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Ancient Knowledge, Mysticism & Sacred Beliefs => The Ancient Arts: Astrology, Alchemy, the Tarot, Arcane Recondite Practices & the I Ching => Topic started by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:28:06 am

Title: (XI.) HISTORY - Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:28:06 am

                                   XI.  I N T O   T H E   T W E N T I E T H   C E N T U R Y

Whilst Alan Leo took the lead in maintaining the popular interest in astrology in England, it was the great psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) who probably more than any other single person encouraged at least a few scientists to begin to think about the subject.

Jung's interest in astrology seems to have been a natural offshoot of his preoccupation with the 'collective unconscious', his belief that 'although our inheritance consists in physiological paths, still it was mental processes in our ancestors that created the paths'; that, in fact, 20th-century man's attitude to life is shaped by his remote history.

Jung saw the signs of the zodiac as archetypal - that is, as having for us a significance deeper than we know; and we are conscious of archetypes when stirred by highly emotional circumstances, such as those that provoke people to consult astrologers.

Jung himself seems to have used the horoscope as a starting point from which to build a bridge of understanding between himself and a patient by finding within it and his own chart some common ground.

During the preparation of his essay on synchronicity (the term he coined to explain the wild coincidences that occur in almost everyone's life, and can be not only puzzling but frightening) he and his assistants examined the birth charts of 180 apparently happily married couples, and sought in them the traditional astrological indications of satisfactory partnership.

Later, he added more data, and eventually investigated the 966 charts of 483 couples, not only in their original pairings but in chance couplings - so altogether 32,220 pairings were postulated and examined.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:29:48 am

The results of the test were considered by Jung to be, in the end, somewhat unsatisfactory; but he did point out that in the twinned charts of the happily married couples there was a statistically significant presence of the aspects traditionally considered indicative of a satisfactory relationship. He expressed this very dramatically:

You take three matchboxes, put 1000 black ants in the first, 10,000 in the second and 50 in the third, together with one white ant in each of them, shut the boxes, and bore a hole in each of them, small enough to allow only one ant to crawl through at a time. The first ant to come out of each of the three boxes is always the white one.

The chances of this actually happening are extremely improbable. Even in the first two cases, the probability works out at 1:100 x 10,000, which means that such a coincidence is to be expected only in one case out of ten million. It is improbable that it would ever happen in anyone's experience. Yet in my statistical experiment it happened that precisely the three conjunctions stressed by astrological tradition came together in the most improbable way.

Jung was conscious of the statistical blemishes of his experiment, and never claimed that it proved anything other than that, in the words of J. S. Haldane, 'the universe may be not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose.' But his astrological essay (Synchronicity, an acausal connecting principle, 1955) had the effect of directing some serious minds towards the disreputable science, and it is during the past thirty years that interest, in particular, has steadily grown.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:31:59 am

Before Jung's rather specialized interest took shape, isolated examples are to be found of a revival of serious attention to the subject.

In 1891, in France, while popular interest was scant (and it was possible for a scientist to assert that astrology was an ancient science whose rules had been completely lost), a kind of cabalist astrology was revived, which led to the publication of a translation of part of Morin de Villefranche's Astrologia Gallica of 1661, which in turn interested an artillery officer called Paul Choisnard (1867-1930), who became the first modern astrologer to attempt to get together a reliable body of statistical evidence about the planet's influences on the human personality.

It was Madame Blavatsky who triggered off the renewal of interest in Germany, which spread largely as a result of the work of Karl BrandlerPracht (born 1864), who seems to have learned astrology in the United States, where he worked as an actor. He founded the German Astrological Society, and started the Astrologische Rundscbau, the most prominent astrological journal in Germany until the Nazis shut it down in 1938.

It was after the First World War, among the uncertainties of the peace, that astrology really began to gain ground in Germany, and the publication of ephemerides (tables of the positions of celestial bodies) and almanacs boomed. The best-known astrologer of the years between the wars was without doubt Elspeth Ebertin (born 1880), a serious astrologer with a genius for popular journalism, which she combined with consultancy.

It was Frau Ebertin who, sent the birth data of Adolf Hitler in 1923, wrote in her yearbook that he 'could expose himself to danger by lack of caution' - which he duly did during the Munich putsch, when he fell and broke his shoulder before being arrested and imprisoned. Frau Ebertin received concommitant publicity.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:34:34 am

Although the German police from time to time prosecuted individual astrologers for fortune-telling, interest grew, and annual conferences of astrologers were held between 1923 and 1936, only internecine rows hindering ambitious plans for scientific study.

The Germans have the distinction of recognizing the putative importance of astrology in the developing art of psychoanalysis, and one of Jung's admirers, 0. A. H. Schmitz (1873-1931) led the way in proposing how this could best be done, though Herbert Freiherr von Kloeckler (1896-1950) was the pioneer in dragging astroanalysis into the psychology-conscious 20th century, with his Grundlagen fur die astrologische Deutung (Foundations of astrological interpretation), 1926.

Interest in astrology being as intense, in Germany, as it was - Ellic Howe, in Urania's children, 1967, estimates that during the twenty years after 1921 at least four hundred specialist books and pamphlets were published in that country - it was inevitable that it should be suspected that Hitler and the Nazi party made use of astrology for their own purposes.

As with other homogenous groups, some astrologers supported the Nazis, some did not; on both sides, there were unhappy consequences. Dr Karl-Gunther Heimoth, for instance, a doctor and psychologist who published an astrological study of homosexuality and through it became a friend of Ernst Rohm, the chief of the Sturm-Abteilung (Hitler's private army), was murdered by the Fuhrer with Rohm and others in June 1934.

The Astrological Society in Germany, on the other hand, managed to stay out of trouble, integrating with the establishment and providing a certain amount of protection for astrologers even after 1934, when the Nazis banned all 'fortune-telling', making the publication of almanacs and astrological journals illegal.

There is no evidence that Hitler himself was interested in astrology, and some evidence that he positively mistrusted it. He is often accused of having a personal astrologer, and the name most often connected with the accusation is that of Karl Ernst Krafft (1900-45).

Krafft was born in Switzerland, of German descent, and became a very competent astrologer. He also became a fervent admirer of Hitler, and on 2 November 1939, wrote to a Dr Fosel (then working for the RSHA, Himmler's secret intelligence service) warning that between 7 and 10 November Hitler's life would be in danger because of 'the possibility of an attempt at assassination by the use of explosive material'.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:38:39 am

The Nazis were as disapproving of astrological predictions about the life of the head of state as the Caesars had been, and disregarded the warning. When on 9 November a bomb exploded at the Burgerbrau beer hall in Munich minutes after Hitler had left it, Krafft could not resist sending a telegram to Rudolf Hess pointing out that he had told them so. His original letter to Fosel was dug out of the files and shown to Hitler, who passed it to Dr Goebbels. The same day, Krafft was arrested by the Gestapo and taken in for questioning. He managed to convince them that under certain circumstances such accurate predictions were possible, and was released.

In 1940, Krafft was summoned to Berlin by Goebbels to look through the prophesies of Nostradamus and translate any of them that could be used as propaganda against the Allies. It was felt that these, if dropped into unoccupied areas, might well do something to persuade the people that government by the Nazis was in the natural order of things.

And indeed, after some weeks' work, Krafft claimed to have discovered verses predicting the invasion of Holland and Belgium, and foreseeing the Third Reich and the Second World War. He produced a pamphlet based on forty quatrains of Nostradamus, designed for circulation in Belgium and France, and predicting the imminent downfall of Britain.

But in May of 1941, about three months later, Hess, second in command to Hitler (after Goering) flew to Scotland in an independent attempt to arrange a peace - an attempt rewarded by the Allies with over forty years' imprisonment. Martin Bormann decided that the best way of presenting the story to the German people would be to announce that Hess was actually insane, and shortly afterwards it was announced that he had been crazed by 'hypnotists, astrologers and so on'.

In Britain, The Times actually reported that Hess had been Hitler's private astrologer!

This gave the Gestapo the excuse to clamp down on astrology in general, and those who had formerly enjoyed the protection of a sympathetic Himmler (who had arranged the release of one of their number, Wilhelm Wulif, from a concentration camp to work for him and his wife) now found themselves arrested and, at worst, sent to concentration camps. This delighted a number of members of the Nazi High Command, few of whom admired Himmler, and many of whom regarded him as deranged: Reinhard Heydrich, for instance, used to compare Himmler to another officer, saying 'One is worried about the stars on his epaulette, and the other about the stars in his horoscope!'

Along with faith healers, clairvoyants, graphologists, Christian Scientists and spiritualists, astrologers were definitely out of favour. Krafft was among those arrested. In prison, he continued to work for a while on astrological propaganda, but at the end of 1944 caught typhus, and in January of the following year died en route for Buchenwald.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:40:55 am

It is doubtful whether astrology had any effect on the German conduct of the war, despite Himmler's sympathy to it. Even Goebbels was infected, to some extent, for he sent from the besieged Berlin bunker in the last days of the war for copies of Hitler's birth chart and that of the Reich, pointing out to the Fuhrer that both charts agreed in showing the outbreak of war and the present disastrous reverses, but also promised an overwhelming victory for Germany in April, and peace by August. Hitler preferred not to wait for the planetary change, and killed himself.

In Britain, newspaper horoscopes played a part in keeping up national morale; but the most curious British astrological story of the war is that of Louis de Wohl, a German, part-Jewish, who spent much of its duration in London, having persuaded the government, or at least some members of it, that he could tell them what advice Hitler's astrologers were giving him, and thus predict some of his plans.

The venture seems to have been successful only for de Wohl, who made a lot of money from syndicated journalism, worked for the Psychological Warfare Executive's 'black propaganda' unit, and flourished a British army captain's uniform to which he was not entitled.


In America, there was the same uneasy blend of serious and popular interest in astrology as in most parts of Europe. In 1898 Luke Broughton (1828-99), an astrologer and doctor of medicine, had published his Elements of astrology, the first original American textbook (though it is fair to remember that Broughton had been born in Leeds, in England).

And in the 1920s came the first independent American popular astrologer, Evangeline Adams (1865-1932), who leapt to popular attention after a spectacularly successful prediction of a hotel fire in New York, and for the next thirty years collected an enormous public for her syndicated columns and radio programmes (at one stage she broadcast three times a week). Her success was consolidated after a prosecution, in 1914, for fortune-telling.

During the trial she was given an anonymous horoscope to interpret; on reading the result, the judge announced that the chart had been that of his son, that she was totally accurate on all points, and in his view had 'raised astrology to the dignity of an exact science'. He dismissed the case.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 08:56:32 am

A more serious practitioner was Dane Rudhyar (1895- ), a distinguished composer who came to astrology through an interest in oriental music and philosophy, and believed that through astrology 'man can discover the pattern or order which reveals both his individuality and his destiny underneath or within the often seemingly chaotic and bewildering events of his personal daily existence'. His The Planetarization of consciousness, 1970, remains probably the most impressive astrological work to have come out of America.

Between Miss Adams and Dr Rudhyar came a multitude of other astrologers, professional and amateur.

In 1960, Marcia Moore had no difficulty in finding nine hundred professional astrologers to question for a thesis she was writing; in 1969 one journalist estimated that over ten thousand Arnericans were making a living from astrology (probably the majority of them by making predictions that would be mistrusted by more serious astrologers).

The incursion of astrology into the popular press was pioneered in London as recently as 1930 by R. H. Naylor (1889-1952). He was invited by the editor of The Sunday Express to cast the horoscope of the newly born Princess Margaret Rose, daughter of the future King George VI.

He did so, not only outlining in his article a character now recognizably that of the Princess, but predicting that 'events of tremendous importance to the Royal Family and the nation will come about near her seventh year'. Unforeseen events indeed resulted in her father's accession to the throne a few months before her seventh birthday.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:00:07 am

But,more important for astrology, the newspaper's editor invited Mr Naylor to contribute another article to the following week's issue; and in it he suggested that British aircraft might be in danger. On the very day of publication, the airship R-101 crashed in northern France. The newspaper gave Mr Naylor massive publicity, and he became famous overnight.

Since then no popular newspaper or magazine has been able to escape the necessity to publish regular astrological forecasts for its readers.

Recently, astrologers have managed to persuade editors to allow them to make use of and mention various planets and their possible effects on readers' lives; but it was Naylor who invented the Sun sign column. He had to find a way of writing so that each reader could feel involved, and chose to divide his essays into twelve paragraphs, one for each person born when the Sun was passing through a particular zodiac sign.

This is by no means a predominantly important part of astrological forecasting, but it is one recognizable by every reader, because it depends on the day, rather than the precise time, of birth.

Unrelenting concentration on the Sun sign has done untold damage to astrology, for even those who claim to be intelligent critics are often under the impression that astrologers base serious character analyses on this single aspect of a birth chart.

Journalists often write of a booming interest in astrology - by which they mean, on the whole, the growth of an almost entirely superstitious interest in the subject. There was a time, in the 1960s and 1970s, when you only had to sit next to a stranger on a plane, or stand next to someone at a party, to be asked 'What's your sign?' In those days, the Sun sign was almost the only element of a birth chart to be known.

This left the field open for 'astrologers' who were really clairvoyants. Maurice Woodruff, the Englishman who numbered so many international film stars among his clients (Peter Sellers, for one, hardly made a move without consulting him) was much more clairvoyant than astrologer.

In America, Carroll Righter was more conventional, but probably no less uncritically consulted - by among others a film star called Ronald Reagan, whose publicly expressed interest in astrology has recently diminished.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:03:15 am

Those who consulted Woodruff or Righter would have been unlikely to have heard of Dane Rudhyar or of John Addey (1920-82), the Englishman whose advanced work on what he termed 'the harmonics of cosmic periods' is believed by many astrologers to be crucial.

In some areas of the world there was a more informed wide interest: in the east, especially, where Mrs Indira Gandhi has never disguised her trust. Nor have many prominent Indian politicians and public servants, despite a far more fatalistic astrology than is acceptable in the west.

In Sri Lanka, astrology plays a prominent part in public affairs.

In general, prejudice seems to be the only factor to stand in the way of a serious scientific consideration of the astrological theory.

In private, even the most sceptical of critics may admit to a suspicion that not enough examination has been made of the available facts, despite the availability of statistical evidence on a large scale.

Until fairly recently, such evidence has been prepared by astrologers themselves, and has thus been open to criticism. But equally, critics have been unprepared even to look at that evidence, or indeed to make any real attempt to understand what it is that they criticize.

Some years ago, two hundred scientists at a European convention issued a statement warning the public that belief in astrology was futile and could be dangerous. When questioned, it was found that the great majority of them believed that astrologers worked only on the basis of the position of the Sun at the time of birth. (It is ironical that their warning, better expressed, would have been supported by most astrologers, as concerned at uncritical belief in Sun-sign astrology as anyone!)

Neither has it been publicised that a greater number declined to sign the statement than put their names to it.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:06:52 am

Some scientists are able even to ignore 'astrological' facts that turn up, unprompted, in their own fields. Surgeons provide statistics which relate a difficulty in stopping bleeding during surgical operations at certain phases of the Moon, and doctors at blood transfusion centres note with surprise that donors bleed more freely when the Moon is full.

Tell them that ancient astrologers pointed this out, and they are dumbfounded.

Meteorologists announce that there seems to be a correlation between the position of certain planets and events on the surface of the Sun which affects the weather, but assert that this has nothing to do with astrology.

Occasionally, however, those with absolutely no interest in the subject are sufficiently intrigued to involve themselves.

The most notable of these is perhaps the French statistician Michel Gauquelin, assisted by his wife Francoise. Gauquelin's interest was prompted by his decision to check the statistics on which Krafft based his Treatise on astrobiology, published in the 1930s. With the help of a computer, Gauquelin showed that these were improperly correlated. But certain interesting facts emerged from them, nevertheless, and Gauquelin decided to test two of them - the propositions that people born during 'odd' months of the year were introverts, while those born during 'even' months were extraverts. This, seemed obviously, one of those lunatic traditional astrological propositions that could not, in a sensible world, be believed.

To his amazement and irritation, Gauquelin found that his computers confirmed it (as far as introversion and extraversion are measureable).

To summarize, Gauquelin went on to examine the birth charts of thousands of sportsmen, actors and scientists chosen on the basis of their success in their professions. Statistically, sportsmen tended to be born when the planet Mars was, astrologically, dominant; actors under Jupiter; scientists and doctors under Saturn.

Gauquelin's propositions have been re-examined by Hans Eysenck, who agrees with them.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:08:39 am

There have been other incidental illustrations of the astrological proposition. Maki Takata has examined the effect of sunspot activity on the flocculation index (the rate at which blood albumin curdles) and found a close relationship; Giorgio Piccardi has shown that both sunspots and the Moon's cycle affect various chemical reactions; Y. Rocard has recently shown that men and women have a very delicate sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field - the sense homing pigeons use to find their way back to their lofts over many miles of countryside. All this has a very obvious relationship to astrology, as have more obvious correlations of planetary movements and events on earth (such as the example of John H. Nelson's work in meteorology).

In recent years some astrologers have made great efforts to look critically and coolly at their work; a lengthy book, Recent Advances in Natal Astrology (first published 1977) related both successes and failures, sought out false propositions, astrological legends, badly devised and conducted 'experiments' and unsupported claims with such rigour and objectivity that many astrologers condemned it as an attack on their craft. Far from that, it is an almost unique attempt to look seriously at the subject and to examine it critically but not dismissively. There are relatively few areas of astrology which it suggests are worth thoughtful and constructive examination (though these are widely spread, and include the Sun-sign elements as well as more arcane theories). As the authors, Geoffrey Dean and Arthur Mather, put it:

In recent years properly controlled experiments have failed to sustain many of astrology's claims, and have shown beyond doubt that much of its apparent validity can be explained by the demonstrable gullibility of practitioners and clients alike ... On the other hand the same experiments have revealed that not all is fallacious. Enough remains that cannot be explained by gullibility or coincidence to justify further study.

No one who has seriously looked at the evidence (and a great deal of evidence now exists) could argue with that.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:10:27 am

Progress is being made.

The Astrological Association in Britain and the American Federation of Astrologers hold annual conferences as well as weekly meetings; certainly theories are aired that seem decidedly 'chintzy', but a great deal of serious work is also done.

Correlation, a regular journal published by the Astrological Association, is probably the most serious periodical in the history of the subject.

In London recently as many as four hundred astrologers and students met for an evening's study, on a serious level; and there are regular meetings and conferences in most western countries, many of them international.

The British Faculty of Astrological Studies holds classes in London and has a correspondence course which has been taken by students in most countries of the world. Its final examination involves several papers, and there is a high and rigorous standard of marking, with relatively few passes each year.

Yes, Sun-sign books continue to be published, and account for the majority of sales of astrological books. But many of them now have tables of planetary positions which enable the reader to work out a virtually complete horoscope.

Historians too are beginning to explore the documents left by the astrologers of the past. Even science begins to show a reluctant interest through the study of various natural rhythms, of cosmobiology, and of correlations of terrestrial events and planetary movements.

It seems likely that the next fifty years or so will make it clear to what extent the longest-living scientific tradition is based on superstition, and to what extent it can help to illuminate the nature of our existence.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:48:22 am

                                                        A L A N   L E O

Alan Leo, born William Frederick Allan, (Westminster, 7 August 1860 - Bude, 30 August 1917), was a prominent British astrologer, author, publisher and theosophist, and is considered by many to be the father of modern astrology.

Leo, who took the name of his sun-sign as a pseudonym, founded the Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society in 1915.

