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Maps, Explorers & Adventurers => the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cuba & the West Indies => Topic started by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:52:36 am



Title: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:52:36 am
The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Seventy years after the disappearance of five planes in the Atlantic, Giles Milton investigates one of the world’s most enduring aviation mysteries
      
(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/03518/83817937_UNSPECIFI_3518231b.jpg)

Portrait of legendary Lost Squadron & plane "Flight 19" that supposedly vanished into Bermuda Triangle shortly after WWII Photo: The LIFE Picture Collection
By Giles Milton8:00PM GMT 04 Dec 2015
The message picked up by the control tower was as bizarre as it was alarming. “Everything looks strange,” said the pilot. “It looks like we’re entering white water. We’re completely lost.”
There were a few more crackles and then silence. It was December 5, 1945, and the five airplanes of Flight 19 – a routine military training mission departing from Fort Lauderdale, Florida – had vanished without trace.
For the last 70 years, the disappearance of Flight 19 has been one of the world’s most enduring aviation mysteries. No wreckage was ever found, despite an extensive search, and nor were any bodies recovered. It was as if the planes and their 14 crewmen had simply disappeared into thin air.
In the absence of any hard facts, there was frenzied speculation as to what might have happened. There was also – before long – the birth of an extraordinary myth. The fate of the planes was linked to an area of ocean that became known as the Bermuda Triangle, in which unexplained and seemingly paranormal incidents occurred with alarming frequency.
Now, seven decades after the disappearance of Flight 19, the truth about both the planes and the Bermuda Triangle can finally be revealed.
It is a tale of fantasy, duplicity and wishful thinking – one that was to bring enormous wealth to a handful of individuals. And it all began on that December evening.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:53:30 am
(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/03518/e83817991_Overal_a_3518238b.jpg)

Aerial view of Fort Lauderdale Naval Air Station, the origin of Flight 19
Within hours of the five Avenger planes disappearing from the radar, a PBM-Mariner seaplane was sent on a search-and-rescue mission. The Mariner’s pilot made a routine radio call at 7.30pm indicating his position. It was the last call he ever made. Soon afterwards, the Mariner also vanished from the radar, just as the five Avengers had done. Neither the plane, nor her 13-strong crew, was ever seen again.
The disappearance of six planes in one day was mysterious enough, but the losses were by no means at an end. A further three planes went missing in the same area in 1948 and 1949 and a pleasure yacht, the Connemara IV, was found adrift and without its crew in 1955. Just a few years later, two USA Air Force Stratotankers also disappeared.
In the absence of any hard facts, there was frenzied speculation as to what might have happened. There was also – before long – the birth of an extraordinary myth.
In the absence of any obvious explanation, the popular press began to speculate on what might have happened, citing compass variation, tropical storms and the Gulf Stream’s unpredictable currents.
But one theory in particular caught the public imagination, and it was centred on geography: all the losses had occurred in a triangular area of ocean of about one million square miles that lay between Miami, Puerto Rico and Bermuda.
In February 1963, a freelance writer named Vincent Gaddis wrote a sensational article for Argosy Magazine claiming that supernatural forces were at work in this area of ocean. He called it the Bermuda Triangle and said that Flight 19’s disappearance was one of a series of strange happenings that dated back many centuries.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:54:14 am
(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/03518/e83818288_26_Apr_1_3518243b.jpg)
A reward poster at a marina for the yacht Saba Bank, which went missing in the Bermuda Triangle on March 10, 1974
Gaddis’s article contained much speculation, little evidence and precious few facts. But his timing was perfect: “The Deadly Bermuda Triangle” was published shortly after the two US Air Force Stratotankers were lost.
“The mysterious menace that haunts the Atlantic off our south-eastern coastline has claimed two more victims,” wrote Gaddis. “Before this article reaches print, it may strike again, swallowing a plane or ship, or leaving behind a derelict [vessel], with no life aboard.”
Here in the Bermuda Triangle was a phenomenon that tantalisingly seemed to defy explanation.
The article was a masterpiece of conspiratorial fantasy, suggesting that dark forces were at work. This was the era of the Cold War and the Cuban Missile Crisis, when people were more than willing to believe in conspiracy theories. It was also a time when Nasa – and science – was increasingly providing answers to unsolved questions. Yet here in the Bermuda Triangle was a phenomenon that tantalisingly seemed to defy explanation.
“The Bermuda Triangle underlines the fact that despite swift wings and the voice of radio, we still have a world large enough so that men and their machines and ships can disappear without trace.”
Others were quick to cash in on Bermuda Triangle fever. Scores of books were published – many became international bestsellers – with the most popular of all being Charles Berlitz’s The Bermuda Triangle, published in 1974. It sold 20 million copies in more than 30 languages – an extraordinary feat for a work that blamed the losses on aliens and survivors from Atlantis.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:54:55 am
(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/03518/n83817993_UNSPECIF_3518261b.jpg)

