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the Ancient World => Stonehenge & the Druids => Topic started by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:03:59 am



Title: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:03:59 am
The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg
J. Williams Ab Ithel (editor)

Vol. I
[1862]


(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/druid.jpg)

Druids Cutting the Mistletoe on the Sixth Day of the Moon, by Henri Paul Motte [ca. 1890-1900] (Public Domain Image)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:05:10 am
The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg is a collection of writings, largely forged, about ancient Welsh Bardic and Druidic beliefs. Although the author of this work is cited as J. Williams Ab Ithel, he was actually the editor, who pieced it together from manuscripts written by Iolo Morganwg. Iolo Morganwg (1747-1826), itinerant poet and scholar, was a key figure in the Druid revival of the 19th century. He was personally responsible for reviving the Welsh national poetry contest, the Gorsedd. On June 21st, 1792, Midsummer evening, Iolo and a dozen other Welsh poets gathered on Primrose Hill in London and held the first Gorsedd in hundreds of years. Iolo was a Welsh patriot and held revolutionary views; he was a personal friend of Tom Paine, and George Washington subscribed to his first volume of poetry. He is said to have influenced both William Blake's poetry and Robert Grave's White Goddess. He revived the concept that the Welsh explorer Madoc discovered America. This led to an expedition to Mandan territory in the Great Plains, which found no trace of the Welsh, but was one of the inspirations for Thomas Jefferson's Lewis and Clarke expedition.

Iolo Morganwg's contributions to world culture are still with us today; there is an extensive neo-Druid movement; and the Gorsedd (and Welsh nationalism) are still going strong. The Gorsedd is held annually during the Eisteddfod in Wales, a festival of Welsh culture. Two other Celtic regions, Cornwall and Brittany, have also adopted the Gorsedd.

Iolo Morganwg, born Edward Williams, a native speaker of both English and Welsh, spent his entire life collecting and transcribing mediaeval Welsh documents, as well as writing poetry under his own byline. He was also a first-rate literary forger of ancient Welsh; some have commented that his forgeries were as good or better than the real thing. Furthermore, he wrote much of the Barddas under the influence of laudanum (an opium-based medication which he took for asthma). Scholars have spent two centuries trying to establish which parts of his extensive writings purporting to be based on ancient manuscripts are genuine, and which he wrote personally. Our understanding is still very murky. For these reasons, Iolo's writings are considered highly controversial.

Because Druidic beliefs were exclusively transmitted orally, we have no primary accounts of it, so there is practically nothing to compare this text with. What we do know is summarized neatly in the Preface to this work, and consists of a few excerpts from classical authors. The longest account is from Julius Caesar, who was more interested in exterminating Druids, so he was hardly a disinterested observer.

However, this is one of those visionary texts which is worth reading for its own merits, irrespective of whether it is 'genuine' or not. Taken at face value, the Barddas remains a fascinating text. It has resonances with the Upanishads, Kabbalah, and Freemasonry. The Bardic alphabet presented in the 'Symbol' section is completely invented, based on Runic and Ogham, and has utility as a magical alphabet. However it is about as genuine as the alphabets of J.R.R. Tolkien. The 'Theology' section appears to be based on Iolo's peculiar Christian views (he described himself as a Unitarian Quaker). 'Theology' also contains a great number of Triads, some of which may be from authentic ancient Bardic lore. The 'Wisdom' section has a great deal of mythopoetic information, some of which is authentic, some not. The Barddas is great reading if you are at all interested in the ancient Druids, as long as you keep in mind the background of its creation.

Production notes: I have omitted the Welsh text of this book, which was printed on the even numbered pages, but retained all page numbers. The English footnotes often started on the facing (preceding) page and occasionally continue on for several pages, so I have taken care to document page numbers in footnotes. I have omitted sporadic footnotes which were only relevant to the Welsh text, except in a few cases where they also impact the understanding of the English translation. These footnotes use asterisks instead of numbers.

John B. Hare, November 6, 2005.


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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:06:31 am


Y GWIR YN ERBYN Y BYD.
BARDDAS;
OR, A COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS, ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE THEOLOGY, WISDOM, AND USAGES OF
The Bardo-Druidic System
OF THE ISLE OF BRITAIN.
WITH
TRANSLATIONS AND NOTES.
BY
THE REV. J. WILLIAMS AB ITHEL, M. A.,
RECTOR OF LLANYMOWDDWY, MERIONETHSHIRE;
AUTHOR OF "THE ECCLESIASTICAL ANTIQUITIES OF THE CYMRY." &c., &c.
PUBLISHED FOR
The Welsh Mss. Society
VOL. I.
LLANDOVERY:
PUBLISHED BY D. J. RODERIC; LONDON: LONG IAN & CO.
MDCCCLXII.
[1862]


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:07:20 am
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/title.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:07:59 am


Y GWIR YN ERBYN Y BYD.
I’R

BEIRDD, DERWYDDON, AC OFYDDION,

Y CYFLWYNIR

Y CASGLIAD HWN O WYBODAU A DEFODAU

Barddas yr Hen Cymry

GAN EU FFYDDLAWN WASANAETHWR,

AB ITHEL, B. B. D.

YN ENW DUW A PHOB DAIONI.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:09:00 am
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/verso.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:10:31 am

"OES Y BYD I’R IAITH GYMRAEG."

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Patroness,

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA.

Patronized also by

HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA,

AND

HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE LOUIS LUCIEN BONAPARTE.

President,

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL OF POWIS.

Vice-presidents,

His Grace The DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G.

His Grace The DUKE OF NEWCASTLE, K.G.

His Grace the DUKE OF SUTHERLAND, K.G.

The Most Noble The MARQUESS OF LANSDOWNE, K.G.

The Most Noble The MARQUESS OF CAMDEN, K.G.

The Right Honourable The EARL OF SHAFTESBURY

The Right Honourable The EARL OF DUNRAVEN

The Right Honourable The EARL OF CAERNARVON

The Right Honourable The EARL OF CAWDOR, F.R.S.

The Right Honourable VISCOUNT EVERSLEY

The Right Honourable VISCOUNT FEILDING

The Right Reverend The LORD BISHOP OF ST. DAVID'S

The Right Reverend The LORD BISHOP OF ST. ASAPH

The Right Reverend The LORD BISHOP OF LLANDAFF

The Right Reverend The LORD BISHOP OF BANGOR

The Right Honourable LORD DYNEVOR

The Right Honourable LORD CARBERY

The Right Honourable LORD MOSTYN

The Right Honourable LORD LLANOVER

The Honourable T. LL. MOSTYN, M.P.

The Right Honourable CONSEILLER JOUKOVSKY

SIR WATKIN WILLIAMS WYNN, Bart. M.P. Wynnstay

SIR STEPHEN GLYNNE, Bart. Hawarden Castle, Flintshire

SIR EDWARD BULWER LYTTON, Bart. M.P. Knebworth, Hertfordshire

SIR THOMAS PHILLIPPS, Bart., F.R.S., F.S.A. &c., Middle Hill

SIR HUGH WILLIAMS, Bart., Bodelwyddan

BERIAH BOTFIELD, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., &c., Norton Hall

WILLIAM ORMSBY GORE, Esq. M.P. Porkington

OCTAVIUS MORGAN, Esq. M.P.. F.R.S., F.G.S. Friars, Newport

W. W. E. WYNNE, Esq. M.P. Peniarth, Merionethshire

SIR GARDINER WILKINSON, F.R.S., D.C.L.

W. A. WILLIAMS, Esq. of Llangibby Castle, Monmouthshire

 

His Excellency MONS. VAN DER WEYER, Belgian Minister

His Excellency BARON BENTINCK, Netherlands Minister

p. viii


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:10:50 am
Committee,

The Right Honourable Lord Llanover, Chairman

Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S., Friars, Newport

J. Bruce Pryce, of Dyffryn, Esq. Cardiff, Glamorgan

J. Arthur Herbert, of Llanarth, Esq.

The Rev. Illtyd Nicholl, M.A. of Ham, Cowbridge, Glamorgan

Editors, Translators, and Collators of Manuscripts,

The Rev. J. Williams Ab Ithel, M.A. Rector of Llanymowddwy*

The Rev. E. Owen Phillips, M.A., Vicar of Aberystwyth*

The Rev. Hugh Williams, M.A. Chancellor of Llandaff*

John Pughe, Esq. F.R.C.S. Penhelyg, Aberdovey

William Rees, Esq. of Tonn, Llandovery*

Those marked thus* are also Members of the Committee.

 

Corresponding Members,

WALES.

The Right Hon. Lady Llanover, (Gwenynen Gwent) Llanover, Abergavenny

Lady Charlotte Schreiber, Dowlais, Glamorganshire

George Grant Francis, Esq. F.S.A. Cae’r Baily, Swansea

Major Herbert, Llansanffraed, near Abergavenny

Rev. Dr. James, (Dewi o Ddyfed,) of Pantêg, Monmouthshire

Arthur James Johnes, of Garthmyl, Esq. Judge of Local Courts, North Wales

John Johnes, Esq., Dolaucothy, Caermarthenshire

Rev. T. Jones, M.A. Llanengan, Caernarvonshire

The Very Rev. Dr. Lewellin, Dean of St. David's, & Principal of St. D.C.L.

Thomas Wakeman, Esq., The Graig, near Monmouth

W. W. E. Wynne, Esq. M.P. Peniarth, Merionethshire

Rev. Sir Charles Salusbury, of Llanwern, Bart.

Miss Williams, of Ynyslâs, Glamorgan, South Wales

Miss Jane Williams, of Ynyslâs, Glamorgan, South Wales.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:11:53 am
ENGLAND, &c.

Rev. A. B. Clough, B.D., F S.A., &c. Braunston, Northampton

Rev. Robert Jones, M.A. All Saints Rectory, Rotherhithe, London

Rev. R. H. Lloyd, M.A. of Owersby, Lincolnshire

J. Whitefoord Mackenzie, Esq. F.R.S., F.S.A. &c.

Edinburgh Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. F.R.S. Middle Hill, Worcestershire

The Lady Charlotte Schreiber, Roehampton, Middlesex

Secretary,

Mr. William Griffith, 4, Sidmouth Place, Gray's Inn Road, London.

HONORARY FOREIGN SECRETARY FOR GERMANY.--Mr. J. G. Sanerwein, Asiatic Society's Office, London.

HONORARY FOREIGN SECRETARY FOR FRANCE.--Monsr. Rio, Paris.

Treasurers,

Messrs. Bailey, Gratrex & Co., Bankers, Abergavenny.

Publisher,

Mr. D. J. Roderic, Llandovery, South Wales.

p. ix


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:12:27 am
The Welsh Mss. Society,
HAS been formed for the purpose of transcribing and printing the more important of the numerous Bardic and Historical Remains of Wales, still extant in the Principality, and other parts of the world, that have hitherto been allowed to continue in a state of obscurity, without any effective measures being adopted to lay their contents before the public, and secure them from the various accidents to which they are liable. In addition to the general decay which, from their perishable nature, these venerable relics have been for ages undergoing, whole collections have, within a short space of time, been destroyed by fire; and of those MSS. dispersed throughout the country, numbers known to have existed a few years ago, are now no where to be found.

Besides the interest which these ancient documents possess, as objects of antiquarian curiosity, and as contributing to the elucidation of British History, they have a claim to attention of a far more general character, as being intimately connected with the origin and progress of modern European Literature; for it is among the legends and traditions of the Welsh that many of the materials are to be found, which supplied the nations of the Continent with their earliest subjects of composition, and produced those highly imaginative works that continue to exercise so powerful an influence to the present day.

A great mass of Historical information, relating to the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, is contained in the unpublished Poetry of Wales; from which an intimate acquaintance with the state of society during those periods may be obtained; the Welsh Bards being the Chroniclers of the times in which they lived, and their Poems chiefly addressed to the leading men of the day. Besides Poetry, there is still existing unpublished a large collection of Prose, both Historical and Legendary; persons of affluence are therefore solicited to contribute larger Donations and Subscriptions, than are required by the Rules of the Society, in order to enable the Committee to proceed with greater rapidity in carrying on the publication of Manuscripts.

The first Work that was published by this Society, was the LIBER LANDAVENSIS, or LLYFR TEILO, comprising nearly 700 Royal 8vo. pages; gratuitously edited and translated by the late Rev. W. J. Rees, M.A., F.S.A. &c. Of this Work only a few Copies remain to be sold to persons becoming Members of the Society at £1 2s. 0d.--Non-members, £2 2s. 0d.

The second Work of the Society consisted of a MISCELLANEOUS SELECTION OF ANCIENT WELSH MSS. in prose and poetry, from the originals collected by the late Edward Williams, (Iolo Morganwg) for the purpose of forming a continuation of the Myvyrian Archaiology, and afterwards proposed to be used as materials for a New History of Wales. Edited with Notes and Translations, by his son, the late TALIESIN AB IOLO, of Merthyr Tydvil. This work is of the same size and price as the Liber Landavensis, and a few copies remain still in the hands of the Publisher.

The third Work, The HERALDIC VISITATIONS OF WALES AND ITS MARCHES, Temp. Elizabeth, and James I. in two Imperial 4to. Volumes was printed under the gratuitous and able superintendence of its Editor, the late SIR SAMUEL RUSH MEYRICK, K.H., LL.])., F.S A, &c., of this Work only 240 copies were published which were all engaged by Subscribers; it is therefore out of print and has become extremely scarce.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:12:44 am
The LIVES OF CAMBRO BRITISH SAINTS, was next published, from Ancient Welsh and Latin MSS. in the British Museum and elsewhere, comprising 680 pages Royal 8vo., and was gratuitously edited and translated by the late Rev. W. J. REES, M.A., F.S.A., &c. Some copies of this Work are still to be had of the Publisher, price £1 1s. 0d. to persons becoming Members of the Society,--Non-members, £2 2s. 0d.

The ANCIENT WELSH GRAMMAR made by EDEYRN DAFOD AUR, by the command of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, (prince of Wales from 1254 to 1282,) Rhys Vychan lord of Dynevor and Ystrad Towy; and Morgan Vychan, lord paramount of Morganwg,--together with Y PUM LLYFR KERDDWRIAETH, Or Rules of Welsh Prosody, by Simwnt Vychan, in the 15th Century. Edited with Translations and Notes, by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel, M.A. A few

p. x

copies only remain on hand, to be sold at £1 1s. 0d. each,--Non-members, £2 2s. 0d.

The MEDDYGON MYDDFAI, or a Compendium of the Medical Practice of the celebrated Rhiwallon and his Sons, Cadwgan, Gruffydd, and Einion, of Myddvai, in Caermarthenshire, Physicians to Rhys Gryg, lord of Dynevor and Ystrad Towy, son of Gruffydd ap Rhys, the last Prince of South Wales, about the year 1230; from Ancient MSS. in the Library of Jesus College, Oxford, Llanover, and Tonn; accompanied by an English Translation, To the whole is annexed the curious Legend of THE LADY OF THE LAKE, called LLYN-Y-FAN, from whom the above Physicians were said to be descended, and a copious Herbal; Edited by the Rev. J. Williams ab Ithel, M.A., Rector of Llanymowddwy; Translated by John Pughe, Esq., F.R.C.S., Penhelyg, Aberdovey. Price £1 1s. 0d.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:13:01 am
To be ready early in 1863, the Second Volume of


BARDDAS; OR BARDISM, a Collection of Original Documents, illustrative of the Theology, Discipline and Usages, of the Bardo-Druidic System of the Isle of Britain, with Translations and Notes, by the Rev. J. Williams Ab Ithel, M.A., Rector of Llanymowddwy.

 The curious matter brought to light for the first time in this Work, cannot fail to attract the particular attention of scholars, and to open a new and interesting era in the History of Welsh Literature.

 It is intended henceforward to bring out a Volume of about 400 pages every Twelve Months, to be supplied to Members of the Society only, free of all expense. Those Works already published, and not out of print, can be had by payment of the additional price affixed to each.

RECOMMENDED FOR PUBLICATION.

The inedited matter of the LLYFR COCH O HERGEST, in the Library of Jesus College, Oxford.

ANCIENT RECORDS, Temp. Edward III. belonging to the Manor Court of Ruthin.

WELSH CHARTERS.

Y DAROGANAU, or VATICINATIONS of the middle ages.

A complete and correct edition of the BARDS of the 6th and 7th centuries.

Y DIARHEBION CYMREIG, or WELSH PROVERBS.

The HISTORICAL TRIADS.

The Life of GRUFFUDD AB CYNAN.

The GREAL; in the Hengwrt Collection.

Rules of the Society
I. That the objects of the Society shall be to procure copies of any interesting Manuscripts relating to Wales and the Marches thereof, and to publish them with English Translations and Notes.

II. That Subscribers of at least One Guinea annually, become members of the Society.

III. That all Subscriptions being considered due for the ensuing year, notice must be sent to the Secretary, before the 1st of January, of any Member's intention to withdraw his name.

IV. That the Society's Publications are to appear yearly in parts or volumes, to be delivered free to Subscribers not in arrear with the subscriptions.

V. That there shall be only a limited number of copies printed of each Work beyond the number of Subscribers, which copies the Committee are empowered to dispose of to persons becoming annual subscribers.

VI. That the management of the affairs of the Society be vested in the Chairman and Committee, and that the funds of the Society be disbursed in payment of the necessary expenses incident to the production of the Works of the Society, and that the accompts of the receipts and expenditure be audited annually by two Members.

 Subscribers' Names, Donations and Annual Subscriptions are requested to be forwarded to the Secretary, Mr. Griffith, 4, Sidmouth Place, Gray's Inn Road, London.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:13:37 am
p. xi

ADVERTISEMENT,
IN preparing the present work for the press, it has been deemed advisable to place the Welsh and English on opposite pages, as an arrangement more convenient for the scholar, who may wish to test the accuracy of the translation by a reference to the original.

Except to supply some of the headings, no liberty whatever has been taken with the text. Even obvious and glaring errors, whether in the orthography or punctuation, have been transferred to our pages exactly as they were found in the manuscript.

The translation has been rendered as literal as possible, short of becoming obscure. This was considered expedient, not only with the view of exhibiting the style and idiom of the original, but in order to guard against any misapprehension of the sense, which a free construction is too apt to produce.

Notes, historical and explanatory, have been added, which, without being cumbersome, it is to be hoped, will prove of considerable service to the reader.

Our thanks are especially due to the Right Honourable Lord and Lady Llanover for their kindness in allowing us free access to the MSS. of Iolo Morganwg, from which the present Collection has been for the most part made.




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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:14:21 am
p. xiii

PREFACE.
THE promoters of the National Eisteddvod, which was held at Llangollen, in the autumn of 1858, conscious of the increased attention that was being paid by foreign scholars to the literature and usages of our Cymric ancestors, and desirous, at the same time, of facilitating their inquiries in that direction, as well as of effectually rescuing from a precarious existence the traditions of the Bards, offered a prize of £30, and a Bardic tiara in gold, for "the fullest illustration, from original sources, of the theology, discipline, and usages of the Bardo-druidic system of the Isle of Britain." Only one compilation was received, which, nevertheless, received a very high encomium, accompanied with a recommendation that it should be published, in the following adjudication, which was read at the meeting by Myvyr Morganwg, 1 one of the three judges appointed for the occasion.

"On this very important and interesting subject only one composition has been received, which bears the feigned signature of PLENNYDD. It is a very extensive collection, for the most part of unpublished


p. xiv

[paragraph continues] MSS., consisting of 287 folio pages, clearly and beautifully written, and exhibiting indications of being carefully and accurately copied, for the writer, following herein the example of the late Iola Morganwg, has suffered even errors, which were obvious in the manuscripts before him, to remain unaltered.

"The compiler has been very diligent, and remarkably successful in obtaining access to such a vast number of ancient MSS. bearing on Bardism, many of which had seen but little light for several years before. With respect to their genuineness, PLENNYDD justly observes,--'though their authors cannot in many instances be named, any more than we can name the authors of the Common Law of England, yet the existence of the peculiar dogmas and usages, which they represent, may be proved from the compositions of the Bards from the era of Taliesin down to the present time.'

"This collection contains a great many of the Rules and Usages appertaining to the Gorsedd of the Bards, several valuable fragments on the Natural and Moral Philosophy of our ancestors, together with the ingenious Theology of the ancient Bardism of the Cymry; also curious extracts on Astronomy, Arithmetic, the Bardic Coelbren, and a vast quantity of Triads. Every fragment that can thus be made public, of what once related to the primitive Gorsedd or Throne of the Bards, is truly valuable, inasmuch as it was this simple, moral, and sublime system, that constituted the very foundation of the primitive worship, legislature, and scholastic institutes of the nation, and was the living means of promoting learning and morality among all classes of the people, in early times. And when we consider that the Gorsedd of the Bards was but a continuation, in the White Island, of the circular temples of patriarchal times, we may feel assured that it is among the remains of Bardism, or the religious system connected with those primitive temples, we may hope to discover, if at all, that Golden Key, concealed and secured, which can open the mysteries, or esoteric doctrine, of ancient nations.......



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:14:32 am
"We had no right to expect that we should find the 'Secrets of Bardism,' or the 'Mysteries of Maen Arch,' introduced into a compilation, which was intended to be made public; for such have been, and ought to be a sort of mute tradition, and tradition only, to be communicated solely to such as have proved themselves worthy to receive the.......

"Nevertheless, there may be found in this collection, some fragments which contain, as is very clear to every initiated Bard, the remains of that sublime learning, as it existed in the Isle of Britain anterior to Christianity; such as those extracts about the elements--the migration of the soul from the point of extreme evil in Annwn to the point of extreme good in heaven--the mystic Name of God--the nature of Cythraul, &c. In order to prove the genuineness and

p. xv

great antiquity of these particulars to one who is not initiated in the mysteries of Bardism, it may suffice that they are also discoverable, though in a more corrupt form, in the ancient bardism of Hindoostan. They are old dogmas, at present neither preserved nor existing amidst the antiquities of any nation under the sun, except the Indians and the Cymry.

"But we have in the present collection some pieces of mixed Bardism, which may be called Monkish Bardism, or Bardism and Christianity mixed together, which could easily take place after the introduction of Christianity, owing to the remarkable--very remark-able coincidence which exists between the two systems.

"The Compiler assures us that he is in possession of more documents, which would have been added, if time had permitted. We trust that he will hereafter kindly make the addition, and that the whole will be published in one or more volumes. It will make a valuable Book, not only as aid in the management of the Gorsedd of the Bards, but also, and especially, because the time is undoubtedly coming, as is proved by certain signs, when every fragment of the primitive Bardism of the Cymry will be treasured as gold, and subjected to the severest criticism by men of learning and research.

"I know not what the literati of the Continent will say, when the Book is published, but I presume that their curiosity will be much excited by its contents, and that they themselves will be highly pleased with the labour and industry of the Compiler.......