He is credited as being one of the most important astrologers in the 20th century because it appears that his work had the effect of stimulating a revival of astrology in the west after its general downfall in the 17th century. Leo was a devout Theosophist and he worked many of religious concepts such as karma and reincarnation into his astrology. He used the Theosophical Society’s vast international connections to publish, translate and disseminate his work across Europe and America and it was in these countries that astrology began to be revived.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:52:09 am

Astrological technique and influence


 Alan Leo's natal chart

Leo was somewhat discouraged very early on in his studies at the complexity of much of astrology and how inaccessible it was to the average student. As a result of this he set out to simplify astrology drastically in order to make it easier to disseminate, learn, and practice. One example of this simplification was his teaching that the meanings of certain signs, houses and planets are all essentially very similar and interchangeable, almost to the point of being the same thing or having the same meaning.

He also started the movement towards a more psychological astrology because he was the first astrologer to really direct the focus more towards character interpretation instead of the prediction of events.

Towards the end of his life, in 1909, he travelled with his wife to India where he studied Indian astrology for a brief period of time. Two years later in 1911 he returned to India for a second time. As a result of his studies in Inidia, he later attempted to incorporate portions of Indian astrology into the western astrological model that he had created, and although this synthesis of the two traditions never fully caught on in the west, there were a few specific techniques that were picked up by later astrologers such as the decanate and the dwadashamsha.

Title: (XI) Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:04:52 am

The following is by Gavin Kent McClung, from his article, "A SALUTE TO OUR HERITAGE: What Makes A True Astrologer?" Dell Horoscope, June, 2000, pp.66-77. (Portions reprinted with permission of the editor.)

William Frederick Allan Leo is often rightly called "the father of modern astrology." He worked to reorganize the traditional astrology of his day into something more than a scattered hodge-podge of ideas. In his travels throughout Britain, he lectured constantly, bringing isolated students there a new sense of unity and leadership in astrology.

In 1890, Leo joined the Theosophical Society, and commenced building a more spiritual and psychological basis for astrology, rendering it more effective as a tool of character analysis, in contrast to the then-prevalent tendency of astrologers to focus almost entirely upon prediction and forecasts. His wife, Bessie Leo, was also an astrologer and Theosophist. At that time, he also co-founded the magazine that became known as Modern Astrology, which helped unite astrology students and practitioners throughout Europe.

By about 1915, he had authored or helped produce some thirty books, including classic titles in nativities, the progressed horoscope, and esoteric astrology. During this twenty to twenty-five years, largely due to his personal leadership skills, Alan Leo actually fostered the early rebirth of legitimate astrology in the Twentieth Century. His work gave strong impetus to scientific and other specialized strands of modern astrology (Uranian, cosmobiology, sidereal) as well as the humanistic astrology that gained ascendancy in the late twentieth century by its association with depth psychology, psychotherapeutic work, and spiritual movements.

In 1915, he founded the Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society, which later received Charles E. O. Carter's energetic support after Leo passed away, which in turn helped power Carter's later propagation of the British the Faculty of Astrological Studies (1948) and the Astrological Association (1958). All of these institutions have continued to build on the strong foundation set down by one inspired man--Alan Leo.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:10:01 am

A Biography of Alan Leo by Margaret E. Hone, from her book The Modern Text Book of Astrology, 1951.:


1860-1917. William Frederick Allan (Alan Leo)

This man must be acclaimed as the father of modern astrology.

Working with his wife and a devoted group of friends, he travelled all over England, lecturing on astrology. He edited the magazine Modern Astrology and was an indefatigable worker as a professional astrologer. His major achievement was the writing of thirty books, in which he made a complete restatement of astrology. From now on, the emphasis lay on the study of the human being, events in his life being shown to be largely, though not entirely, consequent on his own character.

In 1915, he founded the Astrological Lodge of London, which still carries on the spirit of his teaching. The high principles of Alan Leo and his understanding of the ancient wisdom through theosophical teachings, gave pure astrology an ethical status and lifted it away from fortune-telling and commercialism. Through the world-wide ramifications of the Theosophical Society, his books and teachings spread to all countries.

Alan Leo's work has long been out of print, and was republished in the 1960s and 1970s in England.

 Two books recommended by your author, if you can find them are How to Judge a Nativity and Art of Synthesis.

The second book, Art of Synthesis was originally named How to Judge a Nativity, Part II. When Leo revised these books, which were also part of a series he titled the "Astrology for All" series, he added additional material and a more esoteric rendering of most of the chapters. Students were delighted and the book sold really well, having more reflections of his popular Esoteric Astrology and Theosophic ideas. This prompted Leo to revise it yet again, and this second revision resulted in a new name, as the book no longer resembled a mere continuation of the first work.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:25:53 am

                                                     E V A N G E L I N E   A D A M S

Evangeline Smith Adams, born on 8 February 1868, was perhaps the best known American astrologer of her day. She ran a hugely successful astrological consulting business as well as writing several books about the subject (including The General Principles of Astrology as co-author) and her autobiography, The Bowl of Heaven. Because Adams's biography primarily focused on her astrological business, not much is known about her personal life.


Adams was born on 8 February 1868 at 8:30 am in Jersey City, New Jersey, to a conservative family. Her father died when she was 15 months old. Before Adams began working as an astrologer full time, she became engaged to a Mr. Lord, who was believed to be her employer. Although she claims she was initially in love with him, she lost any feelings that she had for him and subsequently broke the engagement. In 19th century Boston, breaking an engagement was tantamount to divorce, and it was seen as a grave scandal. Evangeline Adams died in 1932.


Adams was arrested twice in New York for fortune telling, in 1911 and 1914. Although practicing astrology was not legalized at that time, Adams was acquitted and set a precedent for the non-criminality of professional astrology.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:39:48 am

Herb Kugel says in his article, "The Stars on Trial: The Story of Evangeline Adams," in The Mountain Astrologer, Feb/Mar, 2000, p. 53:

"Evangeline Adams was one of the most important influences on the development of American astrology as we currently know it. She became famous because of a tragic hotel fire in which many people perished. Her career climaxed with a precedent-setting court case in which she demanded that astrology itself be placed on trial.

"Adams came from the same illustrious family as two American presidents, John Adams and John Quincy Adams; however, she dismayed her conservative New England relations by, "dabbling in heathenism," that is, by wanting to become an astrologer. She became a very successful astrologer and gave advice and comfort to about 100,000 people during her 40-year career.

"Her clients ranged from the poor and unknown to the powerful and famous. She taught astrology to financier John Pierpont Morgan, who once stated, 'Millionaires don't use astrology, billionaires do." Tenor Enrico Caruso never crossed the ocean during World War I without first consulting Adams to obtain the safest dates for sailing."

NOTE: To read this fascinating five-page article, with details about Adam's colorful life and her landmark trial, contact The Mountain Astrologer for this and other back issues.

To read a long summary of the Adams case with some verbatim documents, visit Carlo Ravin's tribute to Walter Coleman a pioneer in astrology and the law.


 EVANGELINE ADAMS' WRITINGS: In addition to her huge clientele, daily radio show, newspaper columns, and publishing Monthly Forecast, Adams wrote four astrology books for the layperson. Published between 1926 and 1931, they are all out of print, though you may find some at AstroAmerica. They were:

Bowl of Heaven
Astrology: Your Place in the Sun
Astrology: Your Place Among the Stars
Astrology for Everyone

BIRTH AND DEATH DATA: Evangeline Adams lied about her age. She lied consistently, yet in an inconsistent way. Her lengthy AstroDatabank record, rated as DD for Dirty Data is quoted here in its entirety:

"Time given in her autobiography "Bowl of Heaven" (p.27, quotes of dad's diary.) Date given in astrological literature; Karen Christino quotes same date (1868) in "A Geneological History of Henry Adams of Braintree, MA"': same date on her death certificate: same date in the 1900 Boston census.

"Other sources suggest different years of birth. In the 1910 Boston census, she claimed to be 47; in the l920 census, 49. On her marriage certificate in 4/23, she gives age 50 (her husband also gave a wrong birth year). Her obituary in the NY Times gives age 59 at her death in l932. The NY Library catalog lists"1872?"

"Catherine V. Thompson wrote to M.A. 7/8-1933, "I notice that the Director of the Evangeline Adams Studios states that she was born in 1868. That is officially contradicted by the record in our Public Library which says that Evangeline Smith Adams was born in 1859..... I met Miss Adams in Boston in 1898 and have friends who knew her there and we cannot understand why ten years have been taken off her age. Records in our State House say that her husband, Mr. George Edwin Jordan, Jr., was born June 20, 1890 at Foxboro, MA, and his mother who lives here stated that his wife was 30 years older than himself."

Joan Lenert reported that she had a chart for Adams for 1868 but for 9:30 AM EST. Lina Accurso reported that her mom, born in 1871, was a contemporary of Adams. Adams died 11/10/1933, 4:00 AM, New York, NY.


The biography of Adams, Foreseeing the Future:  Evangeline Adams and Astrology in America is available from and

About What Evangeline Adams Knew

Once the world's most famous astrologer, Evangeline Adams single-handedly popularized astrology in the United States.  Now, for the first time, Adams' biographer, astrologer Karen Christino, uncovers all of her astrological secrets. In an easy-to-understand format, you'll discover:

. How Adams predicted World War II and the stock market crash of 1929
. How Evangeline foresaw death for Enrico Caruso and Rudolph Valentino
. How she chose presidential winners
. Evangeline's work with the magician Aleister Crowley, and for clients like Edgar Cayce, Joseph Campbell, Eugene O'Neill and Tallulah Bankhead
. Evangeline on trial, with actual court transcripts
. How Evangeline chose travel and wedding dates, and analyzed the potential for marriage in the horoscope.

Karen Christino is a consulting astrologer based in New York City. Her books include Foreseeing the Future: Evangeline Adams and Astrology in America and Star Success: An Astrological Guide to your Career.  Karen has written for Glamour, Marie Claire, Modern Bride, Seventeen, and numerous astrology journals. She is professionally certified by the National Council for Geocosmic Research, and has a B.A. from Colgate University.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:41:48 am

                                       A Look at the Famous Astrologer Evangeline Adams

by Karen Christino

Here are some of the legends: Evangeline Adams made astrology legal in New York. She predicted the Windsor Hotel fire, the stock market crash of '29, World War II, the deaths of King Edward VII, Enrico Caruso, and even herself. Her books, now all out of print, are eagerly sought after by students, and even stolen from library shelves. Her reputation rests on her astrological expertise, but she was also known to be a palmist. Some even say she was primarily psychic or clairvoyant. But the fact remains that she was the best-known American astrologer of her day. I was fascinated by this woman, and intrigued by the events in her life. Just what was true, and why is it still discussed over half a century after her death? As I began researching Adams' life for my book about her, I would ask these questions again and again.

Evangeline Adams had an eventful life and ran a hugely profitable and successful business at a time when women commonly remained dependent upon men for their livelihood. She has left us not only several astrology books, but an autobiography as well. And there is much documentation on her life available: Adams was an active promoter of herself, giving many interviews to newspaper and magazine reporters.

Fortunately, consistent birth data for Adams has been published: February 8, 1868 at 8:30 am in Jersey City, New Jersey, making her an Aquarian with Pisces rising. Adams' horoscope is quite revealing, as it indicates an emotionally sensitive individual. I feel that Adams truly believed in her work. Her compassionate nature drew her to help others through astrological consultation and guidance. The Pisces influence is also probably responsible for the mystery, glamour and romance which surround Adams.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:43:20 am

Evangeline’s autobiography, The Bowl of Heaven is laced with humor and irony, and is her life as she would have us see it. I view the book as a promotional piece for both astrology and the author. As such, it is free of bold confessions, dicey personal anecdotes, or any hint of sex. Today we are accustomed to the juicy "tell all" biography.  But Evangeline Adams was writing at a different time, and she was writing as a professional. Her readers therefore only get those facts which are either entertaining or which support Adams' role as an astrological authority. If we will have the real story of Evangeline's life, we must read between the lines.

Take, for example, the only references to her father: "My father died when I was 15 months old," and "My father, through no fault of his own, had lost most of his money just before his death." How tantalizing they are! And yet I have  been unable to find out exactly what occurred. Was there an accident or illness? Was the man swindled or did he make a bad investment? We may never know.

Ascertaining anything about Evangeline's personal romantic life was also difficult. Once more, limited details are provided by the author herself in her autobiography, but it appears obvious that her employer, Mr. Lord, was the same man to whom Evangeline was engaged. Yet there are glaring contradictions in her account. On one hand, she professes to have been in love with and engaged to the man. Then she describes herself as being "totally unresponsive" and declares "I did not love him." What really went on?

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:44:27 am

We can say that logically she contradicts herself. Setting pure logic aside, however, it is apparent that she had mixed feelings about the relationship. She is able to see, feel, and understand alternate views of the situation, especially in retrospect. A complicated emotional nature is revealed.

What is also revealed is the extremely important role which astrology played in Adams' decision-making process. I estimate that her engagement took place between about 1893 and 1896, when she then left her secretarial job behind and began practicing astrology professionally. She had been studying astrology for at least seven or eight years and already had great faith in it. I believe that Evangeline herself broke off the engagement. In late 19th century Boston, this was a real no-no, even approaching the censure of divorce (a woman couldn't even kiss a man unless they were engaged, meaning that they would soon definitely marry). This must have been a frightfully dramatic episode, but Adams characteristically sidesteps the details. She goes on, instead, to discuss how vehemently her family opposed her. Obviously, part of their anger was due to the fact that Evangeline was breaking not only intellectual, religious and philosophic taboos, but social ones as well.

Any influence Mr. Lord exerted was along conventional lines -- the traditional promise of a home and family.  Her astrology teacher, Dr. Smith, on the other hand, represented the unconventional:  astrology and an independent life. We can only imagine how torn Adams was as she fought to reconcile these opposing ambitions within herself.  What would be the element of power in her life, the love and financial support of a well-to-do husband, or having control of her own destiny through an independent career? The objective nature of astrology finally tipped the scales.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:47:04 am

If we return to The Bowl, Evangeline tells us that, "I had but one ambition: to legalize astrology in the State of New York". She goes on to give us an overview of how she was acquitted of wrong-doing.  Yet we must recognize that the laws had not changed. A precedent had been set, however, in how the law would be interpreted in the future. Just because an astrologer practiced professionally would no longer legally mean that she was guilty of wrong doing.  Evangeline implies in her book that she was successful in making astrology legal -- the reader's mind tends to fill in the rest in a certain way. The is the nature of Piscean accounting!

Today, there do continue to be those who believe that Adams was primarily psychic or clairvoyant.  Her four books on astrology convince me that this is not the case, and her predictions consistently seem to invoke the clear timing which only astrology can provide. Evangeline was highly attuned to the planet Neptune. We must assume that she had quite a strong intuition, and that she was in touch with the Infinite. If we want to understand Evangeline Adams as a true and complex person, we must be willing to admit that there was more to her life than astrology alone.

I cannot help but feel that Adams' life and memory have now been truly resurrected, as well as transformed as a result.  So many of the old legends turn out to be true, confirmation is available, even though some claims have often been exaggerated through the years.


Karen Christino is a consulting astrologer and the author of Foreseeing the Future: Evangeline Adams and Astrology in America (One Reed Publications, 2002). She's also written Star Success (Pocket Books) and articles for Marie Claire, Modern Bride and Seventeen magazines. Her popular "Choose Your Career" column has appeared in American Astrology magazine since 1992.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:51:34 am


                                                           G R A N T   L E W I

Writing in the 1930s-1940s, Grant Lewi was the author of two hugely popular books that introduced the general public to astrology. Still in print by Llewellyn, these gems of information and insight are Astrology for the Millions and Heaven Knows What. He received a Master's degree from Columbia University and taught English before becoming interested in astrology. For many years, he was editor of Horoscope Magazine.


Today, he is still remembered for a feat that few of us would have the nerve to try. He predicted his own death at age 49 by a cerebral hemorrhage. He died exactly on the day predicted--July 15, 1951. It is said--and it may be true--that he had never been insured, but that when he saw his death coming, he took out a life insurance policy which helped to sustain his wife and three children.


"Grant Lewi was the inspiration for a practical astrology."

- Noel Tyl

Ask any astrologer: the books Heaven Knows What and Astrology for the Millions, written by Grant Lewi, are two of

the finest interpretive books ever written by an astrologer.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:25:06 am

                                (                                                                                          GRANT LEWI'S NATAL CHART

BIRTH AND DEATH INFORMATION: AstroDatabank gives the following information rated A, from him in a letter in 1945. He was born June 8, 1902, at 8:30 AM EST, in Albany, NY, 73W45; 42N39. He died July 15, 1951, in Tucson, AZ.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:30:53 am

                                                    S Y D N E Y   O M A R R


Astrologer to Stars Wrote World's Best-Read Horoscopes

By Louis Sahagun

Sydney Omarr, the astrologer and counselor to the rich and famous whose horoscopes are the most widely read in the world, died Thursday. He was 76.

Blinded and paralyzed from the neck down by multiple sclerosis, Omarr died at St. John's Health Center in Santa Monica of complications from a heart attack. His ex-wife, assistants and several close friends were by his side.

A lifelong promoter of the ancient art of divining the future from the juxtaposition of the planets and stars, Omarr was diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis in 1971 but continued working until suffering a massive heart attack on Dec. 23.

He reached millions through his 13 books and his column, which is owned by the Tribune Co. and carried by the Los Angeles Times. The column appears in more than 200 daily newspapers.

Arrangements are being made for his assistants to continue producing the column under Omarr's name.

Omarr's books -- 1 for each of the 12 signs of the zodiac plus 1 for the entire year -- have sold 50 million copies worldwide.

Threw Lavish Dinners

Although he took his job as horoscope master to the masses seriously, Omarr also insisted on having fun. He especially enjoyed splurging on lavish dinner gatherings, for friends and paramours, and gambling. In a recent interview with The Times, Omarr mused, "I win more than I lose."

The interview was his first after more than a decade of keeping a low profile as MS devastated him physically. He believed that this year, with Jupiter in the fifth house, he was poised for success through publicity.

But, then, "Sydney always had the boyish charm of the man of the hour," said Omarr's assistant and friend, Paul Smalls. "He was always the Leo surrounded by adoring women and fans."

"About those adoring women," Omarr liked to say, "it's the astrology they're in love with, not me."

Benson Srere, who worked with Omarr at the United Press news service in the early 1950s, said Omarr was valued by his readers "not because they believe every word he wrote, but because it always contained threads of hope and encouragement."

His fans ranged from working stiffs to politicians and princes, movie stars and scholars. The walls of his Westside apartment are covered with framed photographs of him with celebrities such as actresses Angie Dickinson and Jayne Mansfield, and authors Aldous Huxley and Henry Miller.

Omarr was born Sidney Kimmelman at 10:27 a.m. on Aug. 5, 1926, in Philadelphia, with the sun, Mercury and Neptune all in Leo, and Libra on the ascendant.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:35:14 am

Sydney Omarr (5 August 1926 – 2 January 2003) was an astrologer and counsellor to the rich and famous. While he wrote numerous books on the subject of astrology, including “My World of Astrology” and his autobiography “Answer in the Sky”, he is probably the most widely known for his books on the popular Sun Sign astrology that endeavoured to predict a person’s astrological influences based on his 'Sun Sign' - technically derived as the constellation providing the backdrop to the Sunrise on the day of a person's birth (such as Aries, Taurus, etc).

He also wrote a daily Sun Sign horoscope column which appeared in more than 200 daily newspapers of the Los Angeles Times syndicate and which was read by millions. It is believed that Sydney Omarr has sold more books on the topic of astrology (over 40 million) than any other individual.

Omarr (born Kimmelman) was born into a modest Jewish background, being the son of a grocer and a housewife. Being a typical Leo who likes to gain centre stage, at the age of 15 he was performing sleight of hand tricks in magic shops and local talent shows.

He regarded numerology as his first love, and wrote a few books including "Thought Dial" on the topic, but he was unable to earn a living at numerology so he pursued a similar natural inclination to astrology.

