Baal, Bel, Bal, all stem from the name which we know as Balder or Baldur, one of the Alfathers of the Aser.


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:55:44 am







dhill757

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                                    EUSKARA, THE LANGUAGE OF THE BASQUE PEOPLE





The Basque language is an inflected language whose origin is still somewhat puzzling. The fact that it is not an Indoeuropean language, and shows no ressemblance to languages in neighbouring countries, has led to the formulation of a variety of hypotheses to explain its existence. Owing to some similarities with the Georgian language, some linguists think it could be related to languages from the Caucasus. Others relate the language to non-Arabic languages from the north of Africa. One of the most likely hypotheses argues that the Basque language developed "in situ", in the land of the primitive Basques. That theory is supported by the discovery of some Basque-type skulls in Neolithic sites, which ruled out the thesis of immigration from other areas. Many think it is a very old language because there are words, such as that for axe ("aizkora" or "haizkora") for example, that have the same root as the word rock ("aitz"> or "haitz")

The Basque language, an integral part of the craft world in Gipuzkoa

Throughout history, the Basque language has taken up words not only from Latin, Castilian and French, but also from Celtic (Deba, zilar: "silver"), and Arabic (azoka" "market", gutuna: "letter">). On the other hand, words such as the Castilian for "left" and "scrap"> ("izquierda" and "chatarra" respectively), and the French and English for "bizarre" come from the Basque language.

Rural communities have kept the language alive. Donardegi Basque farmstead.

Before Roman times, it seems that the Basque language was spoken in an area larger than the present one, which bordered on the north with Aquitane, and on the south with the River Ebro. It is estimated, nowadays, that more than 600,000 people speak Basque in the seven historic Basque provinces: Lapurdi, Zuberoa and Behenafarroa (in France), and Gipuzkoa, Bizcaia, Araba and Navarre (in Spain). There are 520,000 Basque speaking people in the Basque provinces in Spain, that is 25% of their total population.

The Basque language was not written until the 16th century, but that was not obstacle to creating a rich oral literature, kept alive up to the present times by the "bertsolarismo" and the pastorals. Curiously, the first written texts in the Basque language (the sentences "iziogui dugu" and "guec ajutu ez dugu", "we have lit" and "we have not helped") are in the 10th century Glosas Emilianenses, which contain the first examples of the Castilian ballad. In the 12th century, the Calixtino Codex mentions some Basque vocabulary of the people living along the pilgrim's road to Santiago de Compostela. But Linguae Vasconum Primitiae, the first book written in Basque by Bernard Dechepare, was not published until 1545. From the onwards, and not without difficulties, a flourishing literature has developed. The bersolarismo has been kept up in the oral literature. The "bertsolaris" improvise verses in a given metrical form (eight, ten lines...) for which they use little tunes. The meaning of the verses varies, going from satire and humour to the finest Iyricism. Competitions for bersolaris are held regularly; they help spread and interest in this type of popular literature.

"Kilometroak", a popular movement supporting the Basque language.

Things have not been easy for the Basque language. Apart from having to compete with two powerful neighbouring languages like Castilian and French, Basque was a forbidden language during the dictatorship that followed the Civil War. For decades, children had to study in an unfamiliar language, and were severely punished when they spoke in Basque, even at play time. An important movement to open up Basque schools called "ikastolas" started at that time. After a long and systematic effort on the part of many people, a parallel school network was set up to satisfy the needs of teaching in Basque. Today Basque schools are in the process of becoming part of the Basque state school, but in the French Basque Country, and some parts of Navarre, Basque schools are the only ones which provide teaching in Basque.

We also have to mention the effort carried out for the recovery of the Basque language among adults. Therefore, every year a large number of people, whose mother tongue is other than Basque, learn to speak Basque. That way, the old myth that Basque is an impossible language to learn, is gone for ever.

Religion, a key element in the development of the written Basque language.

From the studies carried out by Prince Luis Luciano Bonaparte, the author of the Linguistic Charter (1883), Basque is considered to be divided in seven main dialects (Roncalés, the eight one, is already dead), and a number of subdialects. The reason for such variety is the geographical location, and the fact that until recent times Basque was mainly spoken in rural areas. With a view to modernizing the language, so it could be used as a cultural vehicle, the first steps were taken to define a unified language from 1964 onwards. Since 1968 Euskaltzaindia (the Basque Academy of the Language), founded in Oñate in 1918, has been in charge of this task. The unified Basque language was called Euskara Batua (unified), and it is mainly based on the variety of dialects from Laburdi (with a major literary tradition), and Gipuzkoa. In spite of the natural criticism and controversy, Euskara Batua is, nowadays, the most widespread type used by the mass media, in literature, and teaching.

