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Ancient Knowledge, Mysticism & Sacred Beliefs => The Ancient Arts: Astrology, Alchemy, the Tarot, Arcane Recondite Practices & the I Ching => Topic started by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 10:33:24 am



Title: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 10:33:24 am



                                             I S L A M I C   A S T R O L O G Y





Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. In early Arabic sources, ilm al-nujum was used to refer to both astronomy and astrology. In medieval sources, however, a clear distinction was made between ilm al-nujum (science of the stars) or ilm al-falak (science of the celestial orbs), referring to astrology, and ilm al-hay'ah (science of the figure of the heavens), referring to astronomy. Both fields were rooted in Greek, Persian, and Indian traditions.

Despite consistent critiques of astrology by scientists and religious scholars, astrological progno-    stications required a fair amount of exact scientific knowledge and thus gave partial incentive for the study and development of astronomy.

The earliest semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology was given by the Persian astronomer and astrologer Abu Rayhan al-Biruni circa 1000.
                                  (http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/a/ac/Arab_science.jpg)
                                   9TH CENTURY ARABIC ASTRONOMERS


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 10:35:32 am
                                                       (http://www.elore.com/Astrology/Sagittarius/islamic_sagittarius.jpg)
                                                        ISLAMIC SAGITTARIUS -
                                                        13th Century Manuscript







                                                     Opinions of contemporary scholars




According to jurists, the study of astronomy (ilm al-hay'ah) is lawful, as it is useful in predicting the beginning of months and seasons, determining the direction of salat (prayer), and navigation. They agree that this branch of science be used in determining the beginning and end of the month of Ramadan. As for astrology, this is considered by most Islamic scholars as haram (unlawful), as knowledge of the Unseen is known only by Allah. Dr. Husam al-Din Ibn Musa `Afana, a Professor of the Principles of Fiqh at Al-Quds University, Palestine, states the following:

"First of all, it is worth noting that the Arabs knew astronomy a long time ago. They would predict time through observing the movements of stars. According to the scholars of Shar`iah, there are two terms confused in many people's minds when it comes to dealing with the question in hand. These terms are astronomy and astrology. Astronomy is the science that deals with studying the movements of the celestial bodies and reducing observations to mathematical order. That science is useful in determining time, seasons, the direction of Prayer, etc. Astrology, on the other hand, is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs. Astrologists believe that the movements of stars have an influence on people's lives. Both Muslim astronomers and [religious] scholars refuse the prophecies of astrologists."

On the other hand, scholars agree that astrology is a prohibited field of study. Imam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Astrology that is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs is prohibited by the Quran, the Sunnah, and the unanimous agreement of the Muslim scholars. Furthermore, astrology was considered forbidden by all Messengers of Almighty Allah.”

The Saudi scholar, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, said: “Astrology is a kind of sorcery and fortune-telling. It is forbidden because it is based on illusions, not on concrete facts. There is no relation between the movements of celestial bodies and what takes place on the Earth.”


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 10:37:50 am







Quranic verses and Ahadith relating to astrology


Before the advent of Islam, people believed that the sun and moon might eclipse when a great figure died. During the Muhammad's lifetime, it happened that the sun eclipsed on the same day when Muhammad’s son Ibrahim died. The people then thought that it had eclipsed because of the Prophet’s son’s death. On knowing this, Muhammad led them in the Eclipse Prayer and then delivered a speech saying: “The sun and moon are but signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because so-and-so died or was born.”

This hadith indicates that Muhammad denied all relation between the movements of the heavenly bodies and events on the Earth. Ibn `Abbas reported that Muhammad said: “He who has acquired some knowledge of astrology has acquired some knowledge of sorcery; the more he acquires of the former the more he acquires of the latter.”

Commenting on this hadith, the Yemeni scholar Muhammad ash-Shawkani (d.1834), said that the Prophet compared between astrology and sorcery because sorcery was known to be forbidden; and so, he who would get some knowledge of astrology would do something forbidden and would be sinful.

It was also reported by Ibn Abbas that the Prophet Muhammad said: “He who uses astronomy for something other than what Almighty Allah has made lawful would be practicing sorcery. Astrologers predict knowledge of the future, and he who does so is a sorcerer, and sorcerers are disbelievers.”

Also, Ibn Mihjan reported that the Prophet said: “I fear on account of my nation three things after my death: (I fear that) their Imams (leaders) would oppress them, (that) they would believe in astrology, and (that) they would disbelieve predestination.”

Abu Hurayrah also reported that the Prophet said: “He who goes to a fortune-teller to ask him about something, his Prayer will not be accepted for forty days.”

Abu Hurayrah also reported that the Prophet said: “He who goes to a soothsayer or a fortuneteller and believes what he says exhibits disbelief in what has been sent down to Prophet Muhammad (from Allah).”

Contemplating the last two ahadith reported by Abu Hurayrah, it is to be noted that mere going to fortune-tellers is a sin that incurs upon a Muslim who commits it that his prayer is not accepted for forty days, and that believing what fortunetellers say renders a Muslim a disbeliever in what has been sent down to Prophet Muhammad. This is because Allah says in the Quran: “Say (O Muhammad): None in the heavens and the earth knoweth the Unseen save Allah; and they know not when they will be raised (again).”

Allah also says: “(He is) the knower of the Unseen, and He revealeth unto none His secret, save unto every messenger whom he hath chosen, and then He maketh a guard to go before him and a guard behind him That He may know that they have indeed conveyed the messages of their Lord. He surroundeth all their doings, and He keepeth count of all things.”


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 10:46:04 am







     PROMINENT ARAB, MUSLIM, PERSIAN AND/OR MIDDLE EASTERN OR NORTH AFRICAN ASTROLOGERS




This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness.

Revisions and additions are welcome.



Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham Zacuto
 
Al-Battani

Al-Biruni

Albubather
 
Alchabitius

Al-fadl ibn Naubakht

'Ali ibn Ridwan

Al-Kindī

Arzachel

Berossus

Biblical Magi (the "Three Wise Men")

Haly Abenragel

Hypatia of Alexandria

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Yunus

Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
 
Mashallah

Muhammad al-Fazari

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Naubakht

Omar Khayyam

Porphyry

Sharafeddin Tusi

Sudines


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 10:49:30 am







Notes



^ S. Pines (September 1964). "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3), p. 343-349.

^ excerpted from a lecture given by Dr. Yusuf Marwah under the title Astronomy and the Beginning of the Lunar Months

^ Islamonline.com

^ Reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah

^ Nayl Al-Awtar, vol.7, p.207

^ See Meshkat Al-Masabeeh, vol. 2, p. 1296

^ Reported by Ibn `Asakir and Ibn `Abdul-Barr

 
^ Reported by Muslim

^ Al-Albani said in Sahih At-Targhib wa At-Tarhib, vol. 3, p. 172, that this is an authentic hadith

^ Quran, An-Naml: 65

^ Quran, Al-Jinn: 26-28


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 11:29:04 am







                                                       Iranian Astrologers




Iranian Astrology predates Islam and flourished as early as the Achaemenian times. The Bible makes references to the three wise Magi from the east who are thought to have been Iranian. The Iranians made significant contribution to astronomy and astrology. Al Khwarizmi was the most famous of these. He was a great mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. He is considered to be the father of algebra and the algorithm , and introduced the concept of the number zero to the Western world.


Omar Khayyam Neyshabouri, Mathematician, Astronomer, Poet and Philosopher, The Calendar he calculated 1000 ago is still in effect in Iran as the official and formal Persian calendar. That is virtually the only calendar in the world which is based on classical horoscope system; means 1st if Arries is the first day of new year at spring equinux or on March 21, the beginiing of Persian new year or Nowrooz. He is also the inventor of decimal system and believed to be the father of Algebra.


Another famous Iranians astrologer and astronomer was Qutb al-Din al Shirazi (1236 - 1311). He wrote critiques of the Almagest, the famous Arabic translation of the work of Ptolemy. The Almagest was the means by which Ptolemy's work was re-introduced into Europe, as the original European copies had been lost. He produced two prominent works on astronomy: 'The Limit of Accomplishment Concerning Knowledge of the Heavens' in 1281 and 'The Royal Present' in 1284, both of which commented upon and improved on Ptolemy's work, particularly in the field of planetary motion. Al-Shirazi was also the first person to give the correct scientific explanation for the formation of a rainbow.

Ulugh Beyg was another notable Iranian mathematician and astronomer, who was sultan of Iran in the fifteenth century. He built an observatory in 1428 and produced the first original star map since Ptolemy which corrected the position of many stars, and included many new ones.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 11:30:09 am






Arabic Parts



The Arabs also developed a system called Arabic parts by which the difference between the ascendant and each planet of the zodiac was calculated. This new position then became a 'part' of some kind.  For example the 'part of fortune' is found by taking the difference between the sun and the ascendant and adding it to the moon. If the 'part' thus calculated was in the 10th House in Libra, for instance, it suggested that money could be made from some kind of partnership.



Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 11:33:37 am







                                                    Arabic Astronomy



Centres of learning in medicine and astronomy/astrology were set up in Baghdad and Damascus, and the Caliph Al-Mansur of Baghdad established a major observatory and library in the city, making it the world's astronomical centre. During this time knowledge of astronomy was greatly increased, and the astrolab was invented by Al Fazari. So much was knowledge increased by the Arabs that even today a great many star names are Arabic in origin. Here is a short list for some of the most prominent, with their original meaning:



STAR NAME MEANING

Achernar "River's End"
Aladfar "Claws"
Aldebaran "The Follower"
Alioth "Sheep's Tail"
Altair "The Flying"
Betelgeuse "Central Hand"
Deneb "Tail"
Mizar "Waistband"
Rasolgethi "Head of the Kneeling One"
Rigel "Foot of the Great One"
Vega "The Falling"


The meaning of the star names cannot really be understood without reference to the constellation of which they are a part. Further details of the star names, along with a greater list of others can be found in the article: List of traditional star names. Some astrologers still include a few of the stars in their charts today, along with the usual planets. For example, Aldabaran is said to signify confidence, energy and leadership qualities, while Vega is said to indicate good fortune in worldy ambitions.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 11:34:59 am






                                                          Arabic Astrology




The Arab astrologers defined a new form of astrology called electional astrology that could be used for all manner of divination in everyday life, such as the discovery of propitious moments for the undertaking of a journey, or the beginning of a business venture etc. They also were the first to speak of 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' indications, rather than categorical events.
                                         
(http://www.science-et-magie.com/archives02num/sm49/images49/arabastro.jpg)

Albumasur or Abu Ma'shar (805 - 885) was the greatest of the Arab astrologers. His treatise 'Introductoriam in Astronomium' spoke of how 'only by observing the great diversity of planetary motions can we comprehend the unnumbered varieties of change in this world'. The 'Introductoriam' was one of the first books to find its way in translation through Spain and into Europe in the Middle Ages, and was highly influential in the revival of astrology and astronomy there.



                           (http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/images/rediscovering/SCI_sp1__sub1.jpg)
ABOVE: The 10th-century astronomer Abu Sa’id al-Sizji held the contemporary view that the Earth was the center of the universe, but he modeled the solar system on the concept that the Earth rotated on its axis—as shown in this display at the Institute for the History of Arab–Islamic Science in Frankfurt.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:53:13 pm
               (http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/images/rediscovering/SCI_RB006288_sm.jpg)
A painting of constellations adorns the ceiling of the famous Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, which takes its name from its founder, the grandson of Tamerlane, who inaugurated it in 1420.



Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 09:57:50 pm
    (http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/images/rediscovering/SCI_ART181204.jpg)

   Tenth-century astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi’s Treatise on the Fixed Stars included both pictures    and   written descriptions of star patterns, including the Celestial Twins of the constellation Gemini. 



Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 10:03:31 pm
(http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/images/rediscovering/SCI_ART188289.jpg)

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi is pictured at his writing desk
at the high-tech observatory in Maragha,
Persia, which opened in 1259.
He persuaded the Mongol conqueror
Hulaga Khan to build the facility. 



Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 10:14:11 pm
(http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200703/images/rediscovering/SCI_A3YJ9K.jpg)

Arab astronomers study the heavens in this print from a commentary on Cicero’s Somnium Scipionis, whose central character ranges through the celestial spheres that surround the Earth, and carry the planets and the stars.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 10:48:29 pm
(http://www.astrologicon.org/art/images/Arabic-observatory.jpg)
ARABIC OBSERVATORY


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 18, 2007, 10:57:27 pm
                         (http://www.yeatsvision.com/Images/ArabMansions.jpg)

 
Twelfth-century Arab design showing, from the centre: the ancient planets (the Moon with a mirror; Mercury as a scribe; Venus with a dulcimer; a haloed Sun; Mars as a warrior; Jupiter as a worthy; Saturn as an ascetic), the signs of the Zodiac in a clockwise order, the Moon's phases in an anti-clockwise order aligned with the Mansions of the Moon.
 


