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September 11th, 2001 => Environmental Disasters & Mass Tragedies => Topic started by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:28:31 am



Title: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:28:31 am
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Atomic_cloud_over_Hiroshima.jpg/509px-Atomic_cloud_over_Hiroshima.jpg)

At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. Six planes of the 509th Composite Group, participated in this mission; one to carry the bomb Enola Gay, one to take scientific measurements of the blast The Great Artiste, the third to take photographs Necessary Evil the others flew approximately an hour ahead to act as weather scouts, 08/06/1945. Bad weather would disqualify a target as the scientists insisted on a visual delivery, the primary target was Hiroshima, secondary was Kokura, and tertiary was Nagasaki.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:29:26 am
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

After six months of intense strategic fire-bombing of 67 Japanese cities the Hirohito regime ignored an ultimatum given by the Potsdam Declaration. By executive order of President Harry S. Truman the U.S. dropped the nuclear weapon Little Boy on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945,[1] [2] followed by the detonation of the bomb Fat Man over Nagasaki on August 9. These are the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare.[3]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:29:45 am
The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945,[4] with roughly half of those deaths occurring on the days of the bombings. Amongst these, 15–20% died from injuries or the combined effects of flash burns, trauma, and radiation burns, compounded by illness, malnutrition and radiation sickness.[5] Since then, more have died from leukemia (231 observed) and solid cancers (334 observed) attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.[6] In both cities, most of the dead were civilians.[7][8][9]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:30:01 am
Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore World War II. Germany had signed its unavoidable[2] Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war in Europe. The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding the nation from nuclear armament.[10]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:31:23 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Nagasakibomb.jpg/502px-Nagasakibomb.jpg)

The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:32:34 am
The Manhattan Project

The U.S., in collaboration with the United Kingdom and Canada, with their respective secret projects Tube Alloys and Chalk River Laboratories,[11][12] designed and built the first atomic bombs under what was called the Manhattan Project. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The Hiroshima bomb, a gun-type bomb called "Little Boy", was made with uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium. The atomic bomb was first tested at Trinity Site, on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The test weapon, "the gadget," and the Nagasaki bomb, "Fat Man," were both implosion-type devices made primarily of plutonium-239, a synthetic element.[13]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:33:21 am
Choice of targets

On May 10–11, 1945 The Target Committee at Los Alamos, led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and the arsenal at Kokura as possible targets. The target selection was subject to the following criteria:

    * The target was larger than three miles in diameter and was an important target in a large urban area.
    * The blast would create effective damage.
    * The target was unlikely to be attacked by August 1945. "Any small and strictly military objective should be located in a much larger area subject to blast damage in order to avoid undue risks of the weapon being lost due to bad placing of the bomb."[14]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:34:04 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Japan_map_hiroshima_nagasaki.png/508px-Japan_map_hiroshima_nagasaki.png)

Map showing the locations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan where the two atomic weapons were employed


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:34:32 am
These cities were largely untouched during the nightly bombing raids and the Army Air Force agreed to leave them off the target list so accurate assessment of the weapon could be made. Hiroshima was described as "an important army depot and port of embarkation in the middle of an urban industrial area. It is a good radar target and it is such a size that a large part of the city could be extensively damaged. There are adjacent hills which are likely to produce a focussing effect which would considerably increase the blast damage. Due to rivers it is not a good incendiary target."[14] The goal of the weapon was to convince Japan to surrender unconditionally in accordance with the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The Target Committee stated that "It was agreed that psychological factors in the target selection were of great importance. Two aspects of this are (1) obtaining the greatest psychological effect against Japan and (2) making the initial use sufficiently spectacular for the importance of the weapon to be internationally recognized when publicity on it is released. In this respect Kyoto has the advantage of the people being more highly intelligent and hence better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon. Hiroshima has the advantage of being such a size and with possible focussing from nearby mountains that a large fraction of the city may be destroyed. The Emperor's palace in Tokyo has a greater fame than any other target but is of least strategic value."[14]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:34:49 am
During World War II, Edwin O. Reischauer was the Japan expert for the U.S. Army Intelligence Service, in which role he is incorrectly said to have prevented the bombing of Kyoto.[15] In his autobiography, Reischauer specifically refuted the validity of this broadly-accepted claim:

    "...the only person deserving credit for saving Kyoto from destruction is Henry L. Stimson, the Secretary of War at the time, who had known and admired Kyoto ever since his honeymoon there several decades earlier."[16]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:35:14 am
The Potsdam ultimatum