At the age of 17, he enlisted in the Army and within a year he was the first and only astrologer for the Army. He wrote the horoscope column for the U.S. Army's "Stars and Stripes" newspaper, and he believed his private horoscope work for President Franklin D. Roosevelt won him that position.

When Omarr completed his stint in the Army, he attended Mexico City College and studied journalism, later to become a reporter for the United Press.

Omarr’s first book was entitled “Sydney Omarr’s Private Course on Numerology”, which he self-published and sold for £2.00. The fact that people were actually prepared to read and even buy his written words no doubt was a boost to his very Leonine ego, and this success prompted him to carry on with his literary endeavours.

As Omarr became a rather prolific writer, he also reinvented himself as a celebrity in his own right, appearing on various radio and television shows to include Mike Douglas, Merv Griffin, and Johnny Carson. He knew countless celebrities, and his wife Jeraldine Saunders was a former model, cruise director, and the creator of the "Love Boat" concept for ABC television.

Toward the end of his life, Omarr wrote a series of astrological guides published by Penguin, Sydney Omarr's Day-By-Day Astrological Guide. While he authored the books up until his death, his protégés have taken over the work, and Signet continues to publish the series.

He believed he had been an astrologer in many previous lifetimes, and he was able to do full planetary horoscopes in his head when given an individual's birth coordinates and birth time. For his Los Angeles Times syndicate columns, he wrote each and every daily horoscope column personally, usually three weeks in advance.

Perhaps the only thing that has really blighted Omarr’s life was his health. In 1971 he was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, and as the disease slowly eroded his body he lost his sight in the early 1990’s and became paralysed from the neck down.


Sydney Omarr died on 2 January 2003 at St John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California of a heart attack. His wife and friends were at his side. He is buried at Riverside National Cemetery in Riverside, Calif.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:40:44 am

"I refer to it as the world's worst-kept secret that President Reagan relies on astrology." Astrologer Sydney Omarr 1988


As the world remembers the passing of Sydney Omarr, a prominent astrologer whose column appeared in more than 300 newspapers across the country including the Washington Post, it is interesting to look back to the days of the Reagan Administration, and the use by the President and First Lady of astrology to guide in the making of important decisions in the White House.

The 1988 astrological revelation caused a massive stir in the press, and hundreds of political cartoons were drawn mocking the Reagans. The Reagan Library in Simi Valley California, in fact has 2800 pages of files that detail the media attack. It was during this fire storm of controversy that Sydney Omarr took to the air giving a number of interviews in the Reagans defense. He praised Nancy Reagan for consulting an astrologer before making major decisions, and he stated that "only the ignorant" would laugh at the First Lady's awareness of astrology.

In one interview, done with the Wall Street Journal, Omarr made a stunning revelation. He stated that the Reagans were not the only high level Washingtonians to have looked to the stars.

Omarr told the Journal that both President Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger were also "gung-ho" on astrology. " I don't want to reveal my sources at this time," he added. "My background is in journalism. It is unimpeachable. I know this for a fact."

As for Ronald Reagan,  like Calvin Coolidge, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin D. Roosevelt before him, astrology appeared to be tied into life itself, and important decisions required at least a quick glance to the stars. The Philadelphia Inquirer, for example, insisted that "the signing of the U.S. Soviet treaty eliminating medium-range nuclear missiles" had been signed at 1:30 p.m. on December 8, 1987 based on advise from an astrologer. In addition, many papers reported the story that Ronald Reagan had postponed his inauguration 9 minutes as governor of California till 12:10 a.m. on January 2, 1967 based on astrology calculations.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:44:54 am

Reagan became noted as being one of the few governors to actually sign astrology legislation when on August 30, 1974, as Governor of California, he signed legislation which became Chapter 583, and added Section 50027 to the government Code, relating to astrology. The legislation removed Sacramento licensed astrologers from the category of fortune tellers, thus allowing them to practice their trade for compensation.

According to Reagan's former Chief of Staff Donald Regan, the prime source of astrological direction inside the Reagan White House was being provided by San Francisco star gazer Joan Quigley. In his book "For the Record" Regan stated that Nancy Reagan planned almost all presidential travel, press conferences, and even the president's cancer surgery based on information she was receiving from Quigley.

Regan made his stunning revelation concerning the use of astrology after being forced out of the White House by Nancy Reagan. It was a revelation that upset many inside and outside the White House including another prominent astrologer Jean Dixon.

Dixon, an astrologer who became nationally prominent for her prediction of the assassination of President John Kennedy, was once an astrological advisor to Reagan.

Dixon had gained the favor of the future president by predicting in 1962 that he would become Governor of California, and later President of the United States. "She was always gung ho for me to be President," said Reagan.

She was dropped by Nancy in 1976, when she stated that Reagan would not gain the presidency that year. Nancy figured that Dixon had lost her powers of prediction. Joan Quigley was quickly picked up by Nancy as the next seer, even though she too predicted that 1976 would not be the year for Reagan.

In 1988, when the astrology scandal broke at the White House, Dixon sent Reagan a copy of an New York Times editorial she had just written supporting the use of astrology. "I would shoot a few people if I were you for talking," she wrote in an attacked handwritten note to the President.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:47:25 am

The astrology news was announced, mysteriously and coincidentally, on almost the same day as the death of Carroll Righter. Righter, a prominent Hollywood astrologer, was rumored to have been President Reagan's favorite astrologer during a long 45 year relationship. Reagan even admitted in his 1965 autobiography "Where's the Rest of Me" that he and Righter were friends, and that he and Nancy read Righter's column "regularly."

Other astrologers rumored to be connected to the Reagan White House included Joyce Jillson, who told the Associated Press that the Reagans regularly consulted astrologers, and that it was this counsel that led to Reagan doing things like having news conferences during the full moon. Jillson stated that "she had been to the White House" and "spent a lot of time there after the assassination attempt on Reagan."

Most importantly, Jillson claimed she had originally been employed by Reagan insiders, and paid $1200, to help pick Reagan's Vice President from a list of seven candidates. The Jillson claim actually backed up the same Bush-astrology allegation that had been made five years earlier by Democratic Rep. Larry McDonald. On April 30, 1983 McDonald speaking to the John Birch Society stated,

Mr. Reagan and his wife are both very avid followers and believers. And guess what these seers of the horoscope had to say? That Mr. Reagan would be the nominee and that the Republicans could win the White House only if George Bush was his running mate.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:49:55 am

"One of my jobs," wrote Jillson, "was to review the charts of all Vice Presidential candidates. I told Reagan that George Bush was the only choice. The rest is history." The basic astrological sign involved in the decision was that "George Bush, a Gemini, was the most compatible with Reagan, an Aquarian."

In his first reply to reporter questions about the Reagan's use of astrology, and the story that he might actually have been picked as Vice President by an astrologer, Bush actually defended the practice. "I don't know about that," he said. "But I will tell you one thing: There are two edges to this sword. There are a helluva lot of people across this country that read these columns. Otherwise they would not be in the papers." Later after many more astrology questions, Bush then running for President himself, reconsidered his position declaring that he never read an astrology column and wouldn't know where to find one in a newspaper.

Astrology was only a part of Reagan's interest in things unseen. He was openly known to be very interested in anything occult including UFOs, lucky numbers, astrology, lucky coins, and ghosts. Even small things bothered Reagan such as a house that Reagan friends purchased for the Reagans at 666 St. Cloud in Bel Air, California. When Reagan found out the address, paperwork was immediately started to change the address to 668 St. Cloud. He was, according to Reagan's Deputy Chief of Staff Michael Deaver, "incurably superstitious. If he emptied his pants pockets you would always find about five good lucky charms that people had sent him."

To protect the administration from potentially damaging leaks about the Reagan obsession with the occult, a team of officials worked together to cover up things up. Deaver, always the loyal Reagan team player, was the official who took the bizarre timing requests made by astrologer Quigley, and made changes in the Reagan schedule while keeping secret the source of the information.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:53:01 am

On the other hand, Reagan's last national Security advisor General Colin Powell, had as part of his job to keep "the little green men" references out of Reagan's speeches. Reagan, as his speeches clearly show, was fond of the 1950 space-invader movie analogy that the world would unit if faced with an extraterrestrial invasion force. Powell feared that if Reagan kept raising the issue people, would actually start to believe aliens were invading.

Reagan actually managed to get a few of the references into speeches and Q&As about his fascination of aliens coming to earth and uniting all nations before we destroyed ourselves. Every time he raised this scenario (which Reagan called my " fantasy") in planning sessions, Powell reportedly rolled his eyes and would say to his staff, "Here comes the little green men again."

Other Reagan staffers had the jobs of protecting the White House from disclosures the President might make while answering questions from the public, particularly from children. The staffers had learned that Reagan, the consummate story teller, tended to let strange things slip out. As one staffer said, "The god-damnest things would come out of his mouth."

Reagan was known to be very open with children that he would meet after speeches given at various schools, or to groups of students touring the White House. Fearing he would disclose his interest in the paranormal, efforts were made to protect Reagan from young students who tended to ask questions about these subjects. Mike Deaver was known to veto Q & As with high school "on the theory that Reagan would be 'too loose' and speak too freely."

There was even a special role for the handlers to keep the students away from the president. Former White House presidential aide Judi Buckelew described this role:

"The staff was always trying to keep him away from these high school groups that would come in to

have their pictures taken, because he would stand around and answer all their questions, saying all

 kinds of things. The staff would literally tug him away from these kids."

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:55:00 am

The efforts to hide the paranormal and other strange beliefs of the president went as far as to clean up "his oral meanderings" before a text was released for public consumption." This practice, however, had to be cut out when the White House writers were caught altering an interview Reagan had given with the Wall Street Journal.

In this interview, done in 1985, Reagan began to talk about thoughts he had earlier in the morning concerning Armageddon, and how he agreed with many theologians who believed the prophecies were coming together. This idea of an impending upcoming Armageddon being spoken of by a leader with his finger on the nuclear button was too much for the White House handlers.

When the White House transcript of the interview was released publically, the references to Armageddon were gone.  The Wall Street Journal quickly exposed the omission, and the White House publicity people scrambled to explain   that the writers had "accidentally" omitted the references to Armegeddon Reagan had made.

It was, however, astrology for which Reagan will be remembered by the main stream press, because the White House could not contain the secret. They did however try, such as the time when a letter of congratulations was requested for Sydney Omarr two years prior to the media discovering the secret of Reagan's astrological counselors.

Omarr was celebrating 25 years of service as a columnist for the Los Angeles Times Syndicate. Larry Speakes, the President's Press Secretary requested that the congratulatory letter go out, so a draft of a letter was prepared in the White House by "LBK."  The original draft was stunning in its acceptance of the practice of astrology, and may have tipped off Reagan handlers that the letter had to be stopped. The main paragraph of the letter read:

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 10:58:44 am

"Your many friends and colleagues agree that yours is a career marked by dedication and achievement.

 By promoting a greater understanding and appreciation of astrology, you further the cause of science

 and inspire all stargazers to new levels of insight, discovery and exploration. You can take great pride

 in your work."

Prior to the letter being mailed the letter was stopped, and Omarr, although perhaps admired by the President, would not be publically congratulated. In a handwritten note found at the Reagan Library, a person by the name of Dan clearly spelled out what would happen next.

"Larry Speakes (per Charley Shepherd) will go along with decision not to do, but says that the lady

who made the request should be phoned. RCS suggests just to say 'message won't be forthcoming'

without getting into any explanations."

As far as the official government record went, that was the end of the Reagan public association with Sydney Omarr. That is until the 1988 astrology story broke and Omarr was interviewed.

Then the true story emerged. Although Omarr's people were told that a public statement would not be forthcoming from the White House praising Omarr for his 25 years with the Los Angeles Syndicate, Omarr was in fact congratulated by none other than Larry Speakes, who had according to the handwritten note from Dan agreed to go along with the plan to reject the Omarr request without explanation. The Associated Press story of May 4, 1988 told the story,

Omarr said that he has never consulted with Reagan, but received congratulations via a phone call from former White House spokesman Larry Speakes when Omarr noted his 25 years with the Los Angeles Time Syndicate.

I guess it goes to show that no secret can be kept forever.,_reagan,_and_astrology.htm

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 11:06:55 am


Ed Helin in Aspects, Summer, 1988:

"A graduate in law at the University of Pennsylvania, Carroll Righter was an attorney who originally set out to disprove astrology and ultimately became one of its most influential promotors. Righter was a student of Evangeline Adams, who guided him to relocate to the southwestern US so that he could enjoy better health and reduce the lung and respiratory problems that plagued him in the northeast.

"Righter had the first syndicated astrology column, and, with Sydney Omarr, who also wrote for the newspapers, their astrological columns were featured in over 500 daily newspapers nationwide. Righter and Omarr perhaps did the most this century to popularize astrology and pave the way for subsequent astrology columnists.

Righter settled in Hollywood and his clientele was like the Who's Who in film and political circles. Carroll Righter was Ronald Reagan's astrologer for 45 years. He was the initial astrologer to hire a press agent: his first was Robert Mitchum, who later carved his own niche on the silver screen.

"For 26 years, Righter ran a non-profit educational foundation and astrological school (the Carroll Righter Astrological Foundation), taught weekly classes in his home, and became known for exclusive monthly Sun sign parties featuring live animals or representatives of the sign being celebrated.

With Sydney Omarr, Manly Palmer Hall and Ivy Jacobson, Righter was honored by the AFA with a special award for astrological pioneering. The California State Legislature issued a proclamation signed by the governor and stating that Righter was the most influential astrologer of the 20th Century."

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 11:13:40 am

BIRTH AND DEATH DATA: AstroDatabank shows the following information, rated A, given by him to Angela Gallo. He was born on February 2, 1900, at 9:00 AM in Salem, NJ, 75W28; 39N34. He died of cancer on April 30, 1988 at 11:15 PM, in Santa Monica, CA, at the age of 88.

He was nicknamed "The Gregarious Aquarius" by the media, and it couldn't describe his chart better. He had a conjunction of Sun, Mercury, and Mars in Aquarius in the eleventh house. (His Moon, Venus, and Ascendant were conjunct in Pisces.)




Righter wrote mostly for laypeople. His books included Understanding Astrology and Astrology and Diet. Only one of them, Astrology and You is still in print and available at, none at AstroAmerica. A series of records featuring music Righter chose for each of the twelve signs is avilable at World Wide Wax.

The Righter-Reagan Connection

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 11:17:49 am

From Mercury Hour, October, 1988:

                                          THE PASSING OF AN ASTROLOGICAL GIANT


"It's ironic, and quite coincidental, that on the same day as the announcement of Carroll Righter's death, the media published reports (according to statements made in Donald Regan's book) that the President was interested in Astrology and might have used it to determine the most propitious times to initiate certain activities. The ensuing flap over whether Pres. Reagan used Astrology brought our craft into the forefront of national attention.

"Of course, most people here in Hollywood have at some time or another sought the advice of an astrologer, so for anyone to think that a former movie star was unfamiliar with "the science of the stars" is about as insane as thinking that a stock market analyst had never read a financial prediction or forecast.

"The Dean of American Astrologers, Carroll Righter, met Evangeline Adams in his Youth, she told had the perfect chart for an astrologer, but he continued his law studies until a sporting accident nearly ended his life.

"Seeing that he had the ruler of his Sun sign (Uranus) and the ruler of his M.C. (Jupiter) in the eighth house of his chart, he decided to relocate to Los Angeles in 1939 where he set up shop doing charts for many people in the entertainment industry. At this time his progressed M.C. was 6 Aquarius, sextile Jupiter in the 9th and approaching a conjunction of natal Mercury. After a prediction made to Marlene Dietrich proved accurate, his clientele increased immeasurably and before long he was the "astrologer to the stars."

"Names like Arlene Dahl and Robert Cummings sought his advice, and even President Ronald Reagan mentioned him in his autobiography. I've been to Righter's house and there was a picture of Righter and Reagan on his piano.

"It's possible that Righter was the source for the Cancer rising chart for Reagan published many years ago (shown in Sabian Symbols) giving a birth time close to 2 p.m., as corroborated by Anne Edward's book "Early Reagan" wherein she alludes to a birth time in the early afternoon.

"Righter began writing his famous Astrology column in 1951. He always said "the stars impel, they don't compel," the title of one of his more appealing books. Righter held weekly study sessions at his home here in Hollywood, as he had done for the past 25 years. I met many of my friends here in town there on Tuesday nights. The first hour when I first attended back in 1973 was on Mundane or Horary Astrology taught by John Bradford, an expert in Financial Astrology.

 "The second hour was Righter's court appearance. Sitting in an old chair at the head of the living room, he lectured on the up coming transits for the following week, giving extra consideration to the movement of the Moon. The third hour was mainly on delineation of famous people taught by Robert Skeetz, a local astrologer who also writes for a Beverly Hills newspaper. I met many interesting people at these meetings over the years, namely Victoria Shaw, an actress who now lives in Australia who became my best female friend here in town, and Bob Skeetz who gave me my first copy of the Nadi System of Rectification.

"From evidence in Regan's book and other astrologers around town, Reagan did use Astrology during his career. If he used the information wisely (which it appears that he did), then it can be to the favor of the a strologer who advised him, be it Righter or another astrologer in Washington. It's well-known that Lincoln sought the services of a psychic in the White House and held several seances during his term. Teddy Roosevelt kept a chart of himself on his desk and Franklin Roosevelt once sought the advice of Jeanne Dixon, the famous psychic. Kennedy should have listened to the astrologers who felt that he should never have gone to Dallas. Who knows what the world would be like today if he had listened?

"Even if Righter didn't gain the respect or attention world wide that he might have desired, the flap

over whether the President used Astrology certainly gave Righter's craft the attention he could never

acquire in life. Righter paved the ground for other astrological columnists like Sidney Omarr, Joyce

Jillson and Jeane Dixon. Without Righter's great luck and powerful following our craft might still be in the dark

recesses of history."

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 11:35:03 am

                                               C A R R O L L   R I G H T E R

Carroll Righter (February 2, 1900-April 30, 1988) was known as the "astrologer to the stars." He wrote a syndicated daily advice column for 166 newspapers around the world, and was reputed to be an advisor to Ronald and Nancy Reagan. Righter, who liked to be called the "gregarious Aquarius,' began doing charts for Hollywood notables in 1938 and became a columnist in 1950.

Mr. Righter was mentioned in President Reagan's 1965 autobiography, Where's The Rest Of Me? and according to former White House Chief of Staff Donald T. Regan, Mrs. Reagan turned to astrologers to help determine the president's schedule.[1] Asked specifically whether he believed in astrology, President Reagan said, "I don't guide my life by it" but he added, "I don't know enough about it to say, is there something to it or not...and I don't mean to offend anyone who does believe in it, or engages in it."

 When Righter was asked in 1985 if he consulted with Ronald Reagan on astrology, he replied, "No comment."

Mr. Righter claimed he warned Marlene Dietrich to avoid working on a studio set one day because she might get hurt. His advice was not heeded and Dietrich broke an ankle while reaching out to save a falling child. Word of the accident and Mr. Righter's advice led other celebrities to the astrologer's Hollywood doorstep, ensuring his fame. Among those who sought his advice were Arlene Dahl, Rhonda Fleming, Jane Withers, Joan Fontaine and Grace Kelly.

Mr. Righter also wrote several books, including Astrology and You, the Astrological Guide to Health and Diet and the Astrological Guide to Marriage and Family Relations".


^ "Astrologer to Hollywood Stars, Carroll Richter dies at 88", The Dallas Morning News, May 4, 1988. Retrieved on August 4, 2006. 

^ "President Won't Judge Astrology", Albany (N.Y.)Times Union, May 18, 1988. Retrieved on August 4, 2006. 