American Navy Avenger planes, the same kind of planes which disappeared in the Bermuda triangle  Photo: Getty
Berlitz’s theories were so popular that when Steven Spielberg made Close Encounters of the Third Kind, he depicted the Flight 19 aircrews as having been abducted by aliens.
Seventy years after the disappearance of Flight 19, the truth about what happened can finally be unravelled. At the time of the loss, much attention was focussed on the skill of the squadron’s leader, Lieutenant Charles Taylor. An accomplished pilot with 2,500 hours of flying experience, he had an unblemished track record as an instructor. His student pilots were also highly capable, having clocked up some 300 hours of flying time.
Nor were there any reported problems with the aircraft. They were fully fuelled and had passed all their pre-flight checks. They took off without incident at 2.10pm and were soon heading due east, towards Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas.
Snatches of the radio conversations between the aircrews allow for a partial reconstruction of that afternoon’s flight. At around 3.40pm, one of the crew was heard asking for a compass reading.
“I don’t know where we are,” was the response. “We must have got lost after that last turn.” Minutes later, Lt Taylor was heard to say: “Both my compasses are out and I am trying to find Fort Lauderdale, Florida.”


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:55:28 am
(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01667/bermuda-triangle_1667888b.jpg)

He attempted to locate his position by studying the islands below. “I am over land but it is broken,” he said. “I am sure I’m in the [Florida] Keys, but I don’t know how far down.”
The final moments of Flight 19 must remain as speculation: despite extensive seabed searches, the planes were never found.
A dissenting voice was heard on the radio. “Dammit, if we could just fly west, we would get home. Head west, dammit.” Someone on board, it seems, knew that they were on course for disaster.
The Fort Lauderdale ground staff made frantic efforts to contact Lt Taylor, but their messages were not picked up. They eventually managed to triangulate Flight 19’s position and it was most alarming. The planes were north of the Bahamas, miles from land.
“All planes, close up tight,” radioed Taylor at 6.20pm. “We’ll have to ditch unless landfall. When the first plane drops below 10 gallons, we all go down together.”
The final moments of Flight 19 must remain as speculation: despite extensive seabed searches, the planes were never found. They presumably ditched into the sea, where conditions had deteriorated since they left Fort Lauderdale. The choppy waves would have soon swallowed the heavy Avengers.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:56:21 am
(http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/03518/e83818294_21_Feb_1_3518266b.jpg)
Two life preservers and a foghorn with the name "S.S. Marine Sulphur Queen" painted on them are examined by Coast Guardsmen
The US Navy immediately opened an investigation into the missing Avengers, as well as the PBM-Mariner sent to search for them. This latter plane was widely held to have exploded in mid-air – a hypothesis reinforced by the testimony of Captain Shonna Stanley of the SS Gaines Mills: he saw a ball of fire in the sky at exactly the time when the search plane went missing.
As for the Avengers, it was concluded that human error and compass malfunction caused the tragedy. Lieutenant Taylor had wrongly believed himself to be over the Florida Keys; each change of course took his formation further out to sea. And although he had clocked up many flying hours, he had previously been based in Miami and was unfamiliar with the Fort Lauderdale topography.
One by one, the Bermuda Triangle’s supposed mysteries have been solved. The Connemara IV’s crew was not abducted by aliens. The ship was washed out to sea (without its crew) during a hurricane. And the two missing Stratotankers collided and crashed in the Atlantic.
When Lloyds of London was asked to investigate losses in the Bermuda Triangle, they found no evidence to suggest that they were higher than in any other area of ocean. The United States Coast Guard concurred: it said that losses over the years have been negligible when compared to the number of vessels and airplanes that regularly traverse the area.
Such prosaic explanations were never going to satisfy the conspiracy theorists. Vincent Gaddis refused to accept the investigation’s findings into Flight 19 and set to work on his supposition that supernatural forces were responsible. “Whatever this menace that lurks within a triangle of tragedy so close to home, it was responsible for the most incredible mystery in the history of aviation.”
The fact that Flight 19’s compasses were faulty, that Lieutenant Taylor was lost and that the planes had run out of fuel, was of little matter. The planes had disappeared. And the Bermuda Triangle was born.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Ysidria on December 07, 2015, 12:59:44 am
AT A GLANCE
Strange phenomena

