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the Ancient Americas => Canada: Past & Present => Topic started by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 08:47:35 am



Title: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 08:47:35 am
Boreas
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Posts: 320



     The Iroquois
« on: February 23, 2007, 01:48:57 am » Quote 

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What happened to the native NE Americans - called Iroquois?

jacquescartier.org/.../charlesbourg-royal.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hochelaga_(village)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Lawrence_Iroquoians
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iroquoian_languages


Anyone familiar with this material?

http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12356
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/anthro/outreach/Indbibl/#PREFACE


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:21:00 am








Bianca
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Posts: 32340



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #1 on: March 06, 2007, 11:52:52 am » Quote Modify 

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Boreas:
                   
                                      Re:   I  R  O  Q  U  O  I  S


I went to school in Canada and, if memory serves me right, the IROQUOIS (proper
spelling) were more of a 'nation' than a tribe.  It had sub-clans like the Apaches as
in what is now the USA.

One thing I do remember is that they were probably the fiercest of all the tribes,
not only to the Europeans, but also to other native tribes. 

I would check CANADIAN history if you are really interested.  I know for a fact that
they were brutal to the Catholic Missionaries.
 

SEE:


CANADIAN MARTYRS

MARTYRS' SHRINE,
Midland, Ont. (last time I was there, that was the address, but almost 40 years
                       later, the area has probably been built up)

JESUIT MISSIONARY HISTORY in Canada


They were a northern tribe, so I don't think any of their remnants would be included
in the SIX or FIVE NATIONS, who are a combination of Southern Canadian and US
Northern Tribes.  They are located today on the reservation at Cayuga, Ont. and
its surrounding area.


Love and Peace,
Bianca


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:31:03 am








Boreas
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Posts: 320



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #2 on: March 07, 2007, 07:11:30 pm » Quote 

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Since there is a direct link between the Norse populations and the north-east Indians I am indeed interested to hear more on the origin, history and destiny of the Iroqoui.

We already know that there once were a culture of Norse settlements all along the shores of Greenland, Baffin Island, Labrador, New Foundland, Hudson, Ontario, Quebec - and down the east-coast all the way to   Virginia and Carolina. 30 years ago they even found the fragments of a Norse ship on the shores of Haiti, dated to just about 1.000 AD...

Since the trade-markets of Norse and Indian artefacts were excavated in the Hudson Bay it is clear that these contacts were well established and prosperous for centuries - at least - until the Roman conquest of the ultimate north finally succeeded, during the 11th and 12th century.

The destiny of the Lappish, the Eskimos and the Iroqui seems to describe a late edition of that very same conquest. The Norse populations of Greenland and then Labrador and New Foundland were taken into capity and sold as slaves during the 14th and 15th century. Thus the early qonquistadors changed the name of the old Norse area of "Mark-land" into "Labradores".

I have always been wondering why these great leakes to the central north/ north-east of Canada is called The Slave Lakes...?

Are there any Iroqui's still around - and do they have their own history somewhat intact?

Best regards


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:32:18 am






Bianca
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Posts: 32342



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #3 on: March 07, 2007, 08:22:28 pm » Quote Modify 

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Boreas:

My computer will not let me give you a link.  Can you use GOOGLE from where you
are.  Google will give you all the information you are asking.  Just make sure you
spell IROQUOIS right.

If you care, Edgar Cayce made reference to the Iroquois.  You will find here, in the
section <Atlantis in the New Age>, go to <Edgar Cayce - Migrations from atlantis>
Post #19.

But I think you are more concerned with the Norse connection.  Therefore you have
to pursue it through the information sites.

Good hunting,

Bianca
 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:33:27 am








Bianca
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Posts: 32342



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #4 on: March 07, 2007, 09:04:59 pm » Quote Modify 

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Boreas:

The "Great Slave Lake " is so called because of the SLAVEY north American Indian

Tribe.  It is located in the NORTHWEST Territories of Canada, north of British

Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.

You are getting it mixed up with the GREAT LAKES in the EASTert part of Canada

They are: Erie, Ontario, Huron and Superior (I hope I didn't leave any out).  That

was IROQUOIS territory.

So, if the Norsemen were in contact, they would have had contact with the Eastern

North Americans.

I wish I could be of more help, but my computer is failing me and I don't have the

time to type the information for you.

I have been involved in the Edgar Cayce thread and have been copying from one

of my books and that's taking up a lot of my time. (not too great a typist, you know.)


Love and Peace,
Bianca 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:35:49 am






unknown
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Posts: 1496



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #5 on: March 07, 2007, 09:40:43 pm » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
hi Bianca

The one you missing is lake Michigan.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:36:42 am





Bianca
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Posts: 32344



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #6 on: March 07, 2007, 09:52:08 pm » Quote Modify 

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Thanks, Unk:

I'm in Florida now and I hate to even think of the frigid North!!

I've come a long way for a "little girl from Italee...." 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:37:32 am







unknown
Hero Member

Posts: 1496



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #7 on: March 07, 2007, 10:10:50 pm » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Its cooold here, got about a  half foot of snow. But I love having all four seasons, each has its unique charm.

We don't get the snow like we used to when I was a kid.

I was in Florida one summer and just couldn't take the heat there.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:38:51 am





Jill Elvgren
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Posts: 264



    Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #8 on: March 11, 2007, 07:02:35 pm » Quote 

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I love the snow and the change of seasons, too! 
This year was really tough, though, I think that I caught just about everything a person can possibly catch.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:40:38 am






unknown
Hero Member

Posts: 1496



     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #9 on: April 22, 2007, 02:14:05 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hi Jill

I think spring is finally here! It was 73 here today and the sun was shining warmly, just perfect for me...

Whats the weather like there?


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:41:48 am






cleasterwood
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Posts: 239


 
     Re: The Iroquis
« Reply #10 on: April 22, 2007, 07:36:01 am » Quote 

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Believe it or not, I studied this subject for book 2.   
I don't have links that connect the Iroquois to the Norse just yet, but here are some links that will tell more about the Iroquios Confederacy.  The Iroquios are still around today.  The two links you asked if anyone is familiar with are valid places to look.  Also, by looking at this site http://www.iroquois.net/ you can learn a lot.  There are many links to explore there and I believe the author is Iroquois.


Quote
The name Iroquois means "rattlesnakes."  They call themselves Haudenosaunee which means "people building a long house." They live in what is now the state of New York and parts of Canada.  The Iroquois Confederacy originally included five nations and was a democracy. The US government is modeled on it.

http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/kmartin/School/iroqh.htm


Quote
The Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee (also known as the "League of Peace and Power"; the "Five Nations"; the "Six Nations"; or the "People of the Long house") is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five tribes: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined after the original five nations were formed. They are often referred to as Iroquois.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iroquois

I dive into Native American myth sometimes.    Mostly I just research my Cherokee heritage.  My ancestor Col. Littleton L Brown, a confederate colonel, married a Cherokee woman.  We only know her first name though.  Talk about looking for a needle in a hay stack. 