On July 26, Truman and other allied leaders issued the Potsdam Declaration outlining terms of surrender for Japan. It was presented as an ultimatum and stated that without a surrender, the Allies would attack Japan, resulting in "the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland". The atomic bomb was not mentioned in the communique. On July 28, Japanese papers reported that the declaration had been rejected by the Japanese government. That afternoon, Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki declared at a press conference that the Potsdam Declaration was no more than a rehash (yakinaoshi) of the Cairo Declaration and that the government intended to ignore it (mokusatsu lit. "kill by silence").[17] The statement was taken by both Japanese and foreign papers as a clear rejection of the declaration. Emperor Hirohito, who was waiting for a Soviet reply to noncommittal Japanese peace feelers, made no move to change the government position.[18] On July 31, he made clear to his advisor Kōichi Kido that the Imperial Regalia of Japan had to be defended at all costs.[19]

In early July, on his way to Potsdam, Truman had re-examined the decision to use the bomb. In the end, Truman made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan. His stated intention in ordering the bombings was to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction and instilling fear of further destruction in sufficient strength to cause Japan to surrender.[20]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:35:50 am
Hiroshima
Hiroshima during World War II


At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of some industrial and military significance. A number of military camps were located nearby, including the headquarters of the Fifth Division and Field Marshal Shunroku Hata's 2nd General Army Headquarters, which commanded the defense of all of southern Japan. Hiroshima was a minor supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. The city was a communications center, a storage point, and an assembly area for troops. It was one of several Japanese cities left deliberately untouched by American bombing, allowing a pristine environment to measure the damage caused by the atomic bomb.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:36:05 am
The center of the city contained several reinforced concrete buildings and lighter structures. Outside the center, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses. A few larger industrial plants lay near the outskirts of the city. The houses were constructed of wood with tile roofs, and many of the industrial buildings were also built around wood frames. The city as a whole was highly susceptible to fire damage.

The population of Hiroshima had reached a peak of over 381,000 earlier in the war, but prior to the atomic bombing the population had steadily decreased because of a systematic evacuation ordered by the Japanese government. At the time of the attack the population was approximately 340,000-350,000.[4] Because official documents were burned, the exact population is uncertain.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:36:40 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/B-29_Enola_Gay_w_Crews.jpg/800px-B-29_Enola_Gay_w_Crews.jpg)

The Enola Gay and its crew, who dropped the "Little Boy" atomic bomb on Hiroshima.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:39:45 am
The bombing

Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6, with Kokura and Nagasaki being alternative targets. August 6 was chosen because clouds had previously obscured the target. The 393d Bombardment Squadron B-29 Enola Gay, piloted and commanded by 509th Composite Group commander Colonel Paul Tibbets, was launched from North Field airbase on Tinian in the West Pacific, about six hours flight time from Japan. The Enola Gay (named after Colonel Tibbets' mother) was accompanied by two other B29s. The Great Artiste, commanded by Major Charles W. Sweeney, carried instrumentation; and a then-nameless aircraft later called Necessary Evil (the photography aircraft) was commanded by Captain George Marquardt.[21]



Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:40:12 am
After leaving Tinian the aircraft made their way separately to Iwo Jima where they rendezvoused at 2,440 meters (8,000 ft) and set course for Japan. The aircraft arrived over the target in clear visibility at 9,855 meters (32,330 ft). During the journey, Navy Captain William Parsons had armed the bomb, which had been left unarmed to minimize the risks during takeoff. His assistant, 2nd Lt. Morris Jeppson, removed the safety devices 30 minutes before reaching the target area.[22]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:41:39 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/13/Hirgrnd1.jpg)

Seizo Yamada's ground level photo taken from approximately 7 km northeast of Hiroshima.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:42:05 am
About an hour before the bombing, Japanese early warning radar detected the approach of some American aircraft headed for the southern part of Japan. An alert was given and radio broadcasting stopped in many cities, among them Hiroshima. At nearly 08:00, the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small—probably not more than three—and the air raid alert was lifted. To conserve fuel and aircraft, the Japanese had decided not to intercept small formations. The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to air-raid shelters if B-29s were actually sighted, but no raid was expected beyond some sort of reconnaissance.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:42:21 am
The release at 08:15 (Hiroshima time) went as planned, and the gravity bomb known as "Little Boy", a gun-type fission weapon with 60 kilograms (130 lb) of uranium-235, took 57 seconds to fall from the aircraft to the predetermined detonation height about 600 meters (2,000 ft) above the city. Due to crosswind, it missed the aiming point, the Aioi Bridge, by almost 800 feet (240 m) and detonated directly over Shima Surgical Clinic.[24] It created a blast equivalent to about 13 kilotons of TNT (54 TJ). (The U-235 weapon was considered very inefficient, with only 1.38% of its material fissioning.)[25] The radius of total destruction was about one mile (1.6 km), with resulting fires across 4.4 square miles (11 km2).[26] Americans estimated that 4.7 square miles (12 km2) of the city were destroyed. Japanese officials determined that 69% of Hiroshima's buildings were destroyed and another 6–7% damaged.[5]

70,000–80,000 people, or some 30%[27] of the population of Hiroshima were killed immediately, and another 70,000 injured.[28] Over 90% of the doctors and 93% of the nurses in Hiroshima were killed or injured—most had been in the downtown area which received the greatest damage.[29]

Although the U.S. had previously dropped leaflets warning civilians of air raids on twelve other Japanese cities,[30] the residents of Hiroshima were given no notice of the atomic bomb.[31][32][33]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 19, 2009, 02:43:28 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Gisei32.jpg/557px-Gisei32.jpg)

The energy released was powerful enough to burn through clothing. The dark portions of the garments this victim wore at the time of the blast were emblazoned on to the flesh as scars.[23]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Keith Ranville on November 19, 2009, 02:58:06 am
God wont be-able to help us, if this ever happen again.   