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:00:25 am
                                       (http://www.yeatsvision.com/images/Moonchariot.jpg)
                                         MOONCHARIOT






                                    T H E   M A N S I O N S   O F   T H E   M O O N






                  (http://www.yeatsvision.com/images/graphics/Mansions.jpg)





The Arabic Mansions of the Moon, and one version of their alignment with the Zodiac. The fixed stars outside the circles are the traditional marker stars associated with each Mansion, and they often share a name, although the star names have been altered through European adoption (two Mansions do not contain any prominent stars). Because of the linkage with the fixed stars, which change their positions with respect to the Sun’s equinoxes with precession, there has been a greater tendency to treat the Mansions as sidereal than tropical, or to shift the Mansion which is regarded as the first one in accordance with the shift of the Vernal Equinox (see below).
The alignment given here is based on a list made by George Yeats, but using the Arabic names from Vivian Robson, The Fixed Stars and Constellations in Astrology (YL 1772). This takes the first Mansion as Al Batn al Hut (the Belly of the Fish), but in mediaeval times Al Sharatain (the Two Signs) was usually taken as the first, and anciently the first was Al Thurayya (the Many Little Ones, the Pleiades); see the Shifting Mansions below :


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:09:40 am







Like the Sun, the Moon appears to go around the circle of the Zodiac, though its circuit lasts a month (of 27.32 days) rather than a year (see astronomy). The twenty-eight Mansions of the Moon divide the Zodiac in the same way as the twelve Signs of the Zodiac, marking out sectors of the circle of the sky, though, since the number of degrees in a circle, 360°, is not neatly divisible by 28, their span is an awkward 12°51'25.7" (a 364 degree circle would be neater). It is thought that the lunar system of division may predate the solar Zodiac at least as rough sectors, since the stars remain largely visible, and the Moon’s apparent motion against the background is clearly noticeable from night to night. The Encyclopaedia Britannica which Yeats had (1911 edition, YL 629) notes that the lunation cycle (the Moon’s synodic cycle, from the Greek synodos, meeting, conjunction) is the reason for dividing the Sun’s annual cycle into twelve, while the lunar Mansions derive from the Moon’s own motion:

The synodical revolution of the moon laid down the lines of the solar, its sidereal revolution those of the lunar zodiac. The first was a circlet of "full moons"; the second marked the diurnal stages of the lunar progress round the sky, from and back again to any star. The moon was the earliest "measurer" both of time and space; but its services can scarcely have been rendered available until stellar "milestones" were established at suitable points along its path. Such were the Hindu nakshatras, a word originally signifying stars in general, but appropriated to designate certain small stellar groups marking the divisions of the lunar track.
"Zodiac", The Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Vol. 28, 995. 


Since the Moon’s sidereal revolution is 27.32 days, the number of Mansions has been approximated as both 27 and 28: in the most commonly used Indian system, there are 27 nakshatras, while 28 divisions are used in the Arabic and Chinese systems, as well as an older Indian system. (For a comparative table of the stars involved in lunar Mansion systems from Babylon, Arabia, India and China, drawn up by David B. Kelley, click here, and for a consideration of the origins of the Mansions, in India and China, see Philip Yampolsky, "The Origin of the Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions", Osiris IX [Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., 1950; 1984] 62-83.)


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:12:11 am







                                  T H E   M A N S I O N S   O F   T H E   M O O N





The term ‘Mansion of the Moon’ or ‘Station of the Moon’ is the usual translation into English, via the Latin (mansio, dwelling, and statio, position or abode), of the Arabic term manzil al-qamar (plural manâzil; station, resting-place of the Moon, more after the manner of a camel train than an actual dwelling, certainly not a grand one). The Arabs are thought to have taken a local pre-Islamic weather-predicting system of anwa’, based on the star groups which rose just ahead of the Sun at a given time of the year, and to have combined it with the Mansion system of the nakshatras from Indian astrology. On the origins of the Arab system, see Giuseppe Bezza, "Du Calendrier naturel à l'Astrologie. Quelques observations sur la prévision du temps dans la littérature arabe du Moyen Age", Actes du V Séminaire Maroco-Italien (Cosenza: Unesco, 1999).

In A Vision A, Yeats notes that the number of his Phases ‘is that of the Arabic Mansions of the Moon but they are used merely as a method of classification and for simplicity of classification their symbols are composed in an entirely arbitrary way’ (AV A 12). Despite this dismissal, and despite the fact that Yeats is dealing with phases rather than the path of the Moon, there are lingering elements that seem to go beyond just classification. In another piece of ‘classification not symbolism’ (AV B 196), Yeats fits his Phases of the Moon to the months of the year and therefore to the solar Zodiac, on the basis that all cycles are linked in some way to each other (see Making Twenty-Eight Twelve). Although the phases of the Moon, which follow the synodic cycle of 29.53 days and cover more than 360°, are separate from and independent of the Moon’s sidereal position (for more, see the Lunar Cycle), the two are inevitably linked in the mind of the observer, so that there is a strong impulse to bring the cycle of the phases together with the Mansions of the Moon, particularly on the part of artists and those who do not need to be too accurate or practical in their reckoning. Indeed, within artistic and symbolic representations, as opposed to astronomical and astrological, the various cycles are almost always superimposed on each other.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:13:54 am
                                   (http://www.yeatsvision.com/Images/ArabMansions.jpg)
Twelfth-century Arab design showing, from the centre: the ancient planets (the Moon with a mirror; Mercury as a scribe; Venus with a dulcimer; a haloed Sun; Mars as a warrior; Jupiter as a worthy; Saturn as an ascetic), the signs of the Zodiac in a clockwise order, the Moon's phases in an anti-clockwise order aligned with the Mansions of the Moon.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:16:35 am







The twenty-eight letters of the Arabic alphabet and the symbolic significance of the Moon in Islam, particularly the crescent Moon, give the Mansions a particular significance in Arabic astrology. It is through the Arabs that Hellenistic astrology, including that of the Hermetic Corpus, and Indian astrology, along with the positional number system, were transmitted to the Europeans during the Middle Ages. During the great efflorescence of Islamic translation and science, roughly from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries CE, there were many writers in Arabic on astrology, and almost all include some treatment of the lunar Mansions, usually derived ultimately from the Hellenistic system of Dorotheos of Sidon (Dorotheus Sidonius; first century CE) influenced by the Indian nakshatras. Much of the material, but by no means all, was translated into Latin during the European Middle Ages, usually in Spain, where Islam and Christendom met, along with Judaism. The most frequently cited authors include: Mâshâ’allâh ibn Atari (Messahalla; fl. 800 CE), Abû ‘Ali al-Khayyat (Albohali; 770-835 CE), Abû Ma‘shar (Albumasar; ca. 786-885 CE), Al-Qalandar (Archandam, Alchandreus; identity uncertain), Al-Kindî (Alkindus; 795-865 CE), Al-Farghânî (Alfraganus; fl. 840 CE), Al-Qabisi (Alcabitius; d. 967 CE), ‘Alî ibn abi ’r-Rijâl (Haly Abenragel, fl. 1020 CE), Al-Birûnî (Alberuni; 973-1048 CE).

Also probably from Spain, and certainly in its present form, is an Arabic text called Ghâyat al-Hakîm, ‘The Goal of the Wise’, known in Europe by the name of its declared author as Picatrix, a grimoire with a powerful reputation and disordered structure. A useful summary of the contents of the Picatrix and of translations into various languages appears at the Esoteric Archives’ site.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:17:38 am







The table below summarises the lists of the Mansions of the Moon given in a Latin translation of ‘Alî ibn abi ’r-Rijâl, Albohazen Haly Filii Abenragel libri de iudiciis astrorum, summa cura ... latinitati donati, per Antonium Stupam, published in printed form by Henricus Petrus in Basel in 1551 (pp. 342-46; an earlier version was published in Venice in 1503). The topics are rearranged slightly and kept in semi-note form for brevity. The focus is almost entirely on ‘catarchic’ astrology, that is the selection of propitious times to begin things and, with respect to what is favoured by the Moon’s position in the various Mansions, Abenragel’s list is a summary of Indian and Hellenistic traditions rather than an exposition of Arabian astrology or any ideas of his own. The enterprises involved vary from the important to the trivial, from marriage to when to put on new clothes, and Dorotheos also comments on the outcome of processes started involuntarily under a particular Mansion, such as captivity. Certain enterprises are favoured and others particularly cautioned against depending on the Moon’s position, though, for good fortune in the ventures favoured by a Mansion, the Moon must also be free from bad aspects from other planets (see Astrology). Some elements seem to be influenced by the Zodiac sign (interestingly Virgo seems to favour marriage with non-virgins), and characteristics often repeat for two or more consecutive Mansions. It is interesting that in European adoption the practice seems to have moved away somewhat from the deciding when to start a venture to focus more on magical operations and the making of talismans (see the Mansions’ Images), although the matters favoured may be similar. This seems more superstitious in some respects, but it also takes the burden off waiting for the appropriate time to do something, as long as the talisman has been made at the right time. The lists here are incidentally a fascinating side-light on the possible pre-occupations of their period, though probably more the time of the original sources, than of ‘Alî ibn abi ’r-Rijal himself, or of the Latin translators. Certain things like when to have a haircut and put on new clothes seem strangely unimportant, while Dorotheos’ terms of reference, in particular, are very much those of a male, slave-owning soldier, in danger of capture.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:29:40 am








The Mansions of the Moon according to Abenragel (ca. 1000 CE)





                               ELECTIONS ACCORDING TO THE MOON IN THE MANSIONS





NAME GIVEN & ARABIC NAME - STARTING DEGREE - INDIAN OPINION

DOROTHEOS 
 




1 Ilnath

Al Sharatain 0° 0' 0" Aries Good for taking medicines, pasturing livestock, making journey, except second hour Good for buying tame animals, for journeys, especially voyages, for making arms, planting trees, cutting hair or nails, putting on new clothes.
Bad for contracting marriage (holds for Moon in Aries), making partnerships, or buying slaves, who will be bad, disobedient or run away. If captured, prison will be bad and strong. 


2 Albethain

Al Butain 12° 11' 26" Aries Good for sowing and making journeys.  Bad for marriage, buying slaves, and for boats and prisoners similar to Alnath 


3 Athoraie

Al Thurayya 25° 22' 52" Aries Good for trading and revenge on enemies; indifferent for travel.  Good for buying tame animals and hunting, for all matters involving fire, and for doing good.
Bad for marriage, and making partnerships, especially with those more powerful. Bad for buying cattle or flocks, for planting trees, sowing or putting on new clothes. If captured, prison will be strong and long. Water journeys will bring fear and danger.
 

4 Addauennam

Al Dabaran 8° 34' 18" Taurus Good for sowing, for putting on new clothes, for receiving women and feminine things, for demolishing a building or starting a new one, for making a journey, except for third part of day. Good to build a house, which will be solid, and building in general, to dig a ditch, to buy slaves, who will be loyal and honest, and to buy livestock. Also good to be with kings and lords, for receiving power or honours.
Bad to contract marriage, since woman will prefer another, or to enter partnerships, especially with those more powerful. Voyages will involve big waves. If captured, the captivity will be long but, if captured for skills, will be released through goodwill. 


5 Alhathaya

Al Hak‘ah 21° 45' 44" Taurus Good for contracting marriage, for putting boys to study laws, scriptures or writing, for making medicines, for making a journey. Good for buying slaves, who will be good and loyal, for building, for travel by water, for washing head, indeed general washing, and cutting hair.
Bad for partnerships. If captured, imprisonment will be long, unless captured for skills, when he will escape.

 
6 Alhana/Atabuen

Al Han‘ah 4° 17' 10" Gemini Good for kings to declare war,enrollment of armies and cavalry, for knights seeking better pay, for the successful siege of a city, for smiting enemies and evildoers.
Bad for sowing, seeking a loan, or burial.  Good for partnerships and ventures, associates will agree and be honest and loyal, for hunting, for journeys by water, though delays.
Bad for taking medicine and for treating wounds. New clothes put on will soon tear. If captured, release within three days or very long imprisonment.

 
7 Addirach

Al Dhira 17° 36' 36" Gemini Good for ploughing and sowing, for putting on new clothes, for women’s jewellery, for cavalry.
Bad for journeys, except in last third of night. Good for partnerships, which will be good and useful, with loyal and agreeable associates, for washing head, cutting hair and new clothes, for buying slaves and livestock, for smiting or making peace with enemies, for voyages towards destination, but delays on return.
Bad for buying land, and for giving up medicine. If captured, unless he escapes in three days, he will die in prison. Likewise, if he has escaped something he fears, he will encounter it again.
 

8 Aluayra

Al Nathra 0° 0' 0" Cancer Good for taking medicine, for cutting new clothes, for women’s jewellery and putting it on. Rain will bring benefit not damage.
Bad for travel, except for last third of night. Good for voyages, swift on outward and return journeys.
Marriages contracted will be harmonious for a while, then discordant.
A slave bought will deceitful, accuse his master, and run away. A partnership started will involve fraud on either side. If captured, long imprisonment.
 

9 Attraaif

Al Tarf 12° 11' 26" Cancer Bad for sowing, journeys, entrusting anything to anyone, or seeking to harm anyone. Good for voyages, outward and return, for reinforcing doors and making locks, for making beds and putting up bed-curtains, for transplanting wheat.
Bad for partnerships, which will involve fraud on either side. Bad for cutting hair, or new clothes. Putting on new clothes may lead to drowning in them. If captured, long imprisonment.
 

10 Algebhe

Al Jabhah 25° 22' 52" Cancer Good for contracting marriage, for sugar and what is made with it.
Bad for journeys and entrusting anything, for putting on new clothes or for women’s jewellery. Good for buildings, which will last, and for partnerships, benefiting all parties.
If captured, at the command of a leader or because of great deed, and long, hard imprisonment.
 