^ "Nancy's in Good Company Astrology Has Followers in High Places", San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, 1988. Retrieved on August 4, 2006. 

^ "C Righter, Astrologist To Stars", Sun-Sentinel, May 4, 1988. Retrieved on August 4, 2006.
^ "Daily Columnist Carroll Righter, 88 An Astrologer to Hollywood Stars", Newsday, May 4, 1988. Retrieved on August 4, 2006. 

Retrieved from ""

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:10:23 pm

                                                    D A N E    R U D H Y A R

DANE RUDHYAR was born Daniel Chennevière, of Celtic and Norman ancestry, on 23 March 1895 in Paris, France. His birth name was given up in 1917, a few months after reaching New York. He had a sister, lost his father in 1911 and his mother in 1954.

Paris 1907.  Aged 12

Rudhyar began playing piano at age seven, and started composing for the piano in 1912. The surgical removal of a kidney at age thirteen exempted him in 1914 from military service, actually saving his life as the regiment he would have joined was completely wiped out in the 1914 French retreat from the Marne. He received a bachelors degree in philosophy from the Sorbonne at age sixteen.
      At age sixteen, Rudhyar first realized two things which conditioned his entire life and work: (1) Time is cyclic, and cyclicity governs civilizations as well as all aspects of existence; (2) Western civilization is coming to what could be symbolically called the autumn phase of its cycle of existence. Such realizations, which were largely spontaneous and intuitive (though influenced by his reading of Nietzsche), made Rudhyar feel the urge to divorce himself from Europe and to seek a "New World" — a land where he could sow himself as a seed, carrying within his being the harvest of whatever was viable and constructive in the European past. The ideal of the "seed man" thus rose in his consciousness, dominating his thinking and his actual living.
      His first book, Claude Debussy et son oevre, was published by Durand of Paris in the spring 1913, together with three short piano compositions. The book was intended to be titled Claude Debussy and the Cycle of Musical Civilization, and in addition to biographical information on Debussy it contained Rudhyar's ideas about time, cycles, and the development of music. However, the publisher deleted the philosophical and historical parts and gave the remaining biographical sketch a new title. For a while he attempted law study, but gave it up, becoming a regular contributor to Le Revue, which, along with looking older than his mere seventeen years, opened many doors for him in the avant-garde world. Later, he acted as secretary to the famous sculptor Auguste Rodin.
       In 1913 Rudhyar witnessed the premiere performance of Stravinsky's Sacre du Printemps. In that year he began an association with two highly creative personalities — Valentine de Saint-Point and a young man named Vivian Postel Du Mas — involved in a futuristic form of multimedia performance art, an abstract synthesis of dance-motion, poetry, music, geometrical form, color and perfume, known as Métachorie (meta dance). A controversial and outspoken personality, Ms. de Saint-Point is today recognized as the prototypical female performance artist.
      Rudhyar had written several short orchestral scores, now lost, for Métachorie in 1914 — Trois Poëmes Ironiques and Vision Végétale — and eventually a performance was arranged for New York.
      Due to wartime U-boat activity in the North Atlantic, Rudhyar, along with Ms. Saint-Point and Vivian, had to

first travel to Spain, where they embarked for New York during November 1916. The photo above shows Rudhyar in Spain while waiting passage to America.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:13:18 pm

In the New World: 1917-1919

A gala performance of Métachorie was eventually arranged at the New York Metropolitan Opera for April 4, 1917. Pierre Monteux conducted the full orchestra, including a Prelude by Erik Satie orchestrated by Rudhyar as well as Rudhyar's original compositions. This was the first performance of dissonant polytonal music in America. The fact that it occurred virtually the night America entered World War I completely eclipsed any cultural impact it might have had.

      During the summer 1917 Rudhyar lived in destitution, passing most of his days at the New York Public Library. He read books on Oriental music, Oriental philosophy, Rosicrucianism and Alchemy. Two Japanese artists, Kawashima (a painter of lacquered screens) and Sensaki, who later became the Zen master Saski Roshi, introduced him to Buddhism. He became close friends with Carlos Salzedo, the composer-harpist, and the avant-garde composer Edgard Varése. On Christmas Eve 1917, with thirty-five cents in his pocket and a small trunk of clothes, and still not in command of the English language, he left his Parisian associates, whose ways of thinking and living he came to realize were diametrically opposite to his.

Toronto, 1917.  Age 22

       He was able to reach Canada, where he stayed in Toronto with the pianist Djane Lavoie Herz and her husband Sigfried, and later in Montreal with Alfred Laliberté, a close pupil of Scriabin. It was then that he came in touch with both the theosophical teachings of H.P. Blavatsky and the music of Scriabin's. Rudhyar composed a book of French poems, Rhapsodies (published in Toronto 1918) and recited them to private groups there and in Philadelphia to the Art Alliance. The summers 1917-1918 were passed in Seal Harbor, Maine (pictured). There he met Salzedo, Stokowski, Hoffman, Gabrilowitch and many musicians who, unable to reach Europe during wartime, had found refuge at Seal Harbor.

During the winter season 1918-19, Rudhyar saw a great deal of Leopold Stokowski, and was given access to the Stokowski's orchestra rehearsals. Stokowski introduced him to a remarkable pioneering woman, Christine Wetherill

Stevenson (pictured). A prominent Theosophist and an heiress, Mrs. Stevenson had begun the Little Theater movement and the Art Alliance a few years before. Winter 1919 saw Rudhyar in Philadelphia under the sponsorship of Mrs. Stevenson.   There he composed his early orchestral work Soul Fire, which won him in 1922 a $1,000 prize from the newly formed Los Angeles Philharmonic (Rothwell conductor). He wrote a cycle of piano pieces, Mosaics, related to episodes in the life of Jesus, and short preludes, Ravishments, the best of which were later integrated in other works. During this productive musical period he also composed Trois Poëmes Tragique for contralto. Rudhyar continued writing French poems, as well as unpublished essays on the Bahai Movement and social organization. It was then that he first developed his ideas for a new global civilization and for a humanity unified in what he called The Synanthropy. Rudhyar even made sketchy plans for a world city, somewhat resembling those for Auroville, built during the second half of the 20th century near Pondicherry, India, by the Sri Aurobindo Ashram.

      The Philadelphia period was crucial for Rudhyar's inner development, a true "dark night of the soul." His rejection of his ancestral name in 1917 reached deeper levels of the psyche, a death-rebirth process. The change of name was a necessity and a manifestation of the same type of resolve as the dedication of a monk or a Hindu swami to the service of a religious ideal. Rudhyar not only left physically his native land and the language of his ancestral French culture, he turned his back on the implications and patterns of the whole Western tradition, and sought to uproot from his psyche the negative, dualistic and spiritually crystallized aspects. His birth name was a symbol of all this past, and he dedicated himself as a "seed man" to a future which as yet he could but dimly envision. The name "Rudhyar" is close to old Sanskrit terms implying dynamic action, the color red (he was born with the Sun in Aries, a zodiacal sign related to the red planet, Mars) and the electric power released during storms — the "god" Rudra. The first name, Dane, had to be added for legal requirements when he became an American citizen in 1926; but all his true friends called him Rudhyar.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:16:07 pm

The Early Hollywood Years: 1920-1924 

Rudhyar emerged into a new world of feeling and consciousness when through Mrs. Stevenson's sponsorship he was able to reach Hollywood on 1 January 1920. The next morning he met the great Theosophist B. P. Wadia, with whom he formed a close association. "In Philadelphia," Rudhyar states, "I met Mr. Warrington, then the head of the American Theosophical Society, when he lectured in the mansion built by Mrs. Stevenson’s father, a 19th-century copper magnate. When I reached Krotona in the Hollywood Hills, then the American Theosophical headquarters, I took a room nearby, and on January 2nd at breakfast Mr. Warrington greeted me warmly and introduced me to Mr. B. P. Wadia, who had just arrived in America after representing at the League of Nations the nascent Indian Labor Movement, which he initiated, leading a strike in Madras. Wadia was then the ‘right hand’ of Mrs. Annie Besant, then the president of the Theosophical Society. He was the manager of the Theosophical Publishing House and the editor of The Theosophist in which he soon printed my first article written in English, Inertia and the Mystery of Evil."

      "A series of remarkable lectures," Rudhyar continues, "Wadia gave during the winter of 1922 in Hollywood on The Secret Doctrine stimulated me to study HPB’s monumental work further. For quite a long time, I gave to this study a couple hours every morning. I was particularly fascinated by the constant reference to cycles, because, when I was only sixteen in Paris, I had had an intuitive realization that all life processes and the very essence of ‘Time’ were cyclic."

      The 1920s were Hollywood's great days, and Mrs. Stevenson had beautiful plans for dedicating the hills to creative and spiritual activities. She had produced a Life of Buddha on the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters, Krotona, in the Hollywood Hills. Walter Hampden and Ruth St. Denis performing the main roles. Later she decided to produce a Life of Christ and commissioned Rudhyar to write scenic music for it. But her Hollywood associates, and even the President of the American Theosophical Society, Mr. Warrington, could not share her vision. Disappointed, she gave up the idea of using the Bowl property (which she had purchased for $40,000 with Mrs. Chauncey Clarke — Marie Rankin Clarke) and bought the adjacent hills for the same price. There she built an amphitheater (now the John Anson Ford Amphitheatre) and during the summer of 1920 The Life of Christ was first performed. Unfortunately, Mrs. Stevenson soon died in mysterious circumstances (1922-23) while she was preparing to produce a Life of St. Francis of Assisi. She had made Rudhyar her musical director.

      It was in 1920 while living in a cottage near the Krotona Theosophical headquarters and having befriended a Dutch woman, Mrs. Van Vliet who was deeply interested in music, theosophy and astrology, that Rudhyar decided to investigate astrology and learn its techniques - classes being provided free. At Krotona he also met Alice Bailey, who later founded the Arcane School and the Lucis Publishing Company, which published his first books on astrology, The Astrology of Personality (1936) and New Mansions for New Men (1938). During 1920 he also began a close friendship with a remarkable woman, Aryel Darma, who brought him inwardly closer to spiritual realities. His association with the great Parsi Theosophist, B. P. Wadia had likewise a determining influence, leading him to a thorough study of H. P. Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine. Through these prolonged contacts Rudhyar's mind emerged in a rebirth of understanding and clarity of vision. What had been almost prophetic intuition in 1911 became developed, stabilized and fully creative ten years later in Hollywood.

Rudhyar - The Theosophical Mystery


B. P. Wadia (pictured above, evidently recognized Rudhyar's destiny and believed he had a special role to play in the Theosophical Movement, and perhaps Wadia also saw in Rudhyar an opportunity to somehow compensate for the manner in which Annie Besant was at the time promoting Krishnamurti as the vehicle of the coming Maitreya. Wadia undoubtedly felt indirectly responsible for the Krishnamurti situation because of the little known fact that it was he who first recognized something "special" about the boy, to whom he later brought to the attention of C. W. Leadbeater.

(     By 1923 Wadia broke with Mrs. Besant and her Adyar arm of the Theosophical Movement. Immediately afterwards he became the prime-mover of the United Lodge of Theosophists. Wadia passed away in 1958.

      Rudhyar continued composing. He came to New York for the 1922-23 season and performed some of his piano compositions at a concert for the International Composers Guild, of which he was an original member. He was also a founder of the New Music Society, initiated by Henry Cowell. Rudhyar's Surge of Fire was performed in Los Angeles at the first concert of the New Music Society, October 1925, and later on in New York. A performance took place at the California Institute of the Arts in May 1971, James Tenney conductor. In addition to composing and studying, Rudhyar was beginning to be a prolific writer of articles, now in English. Articles on Erik Satie and on Stravinsky were published in the April and October 1919 issues of The Musical Quarterly. In his article The Relativity of Our Musical Conceptions Rudhyar began championing Oriental music and wrote of future non-European types of music. He also provided material for Salzedo's magazine Eolus, for theosophical publications, and for the Christian Science Monitor.

JAVARTAM - Java Art in America
The shop at 7020 Hollywood Blvd., operated by Aryel Darma (pictured in the center, left) and Rudhyar. Aryel was an associate of Wadia's, and the two had already established a close friendship before Wadia first visited America in 1919. Like Rudhyar, during the 1920s Aryel acted on the silent screen, having a starring role in the highly-rated 1926 film The Smoke Eaters and a supporting role in The Show Girl, 1927. After the destruction of the shop by fire, she was forced to return to Holland, where she had hoped to find success acting in Dutch and German films. Instead, Aryel passed away in 1928.
      By the late-1920s Wadia was traveling a great deal, founding many new theosophical lodges. When he finally returned to India, around the time of Aryel's passing, Rudhyar passed though a period of psychic and spiritual aloneness, but soon emerged into a broader sphere of activity.

Rudhyar worked with his friend Aryel Darma, who had lived in Java, in creating a store, Javartam, which brought for the first time all kinds of Indonesian art-products, batiks, and other artifacts to America. Unfortunately, the store at 7020 Hollywood Blvd. and most of its contents were destroyed by a fire originating in an adjoining Russian restaurant. During this time Rudhyar also played bit parts and supporting roles in motion pictures, and for seven months acted as the Christ in Grauman's Theater prologue for the first version of The Ten Commandments by C. B. de Mille (1924). Rudhyar also appeared as the Christ in de Mille's 1924 silent version of The Ten Commandments, and had a supporting role in Alan Crosland's 1924 film, Three Weeks. He was also involved in an attempt at creating a Little Film Movement; and with a friend planned to develop "Introfilms" — films which would depict inner psychological states through series of images. These attempts — also one at creating a World-Music Society, and another in 1924 , Hamsa Publications, dedicated to the building of a new American culture — were totally abortive, being far ahead of the times.

      Rudhyar, who in 1924 had not composed for two years, instead writing essays and studying Hindu music from books and through his friendship with singer and dancer Ragini Devi (an American women who would go on to become one of the most renown and respected dancers of India) began a new musical phase that year with the composition of the Moments. These were originally 22 tone-poems broadly associated in principle with the Tarot cards. They were published by Birchard (Boston) in 1930 as three books of five pieces each. These constitute now the four Pentagrams (I. The Coming Forth, 2. The Enfolding, 3. The Release, 4. The Human Way). Later on a series of works called Tetragrams were composed, the last one in 1968. There are now nine Tetragrams, each including four short sections (I. The Quest-1920, 2. Crucifixion-1926, 3. Rebirth-1927, 4. Adolescence-1925, 5. Solitude-1927, 6. Emergence-1929, 7. Tendrils-1924, 8. Primavera-1928, 9. Summer Nights-1968).

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:19:37 pm
NEW YORK. 1925

Expanding Horizons: 1925-1929

Rudhyar went back and forth between New York and Hollywood during the years 1922, 1925, 1926, 1928, 1929 and 1930. During 1926 at the Yaddo Colony in upstate New York he completed the Moments. He continued writing articles, poems and music. The three Paeans were composed in 1925, Five Stanzas and Ouranos in 1927. In 1925 Rudhyar wrote a book entitled The Rediscovery of Music. Knopf was at first interested in the project, but found the finished manuscript impossible to sell. Other publishers agreed.
      During this period Rudhyar became a musical associate and friend of Martha Graham, the Mother of Modern Dance, a close contemporary who he had first met while she was a member of the dance company of Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn in Hollywood. Rudhyar played piano improvisations for the rehearsals of some of Martha Graham’s earliest dance compositions, and in many ways her early work in dance paralleled Rudhyar's musical work.

Rudhyar's Dance Connection

From the beginning, Rudhyar's destiny brought him in close contact and collaboration with some of the most important and influential female dancers of the 20th Century. First there was VSP - Valentine de Saint-Point - the prototypic multimedia performance artist, who in her later years went to Egypt and became a Sufi. Then came Ruth St. Denis, little remembered today, but during the early-20th Century she was as famous as Isadora Duncan.

     During her early years, Martha Graham and Rudhyar were so complementary - one in dance, the other in music - that they even looked alike, and Rudhyar improvised at the piano for the rehearsals of her earliest performed works. Rania, the heroine of his first novel, was also a woman of dance, whose movements possessed a magical force. In the late-1920s, Rudhyar also provided music for some of Doris Humphrey's dances. And, As we'll soon learn, Rudhyar's second wife, Eya Fechin, was a professional dancer and an early proponent of Psychodrama.

     Rudhyar was also a friend of Srimati Ragini Devi, who in the 1920s encouraged him to write The Rebirth of Hindu Music. Named after the Vedic goddess of dance, this American woman left her well-placed husband, studied Indian music and dance, married an Indian man (with whom she bore Indirian, who became a famous dancer in her own right), and went on become a legendary figure, reviving the classical dance of India.

     As is the case with other areas of Rudhyar's personality and destiny, it's best not to over-analyze Rudhyar's connection with dance and dancers. But it doesn't take the intrepid researcher long to discover a mythological


In the accompanying original watercolor by Promode Chatterjee, the Hindu deity Shiva, of which Rudra is a manifestation, is seated on a leopard skin, playing the harmony of the universe on a transcendent instrument made partly of a human skull. His son Ganesha accompanies him on the drum, beating out the rhythm of the cosmic pulse. By this divine invocation the goddess of dance and music, Ragini Devi, is brought into manifestation.

      In 1927 Rudhyar began a new phase of his career, giving many lecture-recitals on modern music, as well as a series of talks on Oriental religions and philosophy. His first book of English poems Toward Man was published in Carmel, California in 1928. Other volumes of poetry were also written, a selection from which was published later under the title Of Vibrancy and Peace. White Thunder was published as a deluxe edition in Santa Fe, N. M. during 1938.

      In 1928 To The Real in three sections was completed by the addition of a second movement and orchestrated. It was performed in Paris by Nicolas Slonimsky. Sinfonietta was also orchestrated at that time, and later performed in Washington D. C., and recorded in Germany.

      That year Rudhyar lectured many times in Carmel, Los Angeles and Chicago. He also began a series of booklets under the general title of Seed Ideas, printed in Halcyon, California where in 1920 he had met Henry Cowell at the Temple of the People. Seven of these booklets were bound and published under the title Art as Release of Power. A second series began late in 1929, but only two were published.


Rania - Rudhyar's Epic Narrative

"RANIA is an epic narrative of the evolution of a woman's soul. It is the heroic pilgrimage of woman's being, exalted and enslaved, possessed and discarded, struggling for freedom. This is Rania's tortuous search for spiritual strength, ultimately sustaining her in her final battle with the powers of Darkness." So reads the back cover notes from the 1973 Unity Press edition of Rania.

     In his Preface, Rudhyar writes that Rania is "the story of a strong and unusual woman's life filled with extremes of light and darkness, of beauty and tragedy. I conceived this work as a kind of symphonic narrative in three movements. I emphasized the poetic-musical form by writing at first short stanza-like paragraphs, then, as the action became less tense and precipitated, increasing the length of these stanzas. The second part of the symphonic-narrative the action slows down, and the stanza-form is no longer needed. It reappears in the third part which ends with a recall of the initial heroic theme of the sacrifice of the seed. In RANIA the action is condensed, often stark, moving from high-point to high-point - today one would probably speak of "peak-experiences." The characters are projected on the background of social or natural landscapes which are broadly drawn and essentailized.

     Many of the work's scenes, themes and characters were drawn from Rudhyar's experiences in Hollywood and Carmel, and the leading characters are based loosely on his spiritual friends Aryel Darma and B.P. Wadia.

