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Mythology & Heroic Sagas of Culture & Myth => Mythology => Topic started by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:18:17 pm



Title: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:18:17 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/Minotauros_Myron_NAMA_1664_n1.jpg/397px-Minotauros_Myron_NAMA_1664_n1.jpg)

Minotaur bust, (National Archaeological Museum of Athens)
Creature
 
Name: Minotaur
AKA: Minotaurus
Classification 
Grouping: Legendary creature
Data
Mythology: Greek
Region: Crete
Habitat: Labyrinth


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:18:45 pm
In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μῑνώταυρος, Mīnṓtauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull.[1] It dwelt at the center of the Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze-like construction built for King Minos of Crete and designed by the architect Daedalus to hold the Minotaur. He and his son Icarus were ordered to build it. The historical site of Knossos is usually identified as the site of the labyrinth. The Minotaur was eventually killed by Theseus.

"Minotaur" is Greek for "Bull of Minos". The bull was known in Crete as Asterion, a name shared with Minos's foster father.


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:21:07 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Barye_-_Th%C3%A9s%C3%A9e_Minotaure.png)

Minotaur locked in battle with Theseus. Bronze by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:21:31 pm
Before he ascended the throne of Crete, Minos struggled with his brothers for the right to rule. Minos prayed to Poseidon to send him a snow-white bull, as a sign of approval by the gods for his reign. He promised to sacrifice the bull as an offering, and as a symbol of subservience. A beautiful white bull rose from the sea, but when Minos saw it, he coveted it for himself. He assumed that Poseidon would not mind, so he kept it and sacrificed the best specimen from his herd instead. When Poseidon learned about the deceit, he made PasiphaŽ, Minos' wife, fall madly in love with the bull. She had Daedalus, the famous architect, make a wooden cow for her. PasiphaŽ climbed into the decoy to seduce the white bull. The offspring of their lovemaking was a monster called the Minotaur.

The Minotaur, as the Greeks imagined him, had the body of a man and the head and tail of a bull.[2] PasiphaŽ nursed him in his infancy, but he grew and became ferocious. Minos, after getting advice from the Oracle at Delphi, had Daedalus construct a gigantic labyrinth to hold the Minotaur. Its location was near Minos' palace in Knossos.

Nowhere has the essence of the myth been expressed more succinctly than in the Heroides attributed to Ovid, where PasiphaŽ's daughter complains of the curse of her unrequited love: ""the bull's form disguised the god, PasiphaŽ, my mother, a victim of the deluded bull, brought forth in travail her reproach and burden." Literalist and prurient readings that emphasize the machinery of literal copulation may intentionally obscure the mystic marriage of the god in bull form, a Minoan mythos alien to the Greeks.



Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:22:11 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Minotaur-at-Greek-pavilion-Expo-88.jpg)

Rhyton in the shape of a Bull's head at the Greek pavilion at Expo '88


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:22:41 pm
Now it happened that Androgeus, son of Minos, had been killed by the Athenians, who were jealous of the victories he had won at the Panathenaic festival. Others say he was killed at Marathon by the Cretan bull, his mother's former taurine lover, which Aegeus, king of Athens, had commanded him to slay. The common tradition is that Minos waged war to avenge the death of his son, and won. However, Catullus, in his account of the Minotaur's birth,[3] refers to another version in which Athens was "compelled by the cruel plague to pay penalties for the killing of Androgeon." In this version, the Athenians are made to ask Minos what they can do to stop a terrible plague that has come upon them, and he was thus given power to make demands of them. In either case, Minos required that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens, drawn by lots, be sent every ninth year (some accounts say every year) to be devoured by the Minotaur.

When the third sacrifice came round, Theseus volunteered to go to slay the monster. He promised to his father, Aegeus, that he would put up a white sail on his journey back home if he was successful. Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, fell in love with Theseus and helped him get out of the labyrinth. In most accounts she gives him a ball of thread, allowing him to retrace his path. Theseus killed the Minotaur with Aegus' sword and led the other Athenians back out of the labyrinth.[4]

Theseus took Ariadne with him from Crete, but abandoned her enroute to Athens (Generally this is said to happen on the island of Naxos). According to Homer, she was killed by Artemis upon the testimony of Dionysus. However, later sources report that Theseus abandoned her as she slept on the island of Naxos, and there became the bride of Dionysus. The epiphany of Dionysus to the sleeping Ariadne became a common theme in Greek and Roman art, and in some of these images Theseus is shown running away. This story is also recounted in Catullus.