11 Azobrach

Al Zubrah 8° 34' 18" Leo Good for sowing and planting, for besieging.
Indifferent for trade and journeys.
Bad for freeing captives.  Good for buildings and foundations, which will last, and for partnerships, from which associates will gain. Good for cutting hair.
Bad for new clothes. If captured, at the command of a leader, and long imprisonment
 

12 Azarfa

Al Sarfah 21° 45' 44" Leo Good for starting all building, for arranging lands, sowing and planting, for marriage, for putting on new clothes, for women’s jewellery, for making a journey in the first third of day. Good for buying slaves and livestock, once the Moon is out of Leo, since the Lion is a great devourer. (If he eats a lot it leads to stomach pains, power, boldness and obstinacy.) What is lent will not be returned, or only with great effort and delay. Voyages will be long, hard and dangerous, but not fatal. 


13 Aloce

Al Awwa 4° 17' 10" Virgo Good to plough, sow, make a journey, marry, free captives.  Good to buy a slave, who will be good, loyal and honest, to start building, to give oneself to pleasures and jokes, to come before a king or famous man, to take medicines, to cut new clothes, to wash or cut hair.
Not bad to marry a corrupted woman, and, if marrying a virgin, the marriage will last a while. A voyage undertaken will involve delay in return. If captured, he will be injured in prison, but captivity will end well. 


14 Azimech

Al Simak 17° 36' 36" Virgo Good for marrying a woman who is not a virgin, for medicines, sowing and planting.
Bad for journeys or entrusting something to someone.  Good to start a voyage and a partnership, which will be profitable and harmonious, to buy a slave, who will be good, honest and respectful.
Marriage with a virgin will not last long, and it is not bad to marry a corrupted woman. If captured, he will soon escape or be released.

 
15 Algarf

Al Ghafr 0° 0' 0" Libra Good to dig wells and ditches, to cure illnesses to do with wind, but not others.
Bad for journeys.  Good for moving house, for adapting or preparing a house, its owner and site. Good to seek to do a good deed, to buy and sell, but selling slaves not livestock, because Libra is a human sign.
Bad for both land and sea journeys. Marriage will not last in harmony, or only for a while. Partnerships entered will lead to fraud and discord. Money lent will not be returned. Bad for cutting hair. 


16 Azebone

Al Jubana 12° 11' 26" Libra Bad for journeys, trade, medicines, sowing, women’s jewellery, for cutting or putting on new clothes. A slave bought will be good, loyal and honest.
Bad for marriage, which will only last in harmony for a while, for partnerships, which will lead to dishonesty and mutual suspicion. If captured, he will soon be out of prison, if God wills. 



17 Alidil

Iklil al Jabhah 25° 22' 52" Libra Good to buy flocks and livestock, to change their pasture, to put on new jewellery and besiege towns.  Good for starting building, which will be solid and durable, for settling a dispute between two people, to foster love, and love begun will be absolutely solid and last for ever. Good for all medicine.
Voyages started will bring anxiety and sorrows, but he will survive.
Partnerships started will bring discord, and he who marries, will find his wife impure. Bad for selling slaves or cutting hair. 


18 Alcalb

Al Kalb 8° 34' 18" Scorpio Good for building, for arranging lands and buying them, for receiving honours and power. If it begins to rain, it will be wholesome, useful and good. Eastwards journeys are favoured.  Building undertaken will be solid. Good for planting and taking medicines.
If a man gets married and the Mars is with the Moon here, he will find her not to be a virgin. If he enters a ship he will come out again.
Bad for selling slaves, new clothes, cutting hair. Partnerships will result in discord.
 

19 Yenla

Al Shaula 21° 45' 44" Scorpio Good for besieging towns and encampments, for disputing against enemies, for making a journey, for sowing and for planting trees.
Bad for entrusting something to somebody. If a man gets married, he will find her not to be a virgin.
Bad for voyages, which will end in shipwreck, for partnerships, which will be discordant, for selling slaves, and very bad for a captive. 


20 Alimain

Al Na’am 4° 17' 10" Sagittarius Good for buying animals. Rain will be good and do no harm.
Indifferent for journeys.  Good for buying small animals.
Bad for partnerships and captivity.
 

21 Albeda

Al Baldah 17° 36' 36" Sagittarius Good for starting any building, for sowing, for buying lands or livestock, for buying and making women’s jewellery and clothes.
Indifferent for journeys. A woman who is divorced or widowed will not marry again. Indifferent for slaves bought, since they will think much of themselves and will not humble themselves to their masters. 


22 Sahaddadebe

Al Sa’d al Dhabih 0° 0' 0" Capricorn Good for medicine and journeys, except for last third of day. Good for putting on new clothes. Good for entering a partnership, which will bring profit and usefulness, and for entering a ship, though there will be great anxieties from a strong desire to return and the like.
A man who becomes engaged will break the engagement before the wedding and die within six months, or the couple will be in conflict and live badly, with the wife mistreating the husband.
Bad for buying slaves, who will do ill to their master, or run away, or be irksome or bad. If captured, he will soon gain freedom.
 

23 Zadebolal

Al Sa’d al Bula 12° 11' 26" Capricorn Good for medicine, for putting on new jewellery and clothes, for a journey in the middle third of day.
Bad to entrust something to someone.  Good for partnerships.
Bad for marriage, since wife will mistreat husband and they will not be together much, for entering a ship, if a short voyage is wanted, for buying slaves. If captured, he will soon regain liberty.
 

24 Zaadescod

Al Sa’d al Su’ud 25° 22' 52" Capricorn  Good for medicine, sending out armies and soldiers.
Indifferent for journeys.
Bad for merchandise, jewellery, putting on new clothes, marrying.  A slave bought will be strong, loyal and good.
Bad for partnerships, which will end in great harm and conflict, and for entering a ship. Marriage will only last a while. If captured, he will soon be free.
 

25 Sadalabbia

Al Sa’d al Ahbiyah 8° 34' 18" Aquarius Good for besieging towns and encampments, for going into a quarrel, for pursuing enemies and doing them harm, for sending messengers. Favours journeys southwards.
Bad for marriage, for sowing, for merchandise, for buying livestock. Good for buying slaves, who will be strong, loyal and good, for building, which will be solid and durable, and for voyages, though there will be delays.
Marriage will only last for a while.
Bad for partnerships, which will end badly and harmfully, and a slave will escape.
 

26 Fargalmocaden

Al Fargh al Mukdim 21° 45' 44" Aquarius Good for making a journey in the first third of the day, but the rest is good for neither journeys nor any other beginning.  Good for building, which will be solid and durable, for buying a slave, who will be loyal and good, for entering a ship, though there will be delays.
Bad for partnerships. Marriage will not last. If captured, he will be in prison for a long time.
 

27 Alfargamahar

Al Fargh al Thani 4° 17' 10" Pisces Good for sowing, and useful for trading. Good for marriage.
Indifferent for journeys, except for middle third of night when very bad.
Bad for entrusting something to someone, or lending anything.  If starting a partnership, it will begin well but end in harm and conflict. Entering a ship will bring damage, dangers and travails. A slave bought will be bad.
If captured, he will not leave prison. 


28 Bathnealoth

Al Batn al Hut 17° 36' 36" Pisces Good for trade, sowing and medicines. Good for marriage.
Indifferent for journeys, except for middle third of night when bad.
Bad for entrusting something to someone, or lending anything.  A partnership started will begin well but end badly. A slave bought will be bad, irascible and very proud.
If captured, he will not leave prison. 


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:32:10 am







Johannes Hispalensis translated a good number of Arabian sources on astrology, and gives his own

summary of all these works in Epitome Totius Astrologiae (written ca. 1142); he also gives the Indians

and Dorotheos as his authorities for the Mansions, and the meanings are largely in accordance with

Abenragel’s reports. We know that the Yeatses were referred to this book (see The Yeatses and the

Mansions for this and further consideration of mediaeval Latin sources).


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:34:26 am







                                          M Y S T I C A L   A S T R O L O G Y





A very different approach is seen in an influential system of correspondences constructed by the Sufi Master, Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi, who was born in Murcia, in the Arab Spain of Al-Andalus, in 1165 and died in Damascus in 1240 CE (a life-span that pre-dates Yeats’s [1865-1939] by 700 years almost exactly). Ibn ‘Arabi’s exposition is one of mystical symbolism rather than practical astrology, using the Mansions to organise a chain of being from the uncreated first cause through levels of celestial manifestation and the elemental world to man and the process of hierarchy itself. The cosmos expounded gives a theoretical explanation of the tropical system of the Zodiac, placing the Towers of the Zodiac in the Sphere of the Starless Sky, above that of the Sphere of the Fixed Stars, and below the Sphere of the Divine Pedestal and the Sphere of the Divine Throne. Effectively he, therefore, gives the equinoxes precedence over the precession of the stars, and ties the First Point of Aries to the Vernal Equinox, which is seen as closer to the first movers than the ‘fixed’ stars.

According to Titus Burckhardt’s summary of Ibn ‘Arabi’s ideas, drawn from a variety of his works in Mystical Astrology According to Ibn ‘Arabi, the true start of the Mansions appears to correspond with the Moon’s Ascending Node (see the Draconic Cycle), but for symbolic purposes it is aligned with the Vernal Equinox. Ibn ‘Arabi gives a series of correspondences with Divine Names or Attributes, as well as the hierarchy of creation and the alphabet and, with respect to the alphabet, asserts that ‘It is not like people think, that the Mansions of the Moon represent the models of the letters; it is the 28 sounds which determine the lunar mansions’ (Burckhardt, 35). (See the Ibn ‘Arabi Society’s site for more detail, and Burckhardt.) The sequence given here appears in The Revelation of Mecca, but the names of the Mansions are not given, so I have taken them from Vivian Robson, The Fixed Stars and Constellations in Astrology, which follows a looser convention of transcription.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:39:41 am





                      THE MANSIONS OF THE MOON ACCORDING TO IBN `ARABI  (ca. 1200)





   [name] meaning  from attribution letter Divine Attribute



1 Al Sharatain The Two Signs 0° Aries The First Intellect, the Pen Hamza & Alef Divine Essence

2 Al Butain The Belly of Aries 12°51'22" Aries The Universal Soul, the Preserved Tablet Hâ’
(unstressed h) The One Who Calls Forth

3 Al Thurayya The Many Little Ones 25°42'51" Aries Universal Nature ‘Ayn The Interior

4 Al Dabaran The Follower 8°34'17" Taurus Universal Substance, prima materia Hâ
(stressed h) The Last

5 Al Hak‘ah The White Spot 21°25'40" Taurus Universal Body Ghayn (gh) The Manifest

6 Al Han‘ah The Mark 4°17'09" Gemini Form Khâ (kh) The Wise

7 Al Dhira The forearm 17°08'34" Gemini The Throne Qâf (q) The All-Encompassing

8 Al Nathra The Gap or Crib 0° Cancer The Footstool Kâf (k) The Grateful

9 Al Tarf The Glance 12°51'22" Cancer The Self-Existing Ultimate Sphere, the Starless Sky, the Zodiacal Towers Jîm (j) The Independent, the Rich

10 Al Jabhah The Forehead 25°42'51" Cancer The Sky of the Fixed Stars, the Sphere of the Stations, the Sun of Paradise, the Roof of Hell Shîn (sh) The Powerful

11 Al Zubrah The Mane 8°34'17" Leo The First Heaven, the Sphere of Saturn, the Sky of the Visited House and Lotus of the Extreme Limit, the Abode of Ibrahim (Abraham) Yâ (y/î) The Lord

12 Al Sarfah The Changer 21°25'40" Leo The Second Heaven, the Sphere of Jupiter, the Abode of Musa (Moses) Dâd
(stressed d) The Knowing

13 Al Awwa The Barker 4°17'09" Virgo The Third Heaven, the Sphere of Mars, the Abode of Harun (Aaron) Lâm (l) The Victorious

14 Al Simak The Unarmed 17°08'34" Virgo The Fourth Heaven, the Sphere of the Sun, the Abode of Idris (Enoch, Hermes) Nûn (n) The Light

15 Al Ghafr The Cover 0° Libra The Fifth Heaven, the Sphere of Venus, the Abode of Yusuf (Joseph) Râ (r) The Form-Giver

16 Al Jubana The Claws 12°51'22" Libra The Sixth Heaven, the Sphere of Mercury, the Abode of ‘Isa (Jesus) Tâ
(stressed t) The Numberer

17 Iklil al Jabhah The Crown of the Forehead 25°42'51" Libra The Seventh Heaven, the Sphere of the Moon, the Abode of Adam Dâl (d) The Evident

18 Al Kalb The Heart 8°34'17" Scorpio The Sphere of Ether, Meteors and Fire Tâ
(unstressed t) The Seizer

19 Al Shaula The Sting 21°25'40" Scorpio Air Zây (z) The Living One

20 Al Na’am The Ostriches 4°17'09" Sagittarius Water Sîn (s) The Life-Giver

21 Al Baldah The City 17°08'34" Sagittarius Earth Sâd
(stressed s) The Death-Giver

22 Al Sa’d al Dhabih The Fortune of the Slayers 0° Capricorn Minerals and Metals Zâ
(stressed z) The Precious

23 Al Sa’d al Bula The Fortune of the Swallower  12°51'22" Capricorn Plants Thâ (th) The Nourisher

24 Al Sa’d al Su’ud The Fortune of the Fortunate 25°42'51" Capricorn Animals Dhâl (dh) The Humbler

25 Al Sa’d al Ahbiyah The Fortune of the Hidden 8°34'17" Aquarius The Angels Fâ (f) The Strong

26 Al Fargh al Mukdim The First Spout 21°25'40" Aquarius The Jinn Bâ (b) The Subtle

27 Al Fargh al Thani The Second Spout 4°17'09" Pisces Humanity Mîm (m) The Uniter

28 Al Batn al Hut The Belly of the Fish 17°08'34" Pisces The Hierarchy of the Degrees of Existence, not their manifestation Wâw (w/û) The One Who Elevates by Degrees


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:40:55 am







The movement away from Divine Essence in the First stage passes through stages of universal Archetypes and reaches the highest levels of celestial manifestation at stages Seven and Eight around the Summer Solstice, the spheres beyond the manifest cosmos. The planetary sequence starts with Saturn and the Sun is at the central point of this sequence, corresponding with the equinoctial point of Libra. Earth represents the most solid simple element, and is placed at the Winter Solstice, after which come the mixed forms, with a form of ascent.