Anyway, I took the liberty of searching for some links on the Iroquois/Norse connections.  Here's over 44,000 links from Google:  http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&rls=SUNA,SUNA:2006-33,SUNA:en&q=iroquois+norse

Blessed be,
Lynn


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:45:04 am




                                                (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy.svg/250px-Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy.svg.png)









                                                FLAG OF THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY





Total population

approx. 125,000
(80,000 in the U.S.
45,000 in Canada)
 


Regions with significant populations

 Canada
(southern Quebec, southern Ontario)   

 United States
(New York, Wisconsin, Oklahoma)   
 


Languages


Mohawk,
Oneida,
Onondaga,
Cayuga,
Seneca,
Tuscarora,
English,
French



Religion

Longhouse Religion;
Christianity;
others


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:51:38 am








The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power", the "Five Nations"; the "Six Nations"; or the "People of the Longhouse") is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five nations:

the Mohawk,
the Oneida,
the Onondaga,
the Cayuga, and
the Seneca.

A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined after the original five nations were formed.



Although frequently referred to as the Iroquois, the Nations refer to themselves collectively as

Haudenosaunee
(Akunęhsyę̀niˀ in Tuscarora,
Rotinonsionni in Mohawk).



When Europeans first arrived in North America, the Confederacy was based in what is now the northeastern United States primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:55:42 am









The word Iroquois has many potential origins.

A possible origin of the name Iroquois is reputed to come from a French version of


'irinakhoiw', a Huron (Wyandot) name—considered an insult—meaning "Black Snakes" or "real adders".


The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron and the Algonquin, who allied with the French, because of their rivalry in the fur trade.

The Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) often end their oratory with the phrase

'hiro kone'  -hiro translates as "I have spoken", and kone can be translated several ways, the most common being "in joy", "in sorrow", or "in truth".

Hiro kone to the French encountering the Haudenosaunee would sound like "Iroquois", pronounced iʁokwe in the French language of the time.


Another version is however supported by French linguists such as Henriette Walter and historians such as Dean Snow.  According to this account, "Iroquois" would derive from a Basque expression, Hilokoa, meaning the "killer people". This expression would have been applied to the Iroquois because they were the enemy of the local Algonquians, with whom the Basque fishermen were trading.

However, because there is no "L" in the Algonquian languages of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence region, the name became "Hirokoa", which is the name the French understood when Algonquians referred to the same pidgin language as the one they used with the Basque. The French then transliterated the word according to their own phonetic rules, thus providing "Iroquois".


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 10:58:32 am








Haudenosaunee



The combined confederacy of the Nations is known as the Haudenosaunee.

Haudenosaunee means "People of the Longhouse," or more accurately, "They Are Building a Long House."

The term is said to have been introduced by The Great Peacemaker at the time of the formation of the Confederacy. It implies that the Nations of the Confederacy should live together as families in the same longhouse.

Symbolically, the Seneca were the guardians of the western door of the "tribal longhouse" (Kayęˀčarà•nęh[4] in Tuscarora), and the Mohawk were the guardians of the eastern door.
The Onondagas, whose homeland was in the center of Haudenosaunee territory, were
keepers of the Confederacy's (both literal and figurative) central flame.





Melting pot



The Iroquois are a melting pot.

League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through the "Mourning War", raids intended to seize captives to replace lost compatriots and take vengeance on non-members. This tradition was common to native people of the northeast and was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat.

The Iroquois aimed to create an empire by incorporating conquered peoples and remolding them into Iroquois and thus naturalizing them as full citizens of the tribe. Cadwallader Colden wrote

"It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to save children and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation, and to educate them as their own children, without distinction; These young people soon forget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up the losses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war."

By 1668, two-thirds of the Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. At Onondaga there were Native Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:20:53 am








Food



The Iroquois were a mix of farmers, fishers, gatherers, and hunters, though their main diet came from farming.

The main crops they farmed were corn, beans and squash, which were called the three sisters and were considered special gifts from the Creator. These crops are grown strategically. The cornstalks grow, and the bean plants climb the stalks, and the squash grow beneath, warding off the weeds. In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades.

The food was stored during the winter, and it lasts for two to three years.

When the soil eventually lost its fertility, the Iroquois migrated.

Gathering was the job of the women and children. Wild roots, greens, berries and nuts were gathered
in the summer. During spring, maple syrup was tapped from the trees, and herbs were gathered for medicine.

The Iroquois mostly hunted deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratory birds. Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter.

Fishing was also a significant source of food because the Iroquois were located near a large river. They fished salmon, trout, bass, perch and whitefish. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winter fishing holes were made in the ice.






Wampum



Since they had no writing system, the Iroquois depended upon the spoken word to pass down their history, traditions, and rituals.

As an aid to memory, the Iroquois used shells and shell beads.

The Europeans called the beads wampum, from wampumpeag, a word used by Indians in the area who spoke Algonquin languages.

The type of wampum most commonly used in historic times was bead wampum, cut from various seashells, ground and polished, and then bored through the center with a small hand drill. The purple and white beads, made from the shell of the quahog clam, were arranged on belts in designs representing events of significance.

Certain elders were designated to memorize the various events and treaty articles represented on the belts. These men could "read" the belts and reproduce their contents with great accuracy. The belts were stored at Onondaga, the capital of the confederacy, in the care of a designated wampum keeper.

Famous wampum belts of the Iroquois include the Hiawatha Wampum, which represents the (original) Five Nations, the spatial arrangement of their individual territories, and the nature of their roles in the Confederacy. The modern Iroquois flag is a rendition of the pattern of the original Hiawatha Wampum belt.

The Two Row Wampum, also known as Guswhenta, depicts the agreement made between the Iroquois league and representatives of the Dutch government in 1613, an agreement upon which all subsequent Iroquois treaties with Europeans and Americans have been based. Today, replicas of the Two Row Wampum are often displayed for ceremonial or educational purposes.

Other historical wampum belts representing specific agreements or historical occurrences are known to exist, although many have been lost or stolen.






Beliefs



In the Iroquois belief system was a formless Great Spirit or Creator, from whom other spirits were derived.

Spirits animated all of nature and controlled the changing of the seasons.

Key festivals coincided with the major events of the agricultural calendar, including a harvest festival
of thanksgiving.

After the arrival of the Europeans, many Iroquois became Christians, among them Kateri Tekakwitha,
a young woman of mixed birth.

Traditional religion was revived to some extent in the second half of the 18th century by the teachings of the Iroquois prophet Handsome Lake.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:27:08 am









Features of Confederacy



The general features of the Confederacy may be summarized in the following propositions:

The confederacy, whose founding was historically considered to coincide with a total solar eclipse in 1451, and now considered to coincide with a total solar eclipse in 1142 that more accurately cast a shadow over the region, was a union of Five Nations, composed of Tribes, under one government on the basis of equality; each Nation remaining independent in all manners pertaining to National government.

It created a Great Council of Sachems, who were limited in number, equal in rank and authority, and invested with supreme powers over all matters pertaining to the Confederacy. Fifty sachemships were created to be named in perpetuity in central gentes of the fifty tribes; with power in these gentes to fill vacancies, as often as they occurred, by consensus from among their respective members, and with the further power to depose from office for cause.

Upon selection of a candidate, the General Council approved, or stated cause for disaproval.

The sachems of the Confederacy were also sachems in their respective tribes, and with the chiefs of these tribes formed the Council of each, which was mediator over all matters pertaining to the tribe exclusively.

Unanimity in public acts was essential to the Council of the Confederacy.