      During January 1929 in Chicago, Rudhyar wrote Rania: An Epic Narrative. The manuscript was presented repeatedly to publishers who declined to publish it because it was too unusual a work, half poem, half novel. In March 1972 it was read by James Shere in several installments at the radio station KPFA Berkeley, during a month dedicated to the broadcasting of works by Rudhyar, interviews, comments, music, and other work. Rania was eventually published by Stephen Levine's Unity Press in 1973.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:22:41 pm

New Opportunities: 1930-1936

Rudhyar passed the winter 1930 in New York, working on various projects and articles. Lectures were given at the Roerich Institute. In June Rudhyar married Malya Contento, who he had met through Will Levington Comfort. The booklet Paths To The Fire was published during September 1930, stating in original terms occult concepts relating to the cyclic evolution of mankind. During the winter 1931 Rudhyar wrote a mimeographed course Liberation Through Sound which incorporated in a different way some of the ideas already formulated in the book The Rediscovery of Music. It showed how a musical culture can be characterized by the basic intervals which it uses. Hindu, Chinese, Pythagorean European musics (in the plural) were treated in-depth, and related to states of consciousness applicable to the development of the individual. A series of lectures were given in Boston and for the music school of the Henry Street Settlement in New York.

Rudhyar and his first wife, Malya Contento

     After his marriage, Rudhyar met the philosopher, occultist, astrologer Marc Edmund Jones, whose astrology classes Malya attended. Marc Jones gave Rudhyar mimeographed courses on astrology which he was sending to members of his group, The Sabian Assembly. These were quite remarkable courses presenting astrology in far more sound and deeply philosophical light than had ever been available. Rudhyar had kept his interest in astrology and occasionally had interpreted charts for inquiring friends; but the MEJ courses showed him how much wider the scope of astrological thinking could be. Although Rudhyar had already written on "A Philosophy of Operative Wholeness," it wasn't until this period that he became aware of and deeply interested in Jan Smuts' Holism and Evolution, a remarkable work that carried further and in a new way the ideas of the French philosopher, Bergson, whom Rudhyar had studied in Paris. Carl Jung's depth-psychology also attracted his attention in 1932 and especially during the summer 1933, while Rudhyar stayed as a guest on the ranch of Mary Tudor Garland in New Mexico.

      All these influences began to act upon Rudhyar's mind and he saw the possibility of working out a practical as well as conceptual synthesis under the title of Harmonic Astrology. Astrology's place in this synthesis was seen as a means to demonstrate in a concrete and effective way the workings of cyclic and holistic patterns in the lives of individuals and nations — as a personalized application of his philosophical and psychological concepts. It implied no fundamental break with the more esoteric and archetypal approach he had held under the influence of Blavatsky's momentous works, but rather an anchoring of the basic concepts of occult philosophy to the level of the everyday existence. This enabled him to get in much closer touch with the reactions and aspirations of people who, intuitively if not clearly, could respond to his ideas.

      An unexpected opportunity to reach a vast American public came in 1932 and especially 1933 when Paul Clancy, originator of American Astrology Magazine, became enthusiastic about Rudhyar's ideas and plans. Clancy more than anyone else, is responsible for the popularization of astrology, not only in the USA, but all over the world. His first magazine failed in 1932, but he start another again in 1933. Rudhyar's articles began to appear in Clancy's very small magazine. In 1934 a large distributor placed American Astrology on many newstands, and its phenomenal growth began at once. Paul Clancy requested more and more articles, and Rudhyar began to write two or three long astrological articles monthly for the magazine, providing him, for the first time, with a regular and dependable income.

The Sabian Symbol Connection

The Sabian Symbols are a set of 360 symbolic images, each symbol depicting a particular degree of the zodiac. For instance, AN UNSEALED LETTER is the symbolic image for the thirtieth degree of Leo. Although Rudhyar had no role in their clairvoyant discovery in 1925, in the minds of astrologers today Rudhyar, more than anyone else, is most closely linked with the Sabian Symbols. The close identification of the Symbols with Rudhyar has a twofold foundation. Firstly, he was responsible for first bringing them to the attention of the general public by publishing a condensed version of the Symbols in his first astrological book, The Astrology of Personality. Secondly, his 1973 reinterpretation of the Sabian Symbols, An Astrological Mandala has been the principal volume on the Symbols since its publication.

      Gavin Kent McClung, a personal friend and student of Marc Jones, states in his article The Prophetic Sabian Symbols, that "after Marc Edmund Jones and the clairvoyant Elsie Wheeler discovered the Sabian symbols, Jones placed in storage the cards on which they were recorded. He felt that making scientific use of the symbols in astrology might not be possible. At the time (the mid-1920s), Jones and others were involved in the scientific reorganization of astrology itself, and in various types of occult investigation.

      "When he came to realize that it might never again be possible to re-create the situation that had allowed the original discovery of the Sabian symbols, Jones decided to publish them. In 1931, the symbols became available to students in a mimeographed series of lessons called 'Symbolical Astrology', which included interpretive vignettes for each degree, together with elaborated versions of the images originally obtained through Elsie Wheeler's special gift.

      "At that time, Dane Rudhyar became interested in the symbols. He saw their potential, and in 1936 brought them to wider attention in the world of astrology by including a condensed version in his book The Astrology of Personality."

      Rudhyar soon started an enormous astrological production spanning decades. New astrological magazines appeared, and their editors asked Rudhyar for regular contributions. Soon Rudhyar wrote under pseudonyms, and over the next four decades he contributed literally thousands of articles on all kinds of topics, more or less related to astrology — articles dealing with astrology, philosophy, world-affairs and celebrities in all fields. Alice Bailey, after reading Rudhyar's 1934 articles, urged him to collect and amplify them in a book which her Lucis Publishing Company agreed to publish. And so was born in 1936 the now famous Astrology of Personality, which Paul Clancy greeted as "the greatest forward step in astrology since the time of Ptolemy. It represents the birth of a new epoch."

      So began Rudhyar's astrological career which astounded and shocked many of his older friends at a time when "thinking people" generally regarded astrology as an archaic superstition. Forty years later, during the late-1960s, the situation greatly changed, and Rudhyar at long last came into his own. His musical work had faced strong opposition from composers who had become devotees of Stravinsky's Neo-Classicism, following the end of World War I and Stravinsky's forced exile from Russia. Rudhyar opposed this neoclassical and formalistic trend which enthroned the ideals and patterns of European classicism, of the supremacy of pope and king. He pointed out, at a time when an outcry against Fascism swept over the intelligentsia and young musicians, dancers and artists, that the music of the 17th and 18th centuries was actually the expression of a culture which was based on a Fascistic type of social order. He showed how the C major scale and the rule of the tonic were symbolic of the very things against which the devotee of Neo-classicisrn were emotionally fighting. This closed to him many doors, especially those leading to foundation grants. Thus the new opening along astrological lines came out at the right time; for the Great Depression and the Income Tax were making it extremely difficult to enlist the interest and patronage of wealthy music lovers.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:26:02 pm

The Discovery of Painting: 1937-1944

During the late-thirties Rudhyar continued composing poetry, including the three long Apocalyptic Poems. His musical compositions from this period include the sections of Syntony for the piano now called Oracle and Eclogue, and sketches unfinished for an orchestral rendition, with recitation, of his long poem Paean To The Great Thunder. Many lectures were given in New Mexico, New York, San Francisco and Hollywood. In 1937 in Italy he joined Malya, who was returning ill after six months in India. While there he met and befriended psychologist Roberto Assagioli. In 1939 he started a Foundation for Human Integration which, for many reasons, was never fully developed.

      During 1938 and 1939, while passing alone the summers in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Rudhyar began a new aspect of his public life. He began to paint and his work very soon attracted the interest of New Mexico painters and his works were exhibited in Santa Fe, Albuquerque, Phoenix and Ojai, California.

      This new creative outlet was very significant, for there is a great difference between hearing (and this meant then exclusively playing at the piano) one's music extended in time, and being able to contemplate quietly and effortlessly one's paintings extended in space. Rudhyar found that the new esthetic experiences opened a new level of consciousness and he enjoyed it greatly. But circumstances did not allow him to paint as much as he would like. He nevertheless participated with Raymond Jonson and others in the formation of The Transcendental Painting Group, and the use of the term, transcendental, was his suggestion. A Transcendental Painting Foundation was started of which he became the vice-president. Rudhyar wrote the movement's manifesto, and an unpublished work entitled The Transcendental Movement in Painting. The latter treated not only painting, but other kinds of transcendental artistic endeavors, such as the dance of Martha Graham.

Rudhyar and the Transcendental Painting Group

The Transcendental Paint Group was founded by several non-objective artists struggling to establish abstract and non-objective art in America. The group included Raymond Jonson, Emil Bisttram, Lawren Harris, Alfred Morang, Agnes Pelton, Ed Garman, Horace Pierce, Dane Rudhyar and others. While many members shared an interest in theosophy and mysticism, and were inspired by the work of Wassily Kandinsky, mundane factors, such as needs for work space, exhibitions and publicity, actually brought the group together.

     The Santa Fe Transcendental Painting Group is featured in the recent book Kandinsky and the American Avant-Garde: 1912-1950. The volume includes an essay on the Transcendental Painting Group by Marianne Lorenz and color plates depicting the work of its members.

     Regarding Rudhyar's work and its place, Lorenz writes, "Rudhyar is unique among the artists being studied here because he emerged fully as a painter in the style of Kandinsky almost immediately. Philosophically and intellectually seasoned in the theories that underlay Kandinsky's art, his artistic development was not subject to the long search or evolutionary process that was the case of Harris and Jonson. Rudhyar discovered Kandinsky's vocabulary at the same time he discovered painting. As such, much of his oeuvre of the period, while often imbued with an almost heroic energy, quotes Kandinsky's formal language and reinterprets it in overtly theosophical or mystical terms. In works such as Storm Gods (1938, shown here), Rudhyar uses motifs from a number of Kandinsky's works illustrated in the 1936 and 1938 catalogues of the Guggenheim collection.


     "Interestingly, Alfred Morang minimizes the influence of Kandinsky on Rudhyar, stating that 'the work of Rudhyar is built upon a non-objective pattern, but is not at all like the work of any other non-objective painter . . . His placing of shapes upon an oblong is not dictated by the rules of, let us say, Kandinsky or Picasso. Rather the motive force that actuates Rudhyar is a desire to the intangible something that he has learned to recognize through his music and his writing.'"

      Rudhyar's paintings include works in vibrant colors, and many smaller black-and-white drawings. These paintings are non-representation, "abstract" or "symbolical." They aim at evoking inner states of consciousness and strong feeling-responses to rhythm and color combinations. Rudhyar uses pure colors, often in "dissonant" combinations which are blended and balanced in a manner creating what he calls in music "dissonant harmony." It is fundamental to realize, that none of Rudhyar's creative expressions emphasizes the technical, specialized approach which mark artists who work as "professionals." Indeed, Rudhyar fought against the attitude of professionalism in any art; for such an attitude binds the creation to ideological as well as esthetic standards, and very often to fashion. "Any art," he states, "should evoke an inner reality behind the outer forms, sounds or colors. The work of art of whatever kind, plastic or musical, should raise the feelings and the consciousness of whoever is faced with it to a higher level. To call this a 'mystical' concept is quite senseless. This has been the foundation of all great art in all cultures, except perhaps during their formalistic and 'classical' period during which virtuosity and 'art for art's sake' was considered the ideal for an often empty and bored aristocracy at some kingly or princely court."

      Years passed devoted to the writing of articles for astrological and other types of magazines, with some time spent painting. This was in many ways a difficult period — the "dangerous Forties" of inner questioning and reorientation. World War II was impending; then, attention absorbing. Two books were written, the first, Man Maker of Universes proved unsatisfactory and only fragments were kept. The other, very long, The Age of Plenitude was almost accepted by a New York publisher but war pressures interfered. A small book, The Faith That Gives Meaning To Victory, was published in New York in 1942. It stressed Rudhyar's ideal of a global society and the true relationship of the individual person to "Man's common humanity."

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:29:28 pm
SANTA FE, 1947

The Happiest Years: 1945-1954

Rudhyar experienced a strenuous divorce during April 1945, and soon afterward he married Eya Fechin, daughter of the famous Russian painter, Nicolia Fechin. Rudhyar and Eya left California to live in Colorado Springs and, in 1947, in Nambe, New Mexico. These were happy and productive years. A book Modern Man's Conflicts — The Creative Challenge of a Global Society was written in 1945-46 and published in 1948 by the Philosophical Library in New York. He wrote a number of series for the magazines Horoscope and American Astrology, which were later revised and in book form and published as The Lunation Cycle, The Practice of Astrology, Triptych, The Astrological Timing — The Transition To The New Age (originally Birth Patterns for a New Humanity). A work attempting to reformulate the basic images of Christian-Western culture was written in 1948, and later recast entirely in a new style and published as Fire Out of the Stone.

      These years were the most productive in the field of painting. Rudhyar loved New Mexico. At one time he had planned to build a house near Santa Fe on land bought for him by the composer Charles Ives, but his divorce interfered. There were several reasons for leaving New Mexico. One was a meeting with the pianist William Masselos who, on his own initiative, had discovered the score of Granites. Masselos performed this composition in Albuquerque, New Mexico and afterward he and Rudhyar became staunch friends. He told Rudhyar of the interest young musicians in New York were taking in his music, as well as in his astrological writings, and of their desire to meet him and have him with them in New York. Also Eya, who had been a modern dancer in the Lester Horton Dance Company, had begun a compelling form of work dealing with personality-readjustment through basic body-movements, described in her booklet Eutonles. She felt the need to study certain aspects of psychology with a sympathetic psychologist. The latter turned out to be the remarkable pioneer in group-therapy and the founder of Psychodrama, Dr. Jacob Moreno.

Rudhyar and his second wife, Eya Fechin, at home in New Mexico.   

A stay in New York during February-March, 1949 brought many interesting contacts in the musical field, but also the realization that the New Mexico episode had to be concluded. The early fall saw Rudhyar and Eya once more in New York.

      During the winter 1950 Rudhyar's orchestral work Ouranos and his piano compositions were given at a concert at the Composers Forum on March 15, 1950 and Maro Ajemian played his Prophet-Icrite in April. Eya met Dr. Moreno at that time and decided to study with him at his psychiatric hospital in Beacon, New York. Rudhyar passed that summer at the MacDowell colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire composing a Quintet for piano and strings. A recital of Rudhyar's music was given in Carnegie Recital Hall on November 13, 1950, with the assistance of William Masselos and Anahid Ajemian, violinist. Rudhyar performed several of his piano compositions. The New Music Quartet gave a remarkable performance of Rudhyar's brief work Solitude on March 17, 1951.

      Rudhyar passed the winter 1952 in New York City, and later in Washington DC. During the following summer, a house was rented in Spring Valley, New York within the Threefold Farm estate dedicated to the ideals of the great German philosopher, occultist, educator and creative artist Rudolph Steiner.

      Lack of money forced Rudhyar and Eya to give up living in New York. Eya accepted an offer to start a department of Psychodrama at the Mental Institute in Independence, Iowa. She showed exceptional and natural gifts as a psychodrama director and had been warmly recommended by Dr. Moreno. Rudhyar and Eya reached the institute just after Rudhyar's 57th birthday.

      During his stay in Iowa, Rudhyar had no outlet for his creative activity, except the writing of a few astrological articles, and this was even at a low because several magazines to which he had contributed had to close. He became acquainted with the Science Fiction field, and his interest was aroused. Through the year 1953 he wrote a novel Return From No-Return, two novelettes, and a number of short stories. In these works Rudhyar displayed his most fertile imagination, but he placed too much emphasis on occult themes and poetic verse, and not enough attention on scientific gadgetry, to find acceptance. Many years later, however, Return from No-Return was published in 1973 by the Seed Center, Palo Alto.

      The stay in Iowa, which lasted until December 1953, proved quite traumatic. Eya fell in love with her assistant, who was a patient at the institute, and during a return trip to California she asked for a divorce. Rudhyar passed the winter of 1954 in Cathedral City, near Palm Springs, California, where he had often gone for rest in the past. Money was very scarce, but deep inner experiences provided the strength to meet the crucial test which opened the way for the significant work which occupied Rudhyar's later years.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:32:19 pm

Years of Transition: 1955-1967

Rudhyar passed the summer 1954 and spring 1955 at the Huntington Hartford colony in the Santa Monica Hills. There he composed the score for his most extensive and mature composition, Thresholds. There was no time for Rudhyar to orchestrate it, but twenty years later the task was completed by George Champion of Palo Alto.

      During the winter 1955, Rudhyar gave a series of lectures in Santa Barbara and San Francisco; and in June the publication of monthly mimeographed booklets Seed For Greater Living began, made possible by the efficient secretarial work of a devoted friend, Virginia Seith. These publications were issued regularly until 1962. A book of poems, Resurgence, was also written during this period. Rudhyar lived then in a small one-room apartment on Hollywood Blvd. He wrote a regularly for the magazine Horoscope and gave a few lectures in Los Angeles, during a brief stay in New York stay during December 1956, and in San Francisco and San Jose during 1957.

      In 1958, invited by an elderly Swiss correspondent, Mme. Honegger, Rudhyar took three trips to Europe, which proved most significant and valuable. The second trip, 1961 through 1962, brought to him many contacts and stimulating experiences. He lectured in several countries (France, Switzerland, Holland and England), receiving an exceptionally warm response. He wrote in French the book Existence, Rythme et Symbole at the suggestion of an editor; but very peculiar events made the promise of publication a myth. This book however formed the basis for the later work, The Planetarization of Consciousness, which, when published in 1970, made tremendous impact on the minds and outlooks of the thousands of young people worldwide who had suddenly became fascinated by Rudhyar's work.

      At a lecture in Holland, Rudhyar met Carolus Verhulst of the Dutch publisher Servire, who offered to publish a small book of his, if there was one needing publication. Rudhyar, who had tried in vain to find a publisher in New York and even in England since McKay in Philadelphia had given up in 1951 all astrological publishing, presented Mr. Verhulst with a copy of The Pulse of Life. The Dutch publisher accepted it at once and a most fruitful cooperation began, which resulted in the publication of nine volumes, making Rudhyar work widely available, just as a new generation of seekers were becaming fascinated by metaphysics and astrology.

      During a third trip to Europe in 1963, Rudhyar gave a seminar at the School of Philosophy in Holland and lectures in Paris and England. While staying on the Italian Riviera during August, he started an autobiography, which was superseded by another in 1983.

      During the summer of 1963, Rudhyar received letters from a young Canadian woman, Tana, who was then living with a piano teacher who had been a past correspondent and had bought several of his books. Tana came to see Rudhyar at Christmas while he was staying for a few days in Cathedral City. After her return in March, they were married in Riverside, California, taking residence nearby in San Jacinto, Calfiornia after a lecture tour in St. Paul, Chicago and Boston.

      The years which followed were a period of quiet and steady work and involvement in the publishing, promotion and distribution of the books being published in Holland. A small volume, The Rhythm of Human Fulfillment was written and published in California in 1966. Tana became involved in a very early version of desktop publishing, typesetting several of Rudhyar’s manuscripts for publication on a vintage IBM Executive typewriter. In 1967 a small grant from the Ditson Fund in New York enabled a number of copies of most of Rudhyar's piano scores to be distributed to some libraries and a very few pianists. Rudhyar had recopied most of them for this occasion and they are now available at the Composers' Facsimile Edition, which is a branch of the American Composers Alliance, to which Rudhyar belonged for many years. He not only copied old scores, but revised and completed the work now called Syntony, in four sections (Dithyramb, Eelogue, Oracle, Apotheosis). During this period he also composed the ninth Tetragram, Summer Nights.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:35:15 pm

Sudden Popularity: 1968-1971

In 1968 Birth Patterns for a New Humanity (later reisssued by Harper and Row under the title Astrological Timing — The Transition To The New Age) was written, typeset by Tana, and published by Servire in Holland. During this year many talks were given around Los Angeles and in the San Francisco area, bringing important connections to Rudhyar with the Bay Area, with the Esalen Institute, with Sam Bercholz, founder of the Shambala Publications in Berkeley, and with friends and associates such as Michael R. Meyer, Jose Arguelles and others. In August Rudhyar addressed the Seattle Biennial Convention of the American Federation of Astrologers, where he received a standing ovation. In Berkeley and San Francisco Rudhyar came in close contact with the generation of young people were eagerly reading his books, and made many friends.

