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Space => the Universe => Topic started by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:44:07 pm



Title: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:44:07 pm
Radio telescope

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Parkes.arp.750pix.jpg)

The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:44:42 pm
A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes. In their astronomical role they differ from optical telescopes in that they operate in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum where they can detect and collect data on radio sources. Radio telescopes are typically large parabolic ("dish") antenna used singularly or in an array. Radio observatories are located far from major centers of population in order to avoid electromagnetic interference (EMI) from radio, TV, radar, and other EMI emitting devices. This is similar to the locating of optical telescopes to avoid light pollution, with the difference being that radio observatories will be placed in valleys to further shield them from EMI as opposed to clear air mountain tops for optical observatories


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:45:47 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8b/Grote_Antenna_Wheaton.gif/476px-Grote_Antenna_Wheaton.gif)

Grote Weber's original Radio Antenna - 1937 Wheaton, IL Photo - NRAO archives http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/hist_reber.shtml


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:46:41 pm
Early radio telescopes

The first radio antenna used to identify an astronomical radio source was one built by Karl Guthe Jansky, an engineer with Bell Telephone Laboratories, in the early 1930s. Jansky was assigned the job of investigating sources of static that might interfere with radio telephone service. Jansky's antenna was designed to receive short wave radio signals at a frequency of 20.5 MHz (wavelength about 14.6 meters). It was mounted on a turntable that allowed it to rotate in any direction, earning it the name "Jansky's merry-go-round". It had a diameter of approximately 100 ft. and stood 20 ft. tall. By rotating the antenna on a set of four Ford Model-T tires, the direction of the received interfering radio source (static) could be pinpointed. A small shed to the side of the antenna housed an analog pen-and-paper recording system. After recording signals from all directions for several months, Jansky eventually categorized them into three types of static: nearby thunderstorms, distant thunderstorms, and a faint steady hiss of unknown origin. Jansky finally determined that the "faint hiss" repeated on a cycle of 23 hours and 56 minutes. This four-minute lag is a typical an astronomical sidereal day, the time it takes any "fixed" object located on the celestial sphere to pass overhead twice. By comparing his observations with optical astronomical maps, Jansky concluded that the radiation was coming from the Milky Way and was strongest in the direction of the center of the galaxy, in the constellation of Sagittarius.

Grote Reber was one of the pioneers of what became known as radio astronomy when he built the first parabolic "dish" radio telescope (9m in diameter) in 1937. He was instrumental in repeating Karl Guthe Jansky's pioneering but somewhat simple work, and went on to conduct the first sky survey in the radio frequencies. After World War II, substantial improvements in radio astronomy technology were made by astronomers in Europe, Australia and the United States, and the field of radio astronomy began to blossom.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:47:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/Molonglotele.jpg/400px-Molonglotele.jpg)

A cylindrical paraboloid antenna.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:48:32 pm
Radio telescope types

The range of frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that makes up the radio spectrum is very large. This means the variety and types of antennas that are used as radio telescopes vary in design, size, and configuration. At wavelengths of 30 meters to 3 meters (10 MHz - 100 MHz), they are generally directional antenna arrays similar to "TV antennas" or large stationary reflectors with moveable focal points. Since the wave length being observed with these types of antennas are so long, the "reflector" surfaces can be constructed from course wire mesh. At shorter wavelengths “dish” style radio telescopes predominate. The angular resolution of a dish style antenna is a function of the diameter of the dish in proportion to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation being observed. This dictates the size of the dish a radio telescope needs to have a useful resolution. Radio telescopes operating at wavelengths of 3 meters to 30 cm (100 MHz to 1 GHz) are usually well over 100 meters in diameter. Telescopes working at wavelengths above 30 cm (1 GHz) range in size from 3 to 90 meters in diamet


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:50:15 pm
Big dishes


(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/06/Jodrell_Bank_Observatory.Lovell_telescope.jpg/539px-Jodrell_Bank_Observatory.Lovell_telescope.jpg)