In the General Council the sachems deliberated by Nation, which gave to each Nation a veto over the others. The Council of each Nation had power to convene the General Council; but the latter had no power to convene itself. The General Council was open to the orators of the people for the discussion of public questions; but the Council in session decided issues.

The Confederacy had no chief executive magistrate, or official head. The symbolic chief executive, or president, was the titleship of Tadadaho. Experiencing the necessity for a general military commander, they created the office in a dual form, that one might neutralize the other. The two principal war-chiefs were made equal in powers.

Equality between the sexes had a strong adherence in the Confederacy and the women held real power, particularly the power to approve or veto declarations of war.

The Grand Council of Sachems were chosen by the clan mothers, and if any leader failed to comply with the wishes of the women and the Great Law of Peace, he could be removed by the clan mothers.

Originally, the principal object of the council was to raise up sachems to fill vacancies in the ranks of the ruling body occasioned by death or deposition; but it transacted all other business which concerned the common welfare.



Eventually the council fell into three kinds, which may be distinguished as

Civil,
Mourning, and
Religious.

The first declared war and made peace, sent and received embassies, entered into treaties with foreign tribes, regulated the affairs of subjugated tribes, as well as other general welfare issues.

The second raised up sachems and invested them with office, termed the Mourning Council (Henundonuhseh) because the first of its ceremonies was to lament for the deceased ruler whose vacant place was to be filled.

The third was held for the observance of a general religious festival, as an occasion for the confederated tribes to unite under the auspices of a general council in the observance of common religious rites.

But since the Mourning Council was attended with many of the same ceremonies, it came, in time,
to answer for both. It became the only council they held when the civil powers of the confederacy terminated with the supremacy over them of the state.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:31:55 am








Example to the United States



The Iroquois nations' political union and democratic government has been credited as one of the influences on the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.

However, there is heated debate among historians about the importance of their contribution.

Historian Jack Rakove[ writes: "The voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late 1780s contain no significant references to the Iroquois."

Researcher Brian Cook writes:

"The Iroquois probably held some sway over the thinking of the Framers and the development of the U.S. Constitution and the development of American democracy, albeit perhaps indirectly or even subconsciously... However, the opposition is probably also correct. The Iroquois influence is not as great as [some historians] would like it to be, the framers simply did not revere or even understand much of Iroquois culture, and their influences were European or classical - not wholly New World."

However, Cook concedes that much of the heated debate around the influence of Amerindians on the United States Constitution amounts to academic knee-jerk reactions and protectionist turf-wars. Cook further notes "The National Endowment for the Humanities rejected a number of research proposals that dealt with the Iroquois influence theory... [and] Johansen's first book on the Iroquois influence, Forgotten Fathers, was ordered removed from the shelves of the bookstore at Independence Hall."



Although their influence is hotly debated, it is a historical fact that several founding fathers had direct contact with the Iroquois, and prominent figures such as Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were closely involved with the Iroquois. Whether this was purely politics for protection or true admiration, perhaps can never be fully determined.

In 2004 the U.S. Government acknowledged the influence of the Iroquois Constitution on the U.S. Framers.

The Smithsonian Institution also noted the similarities between the two documents, as well as the differences.

One significant difference noted was the inclusion of women in the Iroquois Constitution, one group among many that the framers of the U.S. Constitution did not include.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:34:08 am









                                                         Member nations






The first five nations listed below formed the original Five Nations (listed from west to north); the Tuscarora became the sixth nation in 1720.



English name Iroquoian Meaning 17th/18th century location

Seneca Onondowahgah "People of the Great Hill" Seneca Lake and Genesee River

Cayuga Guyohkohnyoh "People of the Great Swamp" Cayuga Lake

Onondaga Onöñda'gega' "People of the Hills" Onondaga Lake

Oneida Onayotekaono "People of Standing Stone" Oneida Lake

Mohawk Kanien'kehá:ka "People of the Great Flint" Mohawk River

Tuscarora1 Ska-Ruh-Reh "Shirt-Wearing People" From North Carolina²



1 Not one of the original Five Nations; joined 1720.

2 Settled between Oneidas and Onondagas.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:35:15 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Iroquois_5_Nation_Map_c1650.png/695px-Iroquois_5_Nation_Map_c1650.png)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:36:57 am




              (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Iroquois_6_Nations_map_c1720.png)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:40:15 am









Modern population





The total number of Iroquois today is difficult to establish.

About 45,000 Iroquois lived in Canada in 1995.

In the 2000 census, 80,822 people in the United States claimed Iroquois ethnicity, with 45,217 of them claiming only Iroquois background. However, tribal registrations in the United States in 1995 numbered about 30,000 in total.



Populations of the Haudenosaunee tribe Location   Seneca   Cayuga 

Onondaga   Tuscarora   Oneida   Mohawk   Combined   
Ontario         &0000000000003970.0000003,970 &0000000000014051.00000014,051 &0000000000017603.00000017,6031
Quebec           &0000000000009631.0000009,631   
New York &0000000000007581.0000007,581 448 1596 &0000000000001200.0000001,200 &0000000000001109.0000001,109 &0000000000005632.0000005,632   


Wisconsin         &0000000000010309.00000010,309 

   
Oklahoma             &0000000000002200.0000002,2002


Source: Iroquois Population in 1995 by Doug George-Kanentiio.


1 Six Nations of the Grand River Territory.
2 Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma.





Clans



Within each of the six nations, people are divided into a number of matrilineal clans. The number of clans varies by nation, currently from three to eight, with a total of nine different clan names.

Current clans Seneca Cayuga Onondaga Tuscarora Oneida Mohawk
Wolf Wolf Wolf Wolf (Θkwarì•nę) Wolf (Thayú:ni) Wolf (Okwáho)
Bear Bear Bear Bear (Uhčíhręˀ) Bear (Ohkwá:li) Bear (Ohkwá:ri)
Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle (Ráˀkwihs) Turtle (A'no:wál) Turtle (A'nó:wara)
Snipe Snipe Snipe Snipe (Tawístawis) — —
Deer — Deer Deer — —
Beaver — Beaver Beaver (Rakinęhá•ha•ˀ) — —
Heron Heron — — — —
Hawk — Hawk — — —
— — Eel Eel (Akunęhukwatíha•ˀ) — —


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:42:34 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812.jpg/788px-Six_Nations_survivors_of_War_of_1812.jpg)

SIX NATIONS SURVIVORS OF WAR OF 1812

Mohawk leader John Smoke Johnson (right) with John Tutela,
and Young Warner, two other Six Nations War of 1812 veterans








Government
 





The Iroquois have a representative government known as the Grand Council.

The Grand Council is the oldest governmental institution still maintaining its original form in North America.

Each tribe sends chiefs to act as representatives and make decisions for the whole nation. The number of chiefs has never changed.