"The three judges are of opinion that the writer deserves to have the prize presented to him by acclamation, and with the full and joyful approbation of the nation, as represented in this Great Eisteddvod." 1

The compilation thus referred to is that, which, with omissions and additions, somewhat re-arranged, and accompanied with an English translation, is now offered to the public. With very few exceptions, the several documents used on the present occasion, have been collected from the manuscripts of the late Iolo Morganwg, Bard according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and one of


p. xvi



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:14:46 am
the two that constituted the only members of the Bardic institution, when it was revived at the close of the last century. 1 But though they are thus in his handwriting, if we set aside some brief and unimportant notices, which, whether original or otherwise, may have been couched in his own language, there is every reason to believe that they are transcripts of older manuscripts. In the first place we may remark, that they are interspersed, without method or order of any kind, among the private and casual entries of the Bard, which he made on loose scraps of old letters, bills, and placards--bound together only after his death, and that they were thus evidently not intended to be published. This fact of itself would remove the notion of any design on his part to impose upon the credulity of his countrymen. Moreover, we have had an opportunity of examining fully and carefully those papers, and thus seen the Bard, as it were, in his most private and unguarded moments, and can, as the result of our observation, unhesitatingly pronounce him to be incapable of perpetrating literary deceit or forgery, particularly with the view of upholding a theory. Integrity of purpose is apparent throughout all his works. Strong feelings, indeed, he had, amounting almost to prejudice, but they were founded in jealous concern for the due preservation of the traditions of the country, and never displayed, except when he beheld a disposition to oppugn or disparage what he considered ancient and national. It was on this ground, for instance, that he so strenuously advocated the claims of Dosparth


p. xvii

[paragraph continues] Morganwg, or the Glamorgan system of versification, in preference to the twenty-four new canons of poetry, which were sanctioned at the famous Eisteddvod, held at Caermarthen, under the patronage of Gruffydd ab Nicholas, in the 15th century. Secondly, the style is in general too archaic for the 18th century, exhibiting occasionally terms of such an obsolete character as to baffle the skill of the etymologist. Nor must it be asserted that they were fabricated for a purpose, with a view of imparting to the documents the appearance of antiquity, for even Iolo Morganwg himself professes not to fully understand some of them. Thus, in reference to a Triad entitled, "Tri phrif anaw Beirdd Ynys Prydain," he remarks, "the meaning of this word (anaw) has not hitherto been satisfactorily given," and proposes the query, "whether it may not signify an original genius?" and soon after, "whether anaw may not signify a philosopher?" Again, after an extract, to which the name of Llywelyn Sion is attached, relative to "Cadair Tarannon," he asks, "Tarannon and Teyrnon--were they one and the same thing? Qu. whether Cadair Teyrnon in Taliesin be not one and the same thing, and also the same thing as gorsedd gwlad ac arlwydd?" The word obryn is not to be met with in the Dictionaries; it may, and probably does, signify a state in Abred corresponding with man's turpitude at the time of his death, which is the meaning given to it by Iolo Morganwg; but assuredly if he had been driven to coin for himself a compound which should express the above idea, instead of the very unusual prefix ob, he would naturally have adopted cyf, cyd, or cyn, as

p. xviii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:15:02 am
in the case of cydfil, which occurs in the same Triad. Sometimes, when the language is not obscure, he seems to misunderstand the import of a word, and to suggest an interpretation, which, on due examination of the Bardic doctrine, appears to be erroneous. Thus when, referring to light in the Triad--"There are three cognates: man; liberty; and light," he observes, "intellectual light is here probably meant," he forgets that it is distinctly stated in other documents that man sprang into existence simultaneously with the resplendent appearance of the triple form of God's Name, which was the first manifestation of material light. These facts clearly prove that Iolo Morganwg had no hand in forging the documents in question. Thirdly, the different readings, which abound in them, demonstrate that the Bard had frequently even more than one manuscript before him, when he made his transcripts--a fact, which shows, moreover, that their contents were then better known than they are in our own day. Fourthly, whilst the general subject is the same, there is a want of uniformity in some of the details, as in the directions given for constructing a Peithynen, and the formation of a Gorsedd--the explanation of the Divine epithet IAU--and the enumeration and names of the elements. This circumstance, whilst it indicates a variety of sources, whence the different expressions of opinion must have been derived, at the same time excludes the idea of a collusion. Had Iolo and some of his friends entered into a conspiracy to palm upon the public, as an ancient system, a theory of their own invention, they would doubtless have taken care that there should exist an exact agreement

p. xix

between the several parts of their joint production. It is of the essence of forgery to endeavour to avoid varieties in matters of detail--whilst truth, and integrity of purpose, having a greater regard for the main subject, are generally indifferent to these particulars. Lastly, Iolo Morganwg refers to the actual existence of some of the documents, which he alleges to have copied, and gives, with very great minuteness, the address of the owner. Thus, in relation to certain extracts which he made from "Trioedd Barddas," "Trioedd Braint a Defod," "Trioedd Doethineb," and "Trioedd Pawl," which contain the very essence of Bardism, as exhibited in our pages, he remarks;--"The Triades that are here selected are from a manuscript collection, by Llywelyn Sion, a Bard of Glamorgan, about the year 1560. Of this manuscript I have a transcript; the original is in the possession of Mr. Richard Bradford, of Bettws, near Bridgend, in Glamorgan;" and as if this were not sufficiently particular, he adds in a note, "son of the late Mr. John Bradford, who, for skill in ancient British Bardism, left not his equal behind." Nor does this statement occur among the private papers of the Bard, but appears in his published work--his "Poems Lyric and Pastoral," where also the selections alluded to are printed. 1 If the reference had been untrue, it could easily have been refuted, nor would his enemies, of whom he had several, have been slow to take advantage of the circumstance to expose the whole as a tissue of falsehood and deceit. But nothing of the kind took place. It is fair, however,


p. xx



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:15:14 am
to observe that the existence of the manuscript in question at the present moment is open to doubt--the prize offered at the Eisteddvod failed to bring it forth. Still we are in hopes that it is not irretrievably lost, and it may be in the possession of some person who "careth for none of these things."

We trust that these reasons are sufficient to justify us in our conclusion, that Iolo Morganwg had nothing whatever to do with the original compilation of the main documents, which form the present collection, and that he merely transcribed older materials, which from some sources or other had fallen into his hands.

Failing the attempt to convict Iolo Morganwg as a literary impostor, the sceptics of the present day profess to discover the sources in question in the Eisteddvodau, which were held subsequently to the beginning of the 15th century, more especially those of 1570, 1580, and 1681. A body of curious matter is found to exist, purporting to have come down to us, through the medium of the Chair of Glamorgan, as genuine remains of the theology and usages of the Bards. This is an incontrovertible fact. Again, history notes with equal sternness the authorization, at the above mentioned Congresses successively, of what was likewise called Bardism: and the not unnatural inference is, that they are one and the same. But, apparently for no other reason than that the code thus promulgated was not formally committed to writing before, a higher origin is denied to it, and of course the Bards of those periods, Ieuan ab Hywel Swrdwal, Gwilym Tew, Lewys Morganwg, Meurig Davydd, Davydd Benwyn, Llywelyn Sion, Davydd Llwyd Mathew, Edward Davydd, and others, are

p. xxi

boldly charged with being its sole inventors. As they were not all contemporaries, and as they held various positions in life, and were also members of different religious communions, it would be difficult to account for the unanimity with which they adopted the strange and curious system, which these volumes present to our view. To accuse them of being under the influence of that spirit, which led to the overthrow of the monarchy, and to the establishment of the commonwealth on its ruins, merely because their system represents the three orders of Bard, Druid, and Ovate, as co-equal in rank and privilege, is, to say the least, not warranted by facts. History does not point out a single Bard of those times as mixing in any political intrigue. On the contrary they, one and all of whom we have any knowledge, appear to have led quiet lives, paying due and just homage of loyalty to the existing government of the day, without opposition, and without complaint. Besides, it may be interesting to know, why the Bards in question should have selected this particular form, whether as the embodiment of their own creed, or as the representation of ancient Druidism? There was nothing in the prevailing philosophy of the day to suggest it; and to say that they derived it from the traditions of the Brahmins, would be to give them credit for a greater extent of knowledge than their positions in life would warrant. Could they, then, have compiled the whole system--ingenious, complex, and yet harmonious and symmetrical as it was, out of the mere allusions to it, which are contained in the works of the earlier Poets? The Rev. Edward Davies observes,--"It does not appear, from their

p. xxii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:15:30 am
own profession, nor from the research of Llwyd, and other antiquaries, that this society possessed a single copy of the works of the ancient Bards, previous to the eighteenth century." 1 If the inference, evidently intended to be drawn from this guarded form of expression, be well founded, of course a direct negative must be returned to our inquiry. But we are not prepared to endorse the opinion, favourable as it may be to our present argument. We believe that the Bards of the 15th and 16th centuries were, to some extent, acquainted with the poetical productions of their predecessors, but at the same time we boldly maintain that it was next to impossible they should agree upon any system drawn from those sources. And in proof of our assertion, we need only refer to those who are known to have made the trial. What two persons have been found to agree in their views of the mystic allusions of the Bards? What an interminable distance there is between the respective theories of Davies and Nash!

Whilst, however, we deny that the contents of these volumes could have been derived immediately from the metrical compositions of the medieval and early Poets, we believe that they can be abundantly proved by them. There are numerous allusions, which, otherwise obscure and unintelligible, become by means of the light thrown upon them from Bardism, as clear as day. As an example; Rhys Brydydd, between 1450 and 1490, has the following lines on Hu the Mighty:--


p. xxiii


The smallest of the small
Is Hu the Mighty, as the world judges;
And the greatest, and a Lord to us,
Let us well believe, and our mysterious God;
Light His course, and active,
An atom of glowing heat is His car;
Great on land and on the seas,
The greatest that I manifestly can have,
Greater than the worlds--Let us beware
Of mean indignity to him who deals in bounty. 1

Even supposing Hu the Mighty to signify the Supreme Being, it would be difficult to explain how He can be "the smallest of the small," and at the same time "the greatest," or to show how His chariot is composed of "an atom of glowing heat." Accordingly, the interpretations given by Davies, Archdeacon Williams, and Nash, varied though they be, are extremely vague and unsatisfactory, leaving us in a greater state of bewilderment than if we had never received them. And yet how simple is the illustration which Bardism affords--"Hu the Mighty--Jesus the Son of God,--the least in respect of His worldly greatness whilst in the flesh, and the greatest in heaven of all visible majesties." Or, which also explains the nature of His car;--"the particles of light are the smallest of all small things; and yet one particle of light is the greatest of all great things, being no less than material for all materiality that can be understood and perceived as within the grasp of the power of God. And in every particle there is a place wholly commensurate with God, for there is not, and cannot be less than God in every particle of


p. xxiv



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:15:46 am
light, and God in every particle; nevertheless God is only one in number."

In like manner, there are various allusions to annwn, abred, manred, byd mawr, byd bach, pair Ceridwen, the Coelbren, and many other particulars of a similar kind, which, while they are in themselves insufficient to constitute an intelligible groundwork on which to raise a superstructure such as our pages contain, bear strong testimony to the fact of its existence from the 16th up to the 6th century. The transmigration related by Taliesin is not identical in detail with that of Bardism, for in the latter the soul is not supposed to enter inanimate objects, such as a sword, a star, a word, a book, a boat, a shield, a tree, an axe, and a grain of wheat, which form some of the gradations in "Cad Goddeu" and "Angar Cyvyndawd;" and we infer from this discrepancy that the Bardic doctrine was not directly founded on the poet's language. Still we may regard it as a valuable testimony to the actual existence among the Cymry, at the time when the poems were written, of a doctrine of metempsychosis, whether believed in, or preserved merely as a matter of curiosity. To notice in detail all the passages, which might be culled out of the works of the Poets, as referring to the principal tenets and usages of Bardism, would swell our Preface to an unnecessary length, especially since many of them are inserted in the body of the work as footnotes; to then, then, we would beg to direct the attention of our readers.

Further, the philosophical features of Bardism may be traced even in the language of the Cymry, and the testimony, which it thus affords, is the more valuable,

p. xxv

because it is indirect and unexpected. If we allow it possible that the Bards of the 15th and 16th centuries should have actually drawn their system directly from the works of their predecessors, no one can for a moment entertain the thought that they were capable of drawing it from the language, whether solely, or in conjunction with the poetry of different times. Independently of Bardism, it would be difficult to explain why advyd, a term signifying re-world, or a beginning of the world over again, should in common use stand for adversity, but "Rhol Cof a Chyfrif" informs us that it was originally applied to the state of retraversing abred, which, being a punishment for sin, was of course a state of hardship and adversity. Again, we find that the word gwydd means both wood and knowledge, which cannot be accounted for except on the supposition of a common origin, or that there was a mutual connection between the one and the other from the earliest times. This affinity is explained by the Coelbren. In like manner, the doctrine of eneidvaddeu alone can satisfactorily account for the double meaning of maddeu, and show us how a word, which properly means to liberate, or to dismiss, came also to signify to forgive, which is its common import at the present day. Angau, aberth, huan, nefoedd, and a host of other words might be enumerated, which clearly refer to the mythology of the ancient Cymry; hence it is manifest that no Welsh philologist can effectually succeed in his investigations, unless in the first instance he makes himself acquainted with Bardism.

What, then, shall we say? Did the Bards in question model their system according to the description, which Julius Cæsar, and other foreign

p. xxvi



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:16:00 am
writers, have given of Druidism? There is prima facie a wide difference between the two systems. Cæsar speaks of a plurality of gods, of an archdruid, who had superior authority over the others, and also of the immolation of human sacrifices; whereas the unity of the Godhead is the very soul and centre of Bardism, which also strongly insists upon the co-equality of its orders, and seems to discountenance altogether the notion of the sacrifice of living beings, in the strict acceptation of the term, whether they were men or beasts. This circumstance, therefore, is fatal to the hypothesis which would regard classical Druidism as the groundwork on which the fabric of Bardism has been raised. Still, if the latter is, as it professes to be, the genuine remains of the primitive worship and philosophy of Britain, there must be a possibility of harmonizing the two systems--they must in principle be identical. To this subject we will now address ourselves.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
xiii:1 The other adjudicators were the Rev. T. James, Netherlong, Huddersfield, and the Rev. Silvan Evans, Llangian, Pwllheli.

xv:1 The adjudication was originally written in Welsh, in which language it was also read at the meeting.

xvi:1 The other was the Rev. Edward Evan, of Aberdare.

xix:1 see Vol. ii.

xxii:1 The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids, p. 34.

xxiii:1 Dr. O. Pughe's Dict., sub voce mymryn.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:17:05 am
JULIUS CÆSAR, B.C. 99-44.
It is necessary that we should, at the outset, bear in mind the following observation made by Cæsar, as to the comparative merits of the Continental and British systems:

"The institution is thought to have originated in Britain, and to have been thence introduced into Gaul; and even now those who wish to become more accurately acquainted with it, generally repair thither, for the sake of learning it."

It is clear from this statement that Druidism, in Cæsar's time, was not considered as pure and as well understood on the Continent as it was in the British isle, its genuine home; an hypothesis, moreover,

p. xxvii

exactly in accordance with the traditions of the Bards:--"Bardism originated in the Isle of Britain--no other country ever obtained a proper comprehension of Bardism. Three nations corrupted what they had learned of the Bardism of the Isle of Britain, blending with it heterogeneous principles, by which means they lost it: the Irish; the Cymry of Armorica; and the Germans." 1

According to this view, we must not expect that the two systems should agree in all matters of detail, but only in principle and substance.

Cæsar's description refers solely to the Druidism of Gaul. How he acquired his information, he does not tell us; it might have been in part from personal observation, and in part, if not wholly, from his friend Divitiacus, who was a Druid among the Ædui. It is possible that his narrative in this respect is correct; still his general character for veracity does not bind us to believe implicitly every word that he says. Suetonius tells us, that Asinius Pollio, who was a contemporary of Cæsar, was of opinion that his assertions are not altogether worthy of credit;--"Asinius Pollio," he remarks, "thinks that they [the works of Cæsar] were composed with but little accuracy, and little truth, since Cæsar used to believe rashly respecting the deeds of other men, and also to relate erroneously the things done by himself, either of set purpose, or through failure of memory, and he is of opinion that he intended to re-write and correct them." 2 We shall not, however, take the benefit of



p. xxviii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:17:22 am
this opinion, but proceed at once to notice the principal points of Druidism, as actually related by Cæsar himself, and to compare them with the views of the Bards, in order to see how far they may be reconciled one with the other. The whole account, as given by Cæsar of the Continental Druids, is as follows:

"They preside over sacred things, have the charge of public and private sacrifices, and explain their religion. To them a great number of youths have recourse for the sake of acquiring instruction, and they are in great honour among them. For they generally settle all their disputes, both public and private; and if there is any transgression perpetrated, any murder committed, or any dispute about inheritance or boundaries, they decide in respect of them; they appoint rewards and penalties; and if any private or public person abides not by their decree, they restrain him from the sacrifices. This with them is the most severe punishment. Whoever are so interdicted, are ranked in the number of the impious and wicked; all forsake them, and shun their company and conversation, lest they should suffer disadvantage from contagion with them: nor is legal right rendered to them when they sue it, nor any honour conferred upon them. But one presides over all these Druids, who possesses the supreme authority among them. At his death, if any one of the others excels in dignity, the same succeeds him: but if several have equal pretensions, the president is elected by the votes of the Druids, sometimes even they contend about the supreme dignity by force of arms. At a certain time of the year, they assemble in session on a consecrated spot in the confines of the Carnutes, which is considered the central region of the whole of Gaul. Thither all, who have any disputes, come together from every side, and acquiesce in their judgments and decisions. The institution is thought to have originated in Britain, and to have been thence introduced into Gaul, and even now, those who wish to become more accurately acquainted with it, generally repair thither for the sake of learning it.

"The Druids usually abstain from war, nor do they pay taxes together with the others; they have exemption from warfare, and the free use of all things. Instigated by such advantages, many resort to their school even of their own accord, whilst others are sent by their parents and relations. There they are said to learn thoroughly a great number of verses. On that account, some continue at their education for twenty years. Nor do they deem it lawful to commit those things to writing; though, generally, in other cases, and in their public and private accounts, they use Greek letters. They appear

p. xxix



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:17:44 am
to me to have established this custom for two reasons; because they would not have their tenets published, and because they would not have those, who learn them, by trusting to letters, neglect the exercise of memory; since it generally happens, that, owing to the safeguard of letters, they relax their diligence in learning, as well as their memory. In particular they wish to inculcate this idea, that souls do not die, but pass after death from one body to another; and they think that by this means men are very much instigated to the exercise of bravery, the fear of death being despised. They also dispute largely concerning the stars and their motion, the magnitude of the world and the earth, the nature of things, the force and power of the immortal gods, and instruct the youth in their principles.

"The whole nation of the Gauls is very much given to religious observances, and on that account, those who are afflicted with grievous diseases, and those who are engaged in battles and perils, either immolate men as sacrifices, or vow that they will immolate themselves, and they employ the Druids as ministers of those sacrifices; because they think that, if the life of man is not given for the life of man, the immortal gods cannot be appeased; they have also instituted public sacrifices of the same kind. Some have images of immense size, the limbs of which, interwoven with twigs, they fill with living men, and the same being set on fire, the men, surrounded by the flames, are put to death. They think that the punishment of those who are caught in theft or pillage, or in any other wicked act, is more acceptable to the immortal gods; but when there is a deficiency of such evil doers, they have recourse even to the punishment of the innocent.

"They chiefly worship the god Mercury; of him they have many images, him they consider as the inventor of all arts, as the guide of ways and journeys, and as possessing the greatest power for obtaining money and merchandise. After him, they worship Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. Concerning them they have almost the same opinion as other nations, namely: that Apollo wards off diseases; that Minerva instructs them in the principles of works and arts; that Jupiter holds the empire of heaven; and that Mars rules wars. To him, when they have determined to engage in battle, they generally vow those things which they shall have captured in war. When they are victorious, they sacrifice the captured animals; and pile up the other things in one place.

"The Gauls declare that they have all sprung from their father Pluto, and this they say was delivered to them by the Druids." 1


p. xxx



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:18:02 am
The principal topics, which demand our attention in this extract, are:

1. The religious function of the Druids. The two systems are perfectly agreed in this respect, that the priestly office belonged to the Druidic order. Cæsar, indeed, does not mention either of the other two orders, but his silence is no proof that they did not exist in Gaul as well as in Britain. It is very probable that the Druids were, in respect of their office, the most conspicuous among the Gauls, and that Cæsar's attention was especially drawn to their deeds, so as to overlook the Bards and Ovates, or that he considered the functions of these as absorbed in that of the Druids. We have the evidence of Diodorus Siculus and Strabo that there were Bards in Gaul, and the latter says there were Ovates (Οὐάτεις) also.

2. The respect in which they were held. The Druids of Britain were, likewise, highly esteemed by the people. According to the laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud, "the Gorsedd of Bards" was "the oldest in its origin" of "the three privileged Gorsedds of the Isle of Britain." Its different functionaries had a right each to five free acres of land in virtue of their office--were entitled to maintenance wherever they went--had freedom from taxes--no person was to bear a naked weapon in their presence--and their word was always paramount. These privileges, as well as others, to which they had a right, are distinctly specified in the present volumes, and they show the great respect and honour in which they at all times stood in the community. The consequence was that many persons were usually candidates for the office, not only among the nobility and gentry, but also

p. xxxi

among those of low rank, for the bondsman became free on his assuming the profession of Bardism, though he could not learn it "without the permission of his proprietary lord, and the lord of the territory." Cæsar regards the Druids and Knights as of a higher rank than the common people, and as being distinct from them, and though he does not say that the former could have arisen, and gained their nobility by means of their office, yet it is not improbable that the teachers of Gaul were, in this respect, similar to the Bards of the Isle of Britain. At any rate, every Bard among the Cymry was according to his office a free and honourable man, whatever his position might have been previously. In this matter, therefore, we perceive no substantial difference between the Druidism of Britain and the Druidism of Gaul.

3. The arbitration and settlement of disputes. It appears from the Laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud that there were "three Gorsedds according to the privilege of the country and nation of the Cymry," having their respective duties and functions with a view to the improvement of society.

"The first is the Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and their foundation and privilege rest upon reason, nature, and cogency; or, according to other teachers and wise men, upon reason, nature, and circumstance. And the privilege and office of those protected by the Gorsedd of Bards are to maintain and preserve and diffuse authorized instruction in the sciences of piety, wisdom, and courtesy; and to preserve memorial and record of every thing commendable respecting individuals and kindred; and every event of times; and every natural phenomenon; and wars; and regulations of country and nation; and punishments; and commendable victories; and to preserve a warranted record of genealogies, marriages, nobility, privileges, and customs of the nation of the Cymry; and to attend to the exigencies of other Gorsedds in announcing what shall be achieved, and what shall be requisite, under lawful proclamation and warning: and further

p. xxxii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:18:19 am
than this there is nothing either of office or of privilege attached to a Gorsedd of Bards.......Second, the Gorsedd of the country and common weal; or the Gorsedd of judicature and decision of law, for the right and protection of the country and nation, their refugees, and their aliens. These Gorsedds act severally; that is to say, the Gorsedd of federate support makes a law, where an occasion requires, and confirms it in a country and federate country; and that is not allowed to a country distinct from a federate country. The Gorsedd of judgment and judicature decides upon such as shall transgress the law, and punishes him. And the Gorsedd of the Bards teaches commend-able sciences, and decides respecting them, and methodically preserves all the memorials of the nation to insure their authenticity. And it is not right for any one of these Gorsedds to intermeddle with the deliberation of either of the other two, but to confirm them, and to support them regularly. The third Gorsedd, or that of federate support, in its original and determinate purpose, is to effect what may be necessary as to any thing new, and as to the improvement of the laws of a country and federate country, by a federate jury of chiefs of kindreds, wise men, and sovereign ruler. A sovereign prince, or ruler of paramount right, is the oldest in possessive title of the kings and the princes of a federate community: and he is to raise the mighty agitation; and his word is superior to every other word in the agitation of the country."

According to the tenor of this extract, it was "the Gorsedd of judgment and judicature" that possessed the special right of determining national and social disputes, in conformity with the law that was enacted in a "Gorsedd of federate support." They were matters of a literary character mainly that came under the supervision of the Bards. Nevertheless, there was some connection between the three institutions--they were "to confirm, and support" each other "regularly." The Bards were required more particularly to register the events that occurred in country and nation, to preserve the records of genealogies, marriages, nobility, privileges and customs, of the nation of the Cymry, and to attend to the exigencies of other Gorsedds in announcing what shall be

p. xxxiii

achieved, and what shall be requisite, under lawful proclamation and warning. So far, then, it might be said that they settled matters appertaining to inheritances and boundaries, as the Druids of Gaul did in the time of Cæsar. The Roman captain might easily be mistaken with respect to the extent of the authority and power of the Druids, attributing to them more than in reality they possessed. After all, he does not admit that the entire authority was in their hands--his observation is, "they generally settle all their disputes, both public and private." And even if things were exactly as he relates them, it is not difficult to suppose that this was a natural corruption of the primitive custom. Inasmuch as the Druids generally were possessed of more learning and knowledge than any other class of people in the country, it was quite natural that they should increase in political and social authority, especially where the other establishments were not as orderly and well defined as they were in Britain. We see this principle at work in relation to the Church, during what is called "the dark ages," when more than necessary of temporal and political authority fell into the hands of ecclesiastics.

Cæsar says of the Druids of Gaul that the greatest punishment which was inflicted upon evil doers was, to keep them from the sacrifices. It must be admitted that there was nothing, as far as we know, in the institute of Britain, which altogether answered to this interdict. Perhaps the nearest approach to it was the refusal of the protection of the Gorsedd to any member of the community, who, for some fault or other, was announced to be exposed to a "naked

p. xxxiv



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:18:38 am
weapon." The Bards, however, had a peculiar mode of degrading their convicted brethren. It took place at a Gorsedd, and the act was called "to bring the assault of warfare against" him who was to be thus disfranchised. After the Bards had agreed in their decision, they covered their heads, and one of them unsheathed the sword, named the person aloud three times, with the sword lifted in his hand, adding when he was last named, "the sword is naked against him." He could never after be re-admitted; and was called "a man deprived of privilege and exposed to warfare." There is some resemblance in this custom to what Cæsar says of the excommunicated, "that no legal right was rendered to them, nor any honour conferred upon them;" and the resemblance is sufficient to show that the usages of the two countries had sprung from the same root.