On his return trip, Theseus forgot to change the black sails of mourning for white sails of success, so his father, overcome with grief, leapt off the clifftop from which he had kept watch for his son's return every day since Theseus had departed into the sea. The name of the "Aegean" sea is said to derive from this event.

Minos, angry that Theseus was able to escape, imprisoned Daedalus and his son Icarus in a tall tower. They were able to escape by building wings for themselves with the feathers of birds that flew by, but Icarus died during the escape as he flew too high (in hope of seeing Apollo in his sun chariot) and the wax that held the feathers in the wing melted in the heat of the sun.



Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:23:23 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Theseus_Minotaur_Ramey_Tuileries.jpg/542px-Theseus_Minotaur_Ramey_Tuileries.jpg)

Theseus fighting the Minotaur by Jean-Etienne Ramey, marble, 1826, Tuileries Gardens, Paris.


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 03:23:48 pm
The contest between Theseus and the Minotaur was frequently represented in Greek art. A Knossian didrachm exhibits on one side the labyrinth, on the other the Minotaur surrounded by a semicircle of small balls, probably intended for stars; it is to be noted that one of the monster's names was Asterius.

The ruins of Minos' palace at Knossos have been found, but the labyrinth has not. The enormous number of rooms, staircases and corridors in the palace has led archaeologists to believe that the palace itself was the source of the labyrinth myth. Homer, describing the shield of Achilles, remarked that the labyrinth was Ariadne's ceremonial dancing ground.

Some modern mythologists regard the Minotaur as a solar personification and a Minoan adaptation of the Baal-Moloch of the Phoenicians. The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the breaking of Athenian tributary relations with Minoan Crete.

According to A. B. Cook, Minos and Minotaur are only different forms of the same personage, representing the sun-god of the Cretans, who depicted the sun as a bull. He and J. G. Frazer both explain Pasiphae's union with the bull as a sacred ceremony, at which the queen of Knossos was wedded to a bull-formed god, just as the wife of the Tyrant in Athens was wedded to Dionysus. E. Pottier, who does not dispute the historical personality of Minos, in view of the story of Phalaris, considers it probable that in Crete (where a bull-cult may have existed by the side of that of the labrys {double axe}) victims were tortured by being shut up in the belly of a red-hot brazen bull. The story of Talos, the Cretan man of brass, who heated himself red-hot and clasped strangers in his embrace as soon as they landed on the island, is probably of similar origin.

A historical explanation of the myth refers to the time when Crete was the main political and cultural potency in the Aegean Sea. As the fledgling Athens (and probably other continental Greek cities) was under tribute to Crete, it can be assumed that such tribute included young men and women for sacrifice. This ceremony was performed by a priest disguised with a bull head or mask, thus explaining the imagery of the Minotaur. It may also be that this priest was son to Minos.

Once continental Greece was free from Crete's dominance, the myth of the Minotaur worked to distance the forming religious consciousness of the Hellene poleis from Minoan beliefs.



Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:28:05 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Con%C3%ADmbriga_minotauro.jpg)

Mosaico de ConŪmbriga, com labirinto e Minotauro.


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:31:11 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/07Minotaurus.jpg/450px-07Minotaurus.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:32:40 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/07Vase01.jpg/450px-07Vase01.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:35:05 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/Anonimo_fiorentino%2C_il_minotauro.gif/465px-Anonimo_fiorentino%2C_il_minotauro.gif)

Anonimo di scuola fiorentina, Il minotauro, metŗ del sec XIV, miniatura, codice Palatino 313 (detto "codice Poggiali"), f. 28 r., Biblioteca Nazionale, Firenze



Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:36:06 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Barye_Th%C3%A9s%C3%A9e_et_le_Minotaure_LACMA_M.87.119.5.jpg/467px-Barye_Th%C3%A9s%C3%A9e_et_le_Minotaure_LACMA_M.87.119.5.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:37:53 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/Barye_-_Th%C3%A9s%C3%A9e_Minotaure.png/392px-Barye_-_Th%C3%A9s%C3%A9e_Minotaure.png)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:45:54 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/db/Blake_Dante_Hell_XII.jpg/800px-Blake_Dante_Hell_XII.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:47:33 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/CopaAisonManuelDeCorselas.JPG/503px-CopaAisonManuelDeCorselas.JPG)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:49:02 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/DSC00854_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg/450px-DSC00854_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg)

Taormina - Baroque fountain, topped by the minotaur, in the cathedral square - Picture taken in by Giovanni Dall'Orto, on September 9 2006.