Although it is unlikely that Yeats would have known about Ibn ‘Arabi’s schema, there are some interesting parallels in the hierarchy or cycle outlined, in particular with the placement of the Divine Essence with the First Mansion, and the Light with the opposite point.

All the same, Yeats was certainly interested enough in Arabian wisdom to concoct an elaborate story involving Michael Robartes and the Judwalis in the first version of A Vision, locating the adventures at various places in Arabia and Ottoman Palestine, as well as giving one of the supposed origins of the System to a Syriac Christian at the Caliph’s court in Baghdad, Kusta ben Luka, a translator from the ninth century CE.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:53:40 am







                              T H E   Y E A T S E S   A N D   T H E   M A N S I O N S





As the schema of the twenty-eight phases of the Moon first began to emerge in the Automatic Script at the end of November 1917 the Yeatses must have been intrigued by the possibility that they bore some relation to the twenty-eight Mansions of the Moon from Arabic astrology. Only three days after the first appearance of the ‘28 days of [Moon]’, the Automatic Script features the term ‘The 28 mansions’ (YVP 1 119) in one of George’s answers on 25 November 1917 and in a subsequent question on that day Yeats was wrestling with the problem that one solar day ‘which equals one mansion of moon would represent one incarnation & time after’, in other words the period between lives (YVP 1 120). On the 30 November George’s reply to the first numbered question contains another name for these divisions of the Zodiac, ‘the stations 28 of moon’, and Yeats’s next question was whether these days ‘correspond to the lunar mansions’ to which the answer was apparently ‘Yes’ (YVP 1 126).

We know that the Yeatses did investigate the Mansions to a limited extent at least: George Yeats copied out both a passage from Chaucer’s ‘Franklin’s Tale’ and an edited version of W. W. Skeat’s notes to the Oxford edition. Chaucer’s Franklin tells of an astrologer friend who helps the love-lorn Aurelius:



 He [Aurelius] hym remembred that, upon a day,
At Orliens in studie a book he say
Of magyk natureel, which his felawe,
That was that tyme a bacheler of lawe,
Al were he ther to lerne another craft,
Hadde prively upon his desk ylaft;
Which book spak muchel of the operaciouns
Touchynge the eight and twenty mansiouns
That longen to the moon—and swich folye
As in oure dayes is nat worth a flye,—
For hooly chirches feith in oure bileve
Ne suffreth noon illusioun us to greve.




       He remembered that, one day,
    While studying in Orléans, he had seen a book
    About natural magic,* which his companion,
    Who was then a bachelor of law,
    Even though he was learning another skill,
    Had privately left on his desk.
    This book spoke much about the operations
    Concerning the twenty-eight mansions
    That belong to the moon—and such folly
    As nowadays is considered worthless—
    Since the holy church's faith does not
    Allow any illusion to harm our belief.




‘The Franklin’s Tale’, The Canterbury Tales,
Fragment V (Group F) 1123-1133  *magic which harnesses the forces of nature, and does not involve invocation of spirits or demons.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:55:12 am







George Yeats also highlighted a passage from Skeat’s notes with double lines: after directing his reader to Ludwig Ideler’s Untersuchungen über den Ursprung und die Bedeutung der Sternnamen (1809) for the positions of the Mansions, Skeat comments that, since Ideler does not give their significance, ‘For the influence of the moon in these mansions, we must look elsewhere, viz. in lib.i. cap. 11, and lib. iv. Cap. 18 of the Epitome Astrologiae of Johannes Hispalensis’ (from The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer [Oxford: Clarendon, 1894], Vol. 5, 392; see CVA notes 10). As has been mentioned, the Arabic Mansions had passed into mediaeval European usage through the work of the Spanish translators, especially those of Toledo, and, in his Epitome Totius Astrologiae ("The Summary of All Astrology"), Johannes or Joannes Hispalensis (John of Seville) brings together astrological teaching from a variety of sources, including Arab writers, many of whom he had also translated. At some stage the Yeatses must have followed up these references.



Published in printed form in 1548 but dated internally to 1142, the Epitome does not give the Arabic names of the Mansions, but it does give the Latin names, and quite a full treatment of their significance according to Dorotheus of Sidon. In the context of mundane astrology, Joannes Hispalensis also quantifies the ‘virtues’ (virtutes) of the Moon, by which he means its strength within the figure of a horoscope, according to its phase, giving the twelve somewhat unequal ‘portals’ or ‘doors’ (ianuae), but he does not assign any further characteristics to them. One other point that could have been of interest to the Yeatses is his method of predicting the year to come, through taking the horoscope of the Moon’s last conjunction or opposition prior to the Sun’s entry into Aries, the New Moon or Full Moon in March.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:56:36 am







This chapter gives a list of the Mansions, in the normal, garbled mediaeval form of the Arabic names, the meaning in Latin, their positions and a brief summary of their significance, while a later chapter gives images for each of the Mansions to be used in the manufacture of talismans according to the magical intentions of the maker (see Agrippa’s list below). These images are of a similar nature to those which Yeats tried to develop for each of the Phases (see Phase Images), although they are usually very different in detail; however, both combine disparate and strange images, which are sometimes quite violent. For instance, a talisman for revenge and enmity should be made out of red wax when the Moon is in the fourth Mansion (Aldebram or Aldelamen, the eye of the bull), with the image of a soldier on horseback, holding a snake in his right hand, which should then fumigated in incense of red myrrh and storax, while one to aid childbirth and to cure the sick, should be made out of gold with a lion’s head on it when the Moon is in the tenth Mansion (Algeliache or Aglebh, the lion’s forehead), fumigated with ambergris. The only image which coincides in Yeats’s and Agrippa’s lists is that of a Janus figure which represents both Yeats’s Phase 18 and Agrippa’s Mansion 21, Abeda (see the list below).



Giordano Bruno’s lists of astrological images, including those of the Mansions, are very similar to Agrippa’s. These figures are given not in the context of talismans or magic, since, ostensibly they are part of his mnemonic system; however, in the words of Frances Yates, the “two books on the art of memory” which he published while resident in Paris “reveal him as a magician”. Much of his more explicit magical writing was in fact not published until long after his death, with De Magia only appearing in 1891. The images which appear in De umbris idearum (1582) are not exactly the same, but, although there are other sources which he could have used, Agrippa is the most likely, particularly given other echoes elsewhere in his works. Bruno, however, develops and embellishes to a greater or lesser extent from what any sources could offer him. With reference to the examples given above, Bruno gives for the fourth Mansion a soldier on horseback with a snake in his right hand and dragging a black dog with his left, for the tenth a woman in childbirth, in front of whom there is a golden lion and a man in the attitude of a convalescent, and for the twenty-first, two men back to back, each picking up shaved hairs.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:57:58 am







Agrippa’s lists of the Mansions of the Moon and their images appear to be derived in turn from the Picatrix, possibly the best-known magical text dealing with the Mansions. Although it was only available in manuscript form at the time when Yeats was working, there are copies in Oxford, London and Paris; MacGregor Mathers who ‘had copied many manuscripts on ceremonial magic and doctrine in the British Museum, and was to copy many more in Continental libraries’ (Au 183) would almost certainly have known it. The Picatrix not only uses the positional Mansions of the Moon (see Frank Pearce Sturm, 83-87), considering the role of Yeats’s Kusta ben Luka, he mentioned Arabian philosophers and astrologers, referring to Alkindi, Albumazar, Thebit ben Corat and Rhazes, as well as a manuscript in the Bodleian "entitled The Book of the 28 Images of the Moon and the 28 Mansions and the 54 Angels Who Serve the Images". He noted that in "the Middle Ages, when Arabian learning was lost, the Images of the Moon became the 28 Judges of Geomantic Divination". Sturm also claimed very particular knowledge:


I know a deal about this that is in no book, for it comes from the memory of one long dead. For twenty-five years some mind that is not my own has tried to force me to write a certain system of philosophy, but I am not yet convinced that it is worth writing. I used to think that the spirit of a monk, burnt for heresy early in the 12th century was my informant, but I would rather believe him to have been myself in a past life, as I once saw him in a crystal vision, with a tonsured head sticking out of a cowl, in a big gloomy lecture hall. He died with his book in his mind, & now troubles me with his uncompleted task. When I am in that mood I take up a pen and make up sentences out of his book. I have a whole collection of them, and if I don’t call the automatic writing it is not because I don’t believe they are.
(Frank Pearce Sturm, 85)


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 07:59:24 am







Although Sturm was indicating a willingness to delve into Arabian and Mediaeval lunar astrology, as well as his own unquiet spirit’s ideas, Yeats seems to have taken little interest.

There are other possible places in which the Yeatses could have found lists of the Mansions, though without any tangible evidence that they did: either Western compilations of Arabic source material, similar to the Epitome, such as Guido Bonatti’s Liber introductorius ad iudicia stellarum, or actual translations of original Arabic works, some, such as that of Abenragel cited above, available in printed form, and others, such as the pseudo-Hermes, only in manuscript. All these writers, though, give very similar lists, most in fact derived ultimately from Dorotheos of Sidon and Indian sources.

There is, however, one final source that they did use, which is significantly different from the others. It is a list of Mansions of the Moon in George Yeats’s hand, and was filed with the Automatic Script from 27 June 1918; it is published in George Mills Harper’s The Making of Yeats’s "A Vision" (Appendix C; Vol. 2, 419). As the heading ‘560. Athanasius Kircher’ indicates, the list was derived from a work of the Jesuit polymath Athanasius Kircher, in fact Lingua Aegyptiaca Restituta (Rome, 1643). Kircher was among the first Europeans to study the Coptic language, surmising that Coptic was the descendent of the language of Ancient Egypt, although Coptic had already almost died out as a spoken language by his day and become restricted to the liturgy of the Coptic Church. Kircher had access to a bilingual Arabic-Coptic word list, which had been prepared in the fourteenth century by Barakat ibn Kabar (d. 1324), the priest of the Hanging Church in Cairo. This work was called The Great Ladder (Scala Magna in Kircher’s Latin or al-Sullam al-Kabêr in Arabic) and Kircher added a Latin translation, making it a trilingual lexicon. He published it under the title Lingua Aegyptiaca Restituta, ‘The Egyptian Language Restored’, since he was among the first to surmise that Coptic descended from the language of Pharaonic Egypt.

As a supplement to the word lists, he examined areas by topic, among them ‘The Egyptian names for the stars’ where he sought to piece together the astronomy/astrology of Ancient Egypt. A good part of this chapter is centred on the Mansions of the Moon and was repeated, with a few embellishments, in his magnum opus on Egypt, Oedipus Aegyptiacus (Rome, 1652-54). The two lists both have inaccuracies in the starting and finishing degrees of the Mansions, but they are distinct, and the anomalies in George Yeats’s list indicate that her source was Lingua Aegyptiaca Restituta, where the list starts on page 560.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:00:37 am
(http://www.yeatsvision.com/Images/KircherTable.gif)


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:06:33 am







I have amended the list slightly from Harper’s reading in the case of Mansion 4, ‘also the Hour of the [indecipherable word] with her sons’, since it is clearly a translation of ‘gallina caeli’. The use of a capital ‘H’ indicates that George Yeats probably read ‘Hori’ correctly as ‘of Horus’, although the capitalisation is generally not reliable. There is a full article about George Yeats’s list and the links with Athanasius Kircher in the Yeats Annual 16, 2005. Unfortunately in the transmission to printing, the special characters lost their formatting and the version above is more correct.