For those who wish to know more about the Basque language and literature, there are two interesting pocket books: "Mitología e Ideología sobre la Lengua Vasca", by A. Tovar, Alianza Editorial, n.= 771; and "Historia Social de la Literatura Vasca" by Ibon Sarasola, Akal 74, n.= 59. For a more detailed study on literature: "Historia de la Literatura Vasca", by Fr. L. Villasante, Ed. Aranzazu, 1979.

http://simr02.si.ehu.es/DOCS/book.SS-G/v2/Euskara.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:58:17 am







dhill757

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                                      Useful information about the Basque Language





We mention here some useful words for visitors when they visit Gipuzkoa. Obviously, the idea is not to teach "Basque in 10 lessons".
The Basque language is used for everyday activities

Basque is not difficult to pronounce, and we point out here some of the most important differences in relation to Castilian.


g: ge and gi like gue and gui in Castilian, respectively. For example, in Gipuzkoa.
tx: like ch in Castilian; for example, "coche" (car).
ts: similar to tx, but softer.
tz: similar to zz in Italian, in pizza.
x: similar to sh in English, in show.
z: s sibilant.
It is useful to remember that because Basque is an inflected language, the words we list here may have different suffixes depending on the case in which are used, for example:


etxe ..............home / house
etxearen ..........belongs to the home / belongs to the house
etxea .............the home / the house
etxeko ............of the house
etxean ............at home / in the house
etxetik ...........from the house
etxera ............go home
etxerantz .........towards the house

Courtesy Vocabulary

Adiós, saludo, hola,...Agur...................... Good-bye, greetings, (hello.. )
Hola...............Kaixo..................... Hi
Qué tal?............Zer moduz?................ How are you?
Buenos días.........Egun on................... Good morning
Buenas tardes........Arratsalde on............. Good afternoon
Buenas noches.......Gabon..................... Good evening
Hasta mañana........Bihar arte................. See you tomorrow
Hasta luego.........Gero arte.................. See you later
Por favor...........Mesedez.................... Please
Perdón!............Barkatu!................... Sorry!
Gracias............Mila esker, eskerrik asko.. Thank you
De nada............Ez horregatik.............. You are welcome, my pleasure
Sí.................Bai........................ Yes
No................Ez......................... No


http://simr02.si.ehu.es/DOCS/book.SS-G/v2/Euskara.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 08:59:21 am







dhill757

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Courtesy Vocabulary




Adiós, saludo, hola,...Agur...................... Good-bye, greetings, (hello.. )
Hola...............Kaixo..................... Hi
Qué tal?............Zer moduz?................ How are you?
Buenos días.........Egun on................... Good morning
Buenas tardes........Arratsalde on............. Good afternoon
Buenas noches.......Gabon..................... Good evening
Hasta mañana........Bihar arte................. See you tomorrow
Hasta luego.........Gero arte.................. See you later
Por favor...........Mesedez.................... Please
Perdón!............Barkatu!................... Sorry!
Gracias............Mila esker, eskerrik asko.. Thank you
De nada............Ez horregatik.............. You are welcome, my pleasure
Sí.................Bai........................ Yes
No................Ez......................... No

To Understand Signs (in alphabetic order)