      Thanks to Sam Bercholz, Doubleday and Co., New York, agreed to publish in a paperback edition Rudhyar's first astrological treatise The Astrology of Personality. The demand for the book exceeded all expectations, more than 100,000 copies were quickly sold, literally revolutionizing the astrological world through the thousands of educated young people it brought into the field. No other event during the 20th century had such a far-reaching impact upon astrology and how it is viewed and practiced.

      During 1969 Rudhyar made several trips to the San Francisco Bay Area, giving seminars in Berkeley, at the Stanford University, in Big Sur for the Esalen Institute and in Los Angeles for the Conference on Science and Religion, founded in 1957 by Leland Stewart, and of which Rudhyar was the President for one year. He gave also a series of lectures in Tucson, Arizona for the Gayatra Center, started by his friend Paul Barkley. A number of long articles were also written for several magazines, Horoscope, Astroview, Occult and Omen.

      In February 1969 Rudhyar was prompted to initiate the International Committee for a Humanistic Astrology "in order to give more publicity to the possibility of approaching astrology and using birth-charts in a way different from both the fortune-telling variety, and the new and spreading ‘scientific’ endeavors to make astrology respectable and teachable in universities." In humanistic astrology Rudhyar attempted to show that there are at least two basic approaches to astrology: "Event-oriented" and "person-centered." He presented astrology "as a kind of Western yoga or psychosynthesis, and the birth-chart as a mandala, a formula of integration for the purpose of ‘making whole.‘" These ideas were developed in six booklets which were later combined into a book entitled Person-Centered Astrology.

The Humanistic Astrology Revolution
In his foreword to Person-Centered Astrology, Rudhyar states "this book came out of an initiative which I took during the evening of February 26, 1969, when I decided. to start the International Committee for Humanistic Astrology. The reason I made this move was that I strongly felt the need to state as clearly and widely as possible that astrology could be given an altogether different meaning. I sensed that today many individuals, especially in the younger generations, while fascinated by astrology, actually were asking for something that the 'scientific,' analytical approach could not given them. They were asking for a way of life in which their relationship as individuals to the universe would be given a constructive meaning. They wanted not so much to know the 'how,' as to realize in a new, cosmic way, the 'why' of their existence. They wanted to be made whole, and to discover how best to achieve this."

    Rudhyar goes on to state that his aim in publicizing the humanistic approach "has been to stand against the present de-personalizing trends which augur so badly for our Western civilization, and to place the individual person at the place where it belongs in astrology, i.e., at the center of its concerns. I am concerned with persons, not with a system or a profession — persons who live and struggle toward the actualization of their fullest potential of being NOW."

     The holistic, humanistic approach to astrology formulated by Rudhyar created a revolution in astrology, bringing to astrology thousands of young, educated people, and attracting the interest of credential people working in the helping professions.

In 1970 Rudhyar lectured in Tucson, San Francisco, Woodland, Carmel, Dallas. He addressed an audience of 2,000 at the American Federation of Astrologers in Miami, where he again received a standing ovation. In October he flew to New York for lectures and musical contacts; and he talked to a group in Pennsylvania and in Baltimore before returning home. During the summer in Idyllwild, he wrote We Can Begin Again—Together. In a shorter volume, Directives For New Life, some of the ideas developed in the larger work were condensed. A small booklet, A Seed was also published in San Francisco during Christmas 1971.

      In 1971 Rudhyar completed The Astrological Houses and a smaller volume Astrological Themes For Meditation. During that year he also began one of his most significant and important astrological works, An Astrological Mandala — The Cycle of Transformation and Its 360 Symbolic Phases, in which he reformulates and discusses the Sabian symbols psychically produced in 1925 through Marc Jones and Elsie Wheeler. Rudhyar passed the summer in Palo Alto, talking to students of the Esalen summer school as well as giving two seminars for the Esalen Institute (in May at Mill Valley with Jose and Miriam Arguelles, on "Education for Rebirth," and in September in Berkeley on "A New Look at H. P. Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine"). He also lectured to students at the University of California in Davis.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:37:25 pm
PALO ALTO.  1971

Broadening Influence: 1971-1974

On 5 May 1971, The Surge of Fire was performed for the third time at the California Institute of the Arts, under the direction of James Tenney. A meeting with the young pianist Michael Sellers led to the latter's decision to perform many of the Rudhyar works for the piano, beginning a surge of interest in Rudhyar's music, which had remained so long unperformed. The new interest in Rudhyar’s musical work which began during this period, and continues to grow decades later, can be related to the revival of the music of the composers who were active in the early days of the International Composers Guild — from Varése, Ives and Ruggles to Henry Cowell, all of whom were close friends and associates of Rudhyar’s. Additionally, many people who had been eagerly listening to the long forgotten music of Scriabin were quite naturally responding to Rudhyar's music, which, unlike as it is in many ways to that of the Russian mystic, is essentially an inner-directed and profoundly psycho-spiritual type of musical expression.

Rudhyar's Music of Speech

 Rudhyar's music is "a music of speech, in contrast to the typical classical music of Europe which was born of dance rhythm and popular songs, or else developed along formalistic lines stressing ‘patterns’ rather than ‘tones'." Rudhyar often stressed the "basic difference between notes and tones, between music to be looked at (the score) and a music composed of tones charged with an intensity of personal experiences." His music is a music of "speech"— speech "beyond the rationalism of modern language-because in it a living person speaks out directly and spontaneously in resonant tones; thus the freedom of its tone-flow and the impossibility of straight-jacketing this durational flow into the rigidity of regular bars and standardized formal developments."

Rudhyar’s popularity, especially among young people, continued to grow. Several publishers, large and small, sought his works and 1973-74 saw the publication of several titles. Rania, An Astrological Mandala and Return From No-Return were published in 1973, and during the following year We Can Begin Again—Together and The Astrology of America’s Destiny were released. During this period Michael R. Meyer was instrumental in placing Occult Preparations for a New Age with the Quest Books imprint of the Theosophical Publishing House, thus beginning Rudhyar’s long and fruitful association with Quest Books, which published a total of six of Rudhyar’s titles during his final decade. 1975 was also the year Rudhyar resurfaced the theme of "Transpersonal Activity," first in the booklet From Humanistic to Transpersonal Astrology, and later that year in The Sun is Also a Star – The Galactic Dimension of Astrology.

     Regarding his use of the term "transpersonal," Rudhyar states, "I began to use the term transpersonal in 1930, long before the movement of transpersonal psychology was started, and with a meaning quite different from the one the word has recently taken in the field of psychology. I defined as transpersonal a process of ‘decent’ of transcendental spiritual power and illumination through the normal consciousness, and eventually through the whole personality of a human being. The source of that power and light exists in a realm ‘beyond’ the personal consciousness and the ego, but I saw in the transpersonal action a descent of power rather than an ascent of a person’s consciousness and emotions."

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 12:40:50 pm

The Final Decade: 1975-1985

During the summer of 1974 Rudhyar met Leyla Raël, with whom he had corresponded for several months. Later that year she began living and working with Rudhyar and Tana in Southern California. In 1976 Rudhyar and Tana divorced, and Rudhyar and Leyla took residence in Palo Alto, California. They married on 31 March 1977.

      Thus began, at age eighty, perhaps the most creative and productive period of Rudhyar’s long life. Rudhyar soon began a long and fruitful phase of composition, giving rise to the long piano works Transmutation, Theurgy, Autumn, Three Cantod, Epic Poem and Rites of Transcendence, as well as the reworking and orchestration of older work. During the early 1980s Leyla’s sustenance and the secretarial assistance of Joseph Jacobs allowed Rudhyar to conduct a busy schedule of lecturing, writing and composing. During these years he produced some of his best and most significant written works, including The Rhythm of Wholeness, The Astrology of Transformation, Beyond Individualism, The Magic of Tone and the Art of Music and The Fullness of Human Experience.

      A symposium was held in his honor at California State University, Long Beach during his eighty-first birthday. In 1976 and 1977 he received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, and in 1978 he received the Peabody Award. A concert of the League of Composers-International Society for Contemporary Music in New York was performed for his eighty-fifth birthday. On 10 March 1982, selections of Rudhyar’s music was performed as part of the American Composers Series at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, DC.

      During 1981 the Rudhyar Institute for Transpersonal Activity (RITA) was incorporated by Leyla Raël. The first of two RITA conferences was held in Menlo Park, California during September 1983. A second conference was conducted at the same location in celebration of Rudhyar’s ninetieth birthday.
      The purpose of RITA was outlined by Rudhyar as having the eventual aim of establishing "a permanent center, where files of over 1,500 articles, manuscripts of unpublished volumes, paintings, and musical scores will be made available to students, and where courses and seminars will be organized. A complete edition of my writings may follow in order to keep them circulated, as commercial publishers will not keep books in print unless they sell almost as many copies as new releases each year . . . Other activities will develop as the need and possibility for them arises."

Rudhyar peacefully passed beyond the domain of the living on 13 September 1985.

Life's circumstances made it nearly impossible for Rudhyar to concentrate upon his musical production as he wanted to do; yet this fact is actually an essential part of the meaning of his whole life. Rudhyar is the antithesis of the "specialist" ideal so worshipped in our disintegrating society. He is the typical "generalist," as can be seen from the breadth of interests and understanding displayed in his major books, particularly The Planetarization of Consciousness and Rhythm of Wholeness.
      Rudhyar states, "I had to be a generalist, because of my inclusive grasp of historical as well as cosmic processes and my sense of personal responsibility to a global future for mankind. Such a global future, I feel, cannot be reached in a manner consonant with man's total possibilities of individual and collective development unless a fundamental change in consciousness and in the quality of social and interpersonal relationships takes place; and this very soon. Thus an essential and nearly total transformation of our civilization, a ‘revaluation of all values’ is urgently needed. It is not a matter of technical inventions or changes in social or artistic fashions, especially not in music as such, or any profession as such; everything is involved. What is most important therefore is to formulate in broad all-inclusive terms what the basic principles at the root of this total transformation are." This is what Rudhyar more than ever tried to do in his last books.

      Because of his enormous production of articles and books concerning astrology, Rudhyar naturally become known by many people as an "astrologer"; but he states he "always saw in astrology mostly a tool, a technique for the development of a ‘generalistic’ and humanistic type of understanding and wisdom, and the practical everyday application of a holistic and objective grasp of the very foundations of all existence." One of his early and unrealized projects had the motto: Solidarity, Service, Synthesis. It expresses the essential character of Rudhyar's life and work.

      Rudhyar had to wait until his seventies to see at least some of the ideas and ideals for which he has stood for fifty years taking roots in the minds and hearts of those who could be his grand-children. And as an octogenarian he experienced one of his most active and creative periods. He had the patience of men who know that their work is attuned to the rhythm of evolutionary forces that must eventually succeed, however long success is delayed. His also was the impatience of those who realize only too well the urgency and critical character of every moment of life at the threshold of what could be a deep and widespread upheaval of the most basic values which have pervaded our Western civilization, and indeed other cultures, whose flowering has long been past, and of which only spiritual seeds and memories remain.

      In days of often confused thinking and aimless living, Rudhyar had the rare characteristic of knowing where he stood and had few illusions concerning the road ahead. There is an inner knowledge that can only be suggested and evoked, and all that is said of the outer life is after all only an externalization of the power behind the personality. In the end, this only remains. The performer of the ritual of a creative and pioneering life gives up his "mask," for others to use when the need requires, and retires in the silence.

Conditions after Rudhyar's passing in 1985 made it difficult to continue the work of RITA in a fruitful and sustained manner. During the latter part of Year 2000, however, Leyla Rudhyar Hill, Michael R. Meyer and others reactivated the Rudhyar Institute for Transpersonal Activity. Together they are working to make Rudhyar’s legacy available worldwide through the web publication of the Rudhyar Archives.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 02:41:05 pm

                                         DR. MARK EDMUND JONES (1888 - 1980)


Early life

Born October 1, 1888, 8:37 a.m. CST in St. Louis, Missouri, as a child Marc Edmund Jones was interested in complex patterns observable in the environment, and he gradually developed a distinctive personal system of thought that later produced notable perspectives on occultism and the cabalistic world-view in general.

He grew up in Chicago in the social framework of a rather formal, late Victorian parental style. Other early influences were the Christian Science neighbors who moved next door and an aunt who introduced him to theosophy. In 1913 his lifelong interest in astrology was kindled, leading to further investigation into occult principles, and an interest in spiritualism that developed later on.



Marc Jones has been called the dean of American astrology, and is perhaps best remembered as the major leader in the twentieth century of a movement to reformulate the study of astrology and place it permanently on a rational scientific basis.

He developed the seven categories of horoscopic patterns or distributions of the astrological planets around the zodiac, which are called the Splay, Splash, Bundle, Bowl, Locomotive, Bucket, and Seesaw shapes or patterns. Essential interpretation of a horoscope can be made on this basis, leading to direct inference as to how an individual might cope with his or her inner and outer worlds according to the Jones Pattern distribution found in the natal horoscope.

He created or discovered the Sabian Symbols with the assistance of the clairvoyant Elsie Wheeler in 1925, and in 1953 he published The Sabian Symbols In Astrology, a book that renders a specific symbol and interpretive character for each of the 360° of the zodiac that are found on the astronomical ecliptic. These symbols have gained broad acknowledgement by way usage throughout the astrological world.

Early in life he became a prolific and successful writer of movie scenarios, and worked in that profession for many years. He founded the special-studies group known as the Sabian Assembly in 1923, still in existence in the twenty-first century. He was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1934, and later received the PhD degree from Columbia University. He taught and lectured across the USA for many years.

His largest documentary legacy is the set of Sabian lessons on philosophy, the Bible, astrology and cabalistic patterns at which he labored for decades. Members of the Sabian Assembly continue to work with these lesson-sets for the insight they offer into teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Ibn Gabirol, and the major books of the Tenach (Old Testament) and the New Testament. There are 78 such sets, each containing approximately 26 weekly lessons of closely argued analyses. Lesson-sets in other areas include twelve on astrology and twelve involving his redevelopment of cabalistic thought. The latter group of lesson-sets is known as the Pure Pattern Series. There are 114 lesson-sets altogether, which are available to the public.

Dr. Jones died on March 5, 1980 (Source: Death Certificate). His major visible legacy remains in his many books, most of which are still in print.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 02:42:59 pm

Published works

How To Learn Astrology
The Guide To Horoscope Interpretation
Horary Astrology
Astrology: How & Why It Works
The Sabian Symbols In Astrology
Essentials Of Astrological Analysis
Scope Of Astrological Prediction
Mundane Perspectives In Astrology
Fundamentals Of Number Significance
The Counseling Manual In Astrology
How To Live With The Stars
The Marc Edmund Jones 500
George Sylvester Morris: Philosophical Career & Theistic Idealism
Gandhi Lives
Occult Philosophy
The Sabian Manual: A Ritual For Living
The Sabian Book Of Letters To Aspirants
Man, Magic And Fantasy

External links

Astrology's Memorial to Marc Edmund Jones and His Work
Non-Sabian Astrologer Perspective on Marc Edmund Jones
Retrieved from "

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 02:49:52 pm

                                              R U D H Y A R   A N D   J O N E S 

A Saturnian Proclamation

by Gavin K. McClung

It is a pivotal, not to say epochal, moment in time when the tenets of humanistic and transpersonal astrology are again being fully propounded throughout the world of astrology at large. The time to do this is right, and the time is now. This is written by one who has recently experienced a personal facet of the great concept of Cycle, about which Dane Rudhyar has spoken so often and so appealingly to those who knew or know him through his books and lectures, or through the illuminative personal encounter that can happen from time to time.
      The second return of Saturn is indeed a valuable developmental milestone for anyone who may be so fortunately informed as to be aware of its presence on their personal lifetime-line (or life-timeline). The essential meaning is far greater than any single example or explanation of it can convey. Yet it can be said that at the "third Saturn" (second return) there occurs for an individual a juncture where he or she may correctly see or say in truth: "Now I have evolved from being a very old, perhaps even decrepit :), middle-aged person — and have advanced upon the wheel of life to become now a fresh, young, new-born or reborn infant old-aged person!" The writer, who has experienced this, confirms that it's great to be so young again.

      So be it for some new gray hair; so be it for a touch of arthritic symptom from time to time; and so be it for the occasional surprising "touch of wisdom" that may somehow appear on one's personal horizon now and again. There are surprising benefits. Perhaps some part of this affect may even become capable of expression at some level useful to others. We can hope so, at least — just as there was hope in hearing Marc Edmund Jones (Saturn in the MC degree) say fervently and with orotund volume, "Saturn is my absolute favorite planet to work with!"

      At a time when almost everything appears to have taken on an intriguing, even hypnotizing sheen of "newness" while civilization and human society speed toward the unknown or merely as yet unappreciated frontiers that lie beyond the superficially-recognized millennial boundary that is known to the Western mind as 2001 — at such a time, all possible rational contact with the living human past of the world has increasing value for everyone, if only because of its radical attention-getting "oldness" (read oddness?), or even its transiently romantic antiquity, or its experiential utility as cultural anchorage that can speak to us most valuably in the here and now of the why for which we do not yet know. Without the Old, there can be no New . . .

      As a "new" astrologer, I was fortunate, as were numerous others, to have words of personal conversation with Dane Rudhyar and Marc Edmund Jones both at the same astrological conference, once upon a time, now long ago. At that time, both of these men were well and truly into the old-age phase of their old-age (3rd) Saturn cycles. Jones in that day could lightly joke from the public platform: "I've noticed in recent years a lot of attention being given to 'how to grow old gracefully', but I've decided that I'm more interested in 'how to grow disgracefully old!'" Many, of course, recognized that he was actively doing both — successfully getting to be very old and making a graceful adventure of doing so. 

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 02:51:53 pm


 Between these two great personal friends and public figures, Dane Rudhyar and Marc Edmund Jones, there was and is a type of contrastive style and content of thinking that is yet in many ways almost reflexively identical in substance. There is astrological value, I believe, in considering that the Arian (Sagittarius-rising) Rudhyar has the Moon in Aquarius, while the Libran (Scorpio-rising) Jones has the Moon in Leo. Purposive and deeply vital spiritual exchange is perhaps the key insight for the intimate awareness-factors existing between them, perhaps, almost, a yang-yin reflection happening there. 



Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 03:03:38 pm

It is key also to consider that Jones valued Rudhyar's work so well as to grant the requested permission to him to give the astrological world its first public exposure to the Sabian symbols, which appeared in Rudhyar's seminal book, The Astrology Of Personality (1936). This happened nearly twenty years before Jones published his own work on the subject of The Sabian Symbols In Astrology (1953). Later, of course, Rudhyar produced another book of broad significance as well, with his free-wheeling and poetically intense recension of the Sabian symbols as a multi-phasic cycle of transformation in An Astrological Mandala (1973). (In passing, it may clarify somewhat to suggest that to refer to "the Sabian symbols" simply as "the Sabians" is probably insufficient, as the phrase, "the Sabians", actually indicates an ancient Middle-Eastern people, who have their own specific identity or place in history.)