George understood Latin, but appears to have been slightly cavalier with the dictionary, taking cubitus as bed rather than the cubit measure or forearm and reading frons as frons, frondis, a frond, bough or leafy branch, rather than frons, frontis, forehead, front or brow. In both places the context makes the alternatives clear, so it indicates that she may have been rushing to some degree. She would have been able to read the Coptic as well, since the Golden Dawn required its members to know the names of Egyptian deities in their Coptic forms (Kircher’s assumption about Coptic had been proved right, and Coptic Egyptian is more or less the ancient Egyptian language in the Greek alphabet, giving it vowels and making it more readily accessible). George would probably have recognised most of the Hebrew as well, since the language and alephbet were fundamental from studies in Cabbala in the Golden Dawn. That was still not enough, though, and the gaps in George Yeats’s list are understandable when one sees the pages are also scattered with Greek, Arabic, Estranghelo and Amharic scripts.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:07:44 am
(http://www.yeatsvision.com/Images/560_61LinguaAegyptiaca.gif)


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:09:38 am






Though Kircher was correct about the Coptic language’s relationship with Egyptian, most of his other assumptions were wrong, even if they were based on the best classical authorities. These included the assumption that the hieroglyphs were an entirely symbolic or ideogrammatic writing with no phonetic component, and that the Greek language and alphabet were derived from the Egyptian. It may seem obvious now that the alphabet is an adaptation of Greek, but Kircher saw the letters formed from the ibis, ram, bull and so on, and then taken to Greece. To us the similarities between Greek words and Coptic ones (such as ‘polis’ for city-state, ‘karthian’ for heart, or ‘stephani’ for crown) show Egyptian borrowing during the Hellenistic period, but to Kircher it seemed that the influence had gone the other way. The coincidence between the Arabic names for the Mansions and the Coptic ones is also clear and the names seem to be often Greek translations of the Arabic names, especially in the second half of the list, and so it seems probable that the list is largely a version of the Arabic lunar system, especially since the essential Egyptian system is strongly solar and decimal, using the 36 decanates of the Zodiac (ten days of the Sun’s movement) rather than the 28 Mansions (one day of the Moon’s movement). [This will be extended further.]
                                     (http://www.yeatsvision.com/Images/GallinaCoeli.gif)
   The fact that the list was, at least in part, different from either the Arabic one or the European one derived from it (see Agrippa’s list below) may have been a reason for this version’s attractiveness, but the names still indicate that the Mansions are often linked to the larger constellations and are often little more than subdivisions of the Zodiac signs. Another point is worth noting: Al Batn al Hut appears here as the first Mansion, displacing Alnath/Al Sharatain, and this problem of locating the Mansions reliably may have frustrated the Yeatses: where should the Mansions start? are they tropical or sidereal? which is the first Mansion? These are all variations on the same question really.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:12:56 am







The Shifting Mansions
The Mansions’ names often tie them to a constellation or sign of the Zodiac, for example, the ram's belly, the lion's mane, the scorpion's sting. It is also clear that with the dislocation of the constellations from their associated signs of the Zodiac, owing to the natural phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes, if the Mansions remain tied to the stars rather than the signs, then some of the anomalies that are gradually established between the two series start to make the system look slightly absurd, thus Al Batn al Hut, "the belly of the fish", from the constellation of Pisces will now be found in the tropical sign of Aries. This is because the system of the Mansions is strongly linked to the stellar patterns in the night sky rather than to the Sun’s equinoxes and solstices (its tropoi, turning points), which form the basis for Arabian and European astrology, and the Mansions therefore creep 'forwards' as the precession of the equinoxes shifts the tropical Zodiac backwards against the background of the stars.


The exact amount of the drift varies with the date. The texts usually derive from Arabic writers of the tenth and eleventh centuries, whose works were transmitted into Europe through mediaeval translations circulated in manuscript, which, in turn, were then sometimes printed some centuries after that, with no updating. There is, therefore, room for a great deal of uncertainty, since each year adds a further slippage of 50.4", and therefore 1º every 71½ years. Such shifts can be confusing and are only further obscured by poor transliteration of Arabic, gaps, or corruption during the copying of manuscripts. Indeed, it often seems that observation stopped with the Arabs and that, once astrology fell into desuetude among in Islamic culture, the system became stuck.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:13:58 am







Traditionally in both the Indian and Arabic systems the first Mansion was Al Thurayya (the ‘Many Little Ones’; Indian, Krittika, the ‘General of the Celestial Armies’; Greek, the Pleiades) located in the shoulder of the constellation of Taurus. With the systematisation of Greek astronomy and the establishment of the the Sun’s position at the Vernal Equinox as the First Point of Aries and the start of the Zodiac, the Mansion associated with the star Sheratan, Al Sharatain, became the first Mansion — Botein seems to have missed out. Sheratan (Beta Arietis) is one of the horns of Aries and the name, meaning the "Two Signs", refers to it as a marker for the Zodiac’s beginning along with Mesarthim (Gamma Arietis); the Mansion is also called Alnath, meaning "the one that butts" and, though this name was more common in European usage, it is liable to confusion with another butter, the bright star in upper horn of Taurus, also called Al Nath or El Nath (Beta Tauri, traditionally shared with Auriga). This Mansion, associated with the horns of Aries, is listed as the first by Abenragel (fl. 1000 CE) and Ibn ‘Arabi (1165-1240 CE), and this is the order that passed into European astrology, so that Alnath is mentioned as the first Mansion by Chaucer (1340-1400) and Agrippa (1486-1535). Johannes Hispalensis, writing in the 1140s, does not tie the Mansions to the tropical Zodiac, starting the first Mansion, Horns of Aries, at 16° 01' Aries, and places the previous Mansion, the Fish (Al Batn al Hut), at the end of the list but starting at 3° 09' Aries. However, if the boundaries of the Mansions are tied to a starting point in the tropical Zodiac, which is usually 0° Aries, when adaptations come they tend to be discrete shifts, displacing the sequence through the whole span of a Mansion, 12º 51' 26", or even two, as in the change from Al Thurayya to Al Sharatain. The list which George Yeats copied out from Athanasius Kircher places his equivalent of Al Batn al Hut (the Fish) aligned with 0° Aries, close to Johannes Hispalensis’ arrangement, but at the head list. If the system is taken as purely sidereal, then it cannot be fixed to any particular point and will shift gradually every year; if the marker stars are used, precessional slippage means that the star that is currently closest to 0° Aries is Scheat (Beta Pegasi; which will reach the exact longitude of the Spring Equinox in 2045), one of the markers of Al Fargh al Mukdin, the First Water Spout.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:15:40 am







An example of the confusing situation, based on one of the clearer and better known stars, Alpha Tauri (Aldebaran), which gives its name to one of the Mansions, may give some indication. Aldebaran ('the follower' of the Pleiades) is usually identified with the eye of the constellation of Taurus, the Bull, and the name is one of the most distinctive and least liable to corruption since it comes from this star, which was one of the four Royal Stars of ancient Persian astronomy.

In purely sidereal terms, and therefore in both Zodiacs at the date of coincidence (circa 200 CE), it is located at 14º 35' of Taurus, at about the mid-point of the Zodiac-sign’s 30º range; by 1900 its position in the tropical system had shifted almost 24 degrees to 8º 27' of Gemini.
Abenragel and Picatrix place the start of the Mansion at 8° 34' 18" Taurus, which is a value based on the position of 0° Aries around the year 1000 CE.

Agrippa, writing in 1509 (and published in 1531), locates the Mansion, called Aldebram or Aldelamen, and glossed as the eye of the Bull or the head of the Bull, as the fourth Mansion spanning the space between 8º 34' 17" and 21º 25' 43" Taurus. This is justifiable as he is writing about what people used to do, and it appears that he is drawing to a large degree on the Picatrix.
Abenragel’s works when published in translation in the sixteenth century carry the values which were valid when he wrote, and with the name somehow garbled into Addauennam.

 
Francis Barrett used Agrippa’s De Occulta Philosophia almost three centuries later as the basis for The Magus (1801).


We therefore find positions determined for a date around 1000 being given as if they still applied after 1800.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:17:18 am







Those who do not just follow sources create different problems:



Joannes Hispalensis, giving a list for 1142 (but published in 1548), does not fix the Mansions to the tropical Zodiac, so he has 'Caput Tauri', the head of the Bull, starting at 11º 43' Taurus and separately 'Oculus Tauri', the eye of the Bull (Al Dabaran), starting at 24º 35'.

Robert Fludd, writing in 1617, gives no names and only attributes, but places the first Mansion at 27° 53' Aries, while the 27th starts at 2° 25' Aries. It is difficult to tell which of the Mansions corresponds to Al Dabaran, but the third starts at 23° 37' Taurus.

Athanasius Kircher’s lists, written in the 1650s but with an historical approach, have the eye of the Bull as the fifth Mansion starting at 21° Taurus.

Coming to the twentieth century, Vivian Robson’s book, The Fixed Stars and Constellations in Astrology, was published in 1923; it was in the Yeatses’ Library (YL 1772) but did not appear until after the bulk of the Automatic Script and the Yeatses’ research. He takes a comparative and historical approach, giving Indian, Arabian and Chinese systems. The list of the Arabian Mansions starts with Al Thurayyah, making Al Dabaran the second Mansion, and takes the stars as markers (so that 0° Aries is not the start), has the Mansion starting at 8° 40' Taurus.

Other writers complicate matters differently, Guido Bonatti for instance adding a separate subcycle of Mansions, but discounting the Mansion in which the New Moon takes place, since the Moon’s effect is obliterated by the Sun. Arcandam (Al-Qalandar, also Alchandreus), apparently a tenth century writer whose astrological works were among the first to enter Europe, adopts a completely different methodology and dispenses with such fractional divisions, locating the Mansions squarely within the signs either in pairs or threes, putting Cocebran in the centre of Taurus (10º-20º), a solution similar to that eventually adopted by the Yeatses.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:18:30 am







 . . back to the Yeatses




The Instructors had discouraged Yeats from wider reading in the early stages of the System’s development and had also denied that "Any use [was] made of apparent use of symbolic motion of  opposite to " (sic), asserting that the phasic divisions were "symbolic & arbitrary only" (22 January 1918; YVP 1 275). It was also clear that the Phases assigned to various people bore no relation to the phase of the moon at the time of a person’s birth, as would be the case in an astrological system. The Instructors assigned Phases to people whom the Yeatses knew early on, and in many cases Yeats knew these people’s charts well: his own Moon would be placed astrologically at Phase 18 or 19 (depending on the divisions) rather than 17, George’s at 25 or 26 not 18, while Maud Gonne, instead of being placed in Phase 16, would be born in the non-human Phase 15. In this sense at least, it was evident that the System was not astrological.

If it was not the Phase of the Sun and Moon, however, it was always possible that there was something to do with the Moon’s absolute position. Again, from their knowledge of the birthcharts of some of the people involved, it was fairly clear that it would not be any simple alignment, but they may have considered it worth investigating a little. At the very least Yeats would have been interested in another set of symbolism.

From notes and references in the Automatic Script, it is clear that the Yeatses devised an alignment of the Instructors’ Phases with the Zodiac fairly early on for their own use. In many comments, they treat the Phases as having stellar counterparts, such that fixed stars are identified as positioned at certain Phases and planets as transiting or passing through them, exactly as in conventional astrology. None of the background apparatus to this schema appears in the Script itself and evidently the Yeatses were developing the ideas elsewhere before bringing them to the evening sessions. This fixed alignment is linked to the Universal Man, and they had a different method of marrying up the individual’s horoscope and Phase (placing the Ascendant at the centre of the Phase, see Astrology).


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:19:34 am







Even if there were correspondences between the Phases of the Universal Man and the traditional Mansions, trying to connect the Mansions to their Instructors’ Phases would never have been straightforward, not least because of the difficulty of determining which Mansion started the series and where. In the published versions of the System, Yeats used the precession of the equinoxes for a rather different purpose. In the published versions, they eventually decided on symbolic rather than mathematical allocations with respect to the Great Year (which is linked to the Universal Man), and these allocations are arbitrary, fitting the divisions to whole Zodiac signs, rather than natural, dividing the circle by twenty-eight. A normative pattern of assigning mansions to signs of the Zodiac in twos and threes is seen in some Arab writers, such as Arcandam, and mediaeval manuscripts, but the Yeatses took the arbitrariness to a more extreme degree, allotting a whole sign to the crucial Phases 1, 8, 15 and 22, while allocating the others in triads (see the Cardinal Phases and Triads).

All the same, it would be very strange if the Yeatses had not consulted Joannes Hispalensis, Cornelius Agrippa, or one of the several other resources at some stage. Understandably, however, they did not pursue such researches to any significant extent, since the one thing that all the systems have in common is that they are positional divisions of the Zodiac and as such have very little to do with the Moon’s phasic changes.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:23:50 am






                                          I M A G E S   A N D   T A L I S M A N S





                       (http://www.yeatsvision.com/Images/Barrett.jpg)
                             FROM FRANCIS BARRETT:
                             The Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer (1801)


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:27:24 am







The Yeatses did develop a set of images, one for each of the Phases, Symbols of the Phases, and to some extent their interest in the Mansions of the Moon may have been as much to do with the symbolism involved rather than direct correspondence. The signs of the Zodiac are very simple images, usually just an animal, whereas the Mansions tend to be associated with slightly more complex images, often of situations or specific individuals, though examples such as the fish and the head of a lion show the influence of the Zodiac.