14 Onondaga

10 Cayuga

  9 Oneida

  9 Mohawk

  8 Seneca

  0 Tuscarora





                                                                Modern communities






Canada


Kahnawake Mohawk in Quebec

Kanesatake Mohawk in Quebec

Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne in Ontario

Thames Oneida in Ontario



Six Nations of the Grand River Territory in Ontario

 
Tyendinaga Mohawk in Ontario

Wahta Mohawk in Ontario



United States


Cayuga Nation in New York

Ganienkeh Mohawk — not federally controlled

Kanatsiohareke Mohawk

Onondaga Nation in New York

Oneida Indian Nation in New York

Oneida Tribe of Indians in Wisconsin

St. Regis Band of Mohawk Indians in New York

Seneca Nation of New York

Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma

Tuscarora Nation of New York


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:50:14 am









                                          Prominent people of Iroquois ancestry






Frederick Alexcee, artist (also of Tsimshian ancestry)

Henry Armstrong, boxer, #2 in Ring Magazine's list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years

George Armstrong, hockey player, most successful captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs with five
Stanley Cup victories.

Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea, Mohawk leader

Cornplanter or Kaintwakon, Seneca chief

Deganawida or The Great Peacemaker, the traditional founder, along with Hiawatha,
of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy

Graham Greene (actor), of Canadian Oneida ancestry

Handsome Lake or Ganioda'yo, Seneca religious leader

Hiawatha

Ki Longfellow, novelist (also of French and Irish ancestry)

Oren Lyons, Onondaga, a traditional Faithkeeper of the Turtle clan

Ely S. Parker, Seneca, Union Army officer during American Civil War, Commissioner of Indian Affairs during Ulysses S. Grant's first term as President.

Red Jacket (known as Otetiani in his youth and Sagoyewatha after 1780), Seneca orator and chief of the Wolf clan

Robbie Robertson, Mohawk, songwriter, guitarist and singer best known for his membership in The Band.

Joanne Shenandoah, Oneida singer, songwriter, actress and educator

Jay Silverheels, actor, of Canadian Mohawk origin

Kateri Tekakwitha, Catholic patron of ecology, of Mohawk and Algonquin ancestry


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 11:52:45 am




References





"The Ordeal of the Longhouse", by Daniel K. Richter

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain

For a detailed account of Iroquois actions during the American Revolution, see: Williams, Glenn F. Year of the Hangman: George Washington's Campaign Against the Iroquois. Yardley: Westholme Publishing, 2005.

Jennings, Francis, The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire, 1984, ISBN 0393017192

Michelson, G. A Thousand Words of Mohawk Ottawa: National Museums of Canada 1973
 
Wright, Ronald. (2005) "Stolen Continents: 500 Years of Conquest and Resistance in the Americas." Mariner Books. ISBN-10: 0618492402; ISBN-13: 978-0618492404

Wu Ming (2007) "Manituana" A novel revolving around Joseph Brant and the American Revolution

Sloan, De Villo. The Crimsoned Hills of Onondaga: Romantic Antiquarians and the Euro-American Invention of Native American Prehistory. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2008.





See also



Covenant Chain

David Cusick

Economy of the Iroquois

Ely S. Parker

False Face Society

Ganondagan State Historic Site

Gideon Hawley

Handsome Lake

History of New York

Iroquoian languages

Iroquois mythology

Iroquois Nationals

Mohawk Chapel

Red Jacket

Sir William Johnson

Six Nations of the Grand River

Smoke Johnson

Sullivan Expedition

The Kahnawake Iroquois and the Rebellions of 1837-38

The Flying Head




External links



 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Iroquois 

"The Four Indian Kings" in Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada

Who Are the Haudenosaunee?

Oldest Living Participatory Democracy

Iroquois Indian Museum, Howes Cave, NY

Ganienkeh.net

Haudenosaunee Home Page : the official source of news and information from the Haudenosaunee.

Gayanashagowa

Long list of Iroquois links

The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign Hits Iroquoia, 1779

David Cusick's Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations (1828)

Iroquois Home Page

Iroquois Confederacy and the Influence Thesis : an examination of theories for and against Iroquois influence on American democratic thought.

The Wampum Chronicles: Mohawk Territory on the Internet

The Documentary History of the State of New York, Vol. 1, Ch. I. Papers relating to the Iroquois and other Indian Tribes. 1666—1763

Iroquois Constitution Influenced That of U.S., Historians Say
 
View Historica’s Heritage Minute "Peacemaker", a mini-docudrama about the legendary founder of the Iroquois Confederacy.



RETRIEVED FROM:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iroquois


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:13:45 pm








                                         The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations





Circa 1500

I am Dekanawidah and with the Five Nations' Confederate Lords I plant the Tree of Great Peace. I plant it in your territory, Adodarhoh, and the Onondaga Nation, in the territory of you who are Firekeepers.
I name the tree the Tree of the Great Long Leaves. Under the shade of this Tree of the Great Peace we spread the soft white feathery down of the globe thistle as seats for you, Adodarhoh, and your cousin Lords.

We place you upon those seats, spread soft with the feathery down of the globe thistle, there beneath the shade of the spreading branches of the Tree of Peace. There shall you sit and watch the Council Fire of the Confederacy of the Five Nations, and all the affairs of the Five Nations shall be transacted at this place before you, Adodarhoh, and your cousin Lords, by the Confederate Lords of the Five Nations.


Roots have spread out from the Tree of the Great Peace, one to the north, one to the east, one to the south and one to the west. The name of these roots is The Great White Roots and their nature is Peace and Strength.
If any man or any nation outside the Five Nations shall obey the laws of the Great Peace and make known their disposition to the Lords of the Confederacy, they may trace the Roots to the Tree and if their minds are clean and they are obedient and promise to obey the wishes of the Confederate Council, they shall be welcomed to take shelter beneath the Tree of the Long Leaves.

We place at the top of the Tree of the Long Leaves an Eagle who is able to see afar. If he sees in the distance any evil approaching or any danger threatening he will at once warn the people of the Confederacy.


To you Adodarhoh, the Onondaga cousin Lords, I and the other Confederate Lords have entrusted the caretaking and the watching of the Five Nations Council Fire.
When there is any business to be transacted and the Confederate Council is not in session, a messenger shall be dispatched either to Adodarhoh, Hononwirehtonh or Skanawatih, Fire Keepers, or to their War Chiefs with a full statement of the case desired to be considered. Then shall Adodarhoh call his cousin (associate) Lords together and consider whether or not the case is of sufficient importance to demand the attention of the Confederate Council. If so, Adodarhoh shall dispatch messengers to summon all the Confederate Lords to assemble beneath the Tree of the Long Leaves.

When the Lords are assembled the Council Fire shall be kindled, but not with chestnut wood, and Adodarhoh shall formally open the Council.

Then shall Adodarhoh and his cousin Lords, the Fire Keepers, announce the subject for discussion.

The Smoke of the Confederate Council Fire shall ever ascend and pierce the sky so that other nations who may be allies may see the Council Fire of the Great Peace.

Adodarhoh and his cousin Lords are entrusted with the Keeping of the Council Fire.


You, Adodarhoh, and your thirteen cousin Lords, shall faithfully keep the space about the Council Fire clean and you shall allow neither dust nor dirt to accumulate. I lay a Long Wing before you as a broom. As a weapon against a crawling creature I lay a staff with you so that you may thrust it away from the Council Fire. If you fail to cast it out then call the rest of the United Lords to your aid.