4. The Archdruid. Among the Cymry the three orders, Bard, Druid, and Ovate, were co-equal, one with the other, in point of privilege and dignity, whilst they were different in regard to duties. For thus it is stated in "Trioedd Braint a Defod:"--

 

"The three branches of Bardism: Poetry; Ovatism; and Druidism; that is to say, these three branches are adjudged to be of equal privilege, and equal importance, for there can be no superiority to one of them over another--though they are distinct in purpose, they are not distinct in privilege."

"There are three Bards of equal importance, that is, the three worthy primitive Bards, namely: a licensed native Bard, or a Poet according to privilege and usage; an Ovate-bard, devoted to genial learning; and a Druid-bard, devoted to theology and morality;--and they are said to be of equal importance, because one cannot be better than another, or supreme over the rest;--though one is distinct from another in respect of office and movement, still they are equal and of like dignity in respect of obligation, effort, and object, which are, learning, truth, and peace."

p. xxxv

In this sense, then, it may be said that the system of the Cymry varied from that of the Gauls. Nevertheless, occasionally, that is, when they met in Gorsedd, "one presided," even among the British Bards. He was called chief-Bard, or Gorsedd Bard; and if he were of the Druidic order, he might be easily regarded as an Arch-druid, not only because he presided, but because in doing so he stood on the "maen arch," in the centre of the sacred circle. Every chief-Bard had a right to preside at a Gorsedd, but still nothing could be decided without the consent of the majority of Gorsedd Bards--the former was merely a kind of chairman primus inter pares, for the time.

Cæsar seems to imply that one only presided during life, and when he died, that another was elected in his stead. This is not altogether in unison with the custom of the Cymry. Nevertheless, if such in truth was the usage of Gaul, it might easily have been derived from our own country. Whilst the people of the Continent did not properly understand Bardism, there was nothing to prevent them from falling into a mistake as to the nature of the authority, which the Bard president possessed, deeming it to be personal, and intended to continue for life, whereas it was official only--belonging to several, and to be exercised as occasions required. The Cymry never had recourse to the sword in order to settle the question of supremacy, as we learn from Cæsar was the case sometimes on the Continent. This was quite an abuse--and thoroughly inconsistent with the spirit of Bardism.

5. The place of meeting. According to Cæsar, the Druids of Gaul had a fixed place and time for meeting;

p. xxxvi



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:19:18 am
he mentions not the time, but the place he says was on the confines of the Carnutes, in the middle of the country, as was supposed. "Thither," he says, "all, who have any disputes, come together from every side, and acquiesce in their judgments and decisions." In like manner, the Bards or Druids of Britain had their appointed times and places for meeting in Gorsedd. Their times were the Albans, namely, Alban Eilir, Alban Hevin, Alban Elved, and Alban Arthan, that is, the equinoxes and solstices, or the commencement of the four seasons of the year. The principal places are recorded in the following Triads:--

"The three principal Gorsedds of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the Gorsedd of Bryn Gwyddon at Caerleon-upon-Usk; the Gorsedd of Moel Evwr; and the Gorsedd of Beiscawen.

"The three Gorsedds of entire song of the Isle of Britain: the Gorsedd of Beiscawen in Dyvnwal; the Gorsedd of Caer Caradog in Lloegria; and the Gorsedd of Bryn Gwyddon in Cymru."

There was thus one special Gorsedd in each of the three principal provinces, where the native mind chiefly predominated. The Gorsedd was a sort of national temple, to which the majority of persons within the province resorted at the appointed times, in order to worship God, and to receive instruction. All were invited, except such as were "deprived of privilege, and exposed to warfare," and no impediments were allowed to be put on their way, as they travelled "under the protection and peace of God."

"Three common rights of federate country and border country: a principal river; a high road; and a resort of worship; and those are under the protection of God and His peace; since a weapon is not to he unsheathed by such as frequent them against those they may meet;

p. xxxvii

and whoever shall do so, whether a native or a stranger, a claim of galanas against him arises on the plaint of the lord of the territory." 1

6. The derivation of the Druidic system. We have already noticed the coincidence between the notion which prevailed in Gaul on this head and the drift of the Cymric traditions.

7. Memorials. "They are said," observes Cæsar, "to learn thoroughly a great number of verses; and on that account, some continue at their education for twenty years." One of "the three memorials of the Bards of the Isle of Britain," was "the memorial of song." This was one of the oldest vehicles in which events and sciences were handed down among the Bards, and it is supposed that the particular form which they used was the metre called "Triban Milwr," or the Warrior's Triplet. The name of Tydain, the father of Awen, is especially associated with the memorial of song; and "the poem of Tydain" is prominently alluded to in the account of the establishment of Bardism. He was a contemporary of Prydain.

As time rolled on, accumulating events and sciences, we may easily suppose that "twenty years" would not be more than sufficient to enable a man to treasure in his memory the "great number of verses" necessary to contain and embody them. Generally, however, nine years was the time during which a pupil was required to be under discipline previous to his being graduated as a Chief Bard.


p. xxxviii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:19:36 am
"They do not deem it lawful (fas) to commit those things to writing," i.e. the things appertaining to the system. Neither did the British Bards countenance the habit of writing their traditions. On the contrary, it was their custom to recite them publicly in every Gorsedd, until they became deeply rooted in the memory of the people. This is what they called the "voice of Gorsedd," and it was in this manner that their traditions have come down to us. Cæsar's opinion respecting such a practice coincides exactly with the reason which influenced the Bards of Cymru. "They appear to me to have established this custom for two reasons; because they would not have their tenets published, and because they would not have those, who learn then, by trusting to letters, neglect the exercise of memory." The Bards had a "Cyvrinach," or Secret, which they did not consider it lawful for any one to know out of their own order; such were the Name of God, and the Ten Letters. All this secrecy related especially to the institute, and the candidate for admission into it took an awful vow that he would not divulge the cyvrinach to any one, who was not a regular Bard. They likewise considered that the use of writing tended to weaken the memory, not only in respect of the disciples, but also of the people generally; or rather, with regard to the latter, they considered that the voice of Gorsedd was the easiest mode of teaching them, and the most effectual for preventing every kind of falsehood and corruption.

With respect to the voice of Gorsedd, and its connection with the discipline of the Bards themselves, we have it thus stated in " the Book of Lewys Morganwg,

p. xxxix

which he compiled from many of the old Books:"

"There is no other than the memorial, voice, and usage of Gorsedd belonging to the privileges and usages of the primitive Bards, for they spring from primary and original right, before there was any Book knowledge; therefore, they were submitted only to the memorial of the voice, and usage of Gorsedd; or, as others say, to the memorial of song, voice, and usage. And they have no permanent privilege and authority, but what we know by these means."

Nevertheless, the Bards had a knowledge of letters from the beginning. It is said that Einigan, the first man, "beheld three pillars of light, having on them all demonstrable sciences, that ever were, or ever will be," and that "he took three rods of the quicken tree, and placed on them the forms and signs of all sciences, so as to be remembered." People misunderstood these, and "regarded the rods as a God, whereas they only bore His Name. When Einigan saw this, he was greatly annoyed, and in the intensity of his grief he broke the three rods, nor were others found that contained accurate sciences. He was so distressed on that account that from the intensity he burst asunder, and with his [parting] breath he prayed God that there should be accurate sciences among men in the flesh, and there should be a correct understanding for the proper discernment thereof. And at the end of a year and a day, after the decease of Einigan, Menw, son of the Three Shouts, beheld three rods growing out of the mouth of Einigan, which exhibited the sciences of the Ten Letters, and the mode in which all the sciences of language and speech were arranged by them, and in language and speech all distinguishable sciences. He then took

p. xl



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:20:31 am
the rods, and taught from them the sciences--all, except the Name of God, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/_04000.jpg) which he made a secret, lest the Name should be falsely discerned; and hence arose the Secret of the Bardism of the Bards of the Isle of Britain." 1

The first ten letters were derived from the creative Name of God, , and represented a, p, c, e, t, i, 1, r, o, s; and "they had been a secret from the age of ages among the Bards of the Isle of Britain, for the preservation of memorials of country and nation. Beli the Great made them into sixteen, and divulged that arrangement, and appointed that there should never after be a concealment of the sciences of letters, in respect of the arrangement which he made; but he left the ten cuttings a secret." 2

According to some authorities, the alphabet of the sixteen letters was formed, and divulged in the time of Dyvnwal Moelmud. The original Abcedilros, or alphabet of the ten letters, was quite different to that of the sixteen and its augmentations; and whilst these were known to the public, the former was known only to the Bards.

The Druids of Gaul had a knowledge of letters, though they did not commit to writing the things that pertained to their institute. "Generally," says our author, "in other cases, and in their public and private accounts, they use Greek letters." The alphabet of the sixteen was at this time open to the public in Britain; could it have been the one which the Continental Druids used, mistaken by Cæsar for Greek letters?



p. xli

The Druids of Gaul had letters of their own, which were similar to the letters of Greece; it is, therefore, not impossible that Cæsar confounded one series with the other. Mr. Astle, who is well skilled in ancient letters, gives a series of Gaulish characters, which are somewhat similar to those of Greece. They were taken from the monumental inscription of Gordian, the messenger of the Gauls, who suffered martyrdom, in the third century, with all his family. "These characters," he says, "were generally used by the people, before the conquest of Gaul by Cæsar." 1

Another author remarks:--"There are those who think the Druids had ancient characters, which were both elegant, and similar to those of the Greeks. For according to the testimony of Xenophon, and Archilochus, the figures of those letters, which Cadmus brought out of Phoenicia into Greece, resembled Gaulish, rather than Punic, or Phœnician characters." 2

He who compares the ancient Greek Alphabet with the Bardic Coelbren, will find a remarkable similarity between them, so that a stranger might easily mistake the one for the other.

The Druids of Britain as well as those of Gaul, made use of letters under many circumstances. The "memorial of letters," or the "memorial of Coelbren," was one of their "three memorials." This is clearly seen in the Laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud. It would, therefore, not be difficult to harmonize Cæsar's narrative respecting the "memorial of voice" and the "memorial of letters" of the Gauls, with what we



p. xlii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:21:06 am
know to have been the usage of the Bards of Britain in these matters.

8. The transmigration of souls. The Bardic dogma on this head was, that the soul commenced its course in the lowest water animalcule, and passed at death to other bodies of a superior order, successively, and in regular gradation, until it entered that of man. Humanity is a state of liberty, where man can attach himself to either good or evil, as he pleases. If his good qualities preponderate over his evil qualities at the time of his death, his soul passes into Gwynvyd, or a state of bliss, where good necessarily prevails, and from whence it is impossible to fall. But if his evil qualities predominate, his soul descends in Abred into an animal corresponding in character to the disposition he exhibited just before he died. It will then rise as before, until it again arrives at the point of liberty, where it will have another chance of clinging to the good. But if it fails, it must fall again; and this may happen for ages and ages, until at last its attachment to good preponderates. It was believed, however, that man could not be guilty twice of the same sin; his experience in Abred, whilst undergoing punishment for any particular sin, would prevent him from loving that sin a second time; hence the adage, "Nid eir i Annwn and unwaith."

The views of the Gaulish Druids, as far as they are expressed by Cæsar, do not appear to differ from the above. "They wish to inculcate this idea, that souls do not die, but pass after death from one body to another." The only thing that may be supposed to be different is the passing from one body to another, which, in the original Latin, seems as if it meant from

p. xliii

one human body to another human body, "ab aliis--ad alios." But in reality there is no inconsistency between the two systems, even in this respect; for, though the soul of a good man was considered in general as entering an angelic body in the circle of Gwynvyd, and the soul of a wicked man as entering the body of a beast, a reptile, or a bird, in Abred, yet, it was thought that occasionally the good soul returned from Gwynvyd to inhabit a human body, and that the soul of one punished by death, against his will, for an injurious evil, passed to another human body. There is no doubt that this, with the Cymry as well as with the Gauls, acted as a strong incentive to bravery, especially as they considered that to suffer in behalf of truth and justice was one of the greatest virtues, and was sure to bring the soul to everlasting bliss.

9. Astronomy. "They dispute largely concerning the stars and their motion," says Cæsar, and herein the Druids of Gaul were similar to those of Britain. We have evidence enough to prove that the latter paid particular attention to the doctrine of the stars. Testimony is borne to their knowledge of the revolution of the stars even by the very word, which they used to denote time, amser, compounded of am, round, and ser, the stars. They themselves, also, not unfrequently went by the name of sywedyddion, that is, astronomers, or men versed in the science of the stars.


Talhaiarn y sydd
Mwyaf sywedydd.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:21:19 am
It will be seen that the names given by our ancestors to the different constellations, as enumerated in

p. xliv

these volumes, are thoroughly Cymric, and radical, thus indicating early and profound knowledge on their part " concerning the stars and their motion."

10. Cosmology. The Bards believed that all the visible creation sprang into existence simultaneously with the pronunciation of God's Name; and this article occupies a very prominent place in their religious creed. From other fragments in this Collection we find that they professed to know something of the laws of nature; why water rises to the surface of the earth, and descends from the clouds, and why the sea is briny. And, if we take Taliesin as a proper representative of Bardism, we may have abundant proof from his poems that they reasoned much in his days "concerning the world, the earth, and the nature of things."

11. Theology. "And about the force and power of the immortal gods." Let GOD be substituted for "gods," and this statement would apply equally to the Cymry, and no difference whatever would exist between the two systems on the subject. Nothing is oftener, and more positively insisted upon in the Bardic creed than the doctrine of ONE GOD; and it is remarkable that all the testimonies of archaiological research, though they are for the most part of a negative character, tend to confirm the antiquity and genuineness of that creed. The Bards were careful to inculcate this truth above all, and brought it to bear upon the several rites and ceremonies, which distinguished their national worship. The ideas they had, also, of the nature and attributes of the Deity were truly sublime and eminently magnificent, not to be equalled perhaps by any other race of the Gentile

p. xlv

world, prior to its adoption of the more divine religion of Christ.

12. Sacrifices. The views of the Bards on the subject of "aberthau," or oblations, are clearly and distinctly quoted in these volumes, so that we need not give a summary of them here. What we have to do is to harmonize the account, which Cæsar gives of the sacrifices of the Continental Druids with the Bardism of the Cymry. The Roman captain might easily fall into a mistake about those matters. When he saw malefactors being put to death, under the supervision of the priests, he would naturally infer that they were thus dealt with as sacrifices, to propitiate the gods. He saw men, perhaps, giving themselves up voluntarily to suffer the punishment due for their transgressions, and he would reasonably suppose that they were "vowing to sacrifice themselves." It is quite possible that he should, also, have seen good men suffer in the cause of truth and justice, and his inference would be, that they were being sacrificed for want of a sufficient number of evil doers to take their place. But, if we grant that Cæsar gives a correct account of the sacrifices of the Gaulish Druids, it is very easy to perceive that the rite in question originated in the doctrine of eneidvaddeu, which prevailed among the Cymry. "They think that if the life of man is not given for the life of man, the immortal gods cannot be appeased." Life for life was required by the laws of the Cymry; but we do not find that our ancestors viewed the retaliation as what would propitiate God, further than that to benefit the man himself, who was put to death, might be taken as a sign of his reconciliation

p. xlvi



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:21:45 am
with God. If a murderer died a natural death, his soul would descend low in Abred, but the fatal punishment inflicted upon him by the public officers was considered, according to the order of providence, as equivalent to that degradation, and his soul passed simultaneously to another human body. In this sense, then, the punishment of eneidvaddeu propitiated God; that is, God did not, on that account, place man in such a miserable position as He would otherwise have done. Since the Divine Being wishes every man to be saved, it may be said, that whatever is done to facilitate that object, and to bring about its speedy consummation, must be pleasing to Him.

It is very probable that the prisoners of the wicker image were no other than the malefactors who would not surrender themselves voluntarily; we can hardly see the necessity for the scheme in the case of the others. We do not read of anything of the kind in connection with our own island; most likely it was peculiar to the Continent.

Cæsar observes that it was the opinion of the Gaulish Druids "that the punishment of those who were caught in theft or pillage, or in any other wicked act, was more acceptable to the immortal gods" than that of the innocent. It is difficult to withstand the supposition that these were the words of the commentator himself, used by him as a reason for the want of proportion, which he observed in the number of the bad and good, that were immolated. If, on the contrary, it was really the opinion of the Druids, then they must in this respect have differed much from their Cymric brethren, who considered that the offenders, who gave themselves up willingly

p. xlvii

to be punished, were more acceptable than those who were punished against their will, and that the good, who suffered in behalf of truth and justice, were still more so. Besides, there was something in the above opinion inconsistent with the idea which mankind in general entertained respecting the qualities of a sacrifice, and which sets forth the immaculate, the obedient, and the innocent, as the one which is most pleasing to God.

It appears from Cæsar that the agent, which the Gauls used for consuming their sacrifices, was fire. Fire might in like manner be employed among the Cymry for the punishment of those who were adjudged to be eneidvaddeu. "There are three eneidvaddeu punishments: beheading; hanging; and burning; and it is for the king, or lord of the territory, to order which he willeth to be inflicted." 1

13. The Names of God. We must again express our conviction that Cæsar might have mistaken the several attributes, which belonged to the one true God, for as many distinct and independent divinities, just as it is said that some of the Cymry, in the in-fancy of the world, deified and worshipped the rods which only bore the Name of God. Not at once did men forget the great and primitive doctrine of the unity of the Godhead, setting up in the imagination of their hearts "gods many, and lords many." Even the names, by which the gods of the Gentiles were designated, had been invented, and were used to denote the several properties of the Deity, before that


p. xlviii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:21:58 am
great corruption took place. As an old poet observes,--


"Pluto, Proserpine, Ceres, Venus, Cupid,
Triton, Nereus, Tethys, and Neptune,
Hermes, Vulcan, Pan, Jupiter, Juno,
Diana, and Apollo, are ONE GOD." 1


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:22:13 am
The same doctrine is also taught in the hymns, which historians ascribe to Orpheus. It is quite probable, therefore, that Cæsar, when he observed the several parts of the Gaulish worship, concluded that they were adorations offered to distinct gods, and that those gods were similar to the gods of Rome and Greece, with whom he was best acquainted.

"They chiefly worship the god Mercury." This character is almost the chief in every religious system; it is the same as to its original nature with the Gwyddon of the Cymry, the Budha of the Indians, and the Woden of the Saxons--that is, the Bard presiding at Gorsedd. It was the office of this Bard to instruct men in various kinds of knowledge, and to lead them along the ways of morality; therefore, his auditors might easily consider him as "the inventor of all arts, the guide of ways and journeys, and as possessing the greatest power for obtaining money and merchandise."

"Of him they have many images." Perhaps the maen crair, on which the presiding Bard stood, and the meini gwynion, at which his assistants took their station, were these supposed images. But, granting that the inhabitants of Gaul, in Cæsar's time, did worship the god Mercury, it is easy to see that such


p. xlix

was merely a misapprehension of the primitive views, which were entertained respecting the Bard in Gorsedd. The same properties, but more suitably adapted to the character of a divine being, were ascribed to Mercury, as were supposed to belong to the Bard. The first, and most natural step in this corruption, was to view the president of Gorsedd as the representative of a Divine Gwyddon, and doubtless the people fell into this mistake sooner than did the Druids themselves. Inasmuch as the principles of Bardism were never so thoroughly understood in Gaul as they were in Britain, it was not difficult to fall into error on the point in question.

We know not whether Mercury was a name which the Druids themselves gave to their president, or their god, or whether it was one that Cæsar invented, from noticing the similarity that existed between their views and worship and those of his own countrymen. If it be a Celtic name, what does it mean? Is it MERCH-WR, (woman-man,) because the Gwyddon looked straight before him along the line of the East--"Dwyrain," i. e. dwy rain, the two rays--the ray of Eilir and the ray of Elved, which in nature represented the two sexes, male and female? Or is it MARCH-WR, (horse-man,) because he mounted, or, as it were, rode the maen crair, whilst he presided in Gorsedd--the word march again being originally derived from my--ARCH, i.e. the ARCH, or maen ARCH, being another name of the stone on which the Bard stood?

"After him they worship Apollo," who is supposed "to ward off all diseases." He is the same undoubtedly with the SUN in the Bardism of the Cymry,

p. l



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:22:28 am
which was regarded as the natural or physical representative of the Sun of righteousness, or the Supreme God. Wherefore, many of the rites and ceremonies of the Gorsedd were regulated with reference to this luminary. The days for holding the Gorsedd were the four Albans, when the rays of the orient sun converging to the maen llog delineated the creative Name of God. The Bard thus standing in "the face of the sun, and the eye of light," when he taught the people, literally "spoke in the Name of the Lord." No Gorsedd could be held except when the sun was above the horizon.

Since it is the property of the sun to warm, cheer, and revive, it may well be said to "ward off diseases;" and when deified, the same attribute would of course still belong to it, but in a more eminent degree.

Having lost sight of the true position of the sun in the system of Bardism, it was not difficult to fall into error, and to worship the creature more than the Creator. It would appear that the Gentiles had made gods of "the heavenly host" sooner than of any other parts of the creation; and if the Gauls were to some extent idolaters in the time of Cæsar, we may be sure that they worshipped the Sun.

The next god, whom Cæsar says they worshipped, was MARS, "the ruler of wars." The British Bards were pre-eminently men of peace; no one was allowed to carry a naked weapon in their presence, nor did they ordinarily unsheath the sword against any one. We say ordinarily, for there were occasions, on which they were required to act in a different manner, as may be seen from the following Triad:--

p. li

"The three necessary, but reluctant duties, of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: secrecy for the sake of peace and public good; invective lamentation required by justice; and to unsheath the sword against the lawless and depradatory." 1

It was not for the purpose of acquiring unlawful possessions, and of oppressing other people and countries, that they "unsheathed the sword;" "they would not have country and lands by fighting and pursuing, but of equity, and in peace." 2 It was evil that they resisted even unto blood. Accordingly, on his way to the Gorsedd, the Bard carried the sword by its point, to signify his own readiness to suffer in the cause of truth; it was sheathed on the maen crair, for the people had been invited to attend, where there would be no naked weapon against them; but against "a man deprived of privilege, and exposed to warfare," it was unsheathed. It may be that the rite of the sword in Gorsedd had created an opinion in the mind of Cæsar, that the Druids were at the time worshipping Mars, the god of war; or it may be that the Druids themselves, having forgotten its original import, had come to regard it as referring to the same god, whom, they no doubt had heard of as existing in the religious system of their neighbours. The accompanying offerings and sacrifices seem to have been derived from this view of Mars, since nothing of the kind can be traced to the usages of the Cymry; unless the burying his horse and arms with a warrior had been a sort of foundation for the custom.



p. lii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:23:35 am
After Mars, Jupiter is mentioned, as the god, who " held the empire of heaven." IAU 1 was one of the names, which the Cymry gave to the supreme God, and it signified the last or most recent manifestation of the Godhead, such as that which occurred in creation as contrasted with the preceding vacuum--after that in the incarnation of His Son. Perhaps the word is the same with (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/_05200.jpg), the unutterable Name of God, by which He created all things--the Word of His might. There is, however, another meaning given to the name in question in the traditions of the Bards:--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:24:13 am
"Disciple. Why is Iau (yoke) given as a name for God?

"Master. Because the yoke is the measuring rod of country and nation in virtue of the authority of law, and is in the possession of every head of family under the mark of the lord of the territory, and whoever violates it is liable to a penalty. Now, God is the measuring rod of all truth, all justice, and all goodness; therefore He is a yoke on all, and all are under it, and woe to him who shall violate it." 2

This meaning bears a close relation to the opinion that the owner of the name "held the empire of heaven." Nevertheless, the name, even in this sense, might have been founded


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:26:00 am
upon (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/_05201.jpg), or, according to a further development, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/_05202.jpg), which signifies preservation, creation, and destruction.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:26:20 am
The Gauls could not fall into the error of inventing an additional divinity in the person of Jupiter, for he was the principal god, or god in his primary character--though their formation of different gods out of his attributes necessarily encroaches upon, and abbreviates his greatness and authority.



p. liii

MINERVA. The Druids of Gaul, according to Cæsar, were of opinion that it was this goddess who "instructed them in the principles of works and arts." It is very likely that she


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:27:00 am
was the same originally with the Awen, (A wen, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/_05300.jpg),) the Word of God, that proceeded out of His mouth, even as Minerva is said to have sprung out of the brain of Jupiter. It was from the AWEN that all knowledge was derived--in like manner Minerva was considered as the goddess of wisdom. One of the objects of AWEN is to produce peace--Minerva produced the olive, the symbol of peace. In several other respects, also, a remarkable similarity between the characteristics of the Bardic Awen and the goddess Minerva, may be pointed out, though in matters of detail this is not necessary, because Cæsar observes that the opinion of the Gauls was but almost the same as that of the other nations concerning the above divinities.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:27:15 am
14. Origin of the people. "The Gauls declare that they have all sprung from their father Pluto, and this they say was delivered to them by the Druids." There can be no doubt that this sentiment is perfectly identical with that of the Bards relative to the procession of man from Annwn.