Afaria................Cena ..................... Dinner
Albergea..............Albergue .................. Hostal
Alokatzen da..........Se alquila .................. To let, to hire, to rent
Aparkalekua...........Aparcamiento................ Car park
Autobus geltokia......Estación de autobuses ........ Bus station
Badabil...............Funciona ................... In running order
Bazkaria..............Comida .................... Lunch
Botika................Farmacia ................... Chemist
Bulegoa...............Oficina .................... Office
Eliza.................Iglesia ..................... Church
Emakumeak, Andreak....Señoras .................... Ladies
Enparantza............Plaza ...................... Square
Etorbidea.............Avenida .................... Avenue
Ez dabil..............No funciona ................. 0ut of order
Ez erre...............No fumar ................... No smoking
Gizonak...............Hombres ................... Gentlemen
Gosaria...............Desayuno .................. Breakfast
Har eta Jan...........Restaurante autoservicio ...... Self service restaurant
Hondartza.............Playa ......................Beach
Hotela................Hotel ..................... Hotel
Irekita...............Abierto .................... Open
Irteera...............Salida ..................... Exit
Itxita................Cerrado ................... Closed
Jatetxea..............Restaurante ................. Restaurant
Kaia..................Puerto ..................... Port
Kalea.................Calle ....................... Street
Kontuz!...............Cuidado! ................... Caution!, look out!
Komuna................WC ........................ Toilets
Liburudenda...........Librería ..................... Book shop
Liburutegia...........Biblioteca .................... Library
Ospitalea.............Hospital ...................... Hospital
Pasealekua............Paseo ........................ Promenade
Posta bulegoa.........Correos ...................... Post Office
Sarrera...............Entrada ...................... Way in
Salgai (dago).........Se vende ..................... For sale
Tren geltokia.........Estación de tren ............... Railway station
Turismo bulegoa.......Oficina de turismo ............. Turist Office
Udaletxea.............Ayuntamiento .................. Town Hall
Udaltzaingoa..........Policía Municipal .............. Municipal Police
Zabalik...............Abierto ....................... Open
Zinema................Cine ......................... Cinema

http://simr02.si.ehu.es/DOCS/book.SS-G/v2/Euskara.html 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:00:24 am







dhill757

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In Bars (how to order)



Ardoa.............. Vino....................... Wine
Ardo beitza........ Vino tinto ................ Redwine
Ardo beitza bat.... Un vino tinto............. A red wine
Beltza bat.......... Un tinto................... A wine
Bi ardo gorri...... Dos claros ................ Two rosés
Hiru ardo txuri ... Tres blancos.............. Three whaes
Lau garagardo .... Cuatro cervezas .......... Four beers
Bost-kafesne...... Cinco cafés con leche .... Five white coffees
Esnea.............. Leche....................... Milk
Kafe utza ......... Café solo .................. Black coffee
Kafe ebakia....... Café cortado............... Coffee with a little milk
Patxarana......... Pacharán.................... Pacharán(afnuityanis)
Sagardoa.......... Sidra........................ Cider
Tea................ Té............................ Tea
Txakolina ........ Txakoli .................... Txakoli (sharp-tasting Basque white wine)
Ura................ Agua........................ Water
Ur minerala....... Agua mineral ............. Mineral water
Zuritoa ........... Vasito de cerveza.......... Small glass of beer

Basque Vocabulary In Place-Names
Many of the place-names mentioned here have to do with their physical description. Therefore, it could be useful to know some of the words most frequently used.


.aga ................. lugar de ................. place of
Aitz or haitz ........ Peña..................... Rock
Aran................. Valle..................... Valley
Aritz ................ Roble .................... Oak tree
Baserri ............. Caserio................... Basque farmstead
Berri................ Nuevo..................... New
Borda............... Cabaña................... Hut
Ereñotz............. Laurel..................... Laurel
Erreka............... Arroyo................... Stream
.eta.................. lugar de ................... place for
Etxe................. Casa........................ House/home
-gain................ sobre, encima............. On, over, upon
Gorri................ Rojo, pelado.............. Red
Herri ................ Pueblo ................... Small town
Ibai.................. Río......................... River
Iturri................. Fuente.................... Fountain
Korta................ Pasto...................... Pasture
Langa................ Puerta rústica, portilla.. Rustic door
Lizar................. Fresno ................... Ashtree
Mendi................ Monte..................... Mountain
Pago................. Haya...................... Beechtree
.pe(an).............. debajo..................... under
Zabal ................ Amplio, abierto.......... Wide, broad,open
Zarra,Zaharra....... Viejo..................... Old
Zubi.................. Puente.................... Bridge
For example, Aizkorri: a bare mountain; Etxeberria: a new house.

[ Index | Presentation | Guide Searchs | Guest Book | Versión en Español | Main Server ]

http://simr02.si.ehu.es/DOCS/book.SS-G/v2/Euskara.html


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:02:38 am







dhill757

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Frequently Asked Questions I
The Basques, origins and language
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                                                   Who are the Basques?





The Basques are a people who live in a small region (about the size of Rhode Island) that straddles the border of Spain and France from the sea in the west into the Pyrenees in the east. This area is called Euskal Herria (comprising seven provinces, historically: Araba, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, and Navarra on the Spanish side; Laburdi, Zuberoa, and Behe-Nafarroa on the French side). Basques speak a language called euskara, but today only about 25% of the population is fluent in that tongue. Even so, the word for a Basque person, euskaldun, means “possessor of the Basque language.” The Basque population is distinguished physically by a high incidence of Rh Negative factor in the blood.