The Council of the Mohawk shall be divided into three parties as follows: Tekarihoken, Ayonhwhathah and Shadekariwade are the first party; Sharenhowaneh, Deyoenhegwenh and Oghrenghrehgowah are the second party, and Dehennakrineh, Aghstawenserenthah and Shoskoharowaneh are the third party. The third party is to listen only to the discussion of the first and second parties and if an error is made or the proceeding is irregular they are to call attention to it, and when the case is right and properly decided by the two parties they shall confirm the decision of the two parties and refer the case to the Seneca Lords for their decision. When the Seneca Lords have decided in accord with the Mohawk Lords, the case or question shall be referred to the Cayuga and Oneida Lords on the opposite side of the house.

I, Dekanawidah, appoint the Mohawk Lords the heads and the leaders of the Five Nations Confederacy. The Mohawk Lords are the foundation of the Great Peace and it shall, therefore, be against the Great Binding Law to pass measures in the Confederate Council after the Mohawk Lords have protested against them.
No council of the Confederate Lords shall be legal unless all the Mohawk Lords are present.


Whenever the Confederate Lords shall assemble for the purpose of holding a council, the Onondaga Lords shall open it by expressing their gratitude to their cousin Lords and greeting them, and they shall make an address and offer thanks to the earth where men dwell, to the streams of water, the pools, the springs and the lakes, to the maize and the fruits, to the medicinal herbs and trees, to the forest trees for their usefulness, to the animals that serve as food and give their pelts for clothing, to the great winds and the lesser winds, to the Thunderers, to the Sun, the mighty warrior, to the moon, to the messengers of the Creator who reveal his wishes and to the Great Creator who dwells in the heavens above, who gives all the things useful to men, and who is the source and the ruler of health and life.

Then shall the Onondaga Lords declare the council open. The council shall not sit after darkness has set in.


The Firekeepers shall formally open and close all councils of the Confederate Lords, and they shall pass upon all matters deliberated upon by the two sides and render their decision.
Every Onondaga Lord (or his deputy) must be present at every Confederate Council and must agree with the majority without unwarrantable dissent, so that a unanimous decision may be rendered.
If Adodarhoh or any of his cousin Lords are absent from a Confederate Council, any other Firekeeper may open and close the Council, but the Firekeepers present may not give any decisions, unless the matter is of small importance.

All the business of the Five Nations Confederate Council shall be conducted by the two combined bodies of Confederate Lords. First the question shall be passed upon by the Mohawk and Seneca Lords, then it shall be discussed and passed by the Oneida and Cayuga Lords. Their decisions shall then be referred to the Onondaga Lords, (Fire Keepers) for final judgement.
The same process shall obtain when a question is brought before the council by an individual or a War Chief.


In all cases the procedure must be as follows: when the Mohawk and Seneca Lords have unanimously agreed upon a question, they shall report their decision to the Cayuga and Oneida Lords who shall deliberate upon the question and report a unanimous decision to the Mohawk Lords. The Mohawk Lords will then report the standing of the case to the Firekeepers, who shall render a decision as they see fit in case of a disagreement by the two bodies, or confirm the decisions of the two bodies if they are identical. The Fire Keepers shall then report their decision to the Mohawk Lords who shall announce it to the open council.

If through any misunderstanding or obstinacy on the part of the Fire Keepers, they render a decision at variance with that of the Two Sides, the Two Sides shall reconsider the matter and if their decisions are jointly the same as before they shall report to the Fire Keepers who are then compelled to confirm their joint decision.

When a case comes before the Onondaga Lords (Fire Keepers) for discussion and decsion, Adodarho shall introduce the matter to his comrade Lords who shall then discuss it in their two bodies. Every Onondaga Lord except Hononwiretonh shall deliberate and he shall listen only. When a unanimous decision shall have been reached by the two bodies of Fire Keepers, Adodarho shall notify Hononwiretonh of the fact when he shall confirm it. He shall refuse to confirm a decision if it is not unanimously agreed upon by both sides of the Fire Keepers.

No Lord shall ask a question of the body of Confederate Lords when they are discussing a case, question or proposition. He may only deliberate in a low tone with the separate body of which he is a member.

When the Council of the Five Nation Lords shall convene they shall appoint a speaker for the day. He shall be a Lord of either the Mohawk, Onondaga or Seneca Nation.
The next day the Council shall appoint another speaker, but the first speaker may be reappointed if there is no objection, but a speaker's term shall not be regarded more than for the day.


No individual or foreign nation interested in a case, question or proposition shall have any voice in the Confederate Council except to answer a question put to him or them by the speaker for the Lords.

If the conditions which shall arise at any future time call for an addition to or change of this law, the case shall be carefully considered and if a new beam seems necessary or beneficial, the proposed change shall be voted upon and if adopted it shall be called, "Added to the Rafters". 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:15:19 pm







Rights, Duties and Qualifications of Lords



A bunch of a certain number of shell (wampum) strings each two spans in length shall be given to each of the female families in which the Lordship titles are vested. The right of bestowing the title shall be hereditary in the family of the females legally possessing the bunch of shell strings and the strings shall be the token that the females of the family have the proprietary right to the Lordship title for all time to come, subject to certain restrictions hereinafter mentioned.

If any Confederate Lord neglects or refuses to attend the Confederate Council, the other Lords of the Nation of which he is a member shall require their War Chief to request the female sponsors of the Lord so guilty of defection to demand his attendance of the Council. If he refuses, the women holding the title shall immediately select another candidate for the title.
No Lord shall be asked more than once to attend the Confederate Council.


If at any time it shall be manifest that a Confederate Lord has not in mind the welfare of the people or disobeys the rules of this Great Law, the men or women of the Confederacy, or both jointly, shall come to the Council and upbraid the erring Lord through his War Chief. If the complaint of the people through the War Chief is not heeded the first time it shall be uttered again and then if no attention is given a third complaint and warning shall be given. If the Lord is contumacious the matter shall go to the council of War Chiefs. The War Chiefs shall then divest the erring Lord of his title by order of the women in whom the titleship is vested. When the Lord is deposed the women shall notify the Confederate Lords through their War Chief, and the Confederate Lords shall sanction the act. The women will then select another of their sons as a candidate and the Lords shall elect him. Then shall the chosen one be installed by the Installation Ceremony.
When a Lord is to be deposed, his War Chief shall address him as follows:

"So you, __________, disregard and set at naught the warnings of your women relatives. So you fling the warnings over your shoulder to cast them behind you. "Behold the brightness of the Sun and in the brightness of the Sun's light I depose you of your title and remove the sacred emblem of your Lordship title. I remove from your brow the deer's antlers, which was the emblem of your position and token of your nobility. I now depose you and return the antlers to the women whose heritage they are."
The War Chief shall now address the women of the deposed Lord and say:

"Mothers, as I have now deposed your Lord, I now return to you the emblem and the title of Lordship, therefore repossess them."
Again addressing himself to the deposed Lord he shall say:

"As I have now deposed and discharged you so you are now no longer Lord. You shall now go your way alone, the rest of the people of the Confederacy will not go with you, for we know not the kind of mind that possesses you. As the Creator has nothing to do with wrong so he will not come to rescue you from the precipice of destruction in which you have cast yourself. You shall never be restored to the position which you once occupied."
Then shall the War Chief address himself to the Lords of the Nation to which the deposed Lord belongs and say:

"Know you, my Lords, that I have taken the deer's antlers from the brow of ___________, the emblem of his position and token of his greatness."
The Lords of the Confederacy shall then have no other alternative than to sanction the discharge of the offending Lord.