"Whence didst thou proceed? and what is thy beginning?
"I came from the Great World, having my beginning in Annwn." 1

We have thus gone through the testimony of Cæsar, the principal classical authority on the subject of Druidism; we will now proceed to examine the statements of the other ancient authors, who have


p. liv



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:27:30 am
touched upon the same point, though not so largely and minutely; namely, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Cicero, Pliny, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Diogenes Laertius, and Ammianus Marcellinus.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
xxvii:1 Trioedd Braint a Defod.

xxvii:2 Suet. i.

xxix:1 De Bel. Gal. liber vi. cc. 13-18.

xxxvii:1 The Laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud.

xl:1 Caffaeliad Llytlyr.

xl:2 Ystorrynnau Cyssefin.

xli:1 Origin and Progress of Writing, p. 56.

xli:2 Bucher. Fro. p. 183.

xlvii:1 Laws of Dyvnwad Moelmud.

xlviii:1 See Davies's Celtic Researches, p. 237.

li:1 Trioedd Braint a Defod.

li:2 Trioedd Ynys Prydain.

lii:1 The Cymric form of Jupiter, or Jove.

lii:2 Iau.

liii:1 Llyfr Barddas.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:28:06 am
STRABO, B.C. 54.
The description, which this author gives of Druidism, refers entirely, like that of Cæsar, to Gaul, and is as follows:--

"And among the whole of them [the Gauls] three classes more especially are held in distinguished veneration, the Bards, the Ovates, and the Druids. The Bards are chaunters and poets. The Ovates are sacrificers and physiologists. The Druids, in addition to physiology, practise ethic philosophy. They are deemed to be most upright, and, in consequence, to them are committed both public and private controversies, insomuch that on some occasions they decide on battles, and stop the combatants on the eve of engaging. Matters pertaining to murder are more especially entrusted to their decision, and when profit accrues from these, they think fertility will attend their country. These and others say that souls are immortal, and that the world is so too; yet that ultimately fire and water will prevail. To their simplicity and ferocity are superadded much stupidity, vain boasting, and love of ornament. They wear gold, having collars thereof on their necks, and bracelets on their arms and wrists; and dignified persons are clad in dyed garments embroidered with gold........

"Having stricken the man destined for sacrifice on the back with a sword, they augur from the palpitation. They never sacrifice without the Druids. Other kinds of human immolation are spoken of: some victims they slay with arrows, or crucify for their offerings; and having prepared a colossus of hay, and thrown wood upon it, they bum together oxen, all sorts of wild beasts, and men." 1

Strabo and Cæsar both agree with respect to some things, such as, 1stly, that the Druids were in great esteem among the people; 2dly, that they decided disputes; 3dly, that their presence at the sacrifices


p. lv

was necessary; 4thly, the immortality of the soul; 5thly, human sacrifices. There is no occasion, therefore, that we should make any further observation on these subjects in the main. We will only notice the variations and additions made by Strabo, and compare them with the Bardism of the Cymry.

1. The three degrees. These, according to the privilege and usage of the Isle of Britain, were the Chief Bard, the Ovate, and the Druid, the three being co-equal in dignity, though their offices were distinct. Strabo calls his three classes exactly by the same names, but he does not ascribe to them their respective functions quite in accordance with Bardism, at least, as regards the Ovate, who, he says, was the sacrificer, though he says again that they never sacrificed without the Druids. It was not difficult to incur misapprehension with reference to the duties of the several orders, for on special occasions one might enter upon the office of another.

2. The justice of the Druids. Justice was a virtue greatly inculcated by the members of the Bardic College.

"The three foundations of Bardism: peace; love; and justice.

"For three reasons ought a man to hazard his life, and to lose it, if necessary: in seeking for truth; in clinging to justice; and in performing mercy." 1

3. Their influence in war. The Bard, in his blue robe, was the herald of peace. He was privileged to pass from one country to another in safety and unharmed, for not only it was the law of Bardism, but also the law of nations, that no person was to unsheath


p. lvi



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:28:20 am
a sword against him. He was a man of peace, according to his office, and if he thus went between two armies on the field of battle, they immediately ceased from fighting. The privilege of protection belonged in the same manner to the Druid and Ovate.

4. Sacrifices. It is very probable that Strabo refers to the rites of eneidvaddeu, when he speaks of murder as being entrusted to the decision of the Druids. The Bardic traditions contain no record of what is here said concerning "the fertility of the country," or of the particular mode of stabbing or slaughtering the men who. were sentenced to death, unless it was done in a manner similar to that to which the lord of the territory had recourse, when he drew blood from a degraded Bard, namely, "from his forehead, his bosom, and his groin, that is, from the seats of life and soul."

5. Vaticinations. Our ancestors very generally professed to foretel events, though it is not said that they founded their predictions upon any particular appearance, which the men, whom they put to death, exhibited. Meugant, in the 6th century, observes:--


"Trust to God that the Druids will not prophesy,
When the privilege of the hill of legislature shall be broken."

6. The eternal duration of the world. The British Bards, likewise, believed that every existence and form of life would continue for ever--purged from evil. The opinion, which prevailed about the increase or prevalence of fire and water, seems to be founded on the Bardism of the Cymry:--

"There are three things on their increase: fire, or light; understanding,

p. lvii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:28:35 am
or truth; and the soul, or life; these will prevail over every thing, and then Abred will cease." 1

Elsewhere it is said, that life proceeds from "a conjunction of water, fire, and nwyvre;" hence, if life is on the increase, it follows that its component elements also acquire continual strength.

7. Ornaments. The several members of the Bardic College wore proper vestments, which were emblematic of their respective offices. The Bard wore a sky blue robe, to signify peace; the Druid wore white, denoting holiness; and the Ovate green, which was an emblem of progress. Each colour was also uniform, to signify truth, which is one. Nevertheless, it was lawful for them to introduce silver and gold, which, not being subject to rust and stain, were signs of honour. "Therefore, a gold fringe may be properly added to a Bard's robe, of whichever of the three colours it is, or a gold girdle be put round him, for it is right to honour truth, peace, godliness, and knowledge."



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Footnotes
liv:1 Geograph. lib. iv.

lv:1 Trioedd Braint a Defod.

lvii:1 Trioedd Barddas.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:29:19 am
DIODORUS SICULUS, B.C. 44.
His description also is confined to the Druidism of Gaul, and is to the following effect:--

"And there are among them [the Gauls] composers of verses, whom they call Bards; these, singing to instruments similar to a lyre, applaud some, while they vituperate others. There are also certain philosophers and priests surpassingly esteemed, whom they call Druids. They have also soothsayers, who are held in high estimation; and these, by auguries and the sacrifice of victims, foretel future events, and hold the commonalty in complete subjection: and more

p. lviii

especially, when they deliberate on matters of moment, they practise a strange and incredible rite; for, having devoted a man for sacrifice, they strike him with a sword on a part above the diaphragm: the victim having fallen, they augur from his mode of falling, the contortion of his limbs, and the flowing of the blood, what may come to pass, giving credence concerning such things to an ancient and long-standing observance. They have a custom of performing no sacrifice unattended by a philosopher, For they say that thanksgiving should be offered to the gods by men acquainted with the divine nature and using the same language, and by these they deem it necessary to ask for good .things; and not only in the concerns of peace, but even of war, not friends alone, but even enemies also, chiefly defer to them and to the composers of verses. Frequently, during hostilities, when armies are approaching each other with swords drawn and lances extended, these men rushing between them put an end to their contention, taming them as they would tame wild beasts. " 1

This description is somewhat similar to that which Strabo gives, as the reader will easily perceive. Both authors agree as to the number of the different orders--the esteem in which they were held--their custom of predicting events by means of the sacrifice--and the influence of the Bards in restraining armies from fighting.

1. The names of the orders. Whilst Strabo gives the same names as those used by the Cymry, that is, Bards, Ovates, and Druids, Diodorus calls them Bards, Soothsayers, and Druids, making a soothsayer and an ovate to be of the same import, and both are of opinion that this functionary had to do with the act of sacrificing. They, likewise, agree as to the office of the Bard, that he was a singer and a poet, and in respect of the devotion which was paid by the Druid to philosophy, and the necessity of his presence at the sacrifices.


p. lix



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:29:33 am
2. Vaticinations. Strabo mentions only one thing from which they augured future events, namely, "the palpitation" of the victim; Diodorus adds two other particulars, namely, "his mode of falling" and "the flowing of the blood." There is no allusion to these matters in the Bardic traditions.

3. The mediation of the Druids. According to the declaration of Diodorus, the common people regarded the Druids as mediators between themselves and the gods, and grounded their competency and fitness for that purpose upon the fact that they were acquainted with the divine nature, and used the same language. We have already seen that the Druids of Britain, as well as those of Gaul, studied and taught much respecting the nature and attributes of God. Using "the same language" seems to imply that the language of divine worship was unchangeable, whatever might be that of the people. And since the acts of the Gorsedd in Britain were to be performed at all times in Cymraeg, we may reasonably infer that it was in the old Celtic tongue Druidism was administered on the Continent--there was not much difference between the Cymraeg and the native language of Gaul.


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Footnotes
lviii:1 Hist. lib. v. c. 31.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:30:07 am
CICERO, (slain) B.C. 43.
"This method of divination has not been neglected even amongst barbarous nations. For there are Druids in Gaul, with one of whom I was acquainted, namely, Divitiacus Æduus, who enjoyed the hospitality of your house, and spoke of you with admiration. This man not only professed an intimate knowledge of the system of nature, which the Greeks call physiology, but also foretold future events, partly by augury, and partly by conjecture." 1


p. lx

Cicero does not speak here from vague report; but declares the profession of a man who was personally known to him, who had been his guest, and with whom he had familiarly conversed. And all that he says of him coincides almost exactly with the statements of Cæsar, Strabo, and Diodorus Siculus. The only new fact that we are made acquainted with is, that the Druids sometimes foretold future events "by conjecture;" but perhaps we should not take the word to mean simply a guess, but as synonymous with inference--to signify that they had some foundation for all their vaticinations.


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Footnotes
lix:1 De Divinatione, 1, i.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:30:40 am
PLINY, (born) A.D. 23.
This philosophic but credulous author speaks of the Druidism of Gaul, in his "Natural Philosophy," as follows:

"The Druids (so they call their wise men) hold nothing in greater reverence than the misletoe, and the tree on which it grows, so that it be an oak. They choose forests of oaks, for the sake of the tree itself, and perform no sacred rites without oak leaves; so that one might fancy they had even been called for this reason, turning the word into Greek, Druids. But whatever grows upon these trees, they hold to have been sent from heaven, and to be a sign that the Deity Himself has chosen the tree for his own. The thing, however, is very rarely found, and when found is gathered with much ceremony; and above all, on the sixth day of the moon, by which these men reckon the beginnings of their months and years, and of their cycle of thirty years, because the moon has then sufficient power, yet has not reached half its size. Addressing it in their own language by the epithet of all healing, after duly preparing sacrifices and banquets under the tree, they bring to the spot two white bulls, the horns of which are then for the first time garlanded. The priest clothed in a white dress ascends the tree, and cuts the misletoe with a golden knife; it is caught in a white cloak. Thereupon they slay the victims, with a prayer that the Deity may prosper His own gift to them, to whom

p. lxi

[paragraph continues] He has given it. They fancy that, by drinking it, fertility is given to any barren animal, and that it is a remedy against all poisons." 1

"Like to this Sabine herb is that called selago. It is gathered, without using a knife, with the right hand wrapped in a tunic, the left being uncovered, as though the man were stealing it; the gatherer being clothed in a white dress, and with bare feet washed clean, after performing sacrifice before gathering it, with bread and wine. It is to be carried in a new napkin. According to the tradition of the Gaulish Druids, it is to be kept as a remedy against all evil, and the smoke of it is good for all diseases of the eyes. The same Druids have given the name of samolus to a plant that grows in wet places; and this they say must be gathered with the left hand by one who is fasting, as a remedy for diseases of swine and cattle, and that he, who gathers it, must keep his head turned away, and must not lay it down anywhere except in a channel through which water runs, and there must bruize it for them who are to drink it." 2

"There is another kind of egg in high repute in Gaul, although the Greeks make no account of it. A great number of snakes in summer time are artificially twisted and rolled together into a mass by the saliva of their jaws and the foam of their bodies. It is called snake's egg. The Druids tell you that it is thrown into the air with hisses, and must be caught in a cloak that it may not touch the ground; that he that catches it must fly on horse-back, for that the snakes pursue him until hindered by the intervention of some river; that the test of it is, if it flows against the stream, even when tied with gold. And, according to the common craft of wizards, shrewd to conceal their cheating, they pronounce that it must be taken up at a particular time of the moon; as though it rested with man's choice, whether that proceeding on the part of the snake should take place or not." 3

Pliny says that he has seen one of these eggs, and that the Druids used them as a distinguishing badge.

In the above description there are several new things, that present themselves to our notice, in connection with the Druidism of Gaul.

1. One God. It is remarkable that Pliny speaks of the Gauls as professing one God; for though he




p. lxii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:31:04 am
had occasion to refer twice to the Deity, he uses the singular number each time. In this matter he differs from Cæsar, and we may be allowed to believe that though much ignorance and error had crept upon the Continent, in later times, relative to the Divine Being, the unity of His nature was to some extent acknowledged. But Pliny, after all, may be only referring to one god in particular, out of many, that is, the one that was interested in the circumstance to which he refers, and therefore names him in the singular number.

2. The oak groves. Though Pliny is undoubtedly mistaken as to the etymology of the name Druid, yet we have the testimony of the Cymric traditions that our remote progenitors did sometimes choose to worship under the oak. This usage they seem to have derived from Seth, who "first made a retreat for worship in the woods of the vale of Hebron, having first searched and investigated the trees, until he found a large oak, being the king of trees, branching, wide-spreading, thick-topped, and shady, under which he formed a choir and a place of worship." 1

3. The misletoe. All admit that this plant was in great repute among the Ancient Cymry. From remote times it has been used by the Bards to decorate their tribunals on Alban Arthan, and even to this day traces of that custom may be found in the country during the Christmas festivities.

Three persons, Tydai, the Bard of Huon, Rhuvawn the Bard, and Melgin, the son of Einigan the Giant,


p. lxiii

are recorded in a Triad as having worn around their heads a garland of misletoe, "darllys awelvar."

One of the names by which the Cymry called this plant was Holliach, which answers completely to the "omnia sanantem" of Pliny.

We know nothing of the rites which attended its gathering in Britain; and therefore we are not in a position to say in what consisted the resemblance or difference, as the case may be, between them and the ceremonies mentioned above.

4. The white garment of the Druids. Of the same description, as we have seen, was the official dress of the British Druids.

5. The offering of bread and wine. This seems to have come down from Patriarchal times--from Melchizedec, who "brought forth bread and wine," type of the Blessed Eucharist, that "pure offering" which was to take place under the Gospel; and though nothing is positively said of such a rite as existing in the Bardism of the Cymry, it is likely enough that it was practised. The reader is referred to the description given in these pages of the sacrifices of the Bards.

6. Adder's stones or beads--glain nadroedd. The three orders used to wear these beads, of a colour uniform with that of their respective robes; and they generally regarded them as possessed of rare virtues. It is questioned whether they are the production of nature or art. Be that as it may, they are always found in great numbers; and there are people who search for them, and from whom they may be had, but they maintain that they are only to be met with at one season of the year, and that they are blown by

p. lxiv



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:31:22 am
a knot of snakes. "Ai chwythu y glain y maent?" "Are they blowing beads?" is a proverbial inquiry applied to persons who lay their heads together in conversation--an expression involving an opinion similar to that of Pliny.

But our author is not altogether silent respecting the Druidism of Britain, for he says:--

"Britain even now celebrates it [Magism] wonderfully, with so many ceremonies, that it may seem to have imparted it to the Persians."

There is here, however, no mention of any doctrine or usage in particular--Pliny merely intimates that there were many ceremonies in connection with the Druidic worship, which view is not inconsistent with the traditions of the Bards. The Persian, as well as the Gaulish system, might have been received from Britain, both of them, however, being greatly degenerated. Or it may be, that the resemblance, which Pliny perceived between the Druidism of Britain and the Magism of Persia had grown from the same root--the patriarchal religion.


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Footnotes
lxi:1 Hist. Nat. lib. xvi. sect. 95.

lxi:2 Lib. xxiv. ss. 62-3.

lxi:3 Lib. xxix. s. 12.

lxii:1 Y Cread. Golychwyd, &c.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:32:17 am
POMPONIUS MELA, A.D. 45.
His description is as follows:--

"They [the Gauls] have an eloquence of their own, and their Druids as masters of wisdom. These profess to know the magnitude and form of the earth and the world, the motions of the heaven and the stars, and the will of the gods. They teach the most noble of the nation many things privately, and for a long time, even for twenty years, in a cave, or in inaccessible woods. One of their precepts has become public, namely, that they should act bravely in war, that souls are immortal, and that there is another life after death. Therefore along with the dead, they burn and bury things which belonged to them while living. Their debtor and creditor accounts were transferred

p. lxv

below. Some even went so far as to ascend the funeral pyres of their friends of their own accord, as though about to live with them." 1

Mela agrees with Cæsar as to the knowledge which the Druids were said to possess concerning the universe, and as to their being in the habit of training their disciples for the long space of twenty years. live may conclude from the only specimen of their precepts, which he succeeded in obtaining, that they were inculcated in the Triadic form:--


"To act bravely in war;
That souls are immortal;
And that there is another life after death."

1. Interment. The remains discovered in ancient sepulchres sufficiently prove that the Cymry in former times buried with their princes and great men those things to which in their life-time they had been particularly attached, such as their steeds and arms.

2. The debt of the deceased. Undoubtedly this is a remnant of the ancient doctrine of the metempsychosis, according to which the man, after his fall in Abred through death, was regarded as suffering punishment, or paying the debt which he had contracted in his life-time.

3. Voluntary death. It is, likewise, very probable that there is some connection between the custom, which some of the people in Gaul adopted, of throwing themselves on the funeral pyres of their relatives, and the doctrine of eneidvaddeu, already spoken of.



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Footnotes
lxv:1 De Situ Orbis, lib. iii. c, 2.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:32:52 am
p. lxvi

DIOGENES LAERTIUS, (died) A.D. 222.
This author has preserved one of the Triads of the Druids, which is as follows:--


"To worship the gods;
To do no evil;
And to exercise fortitude."

Now, it is remarkable that we have one Triad in the series called "Trioedd Doethineb," which very much resembles the above, so much so as to impress us with the belief that it was the original model after which the Greek Triad was compiled. It runs thus,


"The three first principles of wisdom--
  Obedience to the laws of God;
  Concern for the good of mankind;
  And bravery in sustaining all the accidents of life."

Diogenes says, moreover, that the Druids among the Britons were the same as the Philosophers among the Greeks, the Magi among the Persians, the Gymnosophistæ among the Indians, and the Chaldæans among the Assyrians; and so undoubtedly they were in respect of the origin and substance of their religion.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:33:13 am
C. SUETONIUS TRANQUILLUS.
Suetonius flourished in the beginning of the second century. He describes "the Druidic religion among the Gauls as one of terrible cruelty." 1 We presume that he here refers to their practice of sacrificing men, which, as we have already noticed, seems to have sprung from the Bardic doctrine of eneidvaddeu.



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Footnotes
lxvi:1 "Lib. v. de Claudio Cæsare, c. 25.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:33:37 am
p. lxvii

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, A.D. 380.
Ammianus Marcellinus says that "the Bards record the exploits of heroes, in poems, which they sing to the soft sound of the lyre," 1 which is quite in accordance with the practice of the Cymric Bards. He also observes that the Druids were similar to the Pythagoreans, as indeed they were with reference to the doctrine of the metempsychosis.



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Footnotes
lxvii:1 Lib. xv. c. 9.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:34:01 am
C. CORNELIUS TACITUS.
We have left this author to the last, because he speaks of the Druids of our own country. Tacitus lived in the time of Nero and his successors until Hadrian. Though deemed in general a skilful and correct historian, yet we have evidence enough to prove that he could occasionally run counter of the truth; consequently we ought to be cautious how we receive his statements. He utters a glaring falsehood when he treats of the history of the Jews; declaring that they fled from the island of Creta into Egypt, and received the name Iudæi from mount Ida in that island--that Moses obtained water in the wilderness by following a herd of wild asses, and that the Jews religiously preserved in their houses the image or picture of a wild ass, in grateful memory of the event. Tacitus had no excuse whatever for falling into these errors. There were a great many Jews in Rome, and the Scriptures had been translated into the Greek language long before his era; besides, St. Paul himself actually visited the city, and preached the Gospel

p. lxviii

there in his time. If then, Tacitus, erred so egregiously, in the face of so many opportunities of learning the real truth concerning a renowned nation like the Jews, why might he not have fallen into similar mistakes with regard to the Cymry, though he received his account from his father-in-law, Agricola, who was governor of Britain?

But what says Tacitus of the Druidism of Britain? In speaking of the invasion of the isle of Mona, or Anglesey, by Suetonius Paulinus, he says:--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:34:15 am
"There stood apart on the strand an army, thick with men and arms, and women ran to and fro after the manner of Furies, clad in funereal dresses, with dishevelled hair, and carrying torches before them. The Druids, also, pouring out terrible prayers around them, with hands raised towards heaven, struck the soldiers with awe by the novelty of the sight; so that, as if their members clung to the spot, they offered their unmoved bodies to the wounds. Afterwards, by the exhortations of their leaders, and by their own mutual encouragements, not to be afraid of a womanish and fanatical troop, they lead on the standards, overthrow their opponents, and involve them in their own fires.

"A guard was afterwards placed over the conquered, and their groves were cut down, which had been consecrated to their cruel superstitions; for they considered it lawful to offer the blood of captives on their altars, and to consult the gods by means of the nerves of men," 1

The historian has unquestionably coloured the above sketch as black as possible; but, even if we grant that it is tolerably correct, there is nothing in it, after all, which is inconsistent with the ancient Bardism of the Cymry. Patriotism was a great virtue with them--and aggressive war was looked upon as a dire crime--a crime that exposed its perpetrators to the punishment


p. lxix

of death. What wonder, then, is it, if the Cymry sentenced to death the Roman soldiers, who chanced to fall into their hands? But, it may be objected, they were slain by the Druids, as sacrifices to their gods. There is no doubt that the Druids did superintend their execution, and that this in a certain sense partook of the nature of a sacrifice. Their death was a punishment for the offence, which they had committed, but at the same time it was regarded as a sort of atonement, which made up for the degradation they would have been subject to in Abred, if they had died a natural death. If Tacitus had known something of the doctrine of eneidvaddeu, he would have considered the act of the Druids on this occasion as a just and merciful one; just, in that it punished the transgressor, merciful, in that it placed him in a better state; for, according to their creed, his soul would pass immediately into another human body, totally cleansed from the guilt of the crime for which he had died. So easy is it to misunderstand the nature and object of men's actions, when viewed from a point which is external to their own religious sentiments!


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Footnotes
lxviii:1 Lib. xiv. c. 30.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:34:38 am
Druids and Bards
We have entered upon this subject at some length, because the supposed antagonism between Classical Druidism and British Bardism, is one of the principal grounds on which our literary sceptics found their denial of the genuineness of our traditions, and hence it becomes our strict duty to examine how far their position in this respect is really tenable. It is to be hoped that our comparative analysis will convince every unprejudiced person that, whilst the apparent discrepancy, which existed between the two systems,

p. lxx

precludes the idea of one being considered as a mere copy of the other, taken in recent times, there is sufficient identity of principle observable in them both, subject to the qualifying character of the Gaulish tradition, to suggest a common origin. On this account, then, the tenets and usages of Bardism, as given in our pages, may well be considered as the genuine remains of Druidic lore; that is, if we have further reason for believing that they were effectually preserved and handed down through the different ages, which followed the introduction and establishment of Christianity.