Where do they come from?

No one knows exactly where the Basques came from. Some say they have lived in that area since Cro-Magnon man first roamed Europe. Estimates of how long they have lived there vary from 10,000 to 75,000 years. Some say they are descended from the original Iberians. More fanciful theories exist, as well. One is that the Basques are the descendents of the survivors of Atlantis.



Where does the Basque language come from?

Just as no one is sure about the origins of the Basques themselves, linguists are not in agreement over the origins of Euskara, the Basque language, either. (In Basque, the word euskara is not capitalized, but when using it in English, it is customary to capitalize it, just as we capitalize the names of other languages.) Although there are theories (none of them proven beyond a doubt) that Basque is related to other languages (such as the Georgian family of languages in the Caucasus, or the Berber language family of Africa, or even the Quechua language of Latin America), so far the only thing most experts agree on is that Euskara is in a language family by itself. That is, it is not related to any other language in the world. It is, therefore, not an Indo-European language (the large group to which English, French, Spanish, and Russian belong).



How many Basque Speakers are there in the Basque Country?

There are less than 600,000 fluent speakers in the Autonomous Community of Euskadi (Araba, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa) and about 400,000 more who have learned some Basque but are not considered fluent. Since most of the Basque speakers of the world live in that area, these numbers give us a close estimate of the number worldwide. There are perhaps 15,000 speakers in Iparralde (the three provinces on the French side of the border), and it is estimated that about 10% of the people in Navarre speak Basque. There are also pockets of Basque speakers in Latin America and in North America. Basque speakers are called Euskaldunak, possessors of Euskara, and those who learn the language later in life are called Euskaldun berriak, “new Basques.”



Do you have anything in English about the Basques?

Yes, indeed! A Basque book series (all in English) is published by the University of Nevada Press. You can see them and order them. You can also visit the Basque Library on-line and search the library catalog for titles in English.



http://basque.unr.edu/16/16.1t/16.1.1.faqs1.htm 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:04:03 am







dhill757

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                                                          THE BERBERS





THE BERBERS lived in north Africa long before the arrival of the Arabs, and their culture probably dates back more than 4,000 years. Berber states known as Mauritania and Numidia existed in classical times.
Between the 11th and 13th centuries, two great Berber dynasties - the Almoravids and the Almohads - controlled large parts of Spain, as well as north-west Africa.

Today, there are substantial Berber populations in Morocco and Algeria, plus smaller numbers in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. In Morocco, about 40% acknowledge a Berber identity, though many more have Berber ancestry.

Berbers are identified primarily by language but also by traditional customs and culture - such as the distinctive music and dances.

There is a tendency in Morocco to regard the Berbers as backward, partly because their culture is strongest in the less-developed rural areas. Many of the children in these regions drop out of school because they are taught in what, to them, is a foreign language - Arabic. The language barrier often remains a problem throughout adult life, especially when dealing with officialdom.

Berber is not officially recognised in Morocco, though French (the old colonial language) is. There was some pressure in 1996, when the constitution was being revised, to have Berber recognised. There are a few Berber programmes on television - mainly as a token gesture. For more about this see the Berber manifesto.

Linguistically, Berber belongs to the Afro-Asiatic group, and has many dialects. The three main dialects used in Morocco are Tachelhit, Tamazight and Tarifit. Collectively, they are known as "shilha" in Arabic.

Tachelhit (sometimes known as "soussi" or "cleuh") is spoken in south-west Morocco, in an area between Ifni in the south, Agadir in the north and Marrakech and the Draa/Sous valleys in the east.
Tamazight is spoken in the Middle Atlas, between Taza, Khemisset, Azilal and Errachidia.
Tarifit (or Rifia) is spoken in the Rif area of northern Morocco.
Berber is basically a spoken language, though there have been (and still are) attempts to gain acceptance for a written form.

THE ANCIENT Berber culture is extrordinarily rich and diverse, with a variety of musical styles. These range from bagpipes and oboe (Celtic style) to pentatonic music (reminiscent of Chinese music) - all combined with African rhythms and a very important stock of authentic oral literature. These traditions have been kept alive by small bands of musicians who travel from village to village, as they have for centuries, to entertain at weddings and other social occasions with their songs, tales, and poetry. To hear the sounds visit the excellent Azawan amazigh website, or click here for more about Berber music.


http://www.al-bab.com/maroc/soc/berber.htm


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:05:53 am







dhill757

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                                                             Berber





The Berbers (also called Imazighen, "free men", singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. There are between 14 and 25 million speakers of Berber languages in North Africa (see population estimation), principally concentrated in Morocco and Algeria but with smaller communities as far east as Egypt and as far south as Burkina Faso.