The 76.0m Lovell radio telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory which, at the time of its construction, was the largest stearable dish radio telescope in the world.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:51:00 pm
In the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the development of large single-dish radio telescopes. The largest individual radio telescope is the RATAN-600 (Russia) with 576 meter diameter of circular antenna (RATAN-600 description). Other two individual radio telescopes at Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Russia, designed specially for the low frequency observations, are between the largest in their class. LPA (LPA description (in Russian)) is 187 x 384 m size phased array meridional radio telescope, and DKR-1000 is 1000 x 1000 m cross radio telescope (DKR-1000 description (in Russian) ). The largest radio telescope in Europe is the 100 meter diameter antenna in Effelsberg, Germany, which also was the largest fully steerable telecope for 30 years until the Green Bank Telescope was opened in 2000. The largest radio telescope in the United States until 1998 was Ohio State University's The Big Ear.

Other well known disk radio telescopes include the Arecibo radio telescope located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, which is steerable within about 20° of the zenith and is the largest single-aperture telescope (cf. multiple aperture telescope) ever to be constructed, and the fully steerable Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank in the United Kingdom. A typical size of the single antenna of a radio telescope is 25 metre, dozens of radio telescopes with comparable sizes are operated in radio observatories all over the world.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:51:57 pm
Radio interferometry

One of the most notable developments came in 1946 with the introduction of the technique called astronomical interferometry. Astronomical radio interferometers usually consist either of arrays of parabolic dishes (e.g. the One-Mile Telescope), arrays of one-dimensional antennas (e.g. the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope) or two-dimensional arrays of omni-directional dipoles (e.g. Tony Hewish's Pulsar Array). All of the telescopes in the aray are widely separated and are connected together using coaxial cable, waveguide, optical fiber, or other type of transmission line. This not only increases the total signal collected, it can also be used in a process called Aperture synthesis to vastly increase resolution. This technique works by superposing (interfering) the signal waves from the different telescopes on the principle that waves that coincide with the same phase will add to each other while two waves that have opposite phases will cancel each other out. This creates a combed telescope that is the size of the antennas furthest apart in the array. In order to produce a high quality image, a large number of different separations between different telescopes are required (the projected separation between any two telescopes as seen from the radio source is called a baseline) - as many different baselines as possible are required in order to get a good quality image (For example the Very Large Array (VLA) in Socorro, New Mexico has 27 telescopes giving 351 independent baselines at once to achieve resolution of 0.2 arc seconds at 3 cm wavelengths[1]). Martin Ryle's group in Cambridge obtained a Nobel Prize for interferometry and aperture synthesis[2]. The Lloyd's mirror interferometer was also developed independently in 1946 by Joseph Pawsey's group at the University of Sydney[3]. In the early 1950s the Cambridge Interferometer mapped the radio sky to produce the famous 2C and 3C surveys of radio sources. The largest existing radio telescope array is the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, located in Pune, India. A larger array, LOFAR (the 'LOw Frequency ARray') is currently being constructed in western Europe, consisting of 25 000 small antennas over an area several hundreds of kilometres in diameter.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:54:06 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/USA.NM.VeryLargeArray.02.jpg)

The Very Large Array, an interferometric array formed from many smaller telescopes, like many larger radio telescopes.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:54:53 pm
Many astronomical objects are not only observable in visible light but also emit radiation at radio wavelegths. Besides observing energetic objects such as pulsars and quasars, radio telescopes are able to "image" most astronomical objects such as, galaxies, nebulae, and even radio emissions from planets.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:56:15 pm
Radio astronomy

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio astronomy techniques are similar to optical techniques but radio telescopes have to be much larger due to the longer wavelengths being observed. The field originated from the discovery that most astronomical objects emit radiation in the radio wavelengths as well as optical ones.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 10:57:29 pm
History

The idea that celestial bodies may be emitting radio waves had been suspected some time before its discovery. In the 1860's James Clerk Maxwell's equations had shown that electromagnetic radiation from stellar sources could exist with any wavelength, not just optical. Several notable scientists and experimenters such as Thomas Edison, Oliver Lodge, and Max Planck predicted that the sun should be emitting radio waves. Lodge tried to observe solar signals but was unable to detect them due to technical limitations of his apparatus.