The machinery principally adopted by the Bards for this purpose was, "the voice of Gorsedd," which is amply explained and described in these volumes. Under favourable circumstances, indeed, it might be considered as highly efficient; but such circumstances, we all know, did not at all times exist. Under the Roman domination, we may be assured, that the ancient institute of the country, opposed as it was, both in spirit and practice, to all foreign usurpation, would not be allowed to give public expression to its views. The Bards could not meet in Gorsedd without incurring great personal danger. Consequently, they would have recourse to "cyvail," which was the second "assembly of the Bards," and created especially to meet the requirements of the case; that is, a cyvail was a group of three persons, who met "where and when they could, for fear of the assault of depredation and lawlessness." By this means the old traditions might be preserved, though they would not be known out of the circle of the fraternity. That there were Bards and Bardism during this period,

p. lxxi



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:35:02 am
is undoubted. All the Bardic privileges and immunities were recognized by law until the reign of Lucius, A.D. 173-189. Gorwg, son of Eirchion, two generations later, is described not only as "a very wise and religious king," but also as " a good Bard." 1 And it is supposed that Bardism formed the principal ingredient in the Pelagian heresy, which spread so rapidly and extensively among the people, towards the end of the fourth century.

About A.D. 383, when the Roman power was fast declining in the island, Macsen Wledig, (Maximus,) with the view of resuscitating the ancient system, submitted it to the verdict of country and nation, as in the time of Prydain, "lest the primitive Bardism should be lost and forgotten; when it was found in its integrity, and in accordance with the primary privileges and usages. And thus it was submitted to the judgment and verdict of country and nation, and the ancient privileges and usages, the ancient meaning and learning, and the ancient sciences and memorials were confirmed, lest they should fail, become lost and forgotten; and this was done without contradiction or opposition." 2

In the reign of Gwrtheyrn Gwrthenau, however, about a century later, Bardism was greatly corrupted, owing to "the divulging of the Name of God, introducing falsehood into vocal song, and distorting the sciences of Bardism." To remedy this state of things, king Arthur, in the sixth century, established the system of the Round Table, which was "an arrangement of the arts, sciences, usages, and privileges of the



p. lxxii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:35:17 am
 Bards and men of vocal song; and improved, and committed to memory, where there was occasion, every thing commendable in what was old, and authorized every thing new that was adjudged to be an augmentation and an amplification of desirable sciences, with a view to the wisdom and requirement of country and nation." The two Merddins, Taliesin, St. Mabon, and others, presided at this Chair.

Upon the death of Arthur, the Chair of the Round Table was removed to the court of Urien Rheged, at Aberllychwr, where it went sometimes by the name of Taliesin's Chair, and sometimes by that of the Chair of Baptism. "Under the privilege of the institute of the Round Table, Gildas the prophet, and Cattwg the Wise from Llancarvan, were Bards, and also Llywarch the Aged, son of Elidyr Lydanwyn, Ystudvach the Bard, and Ystyffan the Bard of Teilo." 1

It remained at Aberllychwr about two hundred years; after that, it was transferred to Caerwynt, 2 where it continued for more than a hundred years. It was then removed to Maes Mawr, by Einion, the son of Collwyn; and afterwards by Iestyn, the son of Gwrgant, to the court of Caerleon-upon-Usk, which was held at Cardiff Castle. Here it was shortly disturbed, owing to the war that broke out between Iestyn and Rhys, the son of Tewdwr; nor was it again restored until the time of Robert, earl of Gloucester, grandson of the latter, "who endowed this Chair with privilege and maintenance in Maes Mawr in Morganwg, and gave the name of Tir Iarll, or the



p. lxxiii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:35:30 am
earl's land, to the portion which he conferred upon the Bards for their maintenance, whilst he gave the other portion for the maintenance of the Monks.......The Chair of Tir Iarll was enjoined to investigate the ancient sciences of Bardism; and after the search, recovery, and confirmation, the primitive Chair, Gorsedd, sciences, privileges, and usages of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, were restored thoroughly and altogether." 1

Geraint, the Blue Bard, had, in the beginning of the tenth century, established a Chair at Llandaff, different to the one of the Round Table. It afterwards went by the name of the Chair of Morganwg, and enbosomed that of Tir Iarll, itself being enbosomed by (ynghesail) the Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.

This Chair, whether we call it the Chair of Tir Iarll, or the Chair of Morganwg, was well protected as long as the lords of Glamorgan retained sovereign authority over that territory; and the rights and immunities of the Bards were renewed from time to time, but always on condition that they should investigate and preserve the sciences of Bardism.

Llywelyn, the son of Gruffydd, was slain Dec. 11, 1282, and with him fell the ancient independence of Cymru, which henceforth became subject to the kings of England. In consequence of the opposition, which the Bards offered to the claims of Edward, they were rigorously persecuted by that monarch, and of course were prevented from meeting publicly in Gorsedd. Neither did they any longer enjoy the trwydded or


p. lxxiv

maintenance, which had been conferred upon them by their own native princes. Nevertheless, they kept up the old system, and from A.D. 1300, at least, down to Iolo Morganwg's time, they managed to hold a Gorsedd occasionally for Morganwg, as the following "Bardic Succession," or list of the Bards of the Chair of Glamorgan, and the order in which they were the Awenyddion, or disciples, taken from a manuscript of the late Mr. John Bradford, 1 will shew. The dates denote the times when they presided.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:36:13 am
TRAHAEARN BRYDYDD MAWR 1300
HYWEL BWR BACH 1330
DAVYDD AB GWILYM 1360
IEUAN HEN 1370
 

His Awenyddion.

Gwilym ab Ieuan Hen,
Ieuan Tew Hen,
Hywel Swrdwal.
 

IEUAN TEW HEN 1420

Awenyddion.

Hywel Swrdwal,
Ieuan ab Hywel Swrdwal,
Ieuan Gethin ab I. ab Lleision,
Hywel ab Davydd ab I. ab Rhys.
 

IEUAN GETHIN AB I. AB LLEISION 1430

Awenydd.

Gwilym Tew, or G. Hendon.
 

GWILYM TEW 1460

Awenyddion.

Huw Cae Llwyd,
Hywel ab Day. ab I. ab Rhys,
Harri o’r Gareg Lwyd,
Iorwerth Vynglwyd.
 

MEREDYDD AB RHOSSER 1470


p. lxxv


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:36:31 am
Awenyddion.

Iorwerth Vynglwyd,
Ieuan Deulwyn,
Sir Einion ab Owain.
 

IEUAN DEULWYN 1480

Awenyddion.

Iorwwerth Vynglwyd,
Lewys Morganwg,
Harri Hir.
 

IORWERTH VYNGLWYD 1600

Awenyddion.

Lewys Morganwg,
Ieuan Du’r Bilwg.
 

LEWYS MORGANWG 1520

Awenyddion.

Meiryg Davydd,
Davydd Benwyn,
Llywelyn Sion o Langewydd,
Thomas Llywelyn o Regoes.
 

MEIRYG DAVYDD (died in 1600) 1560

Awenydd.

Watcin Pywel.
 

DAVYDD BENWYN 1660

Awenyddion.

Llywelyn Sion,
Sion Mawddwy,
Davydd Llwyd Mathew.
 

LLYWELYN SION (died in 1616) 1580

Awenyddion.

Watcin Pywel,
Ieuan Thomas,
Meilir Mathew,
Davydd ab Davydd Mathew,
Davydd Edward o Vargam,
Edward Davydd o Vargam.
 

WATCIN PYWEL 1620

Awenyddion.

Davydd Edward,
Edward Davydd,
Davydd ab Davydd Mathew.
 

p. lxxvi


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:36:50 am
EDWARD DAVYDD (died in 1690) 1660

Awenyddion.

Hywel Lewys,
Charles Bwttwn, Esq.
Thomas Roberts, Offeiriad,
S. Jones o Vryn Llywarch, Offeiriad,
Evan Sion Meredydd,
Davydd o’r Nant.
 

DAVYDD O’R NANT 1680

Awenyddion.

Hopcin y Gweydd,
Thomas Roberts, Offeiriad,
Davydd Hopcin o’r Coetty.
 

SAMUEL JONES, OFFEIRIAD 1700

Awenyddion.

Rhys Prys, Ty’n y Ton,
William Hain,
Sion Bradford, yn blentyn.
 

DAVYDD HOPCIN, o’r Coetty 1730

Awenyddion.

Davydd Thomas,
Rhys Morgan, Pencraig Nedd,
Davydd Nicolas,
Sion Bradford.
 

SION BRADFORD (died in 1780) 1760

Awenyddion.

Lewys Hopcin,
William Hopcin,
Edward Evan,
Edward Williams.
 


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:37:05 am
However, as their meetings were not always regular, and as the number of members was continually dwindling, there was danger that the traditions of the institution would suffer loss in consequence. Hence such of the Bards as were anxious for their preservation, began, more than before, to make collections of them in Books. We say more than before, because some few, like Geraint the Blue Bard, had previously

p. lxxvii

committed to writing many things concerning the Bards and their system. With a view to consolidate those collections, several Gorsedds were held from the beginning of the fifteenth century, under the sanction of Sir Richard Neville and others. One was held for that purpose in 1570, under the auspices of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, the great patron of Welsh literature, and the founder of the celebrated Library of Welsh MSS. at Rhaglan Castle, which was afterwards destroyed by Oliver Cromwell. What was done at those meetings received considerable improvement at one held by Sir Edward Lewis of the Van, about 1580, from the arrangement of the venerable Llywelyn Sion of Llangewydd; and lastly, a complete revisal of the former collections was made by Edward Davydd of Margam, which received the sanction of a Gorsedd, held at Bewpyr, in the year 1681, under the authority of Sir Richard Basset; when that collection was pronounced to be in every respect the fullest illustration of Bardism. 1

Part of the said collection, namely, "Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain," which is a most excellent treatise on the Ancient Versification of the Cymry, was published in the original by Iolo Morganwg, A.D. 1829. What is now offered to the public, it is but reasonable to infer, constitutes the remainder, or, at any rate, a great portion of the remainder, for many of the documents profess to have been taken out of the Books of Trahaiarn Brydydd Mawr, Hywel Swrdwal, Ieuan ab Hywel Swrdwal, Llawdden, Gwilym Tew, Rhys Brydydd, Rhys Brychan, Lewys Morganwg,


p. lxxviii



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:37:24 am
Davydd Benwyn, Davydd Liwyd Mathew, Sion Philip, Antoni Pywel, and principally Llywelyn Sion, Bards who flourished from the 14th to the 17th century. Llywelyn Sion tells us that he made his collection out of the Books of Taliesin, Ionas Mynyw, Edeyrn Davod Aur, Cwtta Cyvarwydd, Einion Offeiriad, Davydd Ddu Hiraddug, Sion Cent, Rhys Goch, and others in the Library of Rhaglan, by permission of the lord William Herbert.

There is no doubt that these Bards viewed the traditions of the Gorsedd as the genuine remains of Ancient Druidism; and there is every reason to believe that in their main features they were so. The variations observable in minor points would indicate in what direction, and to what extent, they suffered in their passage from the Christian era downwards.

But a question offers itself,--Did the Christian Bards receive and believe these traditions as articles of faith; or did they preserve them merely as curious relics, or specimens of the primitive theology and wisdom of the Cymry? We think that to act on the former theory was impossible, in the face of two facts. First, they were members of the Chair of Baptism, in which "no one had the privilege of a teacher, who was not baptized and devoted to the faith in Christ." For, be it observed, it was this Chair alone that enjoined its members to preserve the ancient traditions; and it was for that reason that we omitted all mention of other Chairs, such as those of Powys and Gwynedd. Secondly, several individuals of distinguished orthodoxy, piety, and position in the Church, were admitted members of Bardism from time to time. It is said that Arthur, when he was

p. lxxix

about to institute the Chair of the Round Table, summoned to his aid three prelates, two of whom are mentioned by name, that is, Dyvrig, archbishop of Llandaff, afterwards of Caerleon-upon-Usk, and Cyndeyrn, bishop of Llanelwy, "lest he and his knights should do any thing contrary to the Holy Scripture and the faith in Christ........And Arthur enjoined St. Teilo to baptize the three Bards," Taliesin, Merddin Emrys, and Merddin Wyllt, who arranged its discipline and usages on the occasion. St. Teilo, Cattwg the Wise, and St. Pryderi, were members of the Bardic College, being "the three blessed Bards of Arthur's court." St. David, the patron saint of Wales, Padarn, the bishop of Llanbadarn, Deiniol Wyn, the first bishop of Bangor, and Gildas, were also Bards. So also were Geraint, the Blue Bard, supposed by some to be the same person as Asser Menevensis, about 900, Einion the Aged, domestic chaplain to Sir Rhys the Aged, of Abermarlais, 1300-1350, Sion Cent, priest, 1380-1420, Meurig Davydd, 1560, Thomas Roberts, priest, 1680, S. Jones, Bryn Llywarch, priest, 1680, and Bishop Burgess, who was graduated Druid by Iolo Morganwg.

We cannot conceive that these men, some of whom were ornaments to the Christian religion, should yet believe in tenets that were inconsistent with that religion. We may mention St. David in particular, as one who took a very active part in suppressing the Pelagian heresy, which in many respects exhibited the lineaments of Druidism. Padarn subscribed the decrees of the Council of Paris, which was held in the year 557, and is commended both as

p. lxx



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:37:56 am
an abbot and a bishop in the writings of Venantius Fortunatus, a Latin poet of Gaul, who was his contemporary; sure proofs that he also was sound in the faith. These considerations force us to conclude that the Bards in Christian times preserved and handed down the traditions of their institutes, merely as curious speculations, illustrative of the religion and philosophy of the primitive inhabitants of the island.

It may be remarked in addition that some of the Bardic Chairs were occasionally held in churches and religious houses. The Chair of Tir Iarll was at one time held alternately in the Church of Bettws and the Church of Llangynwyd. The Chair of Morganwg was held at Easter in one of the chapter houses of Llandaff, Margam, Glyn Nedd, or in the Church of Llanilltyd; at Whitsuntide, among other places, in the Church of Pentyrch; on St. John the Baptist's day in the Church of Llancarvan, and in the Monastery of Penrhys. Surely, the ecclesiastical authorities would never have allowed the inculcation of heresy to desecrate places that were pre-eminently dedicated to the service of the Christian religion. Bardism, then, was not regarded as constituting the faith of all who professed to know it.

We doubt riot, however, that individuals would be found now and then to cherish the traditions of the Bards as saving truths, just as in our own days there are persons, who entertain strange and erroneous doctrines, and yet have no mind to abandon their Christian profession. Llyr Myrini endeavoured to reconcile Bardism with Christianity, and to mould them into one system, but his efforts resulted in Pelagianism; and there are traces in our volumes of other developments

p. lxxxi

of a similar nature in respect of the Incarnation, which, however, took a Sabellian direction. It is not meant that the principles of Bardism were incompatible with the Christian religion; but that heresies, having arisen from the attempt to harmonize them, prove the attempt to have been made by individuals without the aid or sanction of the great body of Bards, who were, we may presume, good and honest Christians. In our opinion, the following Triad seems to express the judgment of Gorsedd on the comparative merits of the Bardic and Gospel dispensations:--

"There are three special doctrines that have been obtained by the nation of the Cymry: the first, from the age of ages, was that of the Gwyddoniaid, prior to the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great; the second was Bardism, as taught by the Bards, after they had been instituted; the third was the Faith in Christ, being THE BEST OF THE THREE."

The Bards believed that all things were tending to perfection; when, therefore, they embraced Christianity, they must on their own principles have viewed it as a stage in advance of their former creed. The more advanced in religious knowledge would, doubt-less, recognize it in its true character, as the fulfilment of Druidism, that is, as far as the latter was identical with the patriarchal religion of Noah--as "the mystery which hath been hid from ages, and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints; to whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles." The Gospel of Christ is "the truth"--the realization of types and shadows; it is the "Truth against the world," which Bardism was continually

p. lxxxii

searching for. We, therefore, not only in virtue of our clerical office, but also as a Bard according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, under the privilege of the Chair of Morganwg, embosoming the Chair of Baptism, beg to enter our most energetic protest (gwrthneu) against all attempts to impose upon any one as articles of belief the tenets of Bardism, where they are inconsistent with Christianity, as found in the Sacred Scriptures, and defined in the creeds of "the Holy Church throughout the world."

YN ENW DUW A PHOB DAIONI.

Alban Eilir, 1862.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes
lxxi:1 Gwehelyth Iestin ab Gwrgant.

lxxi:2 Trioedd Braint a Defod.

lxxii:1 Dosparth y Ford Gron.

lxxii:2 The Venta Silurum of the Romans.

lxxiii:1 See Preface to "Cyvrinach y Beirdd."

lxxiv:1 Cited in W. Owen's "Bardism," prefixed to his "Heroic Elegies of Llywarch Hen."

lxxvii:1 See William Owen's Bardism, prefixed to his Elegies of Llywarch Hen.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:38:17 am
p. lxxxiii

LLYWELYN SION,
INASMUCH as Llywelyn Sion of Llangewydd was the person, by whom principally the present Collection of Bardism was made, the following brief Memoir of him may not be out of place here, or unacceptable to our readers.

He was born in the early part of the 16th century, and became at the usual age one of the disciples of Thomas Llywelyn of Rhegoes, and of Meurig Davydd of Llanisan, both eminent Bards of the Glamorgan Chair--the latter having presided in it A.D. 1560. His numerous compositions show him to be a poet of vigorous and lofty thoughts, which he, moreover, clothed in pure, correct, and elegant language. According to Taliesin Williams, who professes to derive his information from ancient manuscripts, he was also an antiquary of great research and ability.

Sion Bradford describes him as a man well to do in the world, accumulating wealth by the sale of transcripts of manuscripts, both poetic and prosaic, by which means also he obtained great respect among all classes of people. From the Cywyddau, that passed between him and Sion Mowddwy, it would appear that he held a subordinate office--that of crier--in the law court of Glamorgan. This

p. lxxxiv



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:38:54 am
position brought him into contact with many of the gentry and men of influence in the country, who invited him to their houses, and, by allowing him access to their libraries, afforded him facilities of gratifying the literary bent of his mind. He was in particular acquainted with Sir Edward Mansell, who, about 1591, wrote an excellent "account of the conquest of Glamorgan." Sir Edward speaks of him under the name of "Lewelyn John," as a painstaking and respectable writer. It would appear that Sir Edward himself was a diligent collector of old Welsh MSS. According to Sion Bradford, he was also in much esteem at Rhaglan Castle; he says that it was from thence that he copied most of his writings, Sir William Herbert having made there a collection of the most valuable Welsh MSS., which were afterwards ruthlessly destroyed by fire in the time of Oliver Cromwell. Indeed, Llywelyn Sion himself, at p. 224 of the 1st volume of this work, confesses as much, and expresses his unbounded obligation to "the lord William Herbert, earl of Pembroke," for giving him permission to make extracts from ancient and rare Books in the Castle of Rhaglan.

He presided in the Chair of Glamorgan A.D. 1580, and it was then that his arrangement received the sanction of Gorsedd. His "Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain," which formed a part of his Collection, is beyond question an excellent and invaluable treatise on Welsh versification, and one which ought to be widely known beyond the limits of the Principality. Indeed, a New Edition, with a translation, of this work, would form a very appropriate sequel to BARDISM.

Sion Bradford says that he was an excellent teacher to many of the poets of his time, as well as to other Welsh literati. It would seem from some Englynion, which he composed, that, when far advanced in years, he gave his Books to his young disciple Edward Davydd of Margam. At the end of one of his collections, entitled "Llyfr Hir Llanharan," is written, "Fy llaw i, Llywelyn Sion, o Langewydd,

p. lxxxv

hyd ymma, Tach. y 27. 1613;" after which follows the handwriting of Edward Davydd.

According to Watkin Powell, he composed a Book, which he designated, "Atgofion Gwybodau yr Hen Gymry," being a treatise on the poetry, genealogy, memorials, medicine, agriculture, law, handicraft, and chemistry of the Ancient Cymry. This he sent to London to be printed, but meanwhile the author died, and the Book was lost. According to one authority, his death took place in 1615, but two other documents place it respectively in 1616 and 1617, when he had attained the venerable age of about 100.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:39:35 am
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/00200.jpg)

p. 3

CONTENTS.
 
 PAGE.
 
Advertisement
 xi
 
Preface
 xiii
 
Llywelyn Sion
 lxxxiii
 

Symbol.
 
 
The Origin of Letters, Roll, and Paper.--The Virtue of Letters
 11
 
The Origin and Progress of Letters.--The Name of God.--The Bardic Secret
 17
 
The first Inventors of Letters.--Improvers of the Alphabet.--Invention of the Roll and Plagawd.--Obligation of a Bard to hold a Chair and Gorsedd
 33
 
Origin of Letters
 39
 
The Inventor of Vocal Song.--The first Recorders of Bardism.--Its first Systematizers.--Their Regulations.--Mode of inscribing the primary Letters.--Origin of their Form and Sound.--The three Menws
 41
 
The principal Elements of various things.--The Gogyrvens
 47
 
The Invention of Letters by Einigan and Menw.--The Secret of Bardism
 49
 
Cuttings: Foundations of Awen
 51
 
Origin and Progress of Letters.--Einigan the Giant.--The Gwyddoniaid.--Systems of Letters
 53
 
The Origin of Letters and Books.--Their Introduction into Britain.--The Coelbren
 55
 
The primary Letters.--Improvement of the Alphabet
 57
 
Primary Cuttings.--Improvement of the Coelbren.--Its Restoration
 69
 
Recovery of the Old Cymraeg
 61
 
p. 4
 
 
 
 PAGE.
 
The primary Letters.--Their Augmentation.--Restoration of the Coelbren
 63
 
The Bardic Secret
 65
 
The Sacred Symbol
 67
 
The primary Letters.--Improvement of the Alphabet
 67
 
Gogyrvens.--Writing with Ink
 69
 
Gogyrvens
 69
 
Gogyrvens
 69
 
Gogyrvens
 69
 
The Three First Words of the Cymraeg
 69
 
The primary Letters.--Names of the Coelbren
 71
 
Classification of the Letters
 73
 
The Bardic Secret.--Formation of Letters
 77
 
The Vowels
 77
 
The primary Letters
 79
 
Variations of Letters
 81
 
The Sixteen Primary Symbols
 81
 
Introduction of Letters.--Original Country of the Cymry.--Their Arrival in Britain.--Augmentation of the Alphabet
 83
 
Coelbren of the Bards, according to the arrangement of Llawdden
 85
 
The Symbols of Literary Sciences: Improvement of the Coelbren.--Metrical Canons.--Dissolution of the Monastery of Pen Rhys
 89
 
The Pillars of Memory.--The Symbols
 93
 
The Birds of Rhianon
 95
 
The Five Ages of Letters
 95
 
The Three Symbols of Sciences
 97
 
The three Primitive Symbols.--The three Coelbren Symbols
 99
 
Numbers
 103
 
The Nine Degrees of Numerals
 107
 
The System of Numerals
 109
 
Arithmetic
 109
 
The System of Numerals
 109
 
Numerals
 111
 
The Numerals
 113
 
The Arithmetical Characters of the Ancient Cymry; that is, the Numerals
 113
 
The Three Symbols
 115
 
The Materials of Language and Speech
 115
 
The three Wreathed Bards
 115
 
Coelbren of the Bards
 117
 
Coelbren of the Bards
 133
 
Coelbren of the Bards
 143
 
Peithynen
 151
 
p. 5
 


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:40:19 am
Coelbren of the Bards
 153
 
Secret Coelbren.--Secret Coelvain.--Coelvain of History
 155
 
Burning the Letters
 155
 
Coelbren of Simple Letters
 157
 
Palm Coelbren
 157
 
Peithyn Coelbren.--Palm Coelbren
 157
 
Peithynvain
 159
 
Memorials
 161
 
Plagawd
 163
 
The three principal Materials of Knowledge
 163
 
The Herald-bard
 163
 
Dasgubell Rodd
 165
 

Theology
 
 
Triads of Bardism
 169
 
Theological Triads
 181
 
Theological Triads
 197
 
Theological Triads
 199
 
Theological Triads
 201
 
Theological Triads
 201
 
Theological Triads
 205
 
Druidism
 205
 
God
 213
 
Cythraul
 213
 
Ceugant.--Duration.--God
 213
 
The three Imperceptibilities of God
 215
 
The Bards' Enigma
 215
 
The twelve primary Negatives
 217
 
Bardic Aphorisms
 219
 
The Divine Names
 219
 
Iau
 221
 
Hu the Mighty
 221
 
The Circles
 223
 
The Book of Bardism
 225
 
Abred.--Gwynvyd.--Awen
 235
 
The Three States
 241
 
Annwn.--Life.--Death
 243
 
Abred
 243
 
The Origin of Man.--Jesus Christ.--Creation
 245
 
The Creation.--The First Man.--The primary Letters
 249
 
The Discipline of Bardism. (The Creation.)
 255
 
p. 6
 
 
 
 PAGE.
 