Their languages, the Berber languages, form a branch of the Afroasiatic linguistic family comprising many closely related varieties, including Kabyle, Tachelhit, and Central Atlas Tamazight, with a total of roughly 14-25 million speakers.



Origin

There is no complete certitude about the origin of the Berbers; however, various disciplines shed light on the matter.



Genetic Evidence

While population genetics is a young field still full of controversy, in general the genetic evidence appears to indicate that most Northwest Africans (whether they consider themselves Berber or Arab) are of Berber origin, and that populations ancestral to the Berbers have been in the area since the Upper Paleolithic era. The genetically predominant ancestors of the Berbers appear to have come from the east - from East Africa, the Middle East, or both - but the details of this remain unclear. However, significant proportions of the Berber gene pool derive from more recent immigration of Arabs, Europeans, and sub-Saharan Africans.

The Y chromosome is passed exclusively through the paternal line. According to Bosch et al. 2001, "the historical origins of the NW African Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows: 75% NW African Upper Paleolithic (H35, H36, and H38), 13% Neolithic (H58 and H71), 4% historic European gene flow (group IX, H50, H52), and 8% recent sub-Saharan African (H22 and H28)", mostly from an "Upper Paleolithic colonization that probably had its origin in eastern Africa". The interpretation of the second most frequent "Neolithic" haplotype is debated: Arredi et al. 2004, like Semino et al. 2000 and Bosch et al. 2001, argue that the H71 haplogroup and North African Y-chromosomal diversity indicate a Neolithic-era "demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic-speaking pastoralists from the Middle East", while Nebel et al. 2002 argue that H71 rather reflects "recent gene flow caused by the migration of Arabian tribes in the first millennium of the Common Era." Bosch et al. also find little genetic distinction between Arabic and Berber-speaking populations in North Africa, which they take to support "the interpretation of the Arabization and Islamization of NW Africa, starting during the 7th century A.D., as cultural phenomena without extensive genetic replacement." Cruciani et al. 2004 note that the E-M81 haplogroup on the Y-chromosome correlates closely with Berber populations.

The mtDNA, by contrast, is inherited only from the mother. According to Macaulay et al. 1999, "one-third of Mozabite Berber mtDNAs have a Near Eastern ancestry, probably having arrived in North Africa ∼50,000 years ago, and one-eighth have an origin in sub-Saharan Africa. Europe appears to be the source of many of the remaining sequences, with the rest having arisen either in Europe or in the Near East." [Maca-Meyer et al. 2003] analyze the "autochthonous North African lineage U6" in mtDNA, concluding that:

The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion.

A genetic study by Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. 2004 argues concerning certain exclusively North African haplotypes that "expansion of this group of lineages took place around 10500 years ago in North Africa, and spread to neighbouring population", and apparently that a specific Northwestern African haplotype, U6, probably originated in the Near East 30,000 years ago but has not been highly preserved and accounts for 6-8% in southern Moroccan Berbers, 18% in Kabyles and 28% in Mozabites. Rando et al. 1998 (as cited by [[1]]) "detected female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa to NW Africa" amounting to as much as 21.5% of the mtDNA sequences in a sample of NW African populations; the amount varied from 82% (Touaregs) to 4% (Rifains). This north-south gradient in the sub-Saharan contribution to the gene pool is supported by Esteban et al.



Archaeological

The Neolithic Capsian culture appeared in North Africa around 9,500 BC and lasted until possibly 2700 BC. Linguists and population geneticists alike have identified this culture as a probable period for the spread of an Afroasiatic language (ancestral to the modern Berber languages) to the area. The origins of the Capsian culture, however, are archeologically unclear. Some have regarded this culture's population as simply a continuation of the earlier Mesolithic Ibero-Maurusian culture, which appeared around ~22,000 BC, while others argue for a population change; the former view seems to be supported by dental evidence[2]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berber 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:06:47 am







dhill757

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Linguistic

The Berber languages form a branch of Afro-Asiatic, and thus descended from the proto-Afro-Asiatic language; on the basis of linguistic migration theory, this is most commonly believed by historical linguists (notably Igor Diakonoff and Christopher Ehret) to have originated in east Africa no earlier than 12,000 years ago, although Alexander Militarev argues instead for an origin in the Middle East. Ehret specifically suggests identifying the Capsian culture with speakers of languages ancestral to Berber and/or Chadic, and sees the Capsian culture as having been brought there from the African coast of the Red Sea. It is still disputed which branches of Afro-Asiatic are most closely related to Berber, but most linguists accept at least one of Semitic and Chadic as among its closest relatives within the family (see Afro-Asiatic languages#Classification history.)