The first identified astronomical radio source was one discovered serendipitously in the early 1930s when Karl Guthe Jansky, an engineer with Bell Telephone Laboratories, was investigating static that interfered with short wave transatlantic voice transmissions. Using a large directional antenna, Jansky noticed that his analog pen-and-paper recording system kept recording a repeating signal of unknown origin. Since the signal peaked once a day, Jansky original suspected the source of the interference was the sun. Continued analysis showed that the source was not following the rising and setting of the sun exactly but instead repeating on a cycle of 23 hours and 56 minutes, typical of an astronomical source "fixed" on the celestial sphere rotating in sync with sidereal time. By comparing his observations with optical astronomical maps, Jansky concluded that the radiation was coming from the Milky Way and was strongest in the direction of the center the galaxy, in the constellation of Sagittarius. He announced his discovery in 1933. Jansky wanted to investigate the radio waves from the Milky Way in further detail but Bell Labs re-assigned Jansky to another project, so he did no further work in the field of astronomy.

Grote Reber helped pioneer radio astronomy when he built a large parabolic "dish" radio telescope (9m in diameter) in 1937. He was instrumental in repeating Karl Guthe Jansky's pioneering but somewhat simple work, and went on to conduct the first sky survey in the radio frequencies. On February 27, 1942, J.S. Hey, a British Army research officer, helped progress radio astronomy further, when he discovered that the sun emitted radio waves. By the early 1950s Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish at Cambridge University had used the Cambridge Interferometer to map the radio sky, producing the famous 2C and 3C surveys of radio sources.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:07:29 pm
Techniques

Radio astronomers use different types of techniques to observe objects in the radio spectrum. Instruments may simply be pointed at an energetic radio source to analyze what type of emissions it makes. To “image” a region of the sky in more detail, multiple overlapping scans can be recorded and piece together in an image ('mosaicing'). The types of instruments being used depends on the weakness of the signal and the amount of detail needed.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:08:11 pm
Radio telescopes may need to be extremely large in order to receive signals with large signal-to-noise ratio. Also since angular resolution is a function of the diameter of the "objective" in proportion to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation being observed, radio telescopes have to be much larger in comparison to their optical counterparts. For example a 1 meter diameter optical telescope is two million times bigger than the wavelength of light observed giving it a resolution of a few arc seconds, whereas a radio telescope "dish" many times that size may, depending on the wavelength observed, may only be able to resolve an object the size of the full moon (30 minutes of arc).


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:09:02 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/0d/M87_optical_image.jpg/800px-M87_optical_image.jpg)


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:09:39 pm
Radio interferometry

The difficulty in achieving high resolutions with single radio telescopes led to radio interferometry, developed by British radio astronomer Martin Ryle and Australian-born engineer, radiophysicist, and radio astronomer Joseph Lade Pawsey in 1946. Radio interferometers consist of widely separated radio telescopes observing the same object that are connected together using coaxial cable, waveguide, optical fiber, or other type of transmission line. This not only increases the total signal collected, it can also be used in a process called Aperture synthesis to vastly increase resolution. This technique works by superposing (interfering) the signal waves from the different telescopes on the principle that waves that coincide with the same phase will add to each other while two waves that have opposite phases will cancel each other out. This creates a combed telescope that is the size of the antennas furthest apart in the array. In order to produce a high quality image, a large number of different separations between different telescopes are required (the projected separation between any two telescopes as seen from the radio source is called a baseline) - as many different baselines as possible are required in order to get a good quality image. For example the Very Large Array has 27 telescopes giving 351 independent baselines at once.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:10:37 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/c/c2/M87_VLA_VLBA_radio_astronomy.jpg/427px-M87_VLA_VLBA_radio_astronomy.jpg)