The nature of these images seems in part to derive from the association of the Mansions with talismanic magic in the Middle Ages and early Renaissance (and still today, according to a website on Renaissance Astrology and Magic). The following Mansions and Images are given by Agrippa (for a comparison of the Images with Bruno’s for the Mansions of the Moon, see Phase Images). See Three Books of Occult Philosophy, Book II, Chapter 46 (link to another web-site for the full text of J. F.’s English translation of 1651). Agrippa tells how the talismans used to be made when the Moon was in a particular Mansion, with appropriate materials and perfumes, apparently distancing himself by claiming simply to record what was done rather than to instruct. The names are often recognisable corruptions of the Arabic ones (similar to but different from those in the translation of Abenragel above), while the Latin names coincide almost entirely with those given by Joannes Hispalensis.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:31:58 am





 
           THE MANSIONS OF THE MOON ACCORDING TO H.C. AGRIPPA'S OCCULT PHILOSOPHY - 1533





   name (name – Latin)  from significance Talisman for with image of

1 Alnath horns of Aries  0° Aries journeys and discord the destruction of someone A black man in a garment made of hair, and girdled round, casting a small lance with his right hand
 
2 Albothaim
Albocham belly of Aries 12°51'22" Aries finding treasure and retaining captives reconciliation with a prince  A king crowned

3 Achaomazone
Athoraye rainy ones
or Pleiades 25°42'51" Aries profits sailors, huntsmen, alchemists happy fortune and every good thing  A woman well clothed, sitting in a chair, her right hand being lifted up on her head

4 Aldebram
Aldelamen eye or head

of Taurus 8°34'17" Taurus destruction and hinderances of buildings, fountains, wells and gold mines, the flight of reptiles and creates discord revenge, separation, enmity & ill will  A soldier on a horse, holding a serpent in his right hand

5 Alchataya
Albachaya ( )  21°25'40" Taurus helps safe return from journey, instruction of pupils, confirms buildings, gives health and good will the favour of kings and officers The head of a man
 
6 Alhanna
Alchaya little star of great light 4°17'09" Gemini favours hunting, besieging towns, revenge of princes, destroys harvests and fruits, hinders medicine to procure love betwixt two  two images embracing one another

7 Aldimiach
Alarzach arm of Gemini 17°08'34" Gemini brings money and friendship, profits lovers, disperses flies, destroys teaching authorities to obtain every good thing  A man well clothed, holding his hands up to heaven as it were praying and supplicating

8 Alnaza
Anatrachya misty or cloudy 0° Cancer creates, love, friendship, travellers’ fellowship, drives away mice, confirms captivity victory in war  an eagle having the face of a man

9 Achaam
Alcharph eye of Leo 12°51'22" Cancer hinders harvests and travellers, creates discord between men to cause infirmities  The image of a man wanting his privy parts, shutting his eyes with his hands

10 Algeliache
Aglebh neck or forehead of Leo 25°42'51" Cancer strengthens buildings, extends love, good will and help against enemies to facilitate child-bearing  The head of a lion

11 Azobra
Ardaf Leo’s mane 8°34'17" Leo helps journeys and money from commerce, and redeeming captives fear, reverence and worship  A man riding a lion, holding the ear thereof in his left hand, and in his right, holding forth a bracelet of gold
 
12 Alzarpha tail of Leo 21°25'40" Leo prospers harvests and plantations, betters servants, captives and allies, but hinders sailors the separation of lovers  A dragon fighting with a man

13 Alhayre dogs or winged ones of Virgo 4°17'09" Virgo favours benevolence, money, voyages, harvests, freedom of captives the agreement of married couples and for dissolving charms against copulation images of man in red wax and woman in white wax embracing
 
14 Achureth, Arimes, Azimeth, Albumech, Alcheymech Virgo’s ear of corn 17°08'34" Virgo favours marital love, healing of sick, good for journeys by sea but bad for land divorce and separation of the man from the woman  A dog biting his tail

15 Agrapha
Algarpha covered or flying covered 0° Libra good for extracting treasures, digging pits, helps divorce, discord, destruction of houses and enemies, hinders travel friendship and goodwill  A man sitting and inditing letters

16 Azubene
Ahubene horns of Scorpio 12°51'22" Libra hinders journeys and marriage, harvests and commerce, but helps redemption of captives much merchandising  A man sitting on a chair, holding a balance in his hands

17 Alchil crown of Scorpio 25°42'51" Libra improves bad fortune, helps love to last, strengthens buildings, helps sailors against thieves and robbers An ape

18 Alchas
Altoh heart of Scorpio 8°34'17" Scorpio causes discord, sedition, conspiracy against powerful, revenge from enemies, but frees captives and helps buildings against fevers and pains of the belly  A snake holding his tail above his head

19 Allatha, Achala, Hycula, Axala tail of Scorpio 21°25'40" Scorpio helps besieging and taking of cities, driving people from positions, destroys sailors and captives facilitating birth and provoking the menstrues  A woman holding her hands upon her face

20 Abnahaya the beam, transom 4°17'09" Sagittarius helps taming beasts, strengthens prisons, destroys allies’ wealth, compels a man to come to a certain place hunting  Sagittary, half a man and half an horse

21 Abeda
Albeldach the desert 17°08'34" Sagittarius favours harvests, money, buildings, travellers, causes divorce the destruction of somebody  A man with a double countenance, before and behind

22 Sadabacha, Zodeboluch, Zandeldena the shepherd  0° Capricorn incites the flight of slaves and captives, helping escape, and curing of diseases the security of [i.e. to catch] runaways  A man with wings on his feet, bearing an helmet on his head

23 Sabadola
Zobrach swallowing 12°51'22" Capricorn causes divorce, freedom of captives, healing of sick destruction and wasting  A cat having a dog’s head

24 Sadabath
Chadezoath star of fortune 25°42'51" Capricorn helps marital understanding, victory of soldiers, causes disobedience, hindering execution of authority the multiplying of herds of cattle  A woman giving suck to her son

25 Sadalabra
Sadalachia the butterfly, unfolding 8°34'17" Aquarius helps siege and revenge, divorce, prisons and buildings, speeds messengers, destroys enemies, helps spells against sex or to cause impotence the preservation of trees and harvests  A man planting

26 Alpharg
Phtagal Mocaden the first drawing, draining 21°25'40" Aquarius helps union, love of men, health of captives, destroys prisons and buildings love and favour  A woman washing and combing her hairs

27 Alcharya
Ahhalgalmoad the second drawing, draining 4°17'09" Pisces increases harvests, revenues, money, heals illnesses, weakens buildings, prolongs imprisonment, endangers sailors, and helps bringing evils against anyone to destroy fountains, pits, medicinal waters and baths  A man winged, holding in his hand an empty vessel, and perforated

28 Albotham
Alchalh the fishes, Pisces 17°08'34" Pisces increases harvests and commerce, helps the safety of travellers in dangerous places, causes marital harmony, but strengthens prisons and causes loss of treasures to gather fishes together A fish


http://www.yeatsvision.com/Mansions.html


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 10:34:03 am







                                              T H E   A R A B I C   P A R T S





The Arabic Parts have an honourable history in Astrology stretching far back into antiquity, yet they have been largely lost to modern astrologers since the seventeenth century. The parts (also known as "Lots") enable an examination of the "inner" meaning of the horoscope, which goes beyond the "outer" evaluations stimulated by the arrangement of the planets, signs and houses.

The doctrine of parts is based squarely on the numerical relationships between factors of the horoscope. There are a large number of these parts, the best known today perhaps being the Part of Fortune (Part of the Moon), which has survived because it is the strongest of the parts, due to its involvement of the Sun and Moon. The Part of Fortune is not a planet but is a sensitive, calculated point in the horoscope that shows in effect where the Moon would be if you were born at sunrise.

Many other parts, however, are distinctly useful in predictive astrology and are regularly used in natal, horary and mundane figures. Astrologers can use our traditional Table to Calculate the Value of the Part of Fortune for use in chart delineation.

(NOTE: parts are extracted according to the strength of the planets concerned, i.e., a nocturnal planet is stronger in a nocturnal figure than a diurnal and vice versa).

As with the modern employment of planetary midpoints, the usage of parts should be secondary to an understanding of the major chart factors (planets, signs and house cusps). Use the part to clarify or illustrate any features that need to emphasized. One reason for the decline of parts in modern times may have been their seemingly limitless proliferation and substitution for clear planetary relationships. Nevertheless, experience shows that the directions and transits to the parts (especially Pars Fortunae) have a definite effect with regard to the matters ruled by the house occupied by the part.

According to Bonatti, the significance for good or ill of the part should be judged by the conjunction, or that of its planetary lord, with the planets, but he also allows the use of other aspects (such as opposition, square etc).


To find the positions of various Arabic Parts in your chart, use this neat on-line Arabic Parts Generator.
http://www.noendpress.com/pvachier/arabicparts/index.php
To see more detail, read this article for a much longer list of Arabic Parts.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 10:43:26 am





                                     
                                                            The Primary Arabic Parts






 Part of Fortune (Pars Fortunae)

The Part of Fortune, the Part of the Moon, is one of the most important Arabic Parts. The point lies the same distance in longitude from the ascendant as the Moon lies from the Sun. It is found in a diurnal figure by subtracting the longitude of the Sun from that of the Moon and adding the difference to the longitude of the Ascendant. In a nocturnal figure, the place of the Moon is subtracted from that of the Sun. Here's how:

Diurnal (Day) Births: Part of Fortune = Ascendant + Moon - Sun
Nocturnal (Night) Births: Part of Fortune = Ascendant + Sun - Moon

Its house represents an area of life where one finds happiness, prosperity and natural tranquillity, expressing innate abilities. It indicates an area wherein the self is easily expressed. Moreover, as the name implies, it signifies the physical health and material wellbeing of the body, as well as the potential for growth of the soul.

"This part signifies the life, the body, and also its soul, its strength, fortune, substance and profit, i.e., wealth and poverty, gold and silver, heaviness or lightness of things bought in the marketplace, praise and good reputation, and honours and recognition, good and evil, present and future, hidden and manifest; it has signification over everything..... if this part and the luminaries are well-disposed in nativities or revolutions, it will be notably good."
- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980



 Part of Things to Come (Pars Futurorum)
 
The Part of Things to Come (also known as Part of Spirit) is next in importance after the Part of Fortune, because it is the Part of the Sun (Pars Solis). The point lies the same distance in longitude from the ascendant as the Sun lies from the Moon. The part is extracted in the contrary manner to that of the Pars Fortunae, in other words, by day from Moon to Sun and by night from Sun to Moon.

Diurnal (Day) Births: Part of Things to Come = Ascendant + Sun - Moon
Nocturnal (Night) Births: Part of Things to Come = Ascendant + Moon - Sun

Its house signifies the soul and the body (after the Part of Fortune), along with matters of faith and intentions. With regard to health, it signifies the deeper, spiritual sources, rather than the simple material causes shown by the Part of Fortune. Moreover, as the name implies, it signifies the nature of things which are to come, rather than things present.

"The pars futurorum signifies the soul and the body, after the pars fortunae and the quality of these, and faith, prophecy, religion and the culture of God and secrets, cogitations, intentions, hidden things and everything which is absent, and courtesy and liberality, praise, good reputation, heat and cold... The significations of the pars fortunae appear more during the day... the pars futurorum appear more at night"
- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980



 Part of Love and Concord (Pars Veneris)

The Part of Love is the Part of Venus, signifying pleasures, desires, relationships and lovemaking in general. Take the distance in a diurnal chart between the Part of Fortune and the Part of Things to Come (and the reverse in a nocturnal chart) and project it from the ascendant.

"The pars veneris signifies pleasures, desires, and wants in venereal things and in the culture of them both licit and illicit, and the things which venereal people love and which the soul desires, unions and all things which pertain to the inclination of coitus and pleasure from games and joys and delights."
- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980



 Part of Daring (Pars Martis)

The Part of Daring is the Part of Mars, signifying dynamic action and all warlike things, especially those involving courage and bravado, plus the sexual relations taking the forms of conquest and overcoming resistance. Take the distance in a diurnal chart between Mars and the Part of Fortune (and the reverse in a nocturnal chart) and project it from the ascendant.

"The pars martis signifies the disposition of armies, of wars and battles, and the worth and sharpness of the soul, also resolution, anticipation and greatness of heart with impulse and haste; it also signifies lascivious incest with cunning and seductions."



- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980



 Part of Happiness (Pars Iovis)
 
The Part of Happiness is the Part of Jupiter, signifying happiness and assistance, the attainment of good things, wisdome, fortune, honour and position, religious and legal matters. Take the distance in a diurnal chart between the Part of Things to Come and Jupiter (and the reverse in a nocturnal chart) and project it from the ascendant.

"Its significance is concerning honor and the attainment of things, victory and assistance and happiness and goodness... belief in God... justice... good works... wisdom ... trust... faith..."
- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980



 The Heavy Part (Pars Saturni)

The Heavy Part is the Part of Saturn, signifying serious and weighty matters, deep thought, karma, old age, incarceration, land management, inheritances, death and matters to do with the dead, structure, consistency, time, faith and religion. Take the distance in a diurnal chart between Saturn and the Part of Fortune (and the reverse in a nocturnal chart) and project it from the ascendant.

"Its signifies memory and profundity of mind and counsel... a matter which has perished or been lost... condition of the dead... by what death the native may die... old age and time.. praise and disgrace... "
- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980



 Part of Poverty and Ordinary Intellect (Pars Mercurii)
 
The Part of Poverty and Ordinary Intellect is the Part of Mercury, signifying negotiation, buying and selling, ordinary mental activity, meanness of intelligence and intellect, writings, science, contention and enmity. Take the distance in a diurnal chart between the Part of Things to Come and the Part of Fortune (and the reverse in a nocturnal chart) and project it from the ascendant.