      After the discovery and recording of that highly-regarded set of degree-symbols by Marc Edmund Jones and Elsie Wheeler in a single day at Balboa Park, San Diego, California, 1925 — between then and now and for all future times, it is important to recognize that Rudhyar was the only person accorded such open recognition of merit by a co-equal worker in the field. Other writings about the Symbols have appeared, and more may appear later, but none will have or can have the same pre-eminence as the source works of Rudhyar and Jones, Jones and Rudhyar. Given the fact that Jones himself considered the Sabian symbols work to be a highly significant feature in any evaluation of his own contribution as a whole, this speaks volumes as to the high regard of Jones for Rudhyar. At the NASO Astrology Conference in Atlanta in 1979, Dr. Jones addressed a rousing keynote encomium to Rudhyar, calling him the grand "chevalier" or gallant knight of contemporary astrology. Rudhyar in turn dedicated his very special work on zodiacal cycle, The Pulse Of Life, to his friend Marc Edmund Jones.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 03:05:11 pm

At dinner during that seemingly timeless time-period, the question was posed to Dr. Jones: "How would you compare your work and that of Dane Rudhyar?" His response was not recorded in detail, but one rather specific and quite accurate quotation is this: "Rudhyar is a metaphysician. I am a clinician." It was readily apparent that the terms used in this reference were not intended to be taken as defined in either academic philosophy or clinical psychology. Somewhat so, but not quite so. What MEJ meant to indicate was that a great deal of attention in his own work in the field had been purposely bent toward developing practical yet esoteric applications of astrological/philosophical insights that are intended to have high use or advantage in very immediate situations of counseling. I gathered that, from his point-of-view, the work of Rudhyar was most significant because of Rudhyar's capacity for success through informing or even illuminating astrology and the philosophy of astrology with a panoramic and inspiring vision of universal unity — as perhaps exemplified by the transformational energies that may open up to mind and spirit through rational and idealistic contemplation of Cycle and Wholeness per se.

      Rudhyar, in a work dedicated to Jones (The Pulse Of Life), made singular and affecting use of this vast Explanation for human life that avails itself to us through correct awareness of humanistic and transpersonal Cycle and Wholeness. Jones, in his public and private comments clearly affirmed his own view of the reflexive and intimate nature of the relationship or awareness that existed, and still exists, between of these two great thinkers and teachers of this late and onward-passing century.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 04, 2007, 03:07:06 pm

 There comes to mind with these closing lines a wonderful and, yes, rather Saturnian image from a universally-living poem by William Butler Yeats, entitled "Lapis Lazuli" (a Saturnian stone). I quote some verses from this poem to honor two eminent astrological elders of the 20th century, who, when still among us, offered to all people abundant uses for the wisdom-logic and dynamic-idealism of their lifelong search for rational insights into life as lived within the universe of man and woman and within the esoteric World made for ourselves.

"...Two Chinamen, behind them a third,
Are carved in lapis lazuli,
Over them flies a long-legged bird,
A symbol of longevity;
The third, doubtless a serving-man,
Carries a musical instrument.
Every discoloration of the stone,
Every accidental crack or dent,
Seems a water-course or an avalanche,
Or lofty slope where it still snows
Though doubtless plum or cherry-branch
Sweetens the little half-way house
Those Chinamen climb towards, and I
Delight to imagine them seated there;
There, on the mountain and the sky,
On all the tragic scene they stare.
One asks for mournful melodies;
Accomplished fingers begin to play.
Their eyes mid many wrinkles, their eyes,
Their ancient, glittering eyes, are gay."
        [For HYPERION]

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:45:17 am

Searching for a New Age...

Definition: [Astrological Ages] In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century a number of writers began a search for a New Age, which eventually culminated in the idea of the Age of Aquarius. A brief history is given below.

It should be noted that the idea of Precession of the Equinoxes is much older than the late nineteenth century. However it isn't until the nineteenth century that writers sought correlations between the sign at the Vernal Equinox and religious or earthly events. Underlying this must have been the idea, prevalent at that time, of the ancient age of the Zodiac.*

* And idea which doesn't stand up to modern scholarship. See the Zodiac Wheels and Babylonian Precession for more on this.

A Brief History of the Age of Aquarius:

c 1870 AD: The Age of the Waterman

  In a series of lectures in the second half of the nineteenth century the English 'seer' Gerald Massey [1828 – 1907 AD] connects the sign at the Vernal Equinox with the presentation of how the Messiah was seen at that time: as a Fish when Pisces is the Vernal Equinox sign for example. He states that this connection dates back to Ancient Egypt. He discusses how the signs change because of Precession. He also looks forward to the Equinox entering the Sign of the Waterman at the end of the nineteenth century. This is Jungian 'synchonicity', and a New Age concept eighty years before Jung writes on these subjects.


1888 AD: The Hindu Epoch

 Writing in The Secret Doctrine, The Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, [Chapter 17, pp 647 - 668] Helena Petrovna Blavatsky [1831-1891 AD] discusses 'Hindu' astrological epochs. There is no mention in this her most famous work of an Age of Aquarius.

1904 AD: The Age of Horus

 Writing in Book of Law, Aleister Crowley declares that "Ra-Hoor-Khuit hath taken his seat in the East at the Equinox of the Gods." He never tells us exactly what the Equinox of the Gods is. He never mentions an Age of Aquarius and there is no sign in his work of the concept of an Astrological Age.

1929 AD: Sun in Aquarius

 Writing in the new astrological journal Astrosophie in 1929, Edward Carpenter states: "In 1936, the Sun will enter the constellation of Aquarius ... the beginning of the new sign on the Equinox of Spring."

1937 AD: Ere du Verseau

 In 1937 Paul Le Cour publishes the book, Ere du Verseau. Avènement de Ganyméde [Age of Aquarius, the Advent of Ganymede]. This is the first book on the topic and the first explicit mention of an Age of Aquarius. Le Cour states this will start in 2160 AD.

1940 AD: A New Age

 In a letter to H. G. Baynes, dated 12th August 1940, Carl Gustav Jung writes: "1940 is the year when we approach the meridian of the first star in Aquarius.  It is the premonitory earthquake of the New Age. [C G Jung Letters, Volume I, 1906-1950, p 285]. This is his first mention of the subject, and the closeness of the date to that of Carpenter indicates that he is basing this idea on Carpenter's work.

1944 AD: A New Age

 Writing in Discipleship in the New Age - Volume I , [Part I of Volume 1] Alice Bailey states: "There is the emergence of a new kingdom in nature, the fifth kingdom ... Group endeavor, carried forward as a group, to love all beings and to apprehend and understand the true significance of the Aquarian technique of group love and work." This very oblique reference is the first in her work to anything Aquarian in the context of a New Age.

1951 AD: The Aquarian Age

 Writing in Aion, [Chapter IV, The Sign of the Fishes] Carl Gustav Jung discusses an Aquarian Age. He has abandoned the 1940 start date and offers several possible dates between 1997 and 2154 AD, though he now notes that "Since the delimitation of the constellations is known to be somewhat arbitrary, this date is very indefinite."

The New Age is Born Prematurely: One of the strangest aspects of the Age of Aquarius is it's early birth in the popular imagination. Why, as it doesn't really arrive until about 2600 AD are we so interested in it now?

The culprit for this seems to be the idea of a Platonic Month, a mistake which goes back to the earliest writing on the subject, that of Gerald Massey in late nineteenth century. Given the idea that a Platonic Month is a little over 2100 years long, and that the Sun moved into Pisces, at the Vernal Equinox, at a date perhaps a century before the birth of Christ, its very tempting to add 2100+ years to that past date and getting a date very close to the your particular present day [from Massey's 1900 to Carpenter's 1936 AD to the current passion for 2012 AD].

However this is very poor astrology. As Jung notes, an Astrological Age "refers to the actual constellation of fixed stars, not to ... the zodiac divided into sectors of 30º each." [C G Jung Aion Chapter IV, The Sign of the Fishes, Footnote 84, 1951 AD ]. Pisces is rather more than 30º in length along the Ecliptic and so the Age of Pisces stretches out before us for another 600 years.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:49:04 am

Gerald Massey and the Sign of the Waterman

Definition: [Astrological Ages] Gerald Massey [1828 – 1907 AD] in his Lectures [published privately c1900 AD, but written over several decades prior to this], described many of the concepts we now associate with an Astrological Age [though the concept had yet to be given this name] some forty years before Jung first writes on the subject.

He describes the effect of Precession as moving the Vernal Equinox into the Sign of the Fishes, whereas it had previously been in the Sign of the Bull. He uses 2155 years for the length of what we would now call a 'Platonic' Month. He looks forward to a new Messiah, "when the Equinox enters the Sign of the Waterman about the end of this century", [which for him would be the end of the nineteenth century] i.e. the start of what we would now call the Age of Aquarius. In this latter respect he is very different from Jung's decidedly non-Messianic view of a New Age.

Aside from Massey's acceptance of the 'Platonic' Month fallacy to define an Astrological Age, his other oddity to modern eyes is his start date to what we would now call the Age of Pisces of 255 BC. This he seems to have calculated by taking 2155 years from 2410 BC - which he says is when the Vernal Equinox passed into Pisces, according to certain astronomers, notably Cassini. Modern calculations indicate that this is a century too early. See Movement of the Vernal Equinox Point for more on this. Massey seems to be the first of many authors on the subject of the New Age who place it's start a few years into the future. from their time.

Gerald Massey's Lectures: Gerald Massey's lectures were published privately in about 1900 AD. Excerpts concerning Precession are given below.

Gerald Massey, Lectures: The Historical Jesus and the Mythical Christ, page 6-7 , c 1900: The birthplace of the Egyptian Messiah at the Vernal Equinox was figured in Apt, or Apta, the corner; but Apta is also the name of the Crib and the Manger; hence the Child born in Apta, was said to be born in a manger; and this Apta as Crib or Manger is the hieroglyphic sign of the Solar birthplace. Hence the Egyptians exhibited the Babe in the Crib or Manger in the streets of Alexandria. The birthplace was indicated by the colure of the Equinox, as it passed from sign to sign. It was also pointed out by the Star in the East. When the birthplace was in the sign of the Bull, Orion was the Star that rose in the East to tell where the young Sun-God was re-born. Hence it is called the "Star of Horus." That was then the Star of the "Three Kings" who greeted the Babe; for the "Three Kings" is still a name of the three stars in Orion's Belt. Here we learn that the legend of the "Three Kings" is at least 6,000 years old.

In the course of Precession, about 255 B.C., the vernal birthplace passed into the sign of the Fishes, and the Messiah who had been represented for 2155 years by the Ram or Lamb, and previously for other 2155 years by the Apis Bull, was now imaged as the Fish, or the "Fish-man," called Ichthys in Greek. The original Fish-man--the An of Egypt, and the Oan of Chaldea--probably dates from the previous cycle of precession, or 26,000 years earlier; and about 255 B.C., the Messiah, as the Fish-man, was to come up once more as the Manifestor from the celestial waters. The coming Messiah is called Dag, the Fish, in the Talmud; and the Jews at one time connected his coming with some conjunction, or occurrence, in the sign of the Fishes! This shows the Jews were not only in possession of the astronomical allegory, but also of the tradition by which it could be interpreted. It was the Mythical and Kronian Messiah alone who was, or could be, the subject of prophecy that might be fulfilled--prophecy that was fulfilled as it is in the Book of Revelation--when the Equinox entered, the cross was re-erected, and the foundations of a new heaven were laid in the sign of the Ram, 2410 B.C.; and, again, when the Equinox entered the sign of the Fishes, 255 B.C. Prophecy that will be again fulfilled when the Equinox enters the sign of the Waterman about the end of this century, to which the Samaritans are still looking forward for the coming of their Messiah, who has not yet arrived for them. The Christians alone ate the oyster; the Jews and Samaritans only got an equal share of the empty shells! The uninstructed Jews, the idiotai, at one time thought the prophecy which was astronomical, and solely related to the cycles of time, was to have its fulfillment in human history. But they found out their error, and bequeathed it unexplained to the still more ignorant Christians. The same tradition of the Coming One is extant amongst the Millenarians and Adventists, as amongst the Moslems. It is the tradition of El-Mahdi, the prophet who is to come in the last days of the world to conquer all the world, and who was lately descending the Soudan with the old announcement the "Day of the Lord is at hand," which shows that the astronomical allegory has left some relics of the true tradition among the Arabs, who were at one time learned in astronomical lore.

The Messiah, as the Fish-man, is foreseen by Esdras ascending out of the sea as the "same whom God the highest hath kept a great season, which by his own self shall deliver the creature." The ancient Fish-man only came up out of the sea to converse with men and teach them in the daytime. "When the sun set," says Berosus, "it was the custom of this Being to plunge again into the sea, and abide all night in the deep." So the man foreseen by Esdras is only visible by day.

Modern scholarship, based on surviving Babylonian cuneiform tablets, completely contradicts most of the above, especially in that the origin of the twelve-sign Solar Zodiac is datable to later than 550 BC, not several thoousand years earlier. See Omen Astrology and the development of the Zodiac Wheels for more on this.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:50:30 am

Gerald Massey, Lectures: The Hebrew and Other Creations - Fundamentally Explained, page 122 , c 1900: So it is with the Fall. Here, as before, the Genesis does not begin at the beginning. There was an earlier Fall than that of the Primal Pair. In this, the number of those who failed and fell was seven. We meet with these Seven in Egypt--(Eight with the Mother)--where they are called the "Children of Inertness," who were cast out from "Am-Smen," the Paradise of the Eight; also, in a Babylonian legend of creation, as the Seven Brethren, who were Seven Kings; like the Seven Kings in the Book of Revelation; and the Seven Non-Sentient Powers, who became the Seven Rebel Angels that made war in Heaven. The Seven Kronidæ, described as the Seven Watchers, who, in the beginning, were formed in the interior of heaven. The heaven, like a vault, they extended or hollowed out; that which was not visible they raised, and that which had no exit they opened; their work of creation being exactly identical with that of the Elohim in the Book of Genesis. These are the Seven elemental powers of space, who were continued as Seven timekeepers. It is said of them, "In watching was their office, but among the stars of heaven their watch they kept not," and their failure was the Fall. In the Book of Enoch the same Seven watchers in heaven are stars which transgressed the commandment of God before their time arrived, for they came not in their proper season, therefore was he offended with them, and bound them until the period of the consummation of their crimes, at the end of the secret, or great year of the world--i.e., the Period of Precession, when there was to be the restoration and re-beginning. The Seven deposed constellations are seen by Enoch, looking like Seven great blazing mountains overthrown--the Seven mountains in Revelation, on which the Scarlet Lady sits.

Gerald Massey, Lectures: In Reply to Professor A. H. Sayce, page 139 , c 1900: P.S.--By the by, is Professor Sayce equally certain that he is correct in his dates of precession? He gives the entrance of the vernal equinox into the signs of the Bull and Ram as being about the years, 4,700 and 2,500 B.C. I found that Cassini and other astronomers gave the figures 4,565 and 2,410 B.C. And from data kindly supplied to me by the present Astronomer Royal from independent calculations made at Greenwich, these were the dates, corroborated and confirmed.

Massey's Messianic View: At the end of Massey's life, in 1907, Massey's Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World was published. In this rather strange work, Massey places the Messiah legend not with the Hebrews but with an Egypt stretching 10 000 years back into the past. [He accepts Herodotus age for Egyptian history at face value - something now disproved by modern scholarship.] He starts with Leo at the Vernal Equinox and then follows the Messiah legend forward through what we would now call the Ages. This is what we would now call the Movement of the Ages but with a Messianic feel which is no longer present in the New Age reading of the Ages. Much of what Massey writes is regurgitated in certain modern books concerning Egypt and Precession, but with little credit given to Massey. Some excerpts of this long work are given below. [As we now know that the Solar Zodiac came to Egypt only after Alexander the Great's conquest in 332 BC - the Egyptians instead possessed their own astral system of 36 decans - Massey's work has, unfortunately, to be considered to be a long exercise in seeing patterns where none actually existed.]

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:51:42 am

Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World, published 1907 AD, p 728: We have now to track the ever-coming child Iusa, Iusu or Jesus in the sphere of time as the son of Iusãas and of Atum, who was Ra in his first sovereignty; not merely in the round of the lesser year, but in the movement of precession as determined by the changing equinox or by the shifting position of the pole. As we have shown, the Zodiacal signs were set in heaven according to the seasons of the Egyptian year* and in the annual circuit of the sun. The birthplace of the Inundation and the Grapes was figured in or near the sign of Virgo or the Virgin, the mother of the child who brought the new life to the land in water as Ichthus the fish and in food as Horus on his papyrus. But Horus the traveller of eternity has to be tracked and followed in the movement of Precession. And thus the new beginning for the present quest is in the sign of Leo.

Massey may have thought he had shown this, but this has been comprehensively disproved by modern scholarship. The Solar Zodiac is Babylonian not Egyptian and is less than two and a half thousand years old.

Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World, published 1907 AD, p 734: When Horus had fulfilled the period of 2,155 years with the Easter equinox in the sign of Aries, the birthplace passed into the sign of Pisces, where the ever-coming one, the Renewer as the eternal child who had been brought forth as a lion in Leo, a beetle in cancer, as one of the twins in the sign of the Gemini, as a calf in the sign of the bull, and as a lamb in the sign of the ram, was destined to manifest as the fish, born of a fish-mother, in the zodiacal sign of the fishes. The rebirth of Atum-Horus or Jesus as the fish of Iusãas and the bread of Nephthys was astronomically dated to occur and appointed to take place in Bethlehem of the Zodiac about the year 255 B.C., at the time [Page 735] when the Easter equinox entered the sign of Pisces, the house of corn and bread; the corn that was brought forth by the gestator Rannut in the eighth month of the Egyptian year, and was reaped in the month named from Parmuti the Corn-Mother; and the bread that was kneaded by Nephthys in the house of bread.

Horus, or Jesus, the fulfiller of time and law, the saviour who came by water, by blood and in the spirit, Horus the fish and the bread of life, was due according to precession in the sign of the fishes about the year 255 B.C. A new point of departure for the religion of Ichthus in Rome is indicated astronomically when Jesus or Horus was portrayed with the sign of the fish upon his head, and the crocodile beneath his feet (fig. p. 343). This would be about the year 255 B.C. (so-called). But the perverters of the Jesus-legend, in concocting the Christian “history”, had falsified the time in heaven that the Egyptians kept so sacredly on earth during the ages on ages through which they zealously sought to discern the true way to the infinite through every avenue of the finite, and to track the Eternal by following the footprints of the typical fulfiller through all the cycles and epicycles of renewing time.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:54:45 am

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and the Hindu Epoch

Definition: [Astrological Ages] Helena Petrovna Blavatsky [1831-1891 AD] is quoted by some commentators as the originator of the idea of the New Age. Is this true?

Writing in an article in 1887, Blavatsky states the following. [The text in green is hers.]

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, The Esoteric Character of the Gospels, Part I, published in Lúcifer, vol.1, no 2, p. 96, 1887 AD: On the other hand, at no time since the Christian era, have the precursor signs described in Matthew applied so graphically and forcibly to any epoch as they do to our own times. When has nation arisen against nation more than at this time? When have "famines" -- another name for destitute pauperism, and the famished multitudes of the proletariat -- been more cruel, earthquakes more frequent, or covered such an area simultaneously, as for the last few years? Millenarians and Adventists of robust faith, may go on saying that "the coming of (the canalized) Christ" is near at hand, and prepare themselves for "the end of the world." Theosophists -- at any rate, some of them -- who understand the hidden meaning of the universally-expected Avatars, Messiahs, Sosioshes and Christs -- know that it is no "end of the world," but "the consummation of the age," i.e., the close of a cycle, which is now fast approaching. [5]

5. There are several remarkable cycles that come to a close at the end of this century*. First, the 5,000 years of the Kaliyug cycle; again the Messianic cycle of the Samaritan (also Kabalistic) Jews of the man connected with Pisces (Ichthys or "Fish-man" Dag). It is a cycle, historic and not very long, but very occult, lasting about 2,155 solar years, but having a true significance only when computed by lunar months. It occurred 2410 and 255 B.C., or when the equinox entered into the sign of the Ram, and again into that of Pisces. When it enters, in a few years, the sign of Aquarius, psychologists will have some extra work to do, and the psychic idiosyncrasies of humanity will enter on a great change.
[Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, The Esoteric Character of the Gospels, Part I, published in Lúcifer, vol.1, no 2, p. 96, 1887 AD.]