The Nobiin variety of Nubian contains several Berber loanwords, according to Bechhaus-Gerst, suggesting a former geographical distribution extending further southeast than the present.

Phenotype and genotype by region
The appearance and the genetic make-up of Berbers is best examined together with that of their fellow Arabic-speaking inhabitants of North Africa; both share a predominant Berber ancestry.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berber 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:08:08 am







Boreasi

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   posted 07-12-2005 06:37 PM                       
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Both Asturians, Guanches and Berbers clearly resemble arctical features. Blond and blue always do. Quite simply.

Though, while the first two cultures are clearly connected to the sea - and seafaring - the Berbers may have arrived to the temperate mountains of N Africa - that they still inhabit - by immigrational routes over land.

Still all three of them have to originate from the arctic populations - of stone-age Europe - somehow...
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Boreasi

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As well as a "pre-historic" spread of the agricultural ways of living - on both sides of the Atlantic;


20 ancient Hohokam canals discovered

Archaeologists working at a proposed development site in Mesa say
they have unearthed one of the largest integrated canal systems the
Hohokam Indians ever built in the Phoenix area (Arizona, USA). Twenty
Hohokam canals, uncovered during an ongoing archaeological survey of
the 240-acre site, have been found since October. The largest
measures 45 feet wide and 16 feet deep.
"They are the size of canals in Phoenix today, but these were
done with digging sticks and baskets," said Tom Wilson, an
archaeologist and director of the Mesa Southwest Museum. Other
archaeological remains were also found, including a half-dozen pit
houses and hundreds of pottery fragments and artifacts. Historians
believe the Hohokam lived in central and southern Arizona for about
1,500 years, from 300 BCE. They were a largely agricultural community
known for their sophisticated canal systems.
This spring, the development site was at the center of a fierce
political fight over the merits of locating a huhe shopping center
there. A portion of collected artifacts will be displayed at Banner
Mesa Medical Center later this fall. And next May, the Mesa Southwest
Museum will unveil a major Hohokam exhibit that will feature finds
from the site, Wilson said.

Sources: Associated Press, KVOA.com (11 July 2005)
http://kvoa.com/Global/story.asp?S=3577727
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Boreasi

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■ Technological signs noted on Atlantic swords: Interpretations, similarities and differences from Scotland to Andalusia
during the Late Bronze Age

Bénédicte Quilliec (UMR 7041 - Protohistoire , Nanterre Cedex, France)

In the differents Europeans museums where they are stored, I studied a thousand swords of the Late Bronze Age (about 1350-800 B.C.), from Scotland to Andalusia. The observations of these swords in Copper-base alloy give informations about forming process, uses and destructions. The observations are mainly visible to the naked eye and with magnifying glass, but comed also from metallographic and radiographic exams. The interpretations of technical signs noted on these swords conduce to propose an Atlantic sword forming processes with different stages (“chaînes
opératoires”).

Study of a single artefact type provides the means of showing how use of one particular technique out of a number of options may be a matter of cultural choice. The comparison with manufacturing, uses, destruction
and deposition signs, the similarities and differences between these signs and their frequency upon the studied swords determine regional groups with common technical and cultural comportments.

These observations are used to identify regional variations, as well as technological groups covering very wide geographical areas. Full knowledge of how a technique was mastered and how it evolved is a vital step in understanding protohistoric cultures.