An optical image of the galaxy M87 (HST), a radio image of same galaxy using Interferometry (Very Large Array-VLA), and an image of the center section using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (Very Long Baseline Array-VLBA) consisting of antennas in the US, Germany, Italy, Finland, Sweden and Spain. The jet of particles is suspected to be powered by a black hole in the center of the galaxy.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:11:18 pm
Very Long Baseline Interferometry

Since the 1970s telescopes from all over the world (and even in Earth orbit) have been combined to perform Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Data received at each antenna is paired with timing information, usually from a local atomic clock, and then stored for later analysis on magnetic tape or hard disk. At that later time, the data is correlated with data from other antennas similarly recorded, to produce the resulting image. Using this method it is possible to create an antenna that is effectively the size of the Earth.

Using these techniques, radio telescopes are able to achieve much high angular resolution and image quality than instruments working in other wavelength band.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:12:23 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e9/GCRT_J1745-3009_2.jpg/481px-GCRT_J1745-3009_2.jpg)

A radio image of the central region of the Milky Way galaxy. The arrow indicates a supernova remnant which is the location of a newly-discovered transient, bursting low-frequency radio source GCRT J1745-3009.


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:13:19 pm
Astronomical sources

Radio astronomy has led to substantial increases in astronomical knowledge, particularly with the discovery of several classes of new objects, including pulsars, quasars and radio galaxies. This is because radio astronomy allows us to see things that are not detectable in optical astronomy. Such objects represent some of the most extreme and energetic physical processes in the universe.

Radio astronomy is also partly responsible for the idea that dark matter is an important component of our universe; radio measurements of the rotation of galaxies suggest that there is much more mass in galaxies than has been directly observed. The cosmic microwave background radiation was also first detected using radio telescopes. However, radio telescopes have also been used to investigate objects much closer to home, including observations of the Sun and solar activity, and radar mapping of the planets.

Other sources include:

Active galactic nuclei and pulsars have jets of charged particles which emit synchrotron radiation
Merging galaxy clusters often show diffuse radio emission
Supernova remnants can also show diffuse radio emission
The Cosmic microwave background is blackbody radio emissio


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:14:38 pm
History of astronomical interferometry

William Herschel knew as early as 1779 (Herschel 1805) that stars appeared much larger in telescopes than they really were but he did not know why. When Thomas Young demonstrated interference and the wave nature of light unambiguously, this was explained. As he stated in his Bakerian Lecture of 1803: "The proposition on which I mean to insist at present, is simply this, that fringes of colours are produced by the interference of two portions of light", and later: "that homogeneous light, at certain equal distances in the direction of its motion, is possessed of opposite qualities, capable of neutralizing or destroying each other, and of extinguishing the light, where they happen to be united" (Young 1804).

But it was not Young's researches that prompted Herschel to investigate the origin of the spurious diameters of stars. Instead it was the exactly contemporaneous discovery of the ­first minor planets: Ceres in 1801, Pallas in 1802 and Juno in 1803. Were their apparent diameters as real as those of planets or spurious as for stars? To address this question Herschel conducted an extensive series of experiments in his garden in Slough, examining through his telescope small globules of differing sizes and materials placed in a tree some 800 ft (ca. 244 m) away (Herschel 1805). His observations showed that for the smallest globules the diameters were all spurious and all of the same size. Furthermore, he found that, if just the inner part of the aperture of the telescope were used, the spurious diameters, whether of globules or of stars, were larger. If the whole aperture was employed, the diameters were smaller, and if only an outer annular aperture was used the diameters were smaller still. This experimental discovery that unfilled apertures can be used to obtain high angular resolution remains today the essential basis for interferometric imaging in astronomy (in particular Aperture Masking Interferometry). The theoretical justifi­cation of this result came with Airy's analysis of the diffraction pattern of a circular aperture 30 years later (Airy 1835), and it took a further 30 years before the idea of using multiple apertures was developed. In an early study the Reverend W. R. Dawes noted that he had `frequently found great advantage from the use of a perforated whole aperture' and that when observing Venus this produced `a central image of the planet perfectly colourless, and very sharply de­ned' (Dawes 1866). But it was left to Fizeau, in his submission to the Commission for the Prix Bordin the following year, to remark on `une relation remarquable et n´ecessaire entre la dimension des franges et celle de la source lumineuse' and suggest that by using an interferometric combination of light from two separated slits `il deviendra possible d'obtenir quelques donn´ees nouvelles sur les diametres angulaires de ces astres' (Fizeau 1868).