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 02:48:09 am
That's right.  Today's nuclear weapons are many times more powerful than the ones used in 1945.  They would kill millions in a flash, not the tens of thousands here.

It will happen again someday, probably because of terrorism.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:02:24 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/AtomicEffects-p7a.jpg/474px-AtomicEffects-p7a.jpg)

HIROSHIMA before bombing. Area around ground zero. 1,000 foot circles.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:03:19 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/AtomicEffects-p7b.jpg/487px-AtomicEffects-p7b.jpg)

Hiroshima after the bombing.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:04:17 am
Japanese realization of the bombing

The Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air. He tried to re-establish his program by using another telephone line, but it too had failed.[34] About twenty minutes later the Tokyo railroad telegraph center realized that the main line telegraph had stopped working just north of Hiroshima. From some small railway stops within 16 kilometers (10 mi) of the city came unofficial and confused reports of a terrible explosion in Hiroshima. All these reports were transmitted to the headquarters of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:04:47 am
Military bases repeatedly tried to call the Army Control Station in Hiroshima. The complete silence from that city puzzled the men at headquarters; they knew that no large enemy raid had occurred and that no sizeable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time. A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff. It was generally felt at headquarters that nothing serious had taken place and that the explosion was just a rumor.

The staff officer went to the airport and took off for the southwest. After flying for about three hours, while still nearly one hundred miles (160 km) from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb. In the bright afternoon, the remains of Hiroshima were burning. Their plane soon reached the city, around which they circled in disbelief. A great scar on the land still burning and covered by a heavy cloud of smoke was all that was left. They landed south of the city, and the staff officer, after reporting to Tokyo, immediately began to organize relief measures.

By August 8, 1945, newspapers in the U.S. were reporting that broadcasts from Radio Tokyo had described the destruction observed in Hiroshima. "Practically all living things, human and animal, were literally seared to death," Japanese radio announcers said in a broadcast received by Allied sources.[35]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:05:53 am
Post-attack casualties

According to most estimates, the immediate effects of the blast killed approximately 70,000 people in Hiroshima. Estimates of total deaths by the end of 1945 from burns, radiation and related disease, the effects of which were aggravated by lack of medical resources, range from 90,000 to 140,000.[4][36] Some estimates state up to 200,000 had died by 1950, due to cancer and other long-term effects.[1][7][37] Another study states that from 1950 to 1990, roughly 9% of the cancer and leukemia deaths among bomb survivors was due to radiation from the bombs, the statistical excess being estimated to 89 leukemia and 339 solid cancers.[38] At least eleven known prisoners of war died from the bombing.[39]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:07:41 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/HiroshimaNakajimaAreaInRuins.jpg/738px-HiroshimaNakajimaAreaInRuins.jpg)

Small-scale recreation of the Nakajima area around ground zero.


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:08:04 am
Survival of some structures

Some of the reinforced concrete buildings in Hiroshima had been very strongly constructed because of the earthquake danger in Japan, and their framework did not collapse even though they were fairly close to the blast center. Eizo Nomura (野村 英三, Nomura Eizō?) was the closest known survivor, who was in the basement of a modern "Rest House" only 100 m (330 ft) from ground-zero at the time of the attack.[40] Akiko Takakura (高蔵 信子, Takakura Akiko?) was among the closest survivors to the hypocenter of the blast. She had been in the solidly built Bank of Hiroshima only 300 meters (980 ft) from ground-zero at the time of the attack.[41] Since the bomb detonated in the air, the blast was directed more downward than sideways, which was largely responsible for the survival of the Prefectural Industrial Promotional Hall, now commonly known as the Genbaku, or A-bomb Dome. This building was designed and built by the Czech architect Jan Letzel, and was only 150 m (490 ft) from ground zero (the hypocenter). The ruin was named Hiroshima Peace Memorial and was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996 over the objections of the U.S. and China.[42]


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Lisa Wolfe on November 21, 2009, 03:09:57 am
Events of August 7-9

   
Truman announcing the bombing of Hiroshima
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trumann_hiroshima.ogg

President Truman announces the bombing of Hiroshima.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki


Title: Re: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Post by: Keith Ranville on November 21, 2009, 08:15:07 am
terror indeed, then and forever less