---

More from;
http://www.eaa-lyon 2004.org/en/download/gensessions-post.pdf 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:09:37 am







Riven

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Boreasi:

March 14, 2003
Oldest sword

What is being described as the oldest sword known, dating back 5000 years, will be the subject of a presentation at the fourth Incontro nazionale di Archeologia Viva "La voce del passato, un messaggio per il futuro", at the Palacongressi in Florence on March 16. The sword was found at Arslantepe in Anatolia by an Italian team led by Marcella Frangipane. Their excavations have uncovered a group of nine swords, eleven spearheads, and a copper-arsenic plaque, all found in a large "palace" of c. 3350-3000 BC which appears to be a complex of regional administrative buildings. The swords were each cast in a single piece and then beautifully engraved; they are older than other arms of this type by a full millennium. Arslantepe is also being described as the location of the oldest known governmental building, in which were found over 2000 clay seals used to record transactions in a "bureaucracy without writing". From La Repubblica (in Italian).

http://www.cronaca.com/archives/000621.html

http://www.repubblica.it/copertine/arte/copertina.htm

Another article about the same sword.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/880260/posts
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Riven

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Boreasi;

Here's a link to the Arslantepe archaeological site.

http://w3.uniroma1.it/arslantepe/the%20site.htm
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atalante
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The name of the Berber language (tamazight) means
"berber woman" in its own vocabulary. This helps to explain why the ancient greeks located the Amazon tribes in this region.

quote from: http://www.libyamazigh.org/


Feminine Nouns (Single and Plural)

Noun in Tamazight - Noun in English
Tamazight - Berber Woman

Plural in Tamazight - Plural in English
Timazigheen - Berber Women
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Boreasi

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   posted 07-18-2005 10:46 PM                       
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Great link, Riven.

Did you get this one, from my neighbouring thread - showing the same infra-structure?!

http://english.pravda.ru/science/19/94/377/15814_Arkaim.html
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Boreasi

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   posted 07-18-2005 11:00 PM                       
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Berbers, Algerians and Libyans are of Caucasian descent:

http://www.answers.com/topic/celtic-languages

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mksg/tan/2004/00000063/00000002/art00007 


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:10:52 am







Polaris

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The traditional Tachelhit orthography is the most consistent of the Berber systems. In it, the vowels a, i, u are indicated by the appropriate Arabic short vowels ـَ ـِ ـُ; the language has no schwa e, so where other Berber languages have this, they wrote sukun ـْ. Alif hamza أ was used at the beginning of words as a vowel bearer. g is written as kaf with three dots underneath ڮ, emphatic z. as s.ad with three dots underneath ڞ, and emphatic d. with d.ad ض. Rounding (labiovelarization) could be indicated with d.amma ـُ, but in such a case could not be distinguished from u. I have pictures of two examples, one from Sidi Hammo's poetry, and one from a poem about Christian-Muslim wars; I have attempted to retype from the former:

يَنْ زِكْ صْبَحْ اَرْسْمُقْلْن غْلَوْضِينْ
كِّنْدِسْنْ لْوُحُشْ اڞْلْمضْ مْكَنْ دِفِّشْ
اِكْدِ سْنْ وَيَّضْ مْنِدْ اضْفْرْتِدْ وَيَّضْ
لْقُوْتْ نِڞْنْكَضْ دْوِشِّنْ ارْدْ اِفْكْدْ لْوُحُشْ

In Kabyle manuscripts, the system used was less unified, and certainly less well-designed; however, its main characteristics are fairly consistent. The vowels a, i, u could be written short or long, depending on whether they were stressed; schwa e was written with fat'ha ـَ, and rounding (labiovelarization) could be indicated by d.amma ـُ. Alif hamza أ was used at the beginning of words as a vowel bearer, sometimes even for the schwa e, which is certainly non-phonemic in that position. g was written as qaf with three dots above ڨ, a method widely used in Algeria and Tunisia, or as simple kaf ك. or ; emphatic dh. was written indifferently as d.aad ض or dh.aa ظ, and emphatic z. not distinguished from normal z. The affricates tch and dj were not distinguished from the fricatives sh and j respectively, becoming ش and ج; the common Kabyle sound ts was written phonemically, as تّ (which it still is in most Berber languages.) The partially phonemic spirants were indicated for th ث and dh ذ, but v, k, and g were written like their non-spirant counterparts ب ك ڨ. Many examples of it can be seen in Poésie Populaire de la Kabylie de Jurjura, from which I quote:

أَيَكَلِّيذْ اَلنَّضَرْ
أتْرَغْدْ أبَابْ ألُّوفَ
أَدْعَغْكِيدْ سَنْبِي اَلطَّهَرْ
ذَكْرَ لَيْهَدْرَنْ يَشْفَ
أَكْرَذَ أَرُوثْ ذِمْحَرَّرْ
عَثْفَغْ سِجَهَنَّمَ