"Its signifies poverty and meanness of intelligence and intellect... war, fear, hatred, contentions, injuries... negotiations... diverse sciences. "



- Bonatti, from Zoller: The Lost Key to Prediction
Inner Traditions, NY 1980


http://www.astrologycom.com/parts.html


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 10:49:23 am
                                                     (http://www.hermeticgoldendawn.org/zoller.jpg)


Dating from antiquity, the doctrine of the Arabic parts has been virtually lost to Western astrological practice since the 17th century. In his book, Robert Zoller retrieves this valuable key to prediction and provides a clear and simple guide to its practical application.
The Arabic parts enable the astrologer to investigate the "inner" meaning of the horoscope and thus to go beyond the "outer" aspects expressed by the arrangement of the planets, signs, and houses. The first section of the book explains how fate, or karma, can be understood through the parts and the esoteric nature of number. The second section includes a translation of the 13th century Latin text on the parts by the famed court astrologer, Bonatti; this work includes the basic ninety-seven parts, dealing with all areas of life--from war, commodities speculation, and professional life to marriage and partnerships--in addition to seventy-three parts from various medieval sources.

In the third section of the book, the author illustrates the practical use of the parts in natal, horary, and mundane astrology. His understanding of the parts and their place in a comprehensive interpretation of any horoscope is presented with lucidity and insight, unraveling for the reader this fascinating and long-neglected astrological science.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on October 14, 2008, 08:52:33 am









                                                I S L A M I C   A S T R O L O G Y





From:
Wikipedia


Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak, is the study of the heavens by early Muslims.

In early Arabic sources, ilm al-nujum was used to refer to both astronomy and astrology.

In medieval sources, however, a clear distinction was made between ilm al-nujum (science of the stars) or ilm al-falak (science of the celestial orbs), referring to astrology, and ilm al-hay'ah (science of the figure of the heavens), referring to astronomy.

Both fields were rooted in Greek, Persian, and Indian traditions. Despite consistent critiques of astrology by scientists and religious scholars, astrological prognostications required a fair amount of exact scientific knowledge and thus gave partial incentive for the study and development of astronomy.

The earliest semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology was given by the Persian astronomer and astrologer Abu Rayhan al-Biruni circa 1000.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on October 14, 2008, 08:59:05 am









Opinions of contemporary scholars



According to jurists, the study of astronomy (ilm al-hay'ah) is lawful, as it is useful in predicting the beginning of months and seasons, determining the direction of salat (prayer), and navigation. They agree that this branch of science be used in determining the beginning and end of the month of Ramadan.

As for astrology, this is considered by many Islamic scholars as haram (unlawful), as knowledge of the Unseen is known only by Allah. Dr. Husam al-Din Ibn Musa `Afana, a Professor of the Principles of Fiqh at Al-Quds University, Palestine, states the following:



"First of all, it is worth noting that the Arabs knew astronomy a long time ago. They would predict time through observing the movements of stars.

According to the scholars of Shar`iah, there are two terms confused in many people's minds when it comes to dealing with the question in hand. These terms are astronomy and astrology. Astronomy is the science that deals with studying the movements of the celestial bodies and reducing observations to mathematical order. That science is useful in determining time, seasons, the direction of Prayer, etc.

Astrology, on the other hand, is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs. Astrologists believe that the movements of stars have an influence on people's lives.

Both Muslim astronomers and [religious] scholars refuse the prophecies of astrologists."






Some scholars believe that astrology is a prohibited field of study. Imam Ibn Taymiyah said:



“Astrology that is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs is prohibited by the Quran, the Sunnah, and the unanimous agreement of the Muslim scholars. Furthermore, astrology was considered forbidden by all Messengers of Almighty Allah.”






The Saudi scholar, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, said:



“Astrology is a kind of sorcery and fortune-telling. It is forbidden because it is based on illusions,
not on concrete facts. There is no relation between the movements of celestial bodies and what
takes place on the Earth.”


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on October 14, 2008, 09:02:10 am








Refutations of astrology



The first semantic distinction between astrology and astronomy was given by the Persian Muslim astronomer Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century, and he later refuted astrology in another
treatise.

The study of astrology was also refuted by other medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Avicenna and Averroes. Their reasons for refuting astrology were often due to both scientific (the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical) and religious (conflicts with orthodox Islamic scholars) reasons.

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292-1350), in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah, used empirical arguments in astronomy in order to refute the practice of astrology and divination. He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets, and thus argued:



"And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?"

Al-Jawziyya also recognized the Milky Way galaxy as "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and thus argued that "it is certainly impossible to have knowledge of their influences."


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on October 14, 2008, 09:05:52 am









Quranic verses and Ahadith relating to astrology



Before the advent of Islam, people believed that the sun and moon might eclipse when a great figure died.

During Muhammad's lifetime, it happened that the sun eclipsed on the same day when Muhammad’s son Ibrahim died. The people then thought that it had eclipsed because of Muhammad’s son’s death. On knowing this, Muhammad led them in the Eclipse Prayer and then delivered a speech saying:



“The sun and moon are but signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because so-and-so died or was born.”



This hadith indicates that Muhammad denied all relation between the movements of the heavenly bodies and events on the Earth. Ibn `Abbas reported that Muhammad said:



“He who has acquired some knowledge of astrology has acquired some knowledge of sorcery;
the more he acquires of the former the more he acquires of the latter.”



Commenting on this hadith, the Yemeni scholar Muhammad ash-Shawkani (d.1834), said that the Islamic prophet Muhammad compared between astrology and sorcery because sorcery was known
to be forbidden; and so, he who would get some knowledge of astrology would do something
forbidden and would be sinful.

It was also reported by Ibn Abbas that Muhammad said: “He who uses astronomy for something other than what Almighty Allah has made lawful would be practicing sorcery. Astrologers predict knowledge of the future, and he who does so is a sorcerer, and sorcerers are disbelievers.”

Also, Ibn Mihjan reported that Muhammad said: “I fear on account of my nation three things after my death: (I fear that) their Imams (leaders) would oppress them, (that) they would believe in astrology, and (that) they would disbelieve predestination.”

Abu Hurayrah also reported that Muhammad said: “He who goes to a fortune-teller to ask him about something, his Prayer will not be accepted for forty days.”

Abu Hurayrah also reported that Muhammad said: “He who goes to a soothsayer or a fortuneteller and believes what he says exhibits disbelief in what has been sent down to Prophet Muhammad (from Allah).”

Contemplating the last two ahadith reported by Abu Hurayrah, it is to be noted that mere going to fortune-tellers is a sin that incurs upon a Muslim who commits it that his prayer is not accepted for forty days, and that believing what fortunetellers say renders a Muslim a disbeliever in what has been sent down to Muhammad. This is because Allah says in the Quran: “Say (O Muhammad): None in the heavens and the earth knoweth the Unseen save Allah; and they know not when they will be raised (again).”

Allah also says: “(He is) the knower of the Unseen, and He revealeth unto none His secret, save unto every messenger whom he hath chosen, and then He maketh a guard to go before him and a guard behind him That He may know that they have indeed conveyed the messages of their Lord. He surroundeth all their doings, and He keepeth count of all things.”


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on October 14, 2008, 09:08:35 am







               Prominent Arab, Muslim, Persian, and/or Middle Eastern or North African astrologers






This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness.

Revisions and additions are welcome.



Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham Zacuto

Al-Battani

Al-Biruni

Albubather

Alchabitius

Al-fadl ibn Naubakht

'Ali ibn Ridwan

Al-Kindī

Arzachel

Berossus

Biblical Magi (the "Three Wise Men")

Haly Abenragel

Hypatia of Alexandria

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Yunus

Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
 
Mashallah

Muhammad al-Fazari

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
 
Naubakht

Porphyry
 
Sharafeddin Tusi
 
Sudines

Taqi al-Din



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_astrology


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on May 18, 2009, 09:21:29 am









                                                            Arabs and Astronomy






Written by Paul Lunde
and Zayn Bilkadi


The launch of Arabsat-B was Prince Sultan's primary assignment in space, but he also had to carry out, or participate in, four experiments and two of them - observation of the new moon and photography of the Arabian Peninsula - would not have been totally incomprehensible to medieval scientists in Islamic lands. They too were interested in such areas as optics, mapping and ephemerides - tables showing the positions of celestial bodies on given dates.


The observation of the new moon, for example, was, and is, important to Muslims; for religious purposes they follow a lunar calendar and the new moon marks the beginning and end of the fast of Ramadan and determines the date of the pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) - the Hajj - two of the five religious duties incumbent upon all Muslims.


Mapping too sprang from a religious concern: the need to establish correct coordinates of cities so that Muslims could determine the direction of Makkah - the qibla - towards which all Muslims prostrate themselves in prayer five times a day. And though observation of the new moon and determination of the qibla may seem prosaic subjects today, it was by pondering just such everyday phenomena that advances in science were made.


The mathematical determination of the qibla, for example, was no easy matter; in fact it was one of the most advanced problems in spherical astronomy faced by medieval astronomers and mathematicians. The trigonometric solution eventually found was of great sophistication, and trigonometry itself, largely an Arab development, is fundamental to the computation of planetary orbits as well as to terrestrial mapping. Nevertheless, medieval qibla tables often attained great accuracy. That of al-Khalili, who wrote in Syria in the 14th century, gives the coordinates of a large number of towns in degrees and minutes and is generally accurate to within one or two minutes. In Europe, this sort of accuracy in establishing geographical coordinates was not attained until much later.


It could be argued, in fact, that precise observation and an ability to find new mathematical solutions to old problems were the two main strengths of Muslim scientists in the Middle Ages. And though they, like their European counterparts, never fully escaped the tyranny of Aristotle and Ptolemy - whose models of terrestrial geography and of the heavens dominated men's minds until the Renaissance and were not finally demolished until the publication of Newton's Principia in 1687 - Muslim scientists were the first to express doubts about many of the details of the Ptolemaic system. Indeed, it was the growing awareness of the divide between Ptolemy's theoretical model of the universe and observed reality that culminated in the discoveries of Nicolaus Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler during the 15th to 17th centuries, and some of those doubts had been transmitted to European scientists from Spain in 12th- and 13th-century translations of Arabic scientific works.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on May 18, 2009, 09:25:33 am








Al-Battani, called by his European translators Albategni, is a case in point. He wrote in the ninth century on a wide number of scientific topics and some of his observations struck at cherished Ptolemaic dogmas. He showed, for example that, contrary to Ptolemy, annular eclipses - in which a ring of light encircles the eclipsed portion - were possible, and that the angular diameter of the sun was subject to variation. He showed - again contrary to Ptolemy - that the solar apogee was subject to the precession of the equinoxes; he corrected a number of planetary orbits; he determined the true and mean orbit of the sun. Interestingly, in the light of Prince Sultan's observation of the new moon, al-Battani also developed a theory of the conditions of visibility of the new moon.


Other Muslim astronomers also came up with data that conflicted with Ptolemy, one of them perhaps the greatest Muslim physicist of them all: Ibn al-Haytham, called Alhazen in the medieval West. Al-Haytham argued that the Milky Way was quite far from the earth no matter what Aristotle said, and estimated the height of the earth's atmosphere at 52,000 paces - a pace being roughly one meter, or three feet. Al-Haytham worked that out from his observation that the astronomic twilight begins when the negative height of the sun reaches 19 degrees. Since the atmosphere is about 50 kilometers up (31 miles) and 52,000 paces is roughly 31 kilometers (32 miles), Ibn al-Haytham was not far wrong.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on May 18, 2009, 09:26:59 am








In the pre-telescope age, observational astronomy was, of course, carried out with the naked eye. Muslim scientists, however, perfected observatories in a number of places; those at Maragha and Samarkand are the most famous. At these observatories, astronomers gathered to refine Ptolemy's coordinates for the stars and, eventually, to revise Ptolemy's catalog of stars. This catalog which gave the positions of 1,022 stars, classified, as they are today, by magnitude, or brightness, was heavily revised, notably by the 10th-century astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, whose Book of the Fixed Stars is the earliest illustrated astronomical manuscript known; the copy in the Bodleian Library, the work of the author's son, is dated 1009 and the author expressly states that he traced the drawings from a celestial globe.


There is an even earlier representation of the heavens in an Umayyad hunting lodge built about A. D. 715 in Jordan. It is called Qasr al-'Amra (See Aramco World, September-October 1968; July-August 1980) and in the dome of the bathhouse in the lodge are fragments of a fresco showing some 400 stars and parts of 37 constellations, drawn on a stereographic projection - which implies a familiarity, even at that early date, with Ptolemy's Planispherium.


Arabs also excelled at making astronomical instruments - particularly astrolabes which were used for navigational purposes, for determining the positions of stars and for solving problems in spherical astronomy. There were three sorts of astrolabes: planispheric, linear and spherical. These were used at the observatories of Maragha and Samarkand, and were substantially the same as the instruments used by European astronomers until the invention of the telescope.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on May 18, 2009, 09:28:26 am








The observatory at Maragha was founded by the famous mathematician Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in 1259, one year after the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols. Because the Mongol invasions into the lands of Islam had opened a land route to China, Muslim astronomers were eventually able to work together with their Chinese counterparts.


The main theoretical work done at the observatory had to do with simplifying the Ptolemaic model and bringing it into line with the Aristotelian model, which postulated uniform circular orbits for the planets. Although they were often misguided, they made very important contributions; Ibn al-Shatir, for example, came up with models of the movement of the moon and of Mercury that are strikingly similar to those of Copernicus.