The Creation.--Worship.--Vocal Song.--Gwyddoniaid
 257
 
The Material of the World
 261
 
The Fall in Abred
 263
 
God in the Sun
 263
 
God in the Light
 265
 
Triads of Bardism
 267
 
God; and the Faculties of the Soul
 267
 
Sentences of Bardism
 271
 
The Ten Commandments of the Bards
 275
 
The Ten Commandments of the Bards
 285
 
The Rudiments of Theology
 289
 
The Triads of St. Paul
 291
 
The Triads of St. Paul
 323
 
The Triads of St. Paul and Bardism
 339
 
Triads of Bardism and Usages
 345
 
Triads of Bardism
 357
 
The Mode of taking Food and Drink
 359
 
The Gorsedd Prayer
 361
 
The Prediction of Peredur, the Bard of Prydain
 365
 
The Stanza of the Gorsedd Chair of the Winter Solstice
 367
 

Wisdom.
 
 
Triads of Wisdom
 369
 
The Elements
 371
 
Triads of Bardism. (The Elements.)
 371
 
The Triads of Bardism, called the Triads of Ionabwy. (The Elements.)
 377
 
Bardism, &c. (The Elements.)
 379
 
The Elements
 381
 
The Elements
 381
 
The Elements
 381
 
Bardism. (The Elements.)
 383
 
The Materials
 383
 
The Elements
 385
 
The Elements
 387
 
The Materials of Man
 387
 
The Eight Materials of Man
 389
 
The Seven Materials of Man
 389
 
The Seven primary Materials of the World
 391
 
The Eight Materials of Man
 391
 
The Parts of the Human Body in which are the Faculties
 391
 
p. 7
 
 
 
 PAGE.
 
The Philosophy of the Blue Bard of the Chair
 393
 
Particular Triads
 395
 
Triads of Ten Numbers
 397
 
Mutual reasoning between a Disciple and his Teacher
 399
 
The Stars
 403
 
Astronomy
 403
 
Chronology
 405
 
Chronology
 407
 
The Memorial of Computation..--The Memorial of Country
 409
 
Memorial and Computation
 409
 
The Cycle of Time
 411
 
The Months
 411
 
The beginning of the Year
 417
 
The three Circles of the Sun
 417
 
The Four Quarters of the Year
 417
 
The Albans
 419
 
The Divisions of the Year
 419
 
The Divisions of the Year
 419
 
The Divisions of the Year
 419
 
The Divisions of the Year
 419
 
The Divisions of the Year
 421
 
The Divisions of the Day
 421
 
The Divisions of the Day
 421
 
The Divisions of the Day
 421
 
The Divisions of the Day
 423
 
The Divisions of the Day
 423
 
Years of the Sun and Moon
 423
 
Years of the Sun and Moon
 423
 
Years of the Sun and Moon
 425
 
Days of Days
 425
 

 



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:41:00 am
p. 8

A LIST OF DOCUMENTS
OCCURRING IN VOLUME I., WHICH HAVE BEEN PRINTED BEFORE.
Pwy a wnaeth rôl--cenedl y Cymry, pp. 12, 14. Coelbren y Beirdd, p. 25.

Adolwyn pa fodd--gyfergyd ar llafar, p. 46. Coelbren y Beirdd, p.7.

Einigan Gawr--poed felly bydded, pp. 48, 50. Coelbren y Beirdd, p. 6.

Cyn amser Beli--pedair awgrym ar hugain, pp. 56, 58. Iolo MSS. pp, 203, 204.

Ystorrynnau--arnynt yn awr, pp. 58, 60. Iolo MSS. pp. 204, 205.

Yn amser Owain--adver ag adgael, pp. 60, 62. Iolo MSS. p. 205.

Coelbren y Beirdd-- , pp. 84-88. Coelbren y Beirdd, pp. 26, 27.

Coelbren y Beirdd--yn dorredig a chyllell, pp. 116-132. Coelbren y Beirdd, pp. 15-22.

Llyma fal y dywed Lywelyn Sion--ddeunaw ar hugain, pp. 133-142. Iolo MSS. pp. 206-209.

Cymmer goed bychain--breiniau gwlad, pp. 142-150. Coelbren y Beirdd, pp. 22-25.

Y pillwydd--bren a fythawr, pp. 150-152. Iolo MSS. pp. 205, 206.

Trioedd Barddas--ynghylch y Gwynvyd, pp. 168--180. Poems Lyric and Pastoral, vol. ii. pp. 235-239.

Llyma Weddi’r Orsedd--O Lyfr Mawr Margam, p. 360. Iolo MSS. p. 80.

Llyma weddi’r Orsedd--Duw a phob daioni, pp. 360, 362. Iolo MSS. p. 80.

Llyma weddi’r orsedd o Lyfr arall--Daioni, p. 362. Iolo MSS. p. 80.

Gweddi Talhaiarn--Tanwyn ai cant, p. 362. Iolo MSS. p. 79.

Llyma ddarogan Peredur--Peredur Fardd ai cant, p. 364, 366. Iolo MSS. pp. 80, 81.

Llyma Bennill Cadair--Merddin Emrys ai cant, p. 366. Iolo MSS. p. 81.

Saith deunydd dyn--Y Bardd Glas o’r Gadair a’i dywed, p. 388. Myv. Arch. v. iii. p. 109.

Llyma saith--Y Bardd Glas o’r Gadair ai dywed, p. 390. Myv. Arch. v. iii. p. 109.

Wyth devnydd dyn--sev y bywyd, p.390. Myv. Arch. v. iii. p. 132.

Athronddysg y Bardd Glas--or Gadair ai dywed, pp. 392, 394. Myv. Arch. v. iii. pp. 108, 109.




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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:41:40 am
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/00900.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:42:42 am
BARDISM

(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/01100.jpg)

THE ORIGIN OF LETTERS, ROLL, AND PAPER.--THE VIRTUE OF LETTERS.
MAY it please your information, my beloved teacher; pray, tell me who was the first that made a Letter?

Einiged the Giant, son of Huon, son of Alser, 1 son of Javan, 2 son of Japheth, son of Noah the Aged, after the death of his father, for the purpose of preserving a memorial of what he did, and of his praiseworthy actions, warranted in respect of credibility and information. And because it was on wood (pren) that such belief was first placed, both the letters, and what they were inscribed on, were called Coelbren. 3




p. 12 p. 13



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:43:01 am
Who was the first that made a Roll 1 in connection with letters?


p. 14 p. 15

Bran the Blessed, 1 son of Llyr of Defective Speech, learned that mode at Rome, and brought it with him to Britain, where he taught it to the Cymry, as well as the manner of dressing the skins of kids and goats, so as to be suitable for written letters. And that mode became customary, so that the Bards alone practised, as it were by bare rescue, the old style of inscribing letters on wood, for the purpose of preserving the memorials of the old and primitive sciences of the nation of the Cymry; thence it came to be called Coelbren of the Bards. At present there are only the Bards that keep it in memory, by engraving their songs and records on wood, according to the ancient art, with the view of preserving in reliable memory the primitive sciences of the nation of the Cymry.

Who was the first that made paper?

A man from Constantinople, named Moran; he ground flax, which on its being thinly spread out, became paper.

What is the virtue of letters?

They are mute organs that speak--a body without a soul, and without life, guiding thought--dead ones, knowing more than the living--a hand speaking better than the tongue--an eye hearing better than the ear, without either noise or sound--speech without a tongue--hearing without an ear--


p. 16 p. 17

language without words--form of voice--a messenger uttering the truth, without knowing it--the dead teaching the living--memory with no one guiding it--the understanding of the dead--the principal skill of the art of the living--the preservation of all arts and sciences--and the demonstration of all that is demonstrable.


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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:43:19 am
Footnotes
11:1 p. 10 Probably the same as Elishah, in Gen. x. 4.

11:2 It is remarkable that, contrary to the popular notion which represents Gomer as the progenitor of the Cymry, Nennius, the Genealogy of Gruffydd ab Cynan, in the 2nd volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology--and other Pedigrees registered by Lewis Dwnn, all support the view of the text as to the descent of that people from Javan. Nennius, indeed, asserts positively that his information was derived "ex traditione veterum, qui incolæ in primo fuerunt Britanniæ."

11:3 That is, wood of credibility. The ancient mode of cutting letters on wood is frequently alluded to in the poems of the Bards, both early and medieval. Thus;

TALIESIN, 520--570.


Wyf llogell cerdd wyf lle ynydd (llëenydd),
Caraf y gorwydd a gorail clyd.

I am the depository of song, I am a reader,
I love the sprigs and the compact wattling.
                       Buarth y Beirdd.


p. 11


Gwydion ap Don--
A rithwys gorwyddawd y ar plagawd.

Gwydion, son of Don--
Formed wood knowledge upon plagawd.
                             Kadeir Keridwen.


RHYS GOCH AB RICCERT, 1140-1170.


Bu bwyall brenn bardd anghymmen
Yn naddu can i Wenllian.

The wooden axe of an unpolished bard
Has been hewing a song to Gwenllian.


CYNDDELW, 1150-1200.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:43:36 am
O ffyrfioli tri o draethaut berffaith
Oe gwyded ieith oe gwydaur. p. 12

From composing three complete treatises
Of wood language--of wood letters.--Canu i Dduw.


DAVYDD AB GWILYM, 1300-1368.


Hwn fydd ar wydd i’w hannerch.

This will address them on wood.

O myn wawd orddawd arddof
Aed i’r coed i dorri cof.

If he would have an encomium of gentle character,
Let him go into the wood to cut a memorial.
                                           I Ruff. Grug.

Haws yw cael lle ho gwael gwydd
Saerni dwfn saer na defnydd.

It is easier to obtain, where the wood is poor,
The carpentry of a skilful wright, than materials.--Ib.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:44:00 am
IOLO GOCH, 1315-1402.


Arwain i Owain a wnaf
Ar eiriau mydr ir araf
Peunydd nid naddiad gwydd gwern,
Pen saerwawd.

I will bear for Owain,
In metrical words, fresh and slow,
Continually, not the hewing of alder wood
By the chief carpenter of song.--I. O. Glyndwr.


RHYS GOCH ERYRI, 1330-1420.


Ni welir mwy ol bwyall
Flodau saer ar gerddgaer gall.

No longer will be seen the mark of the axe
Of the flower of carpenters on a song-loving and wise one.
                                                Mar. Gruff. Llwyd.


LLYWELYN MOEL Y PANTRI, 1400-1430.


Pan glywyf hiraethwyf hoed
Pensaergerdd pain is irgoed.

When I hear, I regret the delay,
The chief carpenter of song--a peacock beneath the green wood.


GWILYM TEW, 1430-1470


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:44:18 am
Llun ei gorph yn darllain gwydd.

The form of his person reading wood.


IEUAN DU’R BILWG, 1460-1500.


Aed dy fawl, ydwyd filwr,
Ar wydd hyd mae dydd a dwr.

May thy praise go--thou art a soldier
Upon wood, as long as day and water continue.


p. 13

LEWYS MON, 1480-1520.


Bwyall gerdd pan ballai gant
Byth naddai beth ni wyddant.

The axe of song, when a hundred failed,
Always hewed what they knew not.
                             Mar. Rhys Nanmor.


SION TUDUR, 1560-1602.


Ni wnai brydydd na brawdwr
Roi gwydd gwael ar gywydd gwr.

No poet or judge
Used better wood for a poem to man.
                         Mar. Sion Brwynog.


RHYS CAIN, 1580.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:44:30 am
Yscerbwd mewn cwd, nid min call--a’i mawl,
Llyfr moliant bardd cibddall,
Anhawdd yw ei iawn ddeall,
Fe wna i ddyn a fo’n ddall.

A skeleton in a bag--the lips of the wise will not praise it,
The eulogistic book of a purblind bard,
It is difficult to rightly understand it,
It will do for a man who is blind.--I lyfr pren.


A long string of similar quotations might be adduced, but the foregoing are sufficient to show that the practice in question was known to the Bards from the 6th down to the 17th century.

It may be observed that several words in the Cymric language, which relate to knowledge or literature, have a primary reference to wood. Thus; arwydd, a sign; cyfarwydd, skilful; cyfarwyddyd, information; cywydd, a species of versification, also revelation; dedwydd, having recovered knowledge, happy; derwydd, a Druid; egwyddawr, a rudiment, an alphabet; gwgddawr, a rudiment; gwyddon, a man of science; gwynwyddigion, men of sacred knowledge.

13:1 Though Roll, as in the text, primarily refers to the schedule that was turned up with the hand in the form of a pipe, it came also to denote a system, or arrangement, as in the phraseologies, Rhol y Crythor, Rhol y Telynor, Rhol y Mesurau, Rhol Iolo Goch, Rhol Achau, Rhol Cof a Chyfrif, and Rhol y Beirdd. It is alluded to by many of the Bards; thus--


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:44:42 am
DAVYDD AB GWILYM, 1300-1368.


Bydd yr un Rhol ag Iolo
Ddefod hardd, hen fardd y fro.

He will be of the same Roll as Iolo,
Fair usage--the old Bard of the district.


GRUFFYDD AB IEUAN AB LLYWELYN VYCHAN, 1470.


Y rhai na wyppont eu Rhol
Yu csgud aent i ysgol. p. 14

They who know not their Roll,
Let them quickly go to school.


HUW AP DAVYDD AP LLYWELYN AP MADAWC, 1480-1520.


Goreuro Rhol geiriau rhawg,
Grafio dadl gref odidawg.

He gilt a Roll of long words,
He engraved a controversy, strong and excellent.
                                          Mar. Tudur Aled.


HARRI AP RHYS AP GWILYM, 1530.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:44:53 am
Graddau a Rhol gorwyddawd,
Gwraidd gwybodau er gwau gwawd.

The degrees and Roll of wood-knowledge,
The root of sciences, for the weaving of a song of praise.
                                  Mar. Gwilym ap Ieuan Hen.


DAVYDD BENWYN, 1550-1600.


Eurai bwnc oran bencerdd,
Arail gwawd a Rhol y gerdd. p. 15

He embellished a subject--the best chief of song--
He attended to encomium, and the Roll of song.
                                    Mar. Lewys Morgan.


LEWYS AP HYWEL, 1560-1600.


Rhin gwawdiaith a’i rhoi’n gadarn,
Rhol beirdd yn rheoli barn.

The charm of panegyric, firmly placed,
The Roll of the Bards ruling judgment.
                       Mar. Iorwerth Vynglwyd.


SION TUDUR, 1560-1602.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:45:07 am
Ai Rhol achau rhy lychwin.

And their Roll of pedigrees, too much covered with mould.



15:1 Father of the celebrated Caractacus. Bran is said to have remained at Rome for seven years as hostage for his son. (Tr. 35. Third Series). It was then that be acquired the information imputed to him in the text.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:45:42 am
THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF LETTERS.--THE NAME OF GOD.--THE BARDIC SECRET.
Pray, my skilful and discreet teacher, if it be fair to ask, how was the knowledge of letters first obtained?

I will exhibit the information of men of wisdom and pro-found knowledge, thus;--When God pronounced His name, with the word sprang the light and the life; for previously there was no life except God Himself. And the mode in which it was spoken was of God's direction. His name was pronounced, and with the utterance was the springing of light and vitality, and man, and every other living thing; that is to say, each and all sprang together. And Menw 1 the Aged, son of Menwyd, 1 beheld the springing of the light, and its form and appearance, not otherwise than thus, , in three columns; and in the rays of light the vocalization--for one were the hearing and seeing, one unitedly the form and sound; and one unitedly with the form and sound was life, and one unitedly with these three was power, which power was God the Father. And since each of these was one unitedly, he understood that every voice, and hearing, and living, and being, and sight, and seeing, were one unitedly with God; nor is the least thing other than God. And by seeing the form, and in it hearing the voice--not otherwise--he knew what form and appearance voice should have. And having obtained earth under him coinstantaneously with the light, he drew the form of the voice and light


p. 18 p. 19



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:46:16 am
on the earth. And it was on hearing the sound of the voice, which had in it the kind and utterance of three notes, that he obtained the three letters, and knew the sign that was suitable to one and other of them. Thus he made in form and sign the Name of God, after the semblance of rays of light, and perceived that they were the figure and form and sign of life; one also with them was life, and in life was God, that is to say, God is one with life, and there is no life but God, and there is no God but life.

It was from the understanding thus obtained in respect of this voice, that he was able to assimilate mutually every other voice as to kind, quality, and reason, and could make a letter suitable to the utterance of every sound and voice. Thus were obtained the Cymraeg, and every other language. And it was from the three primary letters that were constructed every other letter,--which is the principal secret of the Bards of the Isle of Britain; and from this secret comes every knowledge of letters that is possible.

Thus was the voice, that was heard, placed on record in the symbol, and meaning attached to each of the three notes:--the sense of O was given to the first column, the sense of I to the second or middle column, and the sense of V to the third; whence the word OIV. That is to say, it was by means of this word that God declared His existence, life, knowledge, power, eternity, and universality. And in the declaration was His love, that is, coinstantaneously with it sprang like lightening all the universe into life and existence, co-vocally and co jubilantly with the uttered Name of God, in one united song of exultation and joy--then all the worlds to the extremities of Annwn. It was thus, then, that God made the worlds, namely, He declared His Name and existence (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/01900.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:46:30 am
Why is it not right that a man should commit the Name of God to vocalization, and the sound of language and tongue

Because it cannot be done without misnaming God, for

p. 20

p. 21

no man ever heard the vocalization of His Name, and no one knows how to pronounce it; but it is represented by letters, that it may be known what is meant, and for Whom it stands. Formerly signs were employed, namely, the three elements of vocal letters. However, to prevent disrespect and dishonour to God, a Bard is forbidden to name Him, except inwardly and in thought.

Pray, my beloved and discreet teacher, show me the signs that stand for the Name of God, and the manner in which they are made.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:48:43 am
Thus are they made;--the first of the signs is a small cutting or line inclining with the sun at eventide, thus, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/02100.jpg)the second is another cutting, in the form of a perpendicular, upright post, thus, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/02101.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:50:23 am
 and the third is a cutting of the same amount of inclination as the first, but in an opposite direction, that is, against the sun, thus (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/02102.jpg)and the three placed together, thus,(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/02103.jpg) But instead of, and as substitutes for these, are placed the three letters O I W. And it was in this manner that the Bard inserted this name in his stanza, thus,


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:50:34 am
The Eternal, Origin, Self-existent, Distributor,--holy be the lips
That canonically pronounce them;
Another name, in full word,
Is O. I. and W--OIW 1 the word.--Ieuan Rudd sang it. 2

This name God gave to Himself, to show that He is in existence, and that there is no one but Himself, except by gift and permission; for truly all of us men, and other living beings, are and exist only by the gift and permission



p. 22 p. 23



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:50:47 am
of God. It is considered presumptuous to utter this name in the hearing of any man in the world. Nevertheless, every thing calls Him inwardly by this name--the sea and land, earth and air, and all the visibles and invisibles of the world, whether on the earth or in the sky--all the worlds of all the celestials and terrestrials--every intellectual being and existence--every thing animate and inanimate; wherefore none that honours God, will call Him by this name, except inwardly.

The three mystic letters signify the three attributes of God, namely, love, knowledge, and truth; and it is out of these three that justice springs, and without one of the three there can be no justice. Which one so ever of the three stands up, the other two will incline towards it; and every two of them whatsoever will yield precedency and pre-eminence to the third, whichever of the three it may be. It was according to this order and principle that three degrees were conferred upon the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and each of the three was invested with privilege, precedency, and pre-eminence, in respect of the particularity of necessity, over the other two, whichsoever they might be. Out of the three attributes of God spring every power and will and law.

It was out of the knowledge and understanding of the vocalization of language and speech, by reason of the three principal letters, that sixteen letters were formed, constructed from the primary columns, namely, the three principal letters in the form of rays of light. And it was thus that form and appearance could be imparted to every vocalization of language and speech, and to every primary sound, and symbolic forms of memory be made visible on wood and stone. Accordingly the memory of seeing could thus take place simultaneously with the memory of hearing; and, by means of signs, every sound of voice could be rendered visible to the eye, as far as the ear could hear what the tongue spoke, and what awen from God was capable of. Then when sixteen letters were constructed out of the principal

p. 24

p. 25



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:51:24 am
columns, namely these (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/02500.jpg)--since no letter can be found on the Coelbren, or in the Secret of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, that has not its elements and modifications derived from one or other of the three principal columns--and because these signs were cut on wood, they were called llythyrau. 1 And when every one of the letters was cut on wood, each of them received a name and meaning in respect of sound and voice, warranted and systematized; that is to say, each had its own peculiar vocalization, confirmed by art. Thus were obtained the signs and rudiments of war-ranted speech, which is called Abic, 2 but others call it Abcedilros. 3 Thus was ocular and manual art applied to speech and thought, whence arose ocular memorials and the materials of knowledge. Then wise men and aspirants engaged themselves in improving sciences and language and speech, and in discriminating vocalization and the variety of sound with greater skill and minuteness; and they elaborated them, until they were able to make two more letters, so that the Alphabet consisted of eighteen letters. After that the need of two more was observed, until they became twenty; 4 then twenty-two; and to complete the work, twenty-four principal letters; nor are there more in the Alphabet of the Coelbren that are simple, that is to say, of primary sound. Nevertheless, there are others that are compound letters, significative of the mutation of voice, and of the accentuation of letters, of which, according to highly skilful teachers, there are sixteen in number, whilst others will have them to be eighteen. Some of them cannot have authority or warrant, at least they cannot have necessity, in virtue of indispensable reason; nevertheless it is not allowable to forbid the improvement of sciences, whilst every awen and art are free, provided they do not injure, obscure, or confound laudable sciences.





p. 26 p. 27



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:51:43 am
It is by means of letters that sciences and history are committed to rational memory. The three foundations of sciences are memory, understanding, and reason, and without the memory little is the utility of memory, understanding, and reason. After the discovery of the knowledge of letters it was that every understanding, and consideration, and every meditation of awen were committed to the memorial of letters; and from long acquaintance therewith room was seen for improving, amplifying, and varying the order and system of language and speech, and the art of letters, that letters might be warranted, which should be suitable to every circumstance of language and speech, and for the purpose of showing visibly every sound and utterance of word, voice, and speech, that they might harmonize with the ratiocination of the art of language and letters, and that speech might agree with speech between man and man, in respect of the sound and meaning of a sentence, the effort of language, and the encounter of the art and sciences of language and letters. Hence easy and warranted became the understanding, and understanding arose from understanding, and all men became of one judgment in respect of the meaning of word and sentence, and in respect of the sense, accent, and signification of letters. And hence fixed confirmation was bestowed upon the sciences of letters, and upon all sciences that were committed to the memory and under the auspices of letters; and it became easy, also, to learn and understand what was thus arranged systematically and with a fixed meaning; and it was easy for all men to be of one judgment, and of one sense in respect of such. That is to say, from the long co-reasoning of wise men and aspirants, 1 and men of art, improvement and fixedness of meaning and system, are obtained, in respect of all sciences, and in respect of every one of them. After letters had been improved and amplified, as occasion required, in respect of meaning and number, there were exhibited twenty-four primaries--in the opinion of others, the three nines, that is to say, twenty-seven; nor is there any need or occasion


p. 28 p. 29



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:52:23 am
for more primaries, for, say they, there cannot be symbols of every sound of word and speech in the Cymraeg under twenty-seven letters--but they formed secondaries and two primary letters.

Pray, my far knowing teacher, why is it said that only a Bard of thorough secrecy knows how the Name of God is to be spoken audibly, that is to say, by means of the three principal columns of letters?

Because only a Bard of secrecy knows properly the old system of letters, and their meaning, accent, and powers, in respect of their stability in the system of the eighteen letters; for when the system of the eighteen was established, new letters were employed for the Name of God, namely O I U, but previously, during the era of the sixteen, no letters stood for the Name of God, other than the three columns of primary letters, that is (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/02900.jpg), which was called the system of God and light, and only a Bard of thorough secrecy now knows properly either the one or the other of the two old systems, which I have mentioned.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:52:35 am
Why is not that secret 1 committed to letter and audible speech, that it may be known of all?

Because it is misjudged by him who would have credence from another for more than he knows, and it is the wicked man, with the view of pillaging belief from the ignorant, that does so, and that bestows unjust imaginations upon a letter, and its meaning, accent, pronunciation, and sound, rather than the true and just. It is by such men that divine sciences are and have been corrupted, therefore the secret ought not to be divulged to other than to him who, in the judgment and sight of man, is warranted as having awen from God. Nor is there any other who knows the vocalization of the Name of God, without telling a falsehood, and the greatest falsehood is to falsify God and His Name.