If a Lord of the Confederacy of the Five Nations should commit murder the other Lords of the Nation shall assemble at the place where the corpse lies and prepare to depose the criminal Lord. If it is impossible to meet at the scene of the crime the Lords shall discuss the matter at the next Council of their Nation and request their War Chief to depose the Lord guilty of crime, to "bury" his women relatives and to transfer the Lordship title to a sister family.
The War Chief shall address the Lord guilty of murder and say:

"So you, __________ (giving his name) did kill __________ (naming the slain man), with your own hands! You have comitted a grave sin in the eyes of the Creator. Behold the bright light of the Sun, and in the brightness of the Sun's light I depose you of your title and remove the horns, the sacred emblems of your Lordship title. I remove from your brow the deer's antlers, which was the emblem of your position and token of your nobility. I now depose you and expel you and you shall depart at once from the territory of the Five Nations Confederacy and nevermore return again. We, the Five Nations Confederacy, moreover, bury your women relatives because the ancient Lordship title was never intended to have any union with bloodshed. Henceforth it shall not be their heritage. By the evil deed that you have done they have forfeited it forever.."
The War Chief shall then hand the title to a sister family and he shall address it and say:

"Our mothers, ____________, listen attentively while I address you on a solemn and important subject. I hereby transfer to you an ancient Lordship title for a great calamity has befallen it in the hands of the family of a former Lord. We trust that you, our mothers, will always guard it, and that you will warn your Lord always to be dutiful and to advise his people to ever live in love, poeace and harmony that a great calamity may never happen again."

Certain physical defects in a Confederate Lord make him ineligible to sit in the Confederate Council. Such defects are infancy, idiocy, blindness, deafness, dumbness and impotency. When a Confederate Lord is restricted by any of these condition, a deputy shall be appointed by his sponsors to act for him, but in case of extreme necessity the restricted Lord may exercise his rights.

If a Confederate Lord desires to resign his title he shall notify the Lords of the Nation of which he is a member of his intention. If his coactive Lords refuse to accept his resignation he may not resign his title.
A Lord in proposing to resign may recommend any proper candidate which recommendation shall be received by the Lords, but unless confirmed and nominated by the women who hold the title the candidate so named shall not be considered.


Any Lord of the Five Nations Confederacy may construct shell strings (or wampum belts) of any size or length as pledges or records of matters of national or international importance.
When it is necessary to dispatch a shell string by a War Chief or other messenger as the token of a summons, the messenger shall recite the contents of the string to the party to whom it is sent. That party shall repeat the message and return the shell string and if there has been a sumons he shall make ready for the journey.

Any of the people of the Five Nations may use shells (or wampum) as the record of a pledge, contract or an agreement entered into and the same shall be binding as soon as shell strings shall have been exchanged by both parties.


The Lords of the Confederacy of the Five Nations shall be mentors of the people for all time. The thickness of their skin shall be seven spans -- which is to say that they shall be proof against anger, offensive actions and criticism. Their hearts shall be full of peace and good will and their minds filled with a yearning for the welfare of the people of the Confederacy. With endless patience they shall carry out their duty and their firmness shall be tempered with a tenderness for their people. Neither anger nor fury shall find lodgement in their minds and all their words and actions shall be marked by calm deliberation.

If a Lord of the Confederacy should seek to establish any authority independent of the jurisdiction of the Confederacy of the Great Peace, which is the Five Nations, he shall be warned three times in open council, first by the women relatives, second by the men relatives and finally by the Lords of the Confederacy of the Nation to which he belongs. If the offending Lord is still obdurate he shall be dismissed by the War Chief of his nation for refusing to conform to the laws of the Great Peace. His nation shall then install the candidate nominated by the female name holders of his family.

It shall be the duty of all of the Five Nations Confederate Lords, from time to time as occasion demands, to act as mentors and spiritual guides of their people and remind them of their Creator's will and words. They shall say:
"Hearken, that peace may continue unto future days!
"Always listen to the words of the Great Creator, for he has spoken.
"United people, let not evil find lodging in your minds.
"For the Great Creator has spoken and the cause of Peace shall not become old.
"The cause of peace shall not die if you remember the Great Creator."
Every Confederate Lord shall speak words such as these to promote peace.

All Lords of the Five Nations Confederacy must be honest in all things. They must not idle or gossip, but be men possessing those honorable qualities that make true royaneh. It shall be a serious wrong for anyone to lead a Lord into trivial affairs, for the people must ever hold their Lords high in estimation out of respect to their honorable positions.

When a candidate Lord is to be installed he shall furnish four strings of shells (or wampum) one span in length bound together at one end. Such will constitute the evidence of his pledge to the Confederate Lords that he will live according to the constitution of the Great Peace and exercise justice in all affairs.
When the pledge is furnished the Speaker of the Council must hold the shell strings in his hand and address the opposite side of the Council Fire and he shall commence his address saying:

"Now behold him. He has now become a Confederate Lord. See how splendid he looks."
An address may then follow. At the end of it he shall send the bunch of shell strings to the oposite side and they shall be received as evidence of the pledge. Then shall the opposite side say:
"We now do crown you with the sacred emblem of the deer's antlers, the emblem of your Lordship. You shall now become a mentor of the people of the Five Nations. The thickness of your skin shall be seven spans -- which is to say that you shall be proof against anger, offensive actions and criticism. Your heart shall be filled with peace and good will and your mind filled with a yearning for the welfare of the people of the Confederacy. With endless patience you shall carry out your duty and your firmness shall be tempered with tenderness for your people. Neither anger nor fury shall find lodgement in your mind and all your words and actions shall be marked with calm deliberation. In all of your deliberations in the Confederate Council, in your efforts at law making, in all your official acts, self interest shall be cast into oblivion. Cast not over your shoulder behind you the warnings of the nephews and nieces should they chide you for any error or wrong you may do, but return to the way of the Great Law which is just and right. Look and listen for the welfare of the whole people and have always in view not only the present but also the coming generations, even those whose faces are yet beneath the surface of the ground -- the unborn of the future Nation."

When a Lordship title is to be conferred, the candidate Lord shall furnish the cooked venison, the corn bread and the corn soup, together with other necessary things and the labor for the Conferring of Titles Festival.

The Lords of the Confederacy may confer the Lordship title upon a candidate whenever the Great Law is recited, if there be a candidate, for the Great Law speaks all the rules.

If a Lord of the Confederacy should become seriously ill and be thought near death, the women who are heirs of his title shall go to his house and lift his crown of deer antlers, the emblem of his Lordship, and place them at one side. If the Creator spares him and he rises from his bed of sickness he may rise with the antlers on his brow.
The following words shall be used to temporarily remove the antlers:

"Now our comrade Lord (or our relative Lord) the time has come when we must approach you in your illness. We remove for a time the deer's antlers from your brow, we remove the emblem of your Lordship title. The Great Law has decreed that no Lord should end his life with the antlers on his brow. We therefore lay them aside in the room. If the Creator spares you and you recover from your illness you shall rise from your bed with the antlers on your brow as before and you shall resume your duties as Lord of the Confederacy and you may labor again for the Confederate people."