The observatory of Ulugh Beg at Samarkand, built between 1420 and 1437, (See Aramco World, January-February 1976; July-August 1984) was used to recompute the positions of the stars in Ptolemy's catalog, and there is little doubt that the organization of this observatory and the instruments employed there influenced TychoBrahe's observatories at Uraniborg and Stjerneborg.


Another observatory thought to have influenced Tycho Brahe was that proposed and built in Istanbul in the 16th century. In 1571 in Istanbul, Taqi al-Din Mohammed ibn Ma'ruf, a former judge from Egypt and author of several books on astronomy, was appointed head-astronomer of the Ottoman Empire and immediately proposed construction of an observatory. He wanted to begin the urgent task of updating the old astronomical tables describing the motion of the planets, the sun and the moon. His request was well received by the Grand Vizier and patron of sciences, Sokullu Muhammad, but between 1571 and 1574 the Ottomans had to fight no less than three costly wars against the three major powers of Europe, Venice, Spain and Portugal, so it was not until mid-1577 that the project was completed. Taqi al-Din's observatory consisted of two magnificent buildings, perched high on a hill overlooking the European section of Istanbul and offering an unobstructed view of the night sky. Much like a modern institution, the main building was reserved for the library and the living quarters of the technical staff, while the smaller building housed an impressive collection of instruments built by Taqi al-Din himself - including a giant armillary sphere and a mechanical clock for measuring the position and speed of the planets; aware that Europe was beginning to move ahead in astronomy he was determined to restore the Islamic world's once uncontested supremacy.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on May 18, 2009, 09:30:45 am








A few months later, unfortunately, on a cold November night - the first night of the holy month of Ramadan - a comet with an enormous tail unexpectedly edged into sight and set off a controversy that would put an end to his dream - and the observatory. Twisting and twirling, the comet grew brighter and steadier by the day for 40 days, and soon became a fireball soaring in the heavens like the sun and terrifying observers on earth.


One such observer was the Sultan, Murad III, whose own father, Sultan Selim, had died shortly after another comet had appeared. About to open a campaign in the Caucasus aginst Persia and its allies, Murad demanded a prognostication on the comet and Taqi al-Din, working day and night without food and rest, did so. He noted first that both the tail and head of the comet seemed to point east towards Persia - as if, he thought, to discharge their ominous fire there. He also noted that the comet appeared first in the house of Sagittarius, symbolizing, he decided, the Ottoman archer, and that it would disappear in Aquarius, a sign of peace and plenty awaiting the archer. Thus persuaded that such phenomena were undeniable signs of good fortune for the Ottomans, and confident in the accuracy of his observations in regard to the path of the comet, Taqi al-Din requested an audience with the Sultan and announced that:


There are joyful tidings for you concerning the conquest of Persia, for the foe is lying, with failing breath, upon the ground.

The appearance of such a sublime flame

Is for this realm an indication of well-being and splendor,

But for Persia it is a bolt of misfortune.


Unfortunately for Taqi al-Din, his predictions didn't quite turn out right. Though two Persian armies were defeated in the war, the Ottomans experienced certain reverses, a devastating plague broke out in some parts of the empire and several important persons died, and within a short period of time the Ottoman court began to quarrel about the observatory. One faction, headed by the Grand Vizier Sokullu, favored continued support of the institution, and the other, led by Sokullu's political rival, said that prying into the secrets of the future was not only beyond man's power but was also a waste of funds.


For a short period Sokullu prevailed and Taqi al-Din plunged into astronomy at a feverish pace for two years. But then Sokullu was killed and in 1580 a wrecking squad from the Marine Ordnance Division appeared on the premises, and its commander, citing the misfortunes that had befallen the Ottomans since the apparition of the comet, gave orders to level the buildings.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology
Post by: Bianca on May 18, 2009, 09:33:24 am








Another subject allied to astronomy that deeply interested Muslim scientists - and to which they made . important contributions - was optics. Thus Newton's Optics, published in 1704, had a long history of experimentation behind it. Classical theories of vision held that sight was the result of rays emanated from the eyes, rather than the reflection of light from the object viewed. It was Ibn al-Haytham who broke with this classical theory and developed a theory, with mathematical proof, in accord with the facts. His work with the camera obscura and discovery of the mathematical principles behind the phenomenon of the rainbow were important steps in the development of optical instruments - though an explanation of the colors of the rainbow had to wait for Newton.


Other Muslim scientists also made important contributions to this subject, including the famous al-Biruni. One of the scientists connected with the Maragha observatory, Kamal al-Din al-Farisi, wrote an important commentary on Ibn al-Haytham's work on optics, in which he gives the results of a fascinating series of experiments with the camera obscura.


Men like these would have been fascinated at the idea of photographing the earth from outer space, and with the theories that make such achievements possible - theories that are in some cases based on observations they themselves originated. It is thus peculiarly fitting that an Arab Muslim should take part in a mission in the heavens that so interested and perplexed the scientists of the Middle Ages to whom we all owe so much.




This article appeared on pages 4-7 of the January/February 1986 print edition of



Saudi Aramco World.



See Also:

ARABS-SCIENCE,
 
ARABS—SCIENCE, 
ASTRONOMY, 

HISTORY



Check the Public Affairs Digital Image Archive for January/February 1986 images.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 08:53:59 am







                                                           Arab And Persian Astrology





Persian Astrology has its roots in the Zend-Avesta, parts of which are very similar to the Rig Veda.

Much of the ancient cosmology of Persia/Iran has been lost because of the advent of the Koran and the systematic destruction of Pre-Islamic libraries.

Nevertheless the ancient texts in the Zend-Avesta hold a lot of information of Persian Astrology.

Many of the reverences in the Zoroastrian prayers in the Yasna are made to cosmological energies
of the various constellations. Some of the science of the pre-Islamic Iran did eventually appear again amongst Islamic scientists.

Much of the survival of classical sciences like astronomy, mathematics, geography and philosophy in
the Western world is because it was preserved and used by the Muslim world from about the 8th Century, when Europe was going through its Dark Ages. Astrology, being linked to astronomy at this stage, was also one of those disciplines preserved.

The earliest semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology was given by the Persian astro-
nomer and astrologer Abu Rayhan al-Biruni circa 1000.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 08:55:01 am








Islamic Astronomy
Main articles: Islamic astronomy and List of Arabic star names
Centres of learning in medicine and astronomy/astrology were set up in Baghdad and Damascus, and the Caliph Al-Mansur of Baghdad established a major observatory and library in the city, making it the world's astronomical centre. During this time knowledge of astronomy was greatly increased, and the astrolab was invented by Al Fazari. So much was knowledge increased by the Arabs that even today a great many star names are Arabic in origin. Here is a short list for some of the most prominent, with their original meaning:



STAR NAME MEANING


Achernar "River's End"

Aladfar "Claws"

Aldebaran "The Follower"
 
Alioth "Sheep's Tail"
 
Altair "The Flying"

Betelgeuse "Central Hand"
 
Deneb "Tail"

Mizar "Waistband"
 
Rasolgethi "Head of the Kneeling One"
 
Rigel "Foot of the Great One"

Vega "The Falling"



The meaning of the star names cannot really be understood without reference to the constellation
of which they are a part.

Further details of the star names, along with a greater list of others can be found in the article:
List of traditional star names.

Some astrologers still include a few of the stars in their charts today, along with the usual planets.
For example, Aldabaran is said to signify confidence, energy and leadership qualities, while Vega is
said to indicate good fortune in worldy ambitions.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 08:56:02 am









Islamic Astrology



Muslim astrologers defined a new form of astrology called electional astrology that could be used for all manner of divination in everyday life, such as the discovery of propitious moments for the undertaking of a journey, or the beginning of a business venture etc. They also were the first to speak of 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' indications, rather than categorical events.

Albumasur or Abu Ma'shar (805 - 885) was the greatest of the Arab astrologers. His treatise 'Introductoriam in Astronomium' spoke of how 'only by observing the great diversity of planetary motions can we comprehend the unnumbered varieties of change in this world'. The 'Introductoriam' was one of the first books to find its way in translation through Spain and into Europe in the Middle Ages, and was highly influential in the revival of astrology and astronomy there.






Arab Astrology and Herbalism



Muslims also combined the disciplines of medicine and astrology by being linking the curative properties of herbs with specific zodiac signs and planets.  Mars, for instance, was considered hot and dry and so ruled plants with a hot or pungent taste - like hellebore, tobacco or mustard. These beliefs were adopted by European herbalists like Culpeper right up until the development of modern medicine.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 09:00:47 am









                                                       Iranian Astrologers






Iranian Astrology predates Islam and flourished as early as the Achaemenian times.

The Bible makes references to the three wise Magi from the east who are thought to have been Iranian.

The Iranians made significant contribution to astronomy and astrology.

Al Khwarizmi was the most famous of these. He was a great mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. He is considered to be the father of algebra and the algorithm , and introduced the concept of the number zero to the Western world.

The calendar calculated 1000 years ago by Omar Khayyam Neyshabouri, Mathematician, Astronomer, Poet and Philosopher, is still in effect in Iran as the official Persian calendar. This is virtually the only calendar in the world which is based on classical horoscope system; means 1st if Aries is the first day of new year at spring equinox or on March 21, the beginning of Persian new year or Nowrooz. He is also the inventor of decimal system and believed to be the father of Algebra.[citation needed]

Another famous Iranians astrologer and astronomer was Qutb al-Din al Shirazi (1236 - 1311). He wrote critiques of the Almagest, the famous Arabic translation of the work of Ptolemy. The Almagest was the means by which Ptolemy's work was re-introduced into Europe, as the original European copies had been lost. He produced two prominent works on astronomy: 'The Limit of Accomplishment Concerning Knowledge of the Heavens' in 1281 and 'The Royal Present' in 1284, both of which commented upon and improved on Ptolemy's work, particularly in the field of planetary motion. Al-Shirazi was also the first person to give the correct scientific explanation for the formation of a rainbow.

Ulugh Beyg was a fifteenth-century Sultan of Iran and another notable Iranian mathematician and astronomer. He built an observatory in 1428 and produced the first original star map since Ptolemy, which corrected the position of many stars, and included many new ones.


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 09:01:55 am









Medieval refutations



The first semantic distinction between astrology and astronomy was given by the Persian Muslim astronomer Abu Rayhan al-Biruni in the 11th century, and he later refuted astrology in another treatise.

The study of astrology was also refuted by other medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Avicenna and Averroes. Their reasons for refuting astrology were often due to both scientific (the methods used by astrologers being conjectural rather than empirical) and religious (conflicts with orthodox Islamic scholars) reasons.

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292-1350), in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah, used empirical arguments in astronomy in order to refute the practice of astrology and divination.  He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets, and thus argued:

"And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab, which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?"

Al-Jawziyya also recognized the Milky Way galaxy as "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and thus argued that "it is certainly impossible to have knowledge of their influences."


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 09:03:01 am








Modern Developments



Astrology was in favour in the Islamic world when it was associated with the sciences of astronomy, mathematics and medicine. When in later times it became separated from those disciplines, it was regarded as linked to superstition and fortune-telling.

Modern Islamic views of astrology are therefore negative for the most part, as fortune-telling is forbidden in the Koran. Present day Astrologers in Iran have found a great deal of similarities to
the Western Astrology. Iranian months of the year correspond exactly to the horoscope months.




(فروردین)Farvardin=Aries

(اردیبهشت)Ordibehesht=Taurus

(خرداد)Khordad=Gemini

(تیر)Tir=Cancer

(مرداد)Mordad=Leo

(شهریور)Shahrivar=Virgo

(مهر)Mehr=Libra

(آبان)Aban=Scorpio

(آذر)Azar=Sagittarius

(دی)Day=Capricorn

(بهمن)Bahman=Aquarius

(اسفند)Esfand=Pisces


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 09:04:21 am








Prominent Arab, Jewish, Muslim, and Persian Astrologers



This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. Revisions and additions are welcome.



Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham Zacuto

Al-Battani

Al-Biruni

Albohali

Albubather

Alchabitius

Al-fadl ibn Naubakht

'Ali ibn Ridwan

Al-Kindī

Arzachel

Berossus

Biblical Magi (the "Three Wise Men")

Haly Abenragel

Hypatia of Alexandria

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Yunus

Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi

Mashallah

Muhammad al-Fazari

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

Naubakht

Omar Khayyam

Porphyry

Sharafeddin Tusi

Sudines


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 09:05:38 am









See also



 Astrology portal

Babylonian astrology

Egyptian astrology

Islamic astronomy

Islamic astrology

Jewish views of astrology


Title: Re: ISLAMIC Astrology And Astronomy
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2009, 09:06:41 am







References



1.^ S. Pines (September 1964). "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3), p. 343-349.

2.^ Sasha Fenton "Understanding Astrology"", The Aquarian Press, London 1991

3.^ Derek and Julia Parker "The New Compleat Astrologer" Crescent Books, New York 1990

4.^ Parker & Parker, ibid, 1990

5.^ Sasha Fenton, ibid

6.^ S. Pines (September 1964), "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3): 343-349

7.^ Saliba, George (1994b), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University Press, 60 & 67-69, ISBN 0814780237

8.^ Livingston, John W. (1971), "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation", Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103, doi:10.2307/600445
 
9.^ a b Livingston, John W. (1971), "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation", Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103 [99], doi:10.2307/600445
Article Mentioning Persian-Arabic astrology



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