Steps towards the practical implementation of these techniques for optical astronomy were taken by Michelson, who defi­ned the `visibility' of interference fringes obtained from a source of ­finite angular size (Michelson 1890) and followed this a year later with the measurement of the angular diameters of Jupiter's satellites (Michelson 1891). Finally, 30 years later, Fizeau's predictions became a reality when the direct interferometric measurement of a stellar diameter was realized by Michelson & Pease (1921) with their 20 ft (ca. 6.1 m) stellar interferometer mounted on the 100 inch **** Telescope on Mount Wilson.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:15:41 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/8a/Radio_interf.gif/380px-Radio_interf.gif)

diagram of a radio interferometer


Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:16:39 pm
Interferometric imaging in astronomy

Interferometry provides access to very-high-angular-resolution observations. It also importantly separates the issues of angular resolution and limiting sensitivity. A single mirror of diameter D has an angular resolution 1.22λ / D, and a collecting area for the flux of photons D2, so that there is a well-de­ned relation between resolution and sensitivity. Since astronomers necessarily study objects beyond their control, it is unlikely that this ­fixed relationship will be a good match to all but a subset of their observational requirements. It was for this reason that the growth of radio astronomy after 1945 depended so dramatically on the use of interferometric methods. The extreme imbalance between the excellent sensitivity of small ­filled apertures at long radio wavelengths and their poor angular resolution, which could be many tens of degrees, led naturally to the development of sparse arrays of widely separated telescopes.

In 1946 Ryle and Vonberg (Ryle and Vonberg 1946) constructed a radio analogue of the Michelson interferometer and soon located a number of new cosmic radio sources. The signals from two radio antennas were added electronically to produce interference. Ryle and Vonberg's telescope used the rotation of the Earth to scan the sky in one dimension. Fringe visibilities could be calculated from the variation of intensity with time. Later interferometers included a variable delay between one of the antennas and the detector as shown in the figure at the right.

In the figure radio waves from a source at an angle θ to the vertical must travel a distance δl further in order to reach the left-hand antenna. These signals are thus delayed relative to the signals received at the right hand antenna by a time cδl = casin[θ] where c is the speed of the radio waves. The signal from the right hand antenna must be delayed artificially by the same length of time for constructive interference to occur. Interference fringes will be produced by sources with angles in a small range either side of determined by the coherence time of the radio source. Altering the delay time δt varies the angle at which a source will produce interference fringes. The effective baseline of this interferometer will be given by the projection of the telescope positions onto a plane perpendicular to the source direction. The length of the effective baseline, shown at the bottom of the figure, will be

x = acos(θ)
where a is the actual telescope separation.