Why is it not free from falsehood to commit the Name of God to speech and the hearing of the ear?


p. 30 p. 31


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:52:45 am
Because that cannot be done without its being falsely spoken, by any man or living being and existence possessed of soul and intellect, but by God Himself;--to exhibit and pronounce it in speech otherwise is falsehood, and the devastation and spoliation of God, for there is no being but God and in God, and whoso says otherwise speaks falsehood, which is falsehood against God, and depredatory usurpation over Him. But he who possesses awen from God will perceive the secret, and will know it, and wherever a man may have awen from God, warranted in respect of reason and conduct, it is not unjust to divulge to him the secret, but it is not just to do so to any other, lest the Name of God be spoken erroneously, falsely, and through unjust and vain imagination, and thereby be mocked, disparaged, and dishonoured. There is also another cause, namely, to induce a man to excercise his understanding and reason upon just and firm meditation; for he who does so, will understand the character and meaning of the primitive system of sixteen letters, and the subsequent system of eighteen, and hence will perceive and understand the Name of God, and the just reverence due to Him; for he who does truth will do justice.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:52:58 am
When the system of letters was improved in respect of number and pronunciation,  was employed where there could be no proper vocalization of , and Ll as producing L, or  as producing ; and by observing kind and quality, one could well perceive the priority of Ll, that is, , inasmuch as that letter is the root, and a primary word, which cannot be the case with , according to the fixedness given to the Cymraeg by wise and clear sighted teachers. And where the Cymraeg stands on the eighteen, the three vocal letters OIV, written variously by some thus , were fixedly and authoritatively arranged; and, without the violation of secrecy, there cannot be another system arising from the improvement of the three letters, and their accent and meaning.

It was from these three things that they began to exhibit sciences in Triads, that is to say;--

p. 32 p. 33

http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/bim1019.htm


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:53:11 am
The three principal signs of sciences, namely,--the three rays of light, for from them were obtained appearance and colour and form--the three voices of light, and from them were obtained hearing and speech and vocal song--and the three symbolic letters, and from them were obtained the memory of sight, and the form of voice, visibly, and.. mental understanding in regard to what can have no colour, or form, or voice. And it was from these three that fixedness and authority were obtained for sciences and art.


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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:53:24 am
Footnotes
17:1 p. 16 The words Menw and Menwyd, which are here used as proper names, signify the source of intellect and happiness, the mind, or the soul, being derived from men, an active principle, There are several words growing out of the same root, such as, menwad, menwawl, menwedig, menwi, menwin, menwydaidd, menwydaw, menwydawg, menwydawl, menwydedd, menwydiad, menwydig, menwydus, menwydusaw, menwyn, through all of which the original idea of intellect and bliss runs. "Tri menwedigion teyrnedd," the three beneficent sovereigns; " tri menwydagion Duw," the three blessed ones of God. (Tr.)


Diwahardd i fardd ei fenwyd,

Unrestricted to the bard his talent.--Cynddelw.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:53:42 am
 p. 17 The English words man and mind, and the Latin mens, seem to be of cognate origin.

21:1 Al. is.

21:2 The Name is alluded to by Iolo Goch;--


Oho Dduw! o waedd hyorn
Pa beth yw y gyfryw gorn?

Oho God! from the sound of the bold horn,
What is such a horn?


And by Sion Cent, 1380-1420,


Pannon ar ganon gannaid ai gelwir
Da gwelwn ef o’n plaid,
O. I. ac W. yw a gaid
Om beunydd i pob enaid.

He is called Pannon in the holy canon;
We behold Him favourable on our side-- p. 21
O. I. and W. is He found to be,
OIW always to every soul.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on April 26, 2009, 01:54:02 am
Llywelyn ap Hywel ap Ieuan ap Gronw, 1500-1540, makes use of the term, thus,


OIO Ddyn byw i ddwyn byd.

OIO man alive, to bear the world.


[paragraph continues] And Davydd Nanmor, who died A.D. 1460, observes,--


O. I. ag W. yw ag Oen.

He is O. I. and W. and a Lamb.



25:1 p. 24 Al. llythyr; a cutting, from the prefix lly, signifying what is manifold, various, or manifest, and tyr, (torri,) to cut. Or it may be from lleu, to explain, or to read; or else from llw, an exclamation, an oath, and tyr.

25:2 That is, A. B. C., the I being inserted with the view of giving B its proper pronunciation, or of filling up the vowel sound between B and C.

25:3 A word composed entirely of the ten primary letters. See further on.

25:4 p. 25 Taliesin observes,


Iaith ugain ogyrfen y sydd yn awen.

The language of twenty letters is in Awen.



27:1 p. 26 The word "Awenyddion" here translated aspirants, generally stands for Bardic disciples, but it literally means persons endowed with poetic genius, being derived from Awen.

29:1 p. 28 Cyfrinach, from cyd and rhin; what is known to some, but not to all. The word occurs in the poetical compositions of the Bards. Rhys Goch yr Eryri has a whole poem entitled "Cywydd Cyfrinach," in which there are allusions to the "Awen," "Einigan," "Pont Hu" (the bridge of Hu,) "tair llythyren " (three letters,) "Menw," "Gair heb wybod" (the unknown word,) and other esoteric doctrines of the Bards.

Lewis Mon, in his elegy on Tudur Aled, refers to the Bardic secret,--


Yn iach brigyn awch breugerdd
Yn iach cael cyfrinach cerdd. p. 29

Farewell sprig--ardency of the short-lived song,
Farewell to having the secret of song.





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http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/bim1019.htm


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:12:06 pm
THE FIRST INVENTORS OF LETTERS.--IMPROVERS OF THE ALPHABET.--INVENTION OF THE ROLL AND PLAGAWD.--OBLIGATION OF A BARD TO HOLD A CHAIR AND GORSEDD.
Who was the first that made letters?

Einigan the Giant, 1 or, as he is also called, Einiget the Giant; that is, he took the three rays of light, which were used as a symbol by Menw, son of the Three Shouts, and employed them as the agents and instruments of speech, namely the three instruments B. G. D. and what are embosomed in them, the three being respectively invested with three agencies. Of the divisions and subdivisions he made four signs of place and voice, that the instruments might have room to utter their powers, and to exhibit their agencies. Hence were obtained thirteen letters, which were cut in form on wood and stone. 2 After that, Einigan the Giant saw reason for other and different organs of voice and speech, and subjected the rays to other combinations, from which were made the signs L. and R. and S., whence there were sixteen signs. After that, wise men were appointed to commit them to memory and knowledge, according to the art which he made; and those men were called Gwyddoniaid, and were men endued with awen from God. They



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:12:19 pm
p. 34 p. 35

had no privilege and license warranted by the law and protection of country and nation, but only by the courtesy and pleasure of the giver. The Gwyddoniaid are called the principal sages of the nation of the Cymry. When the Cymry came to the Isle of Britain, and seisin of land and soil was appointed for every innate Cymro, and each had his dwelling and position, and when sovereignty was arranged, and was to be conferred upon him who should be found to be the bravest and wisest and most powerful, being an innate Cymro, they resorted to


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:12:31 pm
Gorsedd by their heads of kindred, and conferred the sovereignty upon Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, for he was found to be the bravest, most powerful, wisest, and the brightest of wit. And Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, assembled the heads of kindred, sages, and men of knowledge of the nation of the Cymry in a conventional Gorsedd. Then were Bards appointed, namely, of three degrees, that is to say, primitive Bards, to uphold the memorial of national voice and vocal song, and Ovates, to uphold the memorial of symbols,


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:12:42 pm
whence they were called herald-bards, and Druids, whose duty it was to impart instruction and sciences to the nation of the Cymry, namely divine sciences, and sciences of wisdom, according to what was known by means of the memorial of the voice of Gorsedd and vocal song, in right of the primitive Bard, and the memorial of symbol and letter by herald-Bards. And when the offices incumbent upon the three degrees were appointed, license and privileges in respect of protection and reward were assigned to them. And raiment was given to each of the three degrees, namely blue to the primitive Bards, green


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:12:53 pm
to the Ovate-Bards, and white to the Druid-Bards. Thus every one was to bear his badge and honour by authority, that every Cymro might know his privilege, protection, and reward; and security was given them that none besides should bear those vestment badges.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:00 pm
When was the augmentation of symbols as far as twenty-four brought into knowledge and use?

Rhuvawn the Golden-tongued, 1 introduced two symbols.


p. 36 p. 37



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:10 pm
namely W and Ff, whereupon eighteen letters were used, and thus they continued until the time of Talhaiarn of Caerleon-upon-Usk, who introduced six letters different to what had been before him, which were Ch. F. C. T. P. Ll., whence they became twenty-four letters. After that, others were invented as ancillaries to the signs which required them, for the sake of confirming the vocalization of word and sign, until those which now exist were arranged, namely, thirty-eight signs, as the


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:18 pm
signs of wood and stone; and they are in use by the herald-bards of the Isle of Britain under the privilege of the sciences of the nation of the Cymry.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:26 pm
When were the sciences of the writing of Roll and Plagawd 1 obtained?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:36 pm
By Bran, son of Llyr the Blessed, it is said; but others relate that it was by Gwydion, son of Don 2 the Irishman, of Arvon, who brought them from Ireland. That, however, is not true in reference to the nation of the Cymry, for certain is it that Bran the Blessed first brought them into the Isle of Britain from Rome, where he learned the art, and the mode of


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:45 pm
manufacturing plagawd with the skins of lambs and calves and kids. It was Gwydion that first introduced them into Ireland, after the Irish of Mona and Arvon had obtained the faith in Christ; hence the knowledge of letters and the writing of Roll and Plagawd.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:13:55 pm
Why should a Bard, in virtue of his oath, hold a Chair and Gorsedd?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:03 pm
Because there can be no country and nation without good sciences under the protection of God and His peace, and there can be no prepared 3 sciences without teachers, and there can be no teachers without the ordering of privilege and usage, and there ought to be no privilege without actual usage; wherefore nothing can become actual without




p. 38 p. 39



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:10 pm
prudent order, and established practice, and obligatory office on the part of those who are entitled 1 to privileges and immunities. The three functions of Chair and Gorsedd are to teach sciences from God and goodness, in respect of what is found to be wisdom,--to preserve the memory of the privileges, usages, and praiseworthy actions of the country and nation of the Cymry,--and to uphold order and known dates in respect of the learning of masters.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:19 pm
Footnotes
33:1 In one version of Rhys Goch's "Cywydd Cyfrinach" mention is made of this personage as one whose learning was the source of the Awen--


O ddysg Einigan a ddoeth.

It came from the learning of Einigan.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:29 pm
33:2 Reference is made to the usage of engraving on stone by Huw Cae Llwyd, A.D. 145--1480;--


Darllen main bychain yn bet,
Dull Hywel dealt llawer. p. 33

He sweetly read little stones,
After the manner of Howel, he understood many things.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:45 pm
35:1 p. 34 This doubtless is none other than the "Rhufin," whose name occurs in a poem by Edmund Prys (1541-1624) in conjunction with the names of "Plennydd," "Goron," "Meugant," "Melchin," "Mefin," "Madog," and "Cadog."


Mae un Rhufin min rhyfedd.

There is one Rhuvin of wonderful lips.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:50 pm
37:1 p. 36 We retain the original term plagawd, (Lat. plagula, plaga; Gr. πληγη, Dorice πλαγη,) because in the documents before us it is described as meaning not only parchment, but also a kind of plant or sedge grown in the East.

37:2 Thus Taliesin,--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:14:58 pm
Gwydion ap Don
A rithwys gorwyddawd y ar plagawd. p. 37

Gwydion son of Don--
Fashioned wood-knowledge upon plagawd.
                            Kadeir Keridwen.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:15:06 pm
37:3 Pardion--parodion. Another reading has parorion, continued, permanent.

39:1 p. 38 Al. "invested with."



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:16:28 pm
ORIGIN OF LETTERS.
Einigain, Einigair, or Einiger, the Giant, was the first that made a letter to be a sign of the first vocalization that was ever heard, namely, the Name of God. That is to say, God pronounced His Name, and with the word all the world and its appurtenances, and all the universe leaped together into existence and life, with the triumph of a song of joy. 2 The same song was the first poem 3 that was ever heard, and the sound of the song travelled as far as God and His existence are, and the way in which every other existence, springing in unity with Him, has travelled for ever and ever. And it sprang from inopportune nothing; that is to say, so sweetly and


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:16:38 pm
melodiously did God declare His Name, that life vibrated through all existence, and through every existing materiality. And the blessed in heaven shall hear it for ever and ever, and where it is heard, there cannot be other than the might of being and life for ever and ever. It was from the hearing, and from him who heard it, that sciences and knowledge and under-



p. 40 p. 41



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:17:02 pm
standing and awen from God, were obtained. The symbol of God's Name from the beginning was (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/04100.jpg), afterwards


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:17:31 pm
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/04101.jpg), and now OIW; and from the quality of this symbol proceed every form and sign of voice, and sound, and name, and condition


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:17:50 pm
Footnotes
39:2 There was some such tradition about the Creation in Job's time, as we infer from Chap. xxxviii. 7 of his Book. "When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?"

There is an allusion to the creative melody in the poetic compositions of the Bards. Thus in a version of the "Englynion y Coronog Faban" attributed to Aneurin, about A.D. 550.--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:18:06 pm
Coronog Faban y dydd cynta
A gant ganon yn y gwenydfa
Ag awen gogoniant o’r uchelfa
Gan floedd bydoedd a byw Adda.

The crowned Babe, on the first day,
Sang a chant in the region of bliss,
And the awen of glory came from the high place,
With the shout of the worlds, and Adam lived.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:18:18 pm
And William Cynwal (1560-1600)--


Yr awen o’r dechreuad
Gwedi’r Ton oedd gyda’r Tad.

The awen from the beginning,
After the tone, was with the Father


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:18:27 pm
39:3 Cymrice cerdd, which, though now universally meaning a poem, or a song, seems to have originally denoted a going or a walk. We have thus the reason why it received its secondary meaning, i.e. because the melody of the divine vocalization a gerddodd, walked through, or pervaded all creation.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:18:51 pm
THE INVENTOR OF VOCAL SONG.--THE FIRST RECORDERS OF BARDISM.--ITS FIRST SYSTEMATIZERS.--THEIR REGULATIONS.--MODE OF INSCRIBING THE PRIMARY LETTERS.--ORIGIN OF THEIR FORM AND SOUND.--THE THREE MENWS.
Pray, who was the first that made a vocal song in Cymraeg?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:18:59 pm
Hu the Mighty, 1 the man who first brought the Cymry into the Isle of Britain; and he made the song to be a memorial of what happened to the nation of the Cymry from the age of ages. And he inserted in it the praise of God for what the Cymry had received at His hand, by way of protection and deliverance, also the sciences and regulations of the nation of the Cymry. It was from that song that instruction in vocal song, and the understanding of just memorials, were first obtained. After that came Tydain, father of Awen, 2 who improved the sciences and art of vocal song, and reduced it to an artistic system, that it might be the more easily learned, understood, and remembered, and be the more pleasantly recited and listened to.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:19:08 pm
Pray, who were they that first preserved the memory and sciences of Bardism, and gave instruction in wisdom?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:19:17 pm
The Gwyddoniaid, namely, the sages of the nation of the Cymry; they preserved the memory in vocal song of the sciences and wisdom of Bardism, and gave instruction in them; nevertheless the sciences of the Gwyddoniaid possessed neither privilege nor license, except by courtesy--neither system nor chair. 3




p. 42 p. 43



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:19:26 pm
Who were the first that conferred system and chair on Bards and Bardism, and on Poets and vocal song?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:19:38 pm
The three primary Bards, namely, Plennydd, Alawn, and Gwron, 1 who lived in the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, and in the time of Dyvnvarth ap Prydain, his son. That is, they devised a Chair and Gorsedd, and regulated teachers and aspirants, and pupilage; and introduced instruction in sciences, and fixed and just memorials in respect of the knowledge of Bardism, and vocal song, with its appurtenances, and in respect of usages, that, of justice, and according to the requirements of wisdom, were suitable to Bards and Poets, as would be most requisite for the benefit and praise of the nation of the Cymry.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:19:48 pm
Pray, my accomplished teacher, instruct me as to the regulation and system of Chair and Gorsedd, which the three primary Bards introduced in respect of Bards and Poets?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:19:57 pm
Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, did, of his acute and sagacious sense and meditation, what he saw the best in every act and event for the benefit and praise of the might of the nation of the Cymry. He then called to him the Gwyddoniaid, and requested judgment by ballot as to the three who should be found to be the wisest and best of them in respect of sciences, when Plennydd, Alawn, and Gwron, were found to be the best in respect of sciences, and wisdom, and secrecy, and the art of vocal song. Then they conferred the privilege of country and nation upon those whom they perceived to be the best in respect of the sciences, and art of Bardism and vocal song, and upon the instruction which they gave, and which was regulated by system and art. And these are the order and system which they devised.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:20:05 pm
Pray, on what were letters first made, and in what manner?


p. 44 p. 45



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:20:15 pm
They were first made on trees, that is, wood was hewn into four sided staves, on each of which were cut small notches, and it was by means of as many notches as were necessary, that letters were formed. After that, on a slate stone, that is, letters were engraved on it with a steel pencil, or a flint. When it was done on wood, it was called coelbren, and hence the grooves of the letters were called coelbren; and the lettered stone was called coelvain. 1 There was a different way in


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:20:27 pm
which letters were made on wood, other than by means of notches, namely, with black or any other colour that might be most ready at hand. And this was practised by the Cymry for ages before memory. When this island was won by the men of Rome, they brought over here a plant, called plagawd, that is, a sedge, which was obtained from the land of Asia, and the land of Canaan, and wrote upon it. After that, art was applied to the skins of calves, the skins of goats, and the skins of sheep, and plagawd was made from them, and it is the best of all manufactures for books. Nevertheless, the Bards of the Isle of Britain retain in memory and history the mode of making the


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:20:41 pm
ancient books, in order to rescue the Cymraeg from the misunderstanding, to which it would otherwise be liable. Another reason is, that wood and stone can be procured where and when plagawd cannot; wherefore there is no proper Gorsedd or Chair, where the ancient usages and the ancient sciences, according to understanding and art, are not exhibited. On that account there ought to be wood in every Gorsedd and Chair, and besides a Roll of plagawd; that is, there ought to be an exhibition of all the sciences of letters in the Gorsedd and Chair of the Bards of the Isle


p. 46 p. 47



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:20:49 pm
of Britain; and where there is no wood, then lettered stones.

Pray, how were letters first understood in respect of form and sound?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:20:57 pm
Thus, God, when there was in life and existence only Himself, proclaimed His Name, and co-instantaneously with the word all living and existing things burst wholly into a shout of joy; and that voice was the most melodious that ever was heard in music. Co-instantaneously with the voice was light, and in the light, form; and the voice 1 was in three tones, three


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:21:19 pm
vocalizations, pronounced together at the same moment. And in the vision were three forms and colours, which were the form of light; and one with the voice, and the colour and form of that voice, were the three first letters. It was from a combination of their vocalizations that every other vocalization was formed in letters. He who heard the voice was Menw the Aged, son of the Three Shouts; but others say that it was Einigan the Giant that first made a letter, the same being the form of the Name of God, when he found himself alive and existing co-momentaneously and co-instantaneously with the voice.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:21:28 pm
Pray, my eloquent and learned teacher, how many men, that were Menws, have there been in the nation of the Cymry, for I find mention and account of others of the name of Menw?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:21:37 pm
Three persons, within memory and knowledge, have been of that name, that is to say, Menw, son of the Three Shouts, the second was Menw the Tall from the North, and the other, Menw, son of Menwad, of Arvon, the man who was the first of the nation of the Cymry that made dramatic representations.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:21:45 pm
Footnotes
41:1 p. 40 Conformably with this statement is that of the Triads, where Hu the Mighty is called one of "the three cultivators of song and thought," because it was he that " first applied to vocal song the preservation of memory and thought." Tr. 91. Third Series.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:21:55 pm
41:2 He was the third of "the cultivators of song and thought," so considered, because it was he that "first conferred art upon vocal song, and system upon thought." Id. Geraint the Blue Bard, who flourished about A.D. 900, has recorded his achievement in this respect;--


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:22:05 pm
Goruc Tydain Tad Awen
Oi fyfyrdawd fawr aren,
Glof ar gof gan gerdd gymhen. p. 41

The achievement of Tydain, the father of Awen,
Of his vast and wise meditation,
Was the securing of memory by eloquent verse.
                             Iolo MSS. pp. 262, 669.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:22:15 pm
41:3 "There were previously Bards and Bardism, but they had no licensed system, p. 42 nor privileges or usages, but what were obtained by kindness and courtesy, under the protection of country and nation, before the time of these three," i.e. Plennydd, Alawn, and Gwron. Tr. 58, Third Series.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:22:24 pm
43:1 p. 42 "The three primary Bards of the Isle of Britain: Plennydd, Alawn, and Gwron; that is to say, they were the persons who devised the privileges and p. 43 usages of Bards and Bardism. Therefore are they called the three primaries. * * * Some say that they lived in the time of Prydain son of Aedd the Great; but others say that they lived in the time of Dyvnwal Moelmud, his son, who in some old Books is called Dyvnvarth ab Prydain." Id.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:22:35 pm
45:1 p. 44 Stone of credibility. The poets frequently allude to the coelvain, thus,--

CYNDDELW.


Mwyn Ofydd i Feirdd ei faith goelfain.

A kind Ovate to Bards was his large stone of credibility.
                                       To Owain Cyveiliog.


GRUFFYDD AB DAVYDD AB TUDUR, 1290-1340


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:22:44 pm
Colofn Prestatun coelfeiniau Awrtun.

The pillar of Prestatyn, the belief stones of Overton.


p. 45



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:22:52 pm
GRUFFYDD AB MEREDYDD AB DAVYDD, 1310-1360.


Mair ai choelvain:

Cor Ior aur drefnad
Cyw aint wneuthuriad
Mawr uchelfab rhad



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:23:00 pm
Of Mary, and her stone of credibility:

The Choir of the Lord, of golden order,
And of skilful workmanship,
The great, high and gracious Son


SION TUDOR.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:23:09 pm
Wrth ddarllain coelfain celfydd
Gair naw gloes ar gronigl wydd.

In reading an ingenious stone of credibility,
Or the nine tropes on a wooden chronicle.



47:1 p. 46 Al. "Name."



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:23:40 pm
THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF VARIOUS THINGS.--THE GOGYRVENS.
The three principal elements 2 of every thing: power; matter; and mode. 3



p. 48 p. 49

The three principal elements of sciences: life; intellect; and affection. 1



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:23:57 pm
The three elements of wisdom: object; mode; and benefit.

The three elements of memorials: understanding from affection; distinctive sign; and reverence for the better.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:24:24 pm
The three elements of letters, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/04900.jpg); that is to say, from a combination of one or other of the three are letters made. They are three rays of light. And of these are made the sixteen gogyrvens, that is, the sixteen letters. According to a different arrangement there are seven gogyrvens and seven, 2 the seven words and seven score 3 in the Alphabet of the Cymraeg being no other than a sign of worthiness; and it is from them that every other word proceeds. Others say seven score and seven hundred words.





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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:25:08 pm
THE INVENTION OF LETTERS BY EINIGAN AND MENW.--THE SECRET OF BARDISM.
Einigan the Giant beheld three pillars of light, having in them all demonstrable sciences that ever were, or ever will be. And he took three rods of the quicken tree, and placed on them the forms and signs of all sciences, so as to be remembered; and exhibited them. But those who saw them misunderstood, and falsely apprehended them, and taught illusive sciences, regarding the rods as a God, whereas they only bore His Name. When Einigan saw this, he was greatly annoyed, and in the intensity of his grief he broke the three rods, nor were others found that contained accurate sciences. He was so distressed on that account that from the intensity he burst asunder, and with his [parting] breath he prayed God that there should be accurate sciences among men in the flesh, and there should be a correct understanding for the proper discernment thereof. And at the end of a year and a day, after the decease of Einigan, Menw, son

p. 50 p. 51



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:25:30 pm
of the Three Shouts, beheld three rods growing out of the mouth of Einigan, which exhibited the sciences of the Ten Letters, and the mode in which all the sciences of language and speech were arranged by them, and in language and speech all distinguishable sciences. He then took the rods, and taught from them the sciences--all, except the Name of God, which he made a secret, lest the Name should be falsely discerned; and hence arose the Secret of the Bardism of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. And God imparted His protection to this secret, and gave Menw a very discreet understanding of sciences under this His protection, which understanding is called Awen from God; and blessed for ever is he who shall obtain it. Amen, so be it.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:25:38 pm
From the mouth of Adam, like blessed trees, three crosses, &c.
Rods of fine growth were obtained, being trees from the mouth of Adam. 1

 



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:26:08 pm
CUTTINGS.--FOUNDATIONS OF AWEN.
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/05100.jpg). It was from the three signs that Einigan the Giant obtained so good an understanding of letters, which he cut on staves. He devised the mode, and made twelve 2 principal letters, if the books of the wise are true, which are called the ten radicals. As to what they are, and what their forms, it is a secret in the mystery of the Bards of the nation of the Cymry,


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:26:22 pm
namely, the Gwyddoniaid, who are called the primary Bards. They are three of the primary radicals, that is, the three cuttings; and they are called cuttings, because they are cut out of the dark into three rays; and for the same reason we say, the break of dawn, 3 to cut a field, to cut or break out. The third break out was the voice of a song of triumph, that is, the first voice was a voice of triumph.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:26:30 pm
The three foundations of Awen from God: to understand the truth; to love the truth; and to [maintain] the truth, so that nothing may prevail against it. From these three things may the question be correctly answered--Why wouldest thou be a Bard? And from correctly answering




p. 52 p. 53



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:26:38 pm
the question is the degree of Chair obtained or refused. The answer is between the aspirant and his conscience, and between his conscience and God, not between him and his teacher.