If a Lord of the Confederacy should die while the Council of the Five Nations is in session the Council shall adjourn for ten days. No Confederate Council shall sit within ten days of the death of a Lord of the Confederacy.
If the Three Brothers (the Mohawk, the Onondaga and the Seneca) should lose one of their Lords by death, the Younger Brothers (the Oneida and the Cayuga) shall come to the surviving Lords of the Three Brothers on the tenth day and console them. If the Younger Brothers lose one of their Lords then the Three Brothers shall come to them and console them. And the consolation shall be the reading of the contents of the thirteen shell (wampum) strings of Ayonhwhathah. At the termination of this rite a successor shall be appointed, to be appointed by the women heirs of the Lordship title. If the women are not yet ready to place their nominee before the Lords the Speaker shall say,

"Come let us go out."
All shall leave the Council or the place of gathering. The installation shall then wait until such a time as the women are ready. The Speaker shall lead the way from the house by saying,
"Let us depart to the edge of the woods and lie in waiting on our bellies."
When the women title holders shall have chosen one of their sons the Confederate Lords will assemble in two places, the Younger Brothers in one place and the Three Older Brothers in another. The Lords who are to console the mourning Lords shall choose one of their number to sing the Pacification Hymn as they journey to the sorrowing Lords. The singer shall lead the way and the Lords and the people shall follow. When they reach the sorrowing Lords they shall hail the candidate Lord and perform the rite of Conferring the Lordship Title.


When a Confederate Lord dies, the surviving relatives shall immediately dispatch a messenger, a member of another clan, to the Lords in another locality. When the runner comes within hailing distance of the locality he shall utter a sad wail, thus: "Kwa-ah, Kwa-ah, Kwa-ah!" The sound shall be repeated three times and then again and again at intervals as many times as the distance may require. When the runner arrives at the settlement the people shall assemble and one must ask him the nature of his sad message. He shall then say, "Let us consider." Then he shall tell them of the death of the Lord. He shall deliver to them a string of shells (wampum) and say "Here is the testimony, you have heard the message." He may then return home.
It now becomes the duty of the Lords of the locality to send runners to other localities and each locality shall send other messengers until all Lords are notified. Runners shall travel day and night.


If a Lord dies and there is no candidate qualified for the office in the family of the women title holders, the Lords of the Nation shall give the title into the hands of a sister family in the clan until such a time as the original family produces a candidate, when the title shall be restored to the rightful owners.
No Lordship title may be carried into the grave. The Lords of the Confederacy may dispossess a dead Lord of his title even at the grave. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:17:21 pm















Election of Pine Tree Chiefs



Should any man of the Nation assist with special ability or show great interest in the affairs of the Nation, if he proves himself wise, honest and worthy of confidence, the Confederate Lords may elect him to a seat with them and he may sit in the Confederate Council. He shall be proclaimed a 'Pine Tree sprung up for the Nation' and shall be installed as such at the next assembly for the installation of Lords. Should he ever do anything contrary to the rules of the Great Peace, he may not be deposed from office -- no one shall cut him down -- but thereafter everyone shall be deaf to his voice and his advice. Should he resign his seat and title no one shall prevent him. A Pine Tree chief has no authority to name a successor nor is his title hereditary. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:20:11 pm







Names, Duties and Rights of War Chiefs



The title names of the Chief Confederate Lords' War Chiefs shall be:

Ayonwaehs, War Chief under Lord Takarihoken (Mohawk)
Kahonwahdironh, War Chief under Lord Odatshedeh (Oneida)
Ayendes, War Chief under Lord Adodarhoh (Onondaga)
Wenenhs, War Chief under Lord Dekaenyonh (Cayuga)
Shoneradowaneh, War Chief under Lord Skanyadariyo (Seneca)
The women heirs of each head Lord's title shall be the heirs of the War Chief's title of their respective Lord.

The War Chiefs shall be selected from the eligible sons of the female families holding the head Lordship titles.


There shall be one War Chief for each Nation and their duties shall be to carry messages for their Lords and to take up the arms of war in case of emergency. They shall not participate in the proceedings of the Confederate Council but shall watch its progress and in case of an erroneous action by a Lord they shall receive the complaints of the people and convey the warnings of the women to him. The people who wish to convey messages to the Lords in the Confederate Council shall do so through the War Chief of their Nation. It shall ever be his duty to lay the cases, questions and propositions of the people before the Confederate Council.

When a War Chief dies another shall be installed by the same rite as that by which a Lord is installed.

If a War Chief acts contrary to instructions or against the provisions of the Laws of the Great Peace, doing so in the capacity of his office, he shall be deposed by his women relatives and by his men relatives. Either the women or the men alone or jointly may act in such a case. The women title holders shall then choose another candidate.

When the Lords of the Confederacy take occasion to dispatch a messenger in behalf of the Confederate Council, they shall wrap up any matter they may send and instruct the messenger to remember his errand, to turn not aside but to proceed faithfully to his destination and deliver his message according to every instruction.

If a message borne by a runner is the warning of an invasion he shall whoop, "Kwa-ah, Kwa-ah," twice and repeat at short intervals; then again at a longer interval.

If a human being is found dead, the finder shall not touch the body but return home immediately shouting at short intervals, "Koo-weh!" 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:21:22 pm








Clans and Consanguinity



Among the Five Nations and their posterity there shall be the following original clans: Great Name Bearer, Ancient Name Bearer, Great Bear, Ancient Bear, Turtle, Painted Turtle, Standing Rock, Large Plover, Deer, Pigeon Hawk, Eel, Ball, Opposite-Side-of-the-Hand, and Wild Potatoes. These clans distributed through their respective Nations, shall be the sole owners and holders of the soil of the country and in them is it vested as a birthright.

People of the Five Nations members of a certain clan shall recognize every other member of that clan, irrespective of the Nation, as relatives. Men and women, therefore, members of the same clan are forbidden to marry.

The lineal descent of the people of the Five Nations shall run in the female line. Women shall be considered the progenitors of the Nation. They shall own the land and the soil. Men and women shall follow the status of the mother.

The women heirs of the Confederated Lordship titles shall be called Royaneh (Noble) for all time to come.

The women of the Forty Eight (now fifty) Royaneh families shall be the heirs of the Authorized Names for all time to come.
When an infant of the Five Nations is given an Authorized Name at the Midwinter Festival or at the Ripe Corn Festival, one in the cousinhood of which the infant is a member shall be appointed a speaker. He shall then announce to the opposite cousinhood the names of the father and the mother of the child together with the clan of the mother. Then the speaker shall announce the child's name twice. The uncle of the child shall then take the child in his arms and walking up and down the room shall sing: "My head is firm, I am of the Confederacy." As he sings the opposite cousinhood shall respond by chanting, "Hyenh, Hyenh, Hyenh, Hyenh," until the song is ended.


If the female heirs of a Confederate Lord's title become extinct, the title right shall be given by the Lords of the Confederacy to the sister family whom they shall elect and that family shall hold the name and transmit it to their (female) heirs, but they shall not appoint any of their sons as a candidate for a title until all the eligible men of the former family shall have died or otherwise have become ineligible.

If all the heirs of a Lordship title become extinct, and all the families in the clan, then the title shall be given by the Lords of the Confederacy to the family in a sister clan whom they shall elect.