In Jabal Nafusa - and doubtless many other places - a similar rough system was sometimes used. From a letter from 1881, reproduced on Tawalt:

باب يوي كربوش خالي يڨوا اسلان * نتش تاوي السيف تمل باركت باركت* ما موا ورتباش وارده وارده *
I have samples of many other dialects transcribed in Arabic - for instance, Zenaga, Sened, Ghadames, Chenoua, Ksour - but only brief phrases or stories written at the behest of French linguists; they are thus less relevant to the history of Berber orthographies. However, they suggest a broader writing tradition, and thus could merit further investigation. I quote one example of these, a Chenoua nursery rhyme:

شداح شداح بو عمران
اك سيغغ الحب ترومان
For Tuareg, Arabic is still widely used; in Burkina Faso, it is reported to be more common than the use of Tifinagh. Short vowels are written with fatha or kasra; o is not distinguished from u, nor é from i. The long vowels may be represented by Arabic long vowels or short vowels, depending on the writer. The additional characters kaf with three dots ڭ for g and jim with three dots چ for palatalized g are used; French j is written with simple jim ج, while emphatic z is indicated by ظ.

In recent years, Professor Chafik has popularized a new, rather well-designed Arabic orthography, which he used in publishing a dictionary; this was also used in the recent translation of the Quran, and in the two Arabic-using Berber-language websites Tarifit Project (now defunct) and Tawalt. In it, the vowels a, i, u are consistently written long ا ي و (any resulting ambiguity can be resolved by using sukuun ـْ, as illustrated below); at the beginning of words, they are written with hamza أ ئ ؤ. The schwa e is in general ignored. g is the familiar Middle Eastern kaaf with a line گ; emphatic d. is simply d.aad ض; emphatic z. is the Middle Eastern three-dotted zayn ژ. tch and dj are represented as consonant clusters تش and دج. In the Tarifit Project site, spirantisation is marked for th ث and dh ذ; neither Prof. Chafik nor Tawalt are dealing with dialects in which it occurs, so it is hard to say whether this is a general practice. Here is Surat al-Ikhlas retyped:

سـ وسّاغ نـ ربّي أمالاّيْ أمسمولّو
ئنّا ربّي ئـ ومازان نس: ئني الله (جلا جلاله) نتّا كا يگان يان، ور يلّي مات يرْواسن
نتّا كاد يزّان ف كرا يْلان، ور سار رات يليح
ور يورو يان، ؤلا يورت يان
ور يلّي مقارد كرا نـ يان ت يرْواسن، ؤلا يگا يـ اس انگو.

There exists at least one Kabyle reform proposal (Belaid) for Arabic transcription as well, adding a variety of diacritics (mostly , as in Kurdish) to distinguish affricates and velarised consonants and so forth; but I don't think this is known even as much as, say, Chaker's Neo-Neo-Tifinagh.

http://www.geocities.com/lameens/tifinagh/


Title: Re: ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean 1 (ORIGINAL)
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 09:12:32 am







dhill757

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              PORTUGAL WORKS TO REVIVE LAVA ROCK VINEYARDS 0N MID-ATLANTIC AZORES






Sat Jul 30,11:36 PM ET

PICO, Portugal, (AFP) - Officials on Portugal's mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago are working to revive a gigantic patchwork of stone-walled plots of bare lava rock where locals have for centuries grown grapes to produce wine.

The labyrinth of tiny fields covers the gentle slopes that surround the island of Pico, which is dominated by a mountain of the same name that rises to a height of 2,351 metres (7,758 feet) above sea level, the highest point in Portugal.

Portuguese settlers began building the plots in the 15th century shortly after they arrived on the uninhabited island, the second-largest of the nine islands located some 1,200 kilometres (750 miles) west of mainland Portugal.

The rocky land appeared to be of no use but farmers managed to plant vines in the crevices between the black rocks.

They found that during the night the lava rocks release heat stored up throughout the day, helping to speed up the maturation of the grapes.

The walls of basalt rock that are built around the hundreds of tiny plots, some of them up to two metres in height, meanwhile protect the vines from winds and salty seawater sprays that blow in from the Atlantic Ocean.

The rocks that make up the walls would be enough to circle the Earth twice if they were lined up side by side, said an official at the wine museum in the port of Madalena, the capital of Pico.

The plantation of vines among the lava rocks was initially developed by the Dominican and Franciscan orders of the Catholic Church but was soon taken up by others to pro