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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:26:47 pm
Footnotes
51:1 p. 50 This line is from the works of William Lleyn, 1540-1587.

51:2 Al. "ten."

51:3 The sameness of the word is better kept in the original, "torri" meaning both to cut and to break.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:27:20 pm
ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF LETTERS.--EINIGAN THE GIANT.--THE GWYDDONIAID.--SYSTEMS OF LETTERS.
a. e. i. o.--b. c. t. l. s. r. p.

It was Einigan the Giant that first understood letters; and he made the principal cuttings, which were eleven, that is, the four vowels, and the seven consonants. And he inscribed on wood the memorial of every object he beheld, every story he heard, and every honour he understood. Others considering the things that Einigan did, concluded that he was a devil, and banished him. Upon this he came to his father's kindred in the Isle of Britain, and exhibited his art, and they adjudged him to be the wisest of the wise, and called him Einigan the Gwyddon, and all, who learned the art of letters, they called Gwyddoniaid, which Gwyddoniaid were the principal sages of the Isle of Britain, before Bards were systematically distinguished in


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:27:30 pm
respect of privilege and usage. When Bards and Bardism were arranged, they were required to keep the memorial of the eleven cuttings. After this the art was improved, and sixteen cuttings were obtained, which were called the sixteen letters; subsequently, eighteen, and thence until twenty-four, to which were added the fourteen secondary letters, as they are now seen. This is preserved in the memorial of voice and letters,


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:27:46 pm
and the usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. The system of eleven is called the system of Einigan; the one of sixteen, the system of Edric; the one of eighteen, the system of Alawn 1 "and the system of the Bards;" 2 the one of twenty-four is called the system of Arthavael; and



p. 54 p. 55



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:27:54 pm
the one now in use is called the new system, and the system of Idnerth the Artist. It was in the time when Gruffudd, son of Llywelyn, son of Seisyllt, exercised prerogative over Cymru universal, that this Idner lived. 1 Thus are shown the origin of letters and the sciences of books in the memorials of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:28:03 pm
Footnotes
53:1 p. 52 The literary achievement of Alawn is thus recorded in the "Englynion y Gorugiau" by Geraint the Blue Bard;--


Goruc Alawn fardd Prydain,
Gofredeu cleu clodysgein,
Coel cyd celfyddyd cyfrein.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:28:11 pm
The achievement of Alawn, the Bard of Britain,
Was to establish true memorial of spreading fame--
The mutual recording in the art of disputation.
                              Iolo MSS. pp. 263, 670.



53:2 p. 53 Added from another MS.

55:1 p. 54 I.e. between A. D. 1021 and 1064.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:28:29 pm
THE ORIGIN OF LETTERS AND BOOKS.--THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO BRITAIN--THE COELBREN.
Who was the first that obtained understanding respecting letters?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:28:37 pm
Adam first obtained it from God in Paradise, and his son, Abel the Innocent, learned it of his father. Cain the Murderer, Abel's brother, would have fame from the good things of the world, but Abel would not, except from sciences that were pleasing to God, and from understanding and learning relative to what God did or desired. Wherefore Cain envied his brother Abel, and slew him feloniously and treacherously. 2 Then the sciences, which Abel caused to be understood, were lost. After that, Adam had another son, whose name was Seth; and he taught him the knowledge of letters, and all other divine


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:28:46 pm
sciences. And to Seth was a son, whose name was Enos, who was educated by his father as a man of letters and praiseworthy sciences in respect of book and learning. It was Enos who was the first that made a book of record, for the purpose of preserving the memory of every thing beautiful, commendable, and good, that is, of what God the Creator did, and of his works in heaven and earth; and he enjoined this to man as a law and ordinance. 3 This knowledge was preserved


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:28:55 pm
by the posterity of Enos until the time of Noah the Aged; and when the water of the deluge had ceased, and the ship had come on dry land, Noah taught the knowledge of books, and all other sciences, to his son Japheth, and our nation, the Cymry, who were descended from Japheth, son of Noah the Aged, obtained this knowledge, and brought it with them to the Isle of Britain,



p. 56 p. 57



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:29:03 pm
and they maintained, amplified, and enlarged the sciences of book and learning, and placed them on record until Christ came in the flesh.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:29:11 pm
What were the first books that were first known to the nation of the Cymry, and what were their materials?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:29:20 pm
Wood, that is, trees, and that mode was called Coelbren, from which comes the Coelbren of the Bards, as it is still on record by the nation of the Cymry. There was no other mode of dealing with letters known to our nation before Christ came in the flesh.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:29:29 pm
Pray, my teacher, is it meet that thou shouldest show me orally the instruction how to make the Coelbren of the Bards, and the art that ought to belong to it?



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:29:38 pm
I will show it, by the grace of God,--The Coelbren of the Bards is made with the genial wood of oak plants, split into four parts, that is, of greenwood as thick as a boy's wrist. These are hewn square, that is, into four sides, a cubit in length, their breadth and thickness being equal one to the other, namely the length of a barley corn, which is the third of an inch. After 1



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:29:51 pm
Footnotes
55:2 p. 54 See Gen. iv.

55:3 The Eastern people have likewise certain traditions respecting Enos which are not recorded in the Holy Bible, such as, that Seth his father declared him sovereign prince and high-priest of mankind, next after himself; that Enos was the first who ordained public alms for the poor, established public tribunals for the administration of justice, and planted, or rather cultivated, the palm tree.

57:1 p. 56 The MS. breaks off abruptly here.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:30:11 pm
THE PRIMARY LETTERS.--IMPROVEMENT OF THE ALPHABET.
Before the time of Beli the Great, 2 son of Manogan, there were only ten letters, which were called the ten signs, namely, a, p, c, e, t, i, l, r, o, s. After that m, and n, were invented; and after that four others, and they were made into sixteen by the divulgation, and under the proclamation of country and nation. After the coming of the faith in Christ, two other letters, namely u and d. In the time of king Arthur 3 there were introduced twenty primary letters, as at present, by the counsel of Taliesin, the chief of Bards, and domestic Bard of Urien Rheged. 4 Under the system of the eighteen were arranged O. I. U. which is the



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:30:20 pm
p. 58 p. 59

unutterable Name of God; whereas previous to that arrangement it was O. I. O. according to the sixteen. Of the principal signs there are not, to this day, more than twenty letters, or twenty signs. Geraint the Blue Bard appointed twenty-four letters, as it is at present; but the four are auxiliaries. After that, through the argumentative consideration of Bards, and Teachers who were chair Bards, there were brought into use and privilege, by the improvement of the Coelbren, thirty-eight letters on wood; but there are in black and white 1 only the twenty-four signs.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:30:29 pm
Footnotes
57:2 p. 56 He was the father of the celebrated Casswallawn or Cassivelaunus, who opposed the Roman invasion.

57:3 Arthur was elected pendragon of the Britons about A. D, 517, and died A, D. 552.

57:4 p. 57 Several of Taliesin's poems to Urien Rheged are printed in the 1st vol. of the Myvyrian Archaiology.

59:1 p. 58 I e. in writing.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:30:42 pm
PRIMARY CUTTINGS.--IMPROVEMENT OF THE COELBREN.--ITS RESTORATION.
In the early times of the nation of the Cymry letters were called cuttings; and it was after the time of Beli, son of Manogan, that they were called letters. Previously, there were no letters but the primary cuttings, which had been a secret from the age of ages among the Bards of the Isle of Britain, for the


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:30:58 pm
preservation of the memorials of country and nation. Beli the Great made them into sixteen, and divulged that arrangement, and appointed that there should never after be a concealment of the sciences of letters, in respect of the arrangement which he made; but he left the ten cuttings a secret.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:31:07 pm
After the coming of the faith in Christ, they were made eighteen; and after that twenty, 2 and such they were kept until the time of Geraint the Blue Bard, who made them twenty-four.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:31:17 pm
They continued such for long ages, even until the time of king Henry the Fifth, 3 who forbade schools, books, and the materials of books for the Cymry. On that account the Cymry were obliged to betake themselves in a body to the Coelbren of the Bards, and to cut and blacken letters on wood



p. 60 p. 61



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:31:25 pm
and rods; and every owner of a house and family, that wished to know the sciences of letters and reading, took Bards into his house. And from this was appointed the endowment of land, and tilth, and fold for the Bards. And the Bards became numerous in Cymru, and the knowledge of letters was greater than before the prohibition; where-fore Llawdden the Bard 1 sang:--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:31:34 pm
Beware of being wrong; see and observe--the throw
And course of every privation;
And the adage of this world,
"That is not evil which produces good."


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:31:41 pm
That is to say, where there was no school to be had, but an English one, and no teacher but a Saxon, the Cymry would study their own language and sciences more than ever, and they improved and augmented the number of letters and cuttings, until they completed the number, of which they now consist.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:31:52 pm
Footnotes
59:2 p. 58 It may be remarked here that according to one version of the Poem by Taliesin, in which the expression "Saith ugain Ogrfen y sydd yn Awen," occurs, (See Antea p. 48) the word "iaith" is used instead of "Saith," which makes the meaning to be--"the language of twenty letters is in Awen,"--a statement that in some measure bears out that of the text.

59:3 p. 59 A.D. 1412-1122.

61:1 p. 60 Llawdden flourished from about 1440 to 1480.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:32:09 pm
RECOVERY OF THE OLD CYMRAEG.
It was in the time of Owain, son of Maxen Wledig, that the nation of the Cymry recovered their privilege and crown. They took to their primitive mother tongue instead of the Latin, which had well nigh overran the Isle of Britain; and in the Cymraeg they kept the memorials and history and systems of country and nation, restoring to memory the ancient Cymraeg, with its original words and expressions. Because the ancient orthography of the ten primary letters was forgotten and misunderstood, they became lost, and thus arose a


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:32:19 pm
disagreement respecting several old words, that is, the putting of two letters, where only one was required, as caan, braan, glaan, instead of cân, brân, and glân, and digerth instead of dierth, and phlegid instead of phlaid, with many others; also putting t for dd, and i instead of e, and instead of y, and u instead of e. It is not necessary to show the whole, but this much is given in memory of him who made the amendment, namely, Talhaiarn

p. 62 p. 63



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:32:28 pm
the Bard, 1 of Caerleon-upon-Usk, under the protection of the Round Table. After him Taliesin, Chief of Bards, arranged the Cymraeg, from a right understanding of the meaning and merit of the ten primary letters, and their modes, and changes, and proper inflections; and from this the ancient Cymraeg was restored and recovered.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:32:37 pm
Footnotes
63:1 p. 62 Talhaiarn presided in the chair of Urien Rheged, which was established at Caer Gwyroswydd, or Ystum Llwynarth. He composed a prayer, which has always been the formula used in the Gorsedd Morganwg, or Bardic Sessions of Glamorgan. He was also domestic chaplain to Emrys Wledig, or Ambrosius Aurelianus. Taliesin in his Poems alludes to Talhaiarn,--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:32:48 pm
Trwy ieith Talhayarn
Bedydd bu ddydd farn.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 22, 2009, 01:33:04 pm
According to the language of Talhaiarn,
There will be baptism at the day of judgment.
                                Angar Cyvyndawd.

http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/bim1030.htm


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:12:42 pm
THE PRIMARY LETTERS.--THEIR AUGMENTATION.--RESTORATION OF THE COELBREN.
This is what I, Llywelyn Sion, 2 took from the Book of Davydd Benwyn, 3 which is called the Coelbren of the Bards.

Here is the system of the symbols of letters, or the symbols of language and speech, as it was arranged by Gwilym Tew, 4 Bard and Chair Teacher, and exhibited at the Eisteddvod of the Chair and Gorsedd of Pen Rhys Monastery, 5 when Owain Glyndwr and the Cymry were prevailing against the Saxons. 6



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:12:59 pm
There were ten symbols of letters in the possession of the Cymry from the beginning, before they came into the Isle of Britain, which ten are now kept an undivulged secret by the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and therefore no man can radically understand the Coelbren of letters, who is not under the obligation of the vow of the secret of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. In the time of Dyvnwal Moelmud, son of Dyvnvarth, son of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, the symbolic cuttings of language and speech were augmented






p. 64 p. 65



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:13:12 pm
to sixteen in number, and they were mutually divulged, and to each was given a new form, other than what the ten symbolic points that are secret and undivulged have. In the time when Bell the Great, son of Manog, 1 was king paramount of the Isle of Britain, the sixteen symbols were laid open to the nation of the Cymry, and security was given that there should be no king, judge, or teacher of country, without knowing the sixteen signs, and being able to reduce them into proper art. It was ages after that, before understanding respecting the symbols of Plagawd, that is, dressed skins, was obtained, and when that took place, the Roll was invented, and after that, the Books that are now


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:13:26 pm
seen in use. The number of the symbols was augmented until they were found to be eighteen in the time of Taliesin, chief of Bards, who employed them in his canons, hence the improvement of vocal song. After that the number of the symbols was raised to twenty, that is, the primaries, as at present. After that Geraint, the Blue Bard, began to use auxiliary symbols, which he invented, and which others, after him, improved, and the Bards kept memorials of them. When Owain Glyndwr was lost, plagawd and paper were prohibited in Cymru; and the Bards and Teachers,


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:13:37 pm
and all others who were required to keep memorials, were obliged to restore into sight and use the symbols of the Coelbren of the Bards, until the making them ready for the cutting became an art. Then they became infinitely numerous by the hands of sieve and basket makers, who sold them to any one that sought for them, and so they continued down to the days of those who are now living. It is Davydd Benwyn that says it.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:13:44 pm
Footnotes
63:2 p. 62 Llywelyn Sion was an eminent bard of Glamorgan, distinguished for having been appointed to collect the System of Bardism as traditionally preserved in the Gorsedd Morganwg, in which he presided in 1580. A great portion of the present Volume is due to his care and assiduity.

63:3 p. 63 Davydd Benwyn was a Bard who flourished from 1550 to 1600, being a native of Glamorganshire. He presided at the Glamorgan Gorsedd in 1580.

63:4 A Gwilym Tew presided at the Glamorgan Gorsedd in 1460.

63:5 The Monastery of Pen Rhys was suppressed in the second year of King Henry V.'s reign, AD. 1415, because its inmates had sided with Owain Glyndwr.

63:6 The insurrection of Owain Glyndwr began about 1400, and continued with varied success for fifteen years, when he died, i. e. September 20th, 1415.

65:1 p. 64 I.e. Manogan.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:14:01 pm
THE BARDIC SECRET.
O I W are the three letters, and in very old books O I U, because U was used instead of W, in the olden times. It is the secret word of the primitive Bards, which it is not lawful to speak or utter audibly to any man in the

p. 66 p. 67



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:14:13 pm
world, except to a Bard who is under the vow of an oath. The letters may be shown to any one in the world we like, without uttering the vocalization, which, under the protection of secrecy, is due to them, though he be not under an oath; but should he utter them in speech audibly, he violates his protection, and he cannot be a Bard, nor will it be lawful to shew him any more of the secret, either in this world that perishes, or in the other world that will not perish for ever and ever. 1 Sion Bradford. 2



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:14:33 pm
Footnotes
67:1 p. 66 The non reception of a perjured Bard in the world of bliss is likewise dwelt upon by Sion Cent;--


Nid addwyn i ddyn didduw
A dwng gan afrinaw Duw
Ei fyned i deg faenol
Draw ín y nef heb ei droi ín ol.

It is not meet for a godless man,
Who will swear, divulging God,
To go into the fair manor,
Yonder in heaven, without being turned back.



67:2 p. 67 Sion Bradford was admitted a disciple of the bardic chair of Glamorgan in 1730, being then a boy. He presided in the same chair in 1760, and died in 1780.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:15:11 pm
THE SACRED SYMBOL.
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/06700.jpg). That is to say, they are called the three columns, and the three columns of truth, because there can be no knowledge of the truth, but from the light thrown upon it; and the three columns of sciences, because there can be no sciences, but from the light and truth.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:15:29 pm
THE PRIMARY LETTERS.--IMPROVEMENT OF THE ALPHABET.
Before the faith in Christ was obtained, no other than twelve letters were used, namely, a, e, i, o, b, d, g, l, m, n, r, s. After the coming of the faith, sixteen were put in use, then the art of the twelve letters was lost, nor is there at present any one that knows it, except from conjecture. After the coining of Taliesin eighteen letters were used; and it was according to the art of the system of eighteen that O I U was appointed for the Name of God. Before that arrangement it was O I O according to the sixteen. After the time of Taliesin the use of twenty letters was obtained, 3 which continued until the time of Geraint the


p. 68 p. 69

[paragraph continues] Blue Bard, who made an arrangement of twenty-four letters. After that, from reasoning to reasoning, the Bards improving the Alphabet, increased the number to thirty-eight on wood; but in black and white 1 no other than twenty-four were used.



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Footnotes
67:3 p. 67


Iaith ugain ogyrfen y sydd yn Awen.

The language of twenty letters is in Awen--Taliesin.



69:1 p. 68 I.e. in writing.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:15:47 pm
GOGYRVENS.--WRITING WITH INK.
Before the time of Belief and Baptism a letter was called gogyrven (from corf 2); and its right name is still gogyrven on the Coelbren--others call it cyrven. The old men--the primitive teachers--inserted in vocal song the number of the rays of every cyrven, and thus kept the memory and knowledge of them.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:15:56 pm
After plagawd had been obtained, that is, the dressed skins of animals, writing with black, or ink, came into use; and thence was introduced the practice of writing with ink on the Coelbren and its staves, instead of cutting cyrvens, which is still seen in places that are not visited, and are not much known. And thus were memorials and computation kept on wood and boards, and on stones, where it was possible to get them.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:16:22 pm
GOGYRVENS.
The three primary gogyrvens are (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/06900.jpg).



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:16:32 pm
GOGYRVENS.
There were sixteen gogyrvens before the faith in Christ; after that eighteen, then twenty.

GOGYRVENS.
Talhaiarn appointed twenty gogyrvens.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:16:45 pm
Footnotes
69:2 A body.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:17:21 pm
THE THREE FIRST WORDS OF THE CYMRAEG.
 (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/06901.jpg) Bardism.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:17:31 pm
p. 70 p. 71

The three first words of the Cymraeg: the Name of God, that is O I U; the name of the Sun, perception, and sensation, that, is SULW; and Bo, others say, BYW.

The Name of God is a substantive verb; the sun is a substantive noun; and sulw is a substantive adjective--which was clear before the perfect Cymraeg was lost.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:18:04 pm
THE PRIMARY LETTERS.--NAMES OF THE COELBRENS.
Here are the primaries,--

(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07100.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:18:34 pm
which were fifteen. After that (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07101.jpg) was made, and therewith


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:18:49 pm
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07102.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:19:29 pm
After that (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07103.jpg) and (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07104.jpg), and then the letters were eighteen, thus,


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:19:54 pm
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07105.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:20:21 pm
being eighteen. After that, twenty; thus,--

(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07106.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:20:32 pm
being twenty.

And thus the Coelbren continued until the time when the Latin was lost in the country, so that only book students and scholars knew it. Then, with the view of shortening the work on wood, and of softening the Cymraeg, secondary letters were invented, such as are now in the Coelbren of the Bards.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:20:52 pm
The ancient extraordinary character of the Coelbren of the Bards, or mystic letters, which, it is said, were the first known, was thus,--



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:21:08 pm
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07107.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:21:30 pm
Another,

p. 72 p. 73

(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07300.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:21:52 pm
and so with as many as one likes. Wherefore it is said, that with one letter, by modifying it as occasion required, the Bards of the Isle of Britain wrote whatever they liked in secret and mystery.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:22:06 pm
From what has been exhibited are seen the modes of the Coelbrens, as they have been in various ages and times; they have also borne the names of those who taught them; thus,



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:22:15 pm
1. The old Coelbren, called also the primitive Coelbren, which was known to the Cymry before strange nations arrived in the island of Britain


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:22:26 pm
2. The Coelbren of eighteen, which is called the Coelbren of Taliesin, or the one of Talhaiarn.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:22:33 pm
3. The Coelbren of twenty, which is called that of Ithel the Tawny. 1


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:22:44 pm
4. The Coelbren of twenty-four, which is called that of Howel the Good.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:22:58 pm
5. The Long Coelbren, which is of three or four ways and modes.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:23:05 pm
6. The Coelbren of Ystudvach; 2 and the Coelbren of Iorwerth the Gray-haired, 3 &c.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:23:16 pm
7. The Coelbren of the Monks, after divers modes.





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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:23:25 pm
Footnotes
73:1 p. 72 This could hardly have been the same as Ithel the Tawny, son of Llywelyn of the Golden Torque, in the middle of the 12th century. The number of his alphabet, being less than that of Howel the Good, who died A.D. 948, would require that he should have flourished before the latter date.

73:2 Ystudvach was a Bard who flourished in the early part of the fifth century.

73:3 p. 73 Iorwerth Vynglwyd, or the Gray-haired, was an eminent Poet, who was a disciple of the Glamorgan Gorsedd in 1460, and presided there in 1500.



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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:23:57 pm
CLASSIFICATION OF THE LETTERS.

(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07301.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:24:06 pm
The above Alphabets are from Llywelyn Sion. *



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:24:19 pm
(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07302.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:24:35 pm
p. 74 p. 75

Abcedilros; so were called the ten primary letters, because they are put in one word of four syllables, being arranged according to the word, thus,

A. B. C. E. D. I. L. R. O. S.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:24:52 pm
After that M and N were invented, and thence there were twelve letters, which were called Mabcednilros, the letters being thus arranged--

M. A. B. C. E. D. N. I. L. R. O. S.


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:25:04 pm
making twelve letters. After that four other letters were devised, namely, G. T. P. F. And then there was a new arrangement of the letters; all that were partially co-vocal being placed next to each other, as if of one family in respect of sound. That is to say, firstly, the simple ones, namely,
A. E. I. O.

 


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:25:22 pm
Then the labials, namely, M. B. P. F.

Then the dentals, namely, D. T. N.

Then the palatals, G. C.

Then the non congeners, namely, L. R. S.
 



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:25:48 pm
And thus were they arranged,--

A. E. I. O. B. M. P. F. D. T. N. G. C. L. R. S.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:26:00 pm
and were called after their primitive name Abcedilros, though the authentic letters might, in respect of kind and number, be more than what are found in the special word.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:26:43 pm
After that, two other letters were devised, namely (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07500.jpg) or (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07501.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:27:29 pm
and (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07502.jpg) or, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07503.jpg)


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:28:26 pm
then there were eighteen letters. After that, two others, which made twenty, namely,(http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07504.jpg) and (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07505.jpg)  After


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:29:46 pm
that, four other letters, namely, (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07506.jpg) (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07510.jpg) (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07508.jpg)  1 which were arranged on the Coelbren according to their families in respect of sound and vocalness, and mutual relation. After that secondary


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:31:21 pm
letters were devised, which are (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07509.jpg). (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07510.jpg). (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07511.jpg). (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07512.jpg), &c., as far as thirty-eight. Still their old


Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:31:34 pm
p. 76

p. 77

designation is retained, which is, Abcedilros. An old Book calls them, Abcednilroswm.


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Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:31:47 pm
Footnotes
73:* p. 72 This statement is made by the copyist, Iolo Morganwg.



Title: Re: The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg Vol. I
Post by: Majir on October 23, 2009, 01:32:39 pm
75:1 p. 74 A letter, probably either (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07400.jpg) or (http://sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/bim1/img/07401.jpg), ought to be supplied here, in order to make up the number four, if that, and not three, was really intended.



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