If any of the Royaneh women, heirs of a titleship, shall wilfully withhold a Lordship or other title and refuse to bestow it, or if such heirs abandon, forsake or despise their heritage, then shall such women be deemed buried and their family extinct. The titleship shall then revert to a sister family or clan upon application and complaint. The Lords of the Confederacy shall elect the family or clan which shall in future hold the title.

The Royaneh women of the Confederacy heirs of the Lordship titles shall elect two women of their family as cooks for the Lord when the people shall assemble at his house for business or other purposes.
It is not good nor honorable for a Confederate Lord to allow his people whom he has called to go hungry.


When a Lord holds a conference in his home, his wife, if she wishes, may prepare the food for the Union Lords who assemble with him. This is an honorable right which she may exercise and an expression of her esteem.

The Royaneh women, heirs of the Lordship titles, shall, should it be necessary, correct and admonish the holders of their titles. Those only who attend the Council may do this and those who do not shall not object to what has been said nor strive to undo the action.

When the Royaneh women, holders of a Lordship title, select one of their sons as a candidate, they shall select one who is trustworthy, of good character, of honest disposition, one who manages his own affairs, supports his own family, if any, and who has proven a faithful man to his Nation.

When a Lordship title becomes vacant through death or other cause, the Royaneh women of the clan in which the title is hereditary shall hold a council and shall choose one from among their sons to fill the office made vacant. Such a candidate shall not be the father of any Confederate Lord. If the choice is unanimous the name is referred to the men relatives of the clan. If they should disapprove it shall be their duty to select a candidate from among their own number. If then the men and women are unable to decide which of the two candidates shall be named, then the matter shall be referred to the Confederate Lords in the Clan. They shall decide which candidate shall be named. If the men and the women agree to a candidate his name shall be referred to the sister clans for confirmation. If the sister clans confirm the choice, they shall refer their action to their Confederate Lords who shall ratify the choice and present it to their cousin Lords, and if the cousin Lords confirm the name then the candidate shall be installed by the proper ceremony for the conferring of Lordship titles.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:23:10 pm








Official Symbolism



A large bunch of shell strings, in the making of which the Five Nations Confederate Lords have equally contributed, shall symbolize the completeness of the union and certify the pledge of the nations represented by the Confederate Lords of the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga and the Senecca, that all are united and formed into one body or union called the Union of the Great Law, which they have established.
A bunch of shell strings is to be the symbol of the council fire of the Five Nations Confederacy. And the Lord whom the council of Fire Keepers shall appoint to speak for them in opening the council shall hold the strands of shells in his hands when speaking. When he finishes speaking he shall deposit the strings on an elevated place (or pole) so that all the assembled Lords and the people may see it and know that the council is open and in progress.

When the council adjourns the Lord who has been appointed by his comrade Lords to close it shall take the strands of shells in his hands and address the assembled Lords. Thus will the council adjourn until such time and place as appointed by the council. Then shall the shell strings be placed in a place for safekeeping.

Every five years the Five Nations Confederate Lords and the people shall assemble together and shall ask one another if their minds are still in the same spirit of unity for the Great Binding Law and if any of the Five Nations shall not pledge continuance and steadfastness to the pledge of unity then the Great Binding Law shall dissolve.


Five strings of shell tied together as one shall represent the Five Nations. Each string shall represent one territory and the whole a completely united territory known as the Five Nations Confederate territory.

Five arrows shall be bound together very strong and each arrow shall represent one nation. As the five arrows are strongly bound this shall symbolize the complete union of the nations. Thus are the Five Nations united completely and enfolded together, united into one head, one body and one mind. Therefore they shall labor, legislate and council together for the interest of future generations.

The Lords of the Confederacy shall eat together from one bowl the feast of cooked beaver's tail. While they are eating they are to use no sharp utensils for if they should they might accidentally cut one another and bloodshed would follow. All measures must be taken to prevent the spilling of blood in any way.


There are now the Five Nations Confederate Lords standing with joined hands in a circle. This signifies and provides that should any one of the Confederate Lords leave the council and this Confederacy his crown of deer's horns, the emblem of his Lordship title, together with his birthright, shall lodge on the arms of the Union Lords whose hands are so joined. He forfeits his title and the crown falls from his brow but it shall remain in the Confederacy.

A further meaning of this is that if any time any one of the Confederate Lords choose to submit to the law of a foreign people he is no longer in but out of the Confederacy, and persons of this class shall be called "They have alienated themselves." Likewise such persons who submit to laws of foreign nations shall forfeit all birthrights and claims on the Five Nations Confederacy and territory.

You, the Five Nations Confederate Lords, be firm so that if a tree falls on your joined arms it shall not separate or weaken your hold. So shall the strength of the union be preserved.


A bunch of wampum shells on strings, three spans of the hand in length, the upper half of the bunch being white and the lower half black, and formed from equal contributions of the men of the Five Nations, shall be a token that the men have combined themselves into one head, one body and one thought, and it shall also symbolize their ratification of the peace pact of the Confederacy, whereby the Lords of the Five Nations have established the Great Peace.
The white portion of the shell strings represent the women and the black portion the men. The black portion, furthermore, is a token of power and authority vested in the men of the Five Nations.

This string of wampum vests the people with the right to correct their erring Lords. In case a part or all the Lords pursue a course not vouched for by the people and heed not the third warning of their women relatives, then the matter shall be taken to the General Council of the women of the Five Nations. If the Lords notified and warned three times fail to heed, then the case falls into the hands of the men of the Five Nations. The War Chiefs shall then, by right of such power and authority, enter the open concil to warn the Lord or Lords to return from the wrong course. If the Lords heed the warning they shall say, "we will reply tomorrow." If then an answer is returned in favor of justice and in accord with this Great Law, then the Lords shall individualy pledge themselves again by again furnishing the necessary shells for the pledge. Then shall the War Chief or Chiefs exhort the Lords urging them to be just and true.

Should it happen that the Lords refuse to heed the third warning, then two courses are open: either the men may decide in their council to depose the Lord or Lords or to club them to death with war clubs. Should they in their council decide to take the first course the War Chief shall address the Lord or Lords, saying:

"Since you the Lords of the Five Nations have refused to return to the procedure of the Constitution, we now declare your seats vacant, we take off your horns, the token of your Lordship, and others shall be chosen and installed in your seats, therefore vacate your seats."
Should the men in their council adopt the second course, the War Chief shall order his men to enter the council, to take positions beside the Lords, sitting bewteen them wherever possible. When this is accomplished the War Chief holding in his outstretched hand a bunch of black wampum strings shall say to the erring Lords:

"So now, Lords of the Five United Nations, harken to these last words from your men. You have not heeded the warnings of the women relatives, you have not heeded the warnings of the General Council of women and you have not heeded the warnings of the men of the nations, all urging you to return to the right course of action. Since you are determined to resist and to withhold justice from your people there is only one course for us to adopt."
At this point the War Chief shall let drop the bunch of black wampum and the men shall spring to their feet and club the erring Lords to death. Any erring Lord may submit before the War Chief lets fall the black wampum. Then his execution is withheld.
The black wampum here used symbolizes that the power to execute is buried but that it may be raised up again by the men. It is buried but when occasion arises they may pull it up and derive their power and authority to act as here described.


A broad dark belt