Technical difficulties delayed the growth of optical interferometry. The human eye is a sensitive detector but is not capable of quantitative photometric assessment of interferometric fringe patterns. When coupled with the need to record data at kHz rates, progress in optical synthesis imaging had to wait for the development of sensitive photon-counting detectors. Furthermore, the limits of mechanical stability had been reached with the 50 ft (ca. 15.2 m) beam interferometer constructed by Michelson and Pease in 1930 (Pease 1931). This method was extended to short-wavelength measurements using separated telescopes by (Johnson, Betz and Towns 1974) in the infrared and by (Labeyrie 1975) in the visible. This demanded micrometre-level metrology of variable optical delay lines, which was not feasible until access to stabilized lasers had become routine. In the 1980s the aperture synthesis technique was extended to visible light and infrared astronomy by the Cavendish Astrophysics Group, providing the first very high resolution images of nearby stars. In 1995 this technique was demonstrated on an array of separate optical telescopes for the first time, allowing a further improvement in resolution, and allowing even higher resolution imaging of stellar surfaces. The same imaging techniques have now been applied at a number of other astronomical telescope arrays, including the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer, the the CHARA array, the IOTA array and will soon be applied at the VLTI and MRO Interferometer. A detailed description of the development of astronomical optical interferometry can be found here. Impressive results were obtained in the 1990s with COAST and NPOI producing many very high resolution images. Some scientists exaggerated the benefits of combining large diameter (adaptive optics corrected) telescopes for near-infrared interferometry, and this left many astronomers disappointed with new arrays utilizing small numbers of large telescopes which came online in the early 2000s. For details of individual instruments, see the list of astronomical interferometers at visible and infrared wavelengths.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:18:21 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/d6/Ast_opt_int_lba.gif/301px-Ast_opt_int_lba.gif) (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/02/Ast_opt_int_mask.gif/288px-Ast_opt_int_mask.gif)
A simple two-element optical interferometer. Light from two small telescopes (shown as lenses) is combined using beam splitters at detectors 1, 2, 3 and 4. The elements creating a 1/4 wave delay in the light allow the phase and amplitude of the interference visibility to be measured, which give information about the shape of the light source. A single large telescope with an aperture mask over it (labelled Mask), only allowing light through two small holes. The optical paths to detectors 1, 2, 3 and 4 are the same as in the left-hand figure, so this setup will give identical results. By moving the holes in the aperture mask and taking repeated measurements, images can be created using aperture synthesis which would have the same quality as would have been given by the right-hand telescope without the aperture mask. In an analogous way, the same image quality can be achieved by moving the small telescopes around in the left-hand figure - this is the basis of aperture synthesis, using widely separated small telescopes to simulate a giant telescope.

Once these technical considerations had been addressed, all of the principles used at radio wavelengths could be taken over with almost no modifi­cation. This included the use of imaging software developed for VLBI at radio wavelengths, which was used to reconstruct the ­first image from an array of optical telescopes, that of the 50 milliarcsecond binary star Capella (Baldwin et al . 1996). The only signi­cant differences between the two wavelength regimes is the increased importance of photon shot noise and the small temporal and spatial scales of the atmospheric fluctuations at optical wavelengths. For example, the characteristic time-scale for these fluctuations is measured in milliseconds at optical wavelengths rather than minutes, and the spatial scale is typically smaller than the telescope mirror diameter, whereas at centimetric radio wavelengths this scale can be as large as 20 km. An important consequence of this small spatial scale is that the area of sky over which the atmospheric phase path is constant, the isoplanatic patch, is at most a few arcseconds at visual wavelengths.



Title: Re: Radio Astronomy
Post by: Jennie McGrath on August 16, 2007, 11:19:10 pm
Other modern developments

Between 1950 and 1972, Robert Hanbury Brown and Richard Q. Twiss used optical intensity interferometers to measure the diameters of a large number of stars at visible wavelengths.

Impressive results were obtained in the 1990s, with the Mark III interferometer measuring diameters of 100 of stars and many accurate stellar positions and ISI measuring stars in the mid-infrared for the first time. Additional results include direct measurements of the sizes of and distances to Cepheid variable stars, and young stellar objects.

In the early 2000s single-baseline interferometry became possible with large telescopes, allowing the first measurements of extra-galactic targets. Very primitive imaging has now become technically feasible using large telescopes (using a maximum of 3 VLT telescopes with the AMBER instrument), and it is hoped that by 2008 a useful imaging capability will be available even for extragalactic sources (using e.g. 6 telescopes of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer).

Projects are now beginning that will use interferometers to search for extrasolar planets, either by astrometric measurements of the reciprocal motion of the star (as used by the Palomar Testbed Interferometer and the VLTI) or through the use of nulling (as will be used by the Keck Interferometer and Darwin).