* Blavatsky, following Massey's chronology, places the move of the Vernal Equinox into Aquarius at the end of the nineteenth not the twentieth century. [Her reference to lunar months is nonsense, there is no connection between Precession and lunar months.]

The way this is written and the 255 BC start date indicate that she is referring to the work of others. That work is very likely to be that of Gerald Massey, whom she references many times in this particular work. The official publication date of his Lectures is a decade later than this, but he gives much more consideration to the subject whilst using a similar language and the same start date. That the Precession into Aquarius concept is not Blavatsky's is also indicated by the fact that she never mentions this again in her later famous work, The Secret Doctrine, published 1888 AD.

Madame Blavatsky and the Secret Doctrine Blavatsky devotes more than twenty pages to the Zodiac in her book The Secret Doctrine, The Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, [published 1888 AD] [Book I. -- Part III Science and the Secret Doctrine Contrasted], called the The Zodiac and it's Antiquity [Chapter 17, pp 647 - 668]. A very brief summary is given here. Blavatsky covers the following topics in her work: whether the Zodiac in India predates that of the Greeks/Babylonians [her opinion is that it does]* [p 647], whether the Hindu Zodiac is immensely old [her opinion is that it is]* [p 655]; that the Hindu's have Epochs which each last for 3102 years** [p 661]

[*This flies in the face of modern scholarship. The Hindu Lunar Zodiac may be several thousand years old, but all the evidence suggests that the Hindu Solar Zodiac is a direct descendant of the Babylonian Zodiac. See Zodiac Wheels for more on this. [Massey also thinks that the Solar Zodiac is very old but he gives an Egygptian origin, not a Hindu one.] ** Blavatsky seems to be the only writer who thinks this. Hindu authorities notably do not - they don't even consider their Epochs to have equal lengths.]

Whilst Blatvatsky does mention Precession in her work, it is never in the context of the future Movement of the Vernal Equinox Point into particular Constellations. She never mentions Pisces, nor Aquarius, nor the start of an Age of Aquarius. She does not define an Astrological Age in the manner of Jung. Her - disputed - reading of the Hindu Epochs is that they are not Precession-related but depend on particular astrological alignments of Sun, Moon and planets to mark their start.

Title: XI. Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:57:03 am

Aleister Crowley and the Age of Horus

Definition: [Astrological Ages] Aleister Crowley [1875 - 1947 AD] in his Book of Law [liber AL vel Legis] [written 1904 AD, later published in a number of different editions] is said to have stated that the 'Age of Horus' had begun and the 'Age of Osiris' had ended.

Some subsequent commentators have stated that by saying this he was saying that the Age of Aquarius had begun. Is this true?

What did Crowley Actually Write?: Crowley wrote the following passages:

Abrogate are all rituals, all ordeals, all words and signs. Ra-Hoor-Khuit hath taken his seat in the East at the Equinox of the Gods; and let Asar be with Isa, who also are one. But they are not of me. Let Asar be the adorant, Isa the sufferer; Hoor in his secret name and splendour is the Lord initiating. [Book I Paragraph 49, Book of Law, written c 1904.]

Ra Hoor Khuit was indeed Lord of the Aeon, the Crowned and Conquering Child whose innocence meant no more than inhuman cruelty and wantonly senseless destructiveness as he avenged Isis our mother the Earth and the Heaven for the murder and mutilation of Osiris, Man, her son. [Chapter 7, Genesis Libri Al, written c 1920.]

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 10:59:34 am

For an Age of Aquarius Interpretation: Crowley is certainly referring to the start of of a new 'Aeon', and this may have something has to do with the heavens in the form of an Equinox of the Gods. However, he does not tell us what an Equinox of the Gods is, in the Book of Law nor in his later commentary on it in Genesis Libri Al. [Plutarch [c 45 - 120 AD] in Moralia [Isis and Osiris], our original account of the legend of Horus, never mentions Horus in connection with an Equinox.]

Against an Age of Aquarius Interpretation: Crowley, aside from using the word Equinox includes no other astrological references at all in the Book of Law. He does not mention an Age of Pisces. He never mentions an Age of Aquarius. In fact he doesn't mention any constellations at all. He does not mention the Precession of the Equinoxes. He also includes no such references at any place in his extensive commentary in Genesis Libri Al. [It should also be noted that the Egyptians did not associate the stars of what we now call Aquarius with Horus; Plutarch tells us that they associated stars in Orion with Horus [Plutarch Moralia [Isis and Osiris] paragraph 21.]]

Whilst Crowley thought a New Age had begun, it's fairly clear that it was not an Astrological Age, as later defined by Jung. What seems to have happened is that later commentators knowing of Jung's Astrological Age and Crowley's Age of Ra Hoor Khuit have confused the two ideas.

The final argument against an Age of Aquarius interpretation is that in 1904 Crowley stated that the Equinox of the Gods had already occurred. This would make the event some seven hundred years too early to mark the start of the Age of Aquarius.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:02:09 am
Astrosophie, Revue De La Psychologie
Personnelle, De L'Astrologie, De La Religion
Ésoterique, Des Sciences Occultes Et
Des Études Metapsychiques. Founded
by Dr Françis Rolt-Wheeler .

Edward Carpenter and the Age of Aquarius

Definition: [Astrological Ages] Looking for the first mention of the Age of Aquarius is rather like opening a series of Russian dolls... one reference leads to another. The work of Paul Le Cour, and later Jung, seems to rest in turn on work in the 1920s by the English author Edward Carpenter [1844 -1929 AD], now better known for his openly gay life style [unusual at the time], than for his works on astrology. [And in turn Carpenter's work seems to rest on that of another Englishman, Gerald Massey [1828 – 1907 AD]]

In 1929 Edward Carpenter published the following in Astrosophie:

In 1936, the Sun will enter the constellation of Aquarius, the sign of electricity, the air, ether and in religion, of the supernatural beings, the spirits, the phantoms; many people think of seeing in this moment, in the material discoveries like the etheric waves of T S. F ( = radio) and in psychic and spiritistic research of our time the beginning of the new sign on the Equinox of Spring.

By considering that the sign of the Fishes comes at once after the Bull and the Ram in the succession of the signs of the zodiac at the Spring Equinox and that it is currently the constellation in which the Sun is held at that time of the year, it does not seem impossible that the astronomical change was the determining cause of the adoption of this new symbol.

It is easy to imagine that the change of the worship of the Bull into the worship of the Lamb which incontestably took place among various people was only one ritual modification emanating of the priests for restored the harmony with the astronomical situation.

["The Symbolism of the Equinox," by Edward Carpenter, Astrosophie, Revue De La Psychologie Personnelle, De L'Astrologie, De La Religion Ésoterique, Des Sciences Occultes Et Des Études Metapsychiques, 1929 AD [the journal's first year of publication], pp 38 - 40.

[The above found in French at, and then translated into English by me - hence errors may have crept in...!]

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:08:13 am
Edward Carpenter
Photographed 1857
Aged 13

Dates and Definitions: The above are many of the key aspects of Jung's Astrological Age, two decades before Jung begins to espouse them. Furthermore, this work, with its 1936 start date for the Age, may also explain Jung's initial assumption that the Age of Aquarius began in 1940. However, why Carpenter picked 1936 is a mystery, as the Vernal Equinox Point was very firmly in the constellation of Pisces in 1936 - as it still is today. It may be that he, as many do today, was wishing for the advent of a New Age.

Pagan and Christian Creeds: Earlier, in 1920, Carpenter published "Pagan and Christian Creeds." In this he makes various references to the Vernal Equinox in history, but has not as yet conceived an Age of Aquarius concept - though he is getting very close - nor a start date for it.

Carpenter's thoughts on the Vernal Equinox are to be found in Chapter Three, "The Symbolism of the Zodiac." These are similar in tone to some of Jung's thoughts on the Age of Aries, written several decades letter and without acknowledging Carpenter. However, Carpenter and Jung notably disagree over the symbology of Christ and the Vernal Equinox. Jung sees a coincidence with the Age of Pisces, whilst Carpenter with the Age of Aries [though Carpenter does not use those terms].

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:13:17 am

The quotations from "Pagan and Christian Creeds" are reproduced below. The footnotes in green are Carpenter's.

The Vernal Equinox has all over the ancient world, and from the earliest times, been a period of rejoicing and of festivals in honor of the Sungod. It is needless to labor a point which is so well known. Everyone understands and appreciates the joy of finding that the long darkness is giving way, that the Sun is growing in strength, and that the days are winning a victory over the nights. The birds and flowers reappear, and the promise of Spring is in the air. But it may be worth while to give an elementary explanation of the astronomical meaning of this period, because this is not always understood, and yet it is very important in its bearing on the rites and creeds of the early religions. The priests who were, as I have said, the early students and inquirers, had worked out this astronomical side, and in that way were able to fix dates and to frame for the benefit of the populace myths and legends, which were in a certain sense explanations of the order of Nature, and a kind of "popular science."

[There follows at this point several paragraphs describing the astronomical nature of the Vernal Equinox which I have omitted.]

How was this location defined? Among what stars was the Sun moving at that critical moment? (For of course it was understood, or supposed, that the Sun was deeply influenced by the constellation through which it was, or appeared to be, moving.) It seems then that at the period when these questions were occupying men's minds - say about three thousand years ago* - the point where the Ecliptic crossed the Equator was, as a matter of fact, in the region of the constellation Aries or the he-Lamb. The triumph of the Sungod was therefore, and quite naturally, ascribed to the influence of Aries. The Lamb became the symbol of the risen saviour, and of his passage from the underworld into the height of heaven.** At first such an explanation sounds hazardous; but a thousand texts and references confirm it; and it is only by the accumulation of evidence in these cases that the student becomes convinced of a theory's correctness. It must also be remembered (what I have mentioned before) that these myths and legends were commonly adopted not only for one strict reason but because they represented in a general way the convergence of various symbols and inferences.

[* Modern scholarship considers this to be much closer to two thousand years ago. See the Precession of the Equinoxes for more on this..]

[** Modern scholarship has shown that the astrologers of two millennia ago remained firmly convinced that the Vernal Equinox Point was within Aries, up until about 150 AD, even though it had really entered Pisces by 100 BC. See the Zodiac Wheel for details on this. Several decades after Carpenter, Jung offers an opposite description to Carpenter for Christ and the Age of Pisces based on where the Vernal Equinox Point actually was, rather than where most astrologers of the time thought it was.]

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:14:45 am

Let me enumerate a few points with regard to the Vernal Equinox. In the Bible the festival is called the Passover, and its supposed institution by Moses is related in Exodus, ch. xii. In every house a he-lamb was to be slain, and its blood to be sprinkled on the doorposts of the house. Then the Lord would pass over and not smite that house. The Hebrew word is pasach, to pass.[1] The lamb slain was called the Paschal Lamb. But what was that lamb? Evidently not an earthly lamb--(though certainly the earthly lambs on the hillsides WERE just then ready to be killed and eaten)--but the heavenly Lamb, which was slain or sacrificed when the Lord "passed over" the equator and obliterated the constellation Aries. This was the Lamb of God which was slain each year, and "Slain since the foundation of the world." This period of the Passover (about the 25th March) was to be[2] the beginning of a new year. The sacrifice of the Lamb, and its blood, were to be the promise of redemption. The door-frames of the houses--symbols of the entrance into a new life--were to be sprinkled with blood.[3] Later, the imagery of the saving power of the blood of the Lamb became more popular, more highly colored. (See St. Paul's epistles, and the early Fathers.) And we have the expression "washed in the blood of the Lamb" adopted into the Christian Church.

[1] It is said that pasach sometimes means not so much to pass over, as to hover over and so protect. Possibly both meanings enter in here. See Isaiah xxxi. 5.

[2] See Exodus xii. i.

[3] It is even said (see The Golden Bough, vol. iii, 185) that the doorways of houses and temples in Peru were at the Spring festival daubed with blood of the first-born children--commuted afterwards to the blood of the sacred animal, the Llama. And as to Mexico, Sahagun, the great Spanish missionary, tells us that it was a custom of the people there to "smear the outside of their houses and doors with blood drawn from their own ears and ankles, in order to propitiate the god of Harvest" (Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi, p. 235).

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:16:04 am

In order fully to understand this extraordinary expression and its origin we must turn for a moment to the worship both of Mithra, the Persian Sungod, and of Attis the Syrian god, as throwing great light on the Christian cult and ceremonies. It must be remembered that in the early centuries of our era the Mithra-cult was spread over the whole Western world. It has left many monuments of itself here in Britain. At Rome the worship was extremely popular, and it may almost be said to have been a matter of chance whether Mithraism should overwhelm Christianity, or whether the younger religion by adopting many of the rites of the older one should establish itself (as it did) in the face of the latter.

Now we have already mentioned that in the Mithra cult the slaying of a Bull by the Sungod occupies the same sort of place as the slaving of the Lamb in the Christian cult. It took place at the Vernal Equinox and the blood of the Bull acquired in men's minds a magic virtue. Mithraism was a greatly older religion than Christianity*; but its genesis was similar. In fact, owing to the Precession of the Equinoxes, the crossing-place of the Ecliptic and Equator was different at the time of the establishment of Mithra-worship from what it was in the Christian period; and the Sun instead of standing in the He-lamb, or Aries, at the Vernal Equinox stood, about two thousand years earlier (as indicated by the dotted line in the diagram), in this very constellation of the Bull.[1] The bull therefore became the symbol of the triumphant God, and the sacrifice of the bull a holy mystery. (Nor must we overlook here the agricultural appropriateness of the bull as the emblem of Spring-plowings and of service to man.)

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:17:10 am

1] With regard to this point, see an article in the Nineteenth Century for September 1900, by E. W. Maunder of the Greenwich Observatory on "The Oldest Picture Book" (the Zodiac). Mr. Maunder calculates that the Vernal Equinox was in the centre of the Sign of the Bull 5,000 years ago. [It would therefore be in the centre of Aries 2,845 years ago--allowing 2,155 years for the time occupied in passing from one Sign to another.**] At the earlier period the Summer solstice was in the centre of Leo, the Autumnal equinox in the centre of Scorpius, and the Winter solstice in the centre of Aquarius--corresponding roughly, Mr. Maunder points out, to the positions of the four "Royal Stars," Aldebaran, Regulus, Antares and Fomalhaut.

[* Modern scholarship disagrees with this. Mithraism is now thought to be of a very similar age to Christianity. It's a Roman mystery religion founded when the Vernal Equinox Point was entering Pisces, not when it was in Taurus.]

[** This is one of the the first known uses of the Platonic Month concept. [See Massey's work for an even earlier use.] This use is Carpenter's not Maunder's. Maunder in The Oldest Picture Book carefully notes that: "The Signs of the Zodiac are not of perfectly equal extent. Cancer, for instance, only represents about 19 degrees of longitude; Virgo covers about 43 degrees," a fact which invalidates the simple idea of using twelve equal Platonic Months to measure the amount of time for the Vernal Equinox Point to go from one sign to another. It's possible that Carpenter's incorrect use of a Platonic Months idea may have contributed to his later highly inaccurate start date of 1936 for the beginning of the Age of Aquarius... Which probably influenced Jung - and thus the idea of a New Agewas born early...]

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:19:31 am
Front Page of Ere du Verseau.
Avènement de Ganyméde
The Era [or Age] of Aquarius.
The Advent of Ganymede.
Dated 1937 AD.

Paul Le Cour and the Age of Aquarius

Definition: [Astrological Ages] Paul Le Cour [1871 - 1954 AD] published in 1937 a work entitled Ere du Verseau. Avènement de Ganyméde, which translates as the Age of Aquarius, the Advent of Ganymede.* Le Cour's start date for Age of Aquarius was 2160 AD.

This appears to be the first book ever written concerning the Age of Aquarius. However, Le Cour remains essentially unknown in the English-speaking world. This may be for two reasons. Firstly, the French-language Ere du Verseau. Avènement de Ganyméde seems never to have been translated into English. Secondly, Le Cour was thought by many to be an antisemite. This would not have endeared him to Carl Gustav Jung, the subsequent populariser of the Age of Aquarius, and Jung never refers to Le Cour in his writings. However, Ere du Verseau predates Jung's first recorded mention of the Age of Aquarius by some three years.

* Ganymede in the original Ancient Greek tale was immortalised by Zeus as the constellation Aquarius. He was cupbearer to the Gods, taken up to heaven on account of his transcendent beauty. [He was also Zeus's lover.]

Le Cour's Age of Aquarius: Le Cour's earlier Age of Aquarius differs from Jung's in one very notable aspect. Whereas Jung saw the start of the Age of Aquarius as the end of the Christian "Era of the Fishes," Le Cour saw it in the opposite fashion, as a Second Advent of Jesus, albeit perhaps Christianity without its original Jewish roots.

A part of the charge of antisemitism against Le Cour lies in the difference between the first and second editions of Ere du Verseau. The first edition contains a chapter on Jewish and Christain accord, in which Le Cour writes "One of the great events of the Era of Aquarius must be logically the reconciliation of the Jews and the Christians." And that a "Temple of Solomon" would be restored. This chapter is removed from the second edition. However, it must be born in mind that the second edition was published in the early 1940s when France was under Nazi occupation.

Front Page of Ere du Verseau. Avènement de Ganyméde The Era [or Age] of Aquarius. The Advent of Ganymede. Dated 1937 AD.

Did Le Cour Originate the Age of Aquarius? A reading of Ere du Verseau indicates that Le Cour was rather a bad astrologer. Notably he didn't seem to understand the Movement of the Vernal Equinox Point, the reason for the Movement of the Ages, and notably confuses the Tropical and Sidereal Zodiac, not understanding that an Astrological Age can only happen in a Sidereal Zodiac system. It's clear then that the answer to this question is: No. Le Cour, in turn, was relying on the work of others. See Edward Carpenter for more details.

Title: Re: Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:23:24 am

Alice Bailey and the Ageless Wisdom

Definition: [Astrological Ages] Alice A. Bailey [1880 - 1949 AD] claimed she was receiving 'Ageless Wisdom', which she published in her books, telepathically from an entity known as Master Tibetan, Djwhal Khul. Bailey's work followed the 'Theosophical' tradition started by Helena Blavatsky.

Some subsequent commentators have commented that her work predicted the start of the Age of Aquarius before anyone else. Is this true?

Alice Bailey's 'Ageless Wisdom' - Better Late than Never: The first place in Bailey's writings where we find a reference to something like an Age of Aquarius is her book entitled Discipleship in the New Age - Volume I [published in 1944]. Whilst this is contemporaneous with Jung's writings on the subject, it is a decade later than Le Cour and Carpenter. It seems Djwhal Khul was a little slow in his telepathic transmissions. However, at least Bailey's use of the phrase 'New Age' appears very early in the history of the subject.

A quote from that Part I of Volume 1 is given below.

It is of importance that you realize that today something new is happening. There is the emergence of a new kingdom in nature, the fifth kingdom; this is the Kingdom of God on earth or the kingdom of souls. It is precipitating on earth and will be composed of those who are becoming group-conscious and who can work in group formation. This will be possible, because these people will have achieved a self-initiated perfection (even if relative in nature) and will be identified with certain group expansions of consciousness. It will also be because they have arrived at love of their fellowmen, just as they have loved themselves in the past. Think on this with clarity, my brothers, and grasp, if you can, the full significance of this last sentence...

...Group endeavor, carried forward as a group, to love all beings and to apprehend and understand the true significance of the Aquarian technique of group love and work.

Title: (XI) Into the Twentieth Century
Post by: Bianca on September 26, 2007, 11:26:31 am


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