Nostradamus's prophecies Written in verse, the letters of 16th-century French philosopher Michel de Nostredame have long been credited with predicting historical events, including the French Revolution, the rises of Napoleon and Hitler and the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers. The vagueness of the descriptions contained within his almost 1,000 quatrains have only encouraged conspiracy theorists – despite the fact that so many of his prophecies, not least the end of the world in 1999, never came true.
Marie Celeste Speculation over what happened to the crew of the Canadian-built brigantine, found empty and adrift in the Atlantic in 1872, has been fuelled by a lack of evidence to support suggestions of piracy or mutiny. The mystery remains unsolved to this day – but in 2006, a UCL scientist posited that an explosion caused by alcohol leaking from the ship’s cargo, could have caused a “a pressure-wave type of explosion”, which would have killed the crew.
Area 51 A remote area of desert in Nevada is a magnet for conspiracy theorists, many of whom believe it is where post-war US governments hid evidence of alien life. Recently released documents, however, revealed the area as having been used during the Second World War as an aerial gunnery for pilots.
Crop circles There are countless theories about exactly how crops are flattened in elaborate patterns of geometric lines and circles. But rather than being a supernatural phenomenon, or one created by the landing gear of extra-terrestrial spacecraft, the only proven cause is human. However, conspiracy theorists continue to claim they could be caused by magnetism, paranormal activity or weather patterns.
Spontaneous human combustion There are hundreds of accounts of people catching fire with no source of spark, their surroundings untouched. One theory for the phenomenon – which captures the imagination of ghoulish schoolchildren – is due to a build-up of methane that is ignited by enzymes or static electricity. But many scientists believe the victims actually died after falling asleep with a lit cigarette, suffocated and, in a slow-burning process known as the wick effect, are evaporated.
"Is the dress blue or white?" A conspiracy for the internet age. One image polarised the entire internet because individuals perceive colours in different ways. It also depended on the environment and screen the image was viewed on, and how much white balance was applied to it. The dress was blue and black.


http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/12031649/Whatever-happened-to-the-Bermuda-Triangle.html


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: 4th Horseman of the Apocalypse on December 07, 2015, 01:30:04 am
whether you subscribe to the Bermuda Triangle theory or not the mystery of what happened to these experienced naval pilots fling 5 Avenger aircraft from flight 19 is pretty intriguing. an interesting footnote to this story is that the wreckage of five WWII naval bombers (all Avengers, according to Hawkes) were found together in the early 90s and were believed to have been the aircraft from flight 19. However the tail numbers (and later i think also mechanial parts serial numbers) didn't match and were in fact from 5 naval aircraft that were 'lost at sea' 2years before.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Black Dog Sun, the End of the Ancient World, Antediluvian X on December 07, 2015, 01:39:57 am
Any genuine reasons as to the mystery?


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Geniocrat on December 08, 2015, 02:13:18 pm
It was discovered that it was methane from under water volcanoes that was the culprit.

With boats and ships the water provides a force upwards called bouyant force.  The weight is the force that pushes down.  When methane comes out of the volcanoes the bubbles generated can't support the weight of the ship so it sinks.


Title: Re: The Bermuda Triangle: Whatever became of the myth
Post by: Geniocrat on December 08, 2015, 02:20:13 pm
When it comes to planes the methane is less dense than air.  So 1 the Bernoullian lift that keeps the plane aloft is lost cuz of the lack of density.  2 the methane tricks the pilot ibto thibking he is higher than he really is.  So he/she dives and ends up in the ocean. 3 the methane disrupts the oxygen, fuel and spark ratios the engine stalls and gravity brings the plane down.