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:50:27 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b9/DSC00856_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_%28dett.%29_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg/450px-DSC00856_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_%28dett.%29_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:51:57 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f7/DSC00857_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg/450px-DSC00857_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:53:03 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/DSC00858_-_Taormina_-_Vista_da_pzza_del_Duomo_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg/800px-DSC00858_-_Taormina_-_Vista_da_pzza_del_Duomo_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:53:56 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/DSC00859_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto1.jpg/450px-DSC00859_-_Taormina_-_Fontana_in_pzza_del_Duomo_-1635-_-_Foto_di_G._DallOrto1.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:55:25 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/GeorgeF.Watts-Minotauros.png/471px-GeorgeF.Watts-Minotauros.png)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 09:56:37 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Inf._12_Vitae_Imperatorum_Master%2C_Il_minotauro_si_allontana%3B_Dante_e_Virgilio_incontrano_tre_centauri_seguiti_da_altri_centauri%2C_1440_ca..jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 10:00:11 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Inferno_Canto_12_verses_11-14.jpg/383px-Inferno_Canto_12_verses_11-14.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 10:01:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Kylix_Ais%C3%B3n_Teseo_%28M.A.N._Madrid%29_01.jpg/612px-Kylix_Ais%C3%B3n_Teseo_%28M.A.N._Madrid%29_01.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 10:03:17 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/25/Kylix_Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_F83.jpg/691px-Kylix_Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_F83.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 10:04:31 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Martigny_Bull.jpeg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 10:07:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Minotaur.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 26, 2007, 10:10:01 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Minotauros_Myron_NAMA_1664_n2.jpg/450px-Minotauros_Myron_NAMA_1664_n2.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:12:30 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/NAMA_1061_Labyrinth_1.JPG/201px-NAMA_1061_Labyrinth_1.JPG)

 Lekythos. Theseus, Minotaur and Athena in the Labyrinth. From Vari. By the Beldam Painter. About 480 BC.


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:13:53 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/NAMA_1061_Labyrinth_2.JPG/199px-NAMA_1061_Labyrinth_2.JPG)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:14:59 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Theseus_Castellani_Louvre_E850.jpg/695px-Theseus_Castellani_Louvre_E850.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:19:08 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Theseus_Minotaur_BM_Vase_E84.jpg/600px-Theseus_Minotaur_BM_Vase_E84.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:21:55 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Theseus_Minotaur_Louvre_F33_n2.jpg/450px-Theseus_Minotaur_Louvre_F33_n2.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:22:46 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e2/Theseus_Minotaur_Louvre_F33.jpg/722px-Theseus_Minotaur_Louvre_F33.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:23:39 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Theseus_Minotaur_MGEt_Inv20260.jpg/800px-Theseus_Minotaur_MGEt_Inv20260.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:24:39 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Theseus_Minotaur_Mosaic.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:25:26 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Theseus_Minotaur_Ramey_Tuileries.jpg/542px-Theseus_Minotaur_Ramey_Tuileries.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:26:14 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_CA2254_full.jpg/334px-Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_CA2254_full.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:27:00 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_CA2254.jpg/505px-Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_CA2254.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:27:55 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_G67.jpg/627px-Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_G67.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:28:42 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_MNC675.jpg/627px-Theseus_Minotauros_Louvre_MNC675.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:29:55 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/Theseus_Minotauros_MET_56.171.46.jpg/800px-Theseus_Minotauros_MET_56.171.46.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:32:01 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8d/Theseus_Minotauros_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_SL471.jpg/517px-Theseus_Minotauros_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_SL471.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:33:15 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Theseus_und_Minotauros_MKL1888.png)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:34:23 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Theseus_t%C3%B6tet_den_Minotaurus.jpg/800px-Theseus_t%C3%B6tet_den_Minotaurus.jpg)


Title: Re: Minotaur
Post by: Tarna on October 27, 2007, 02:34:51 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Theseus.jpg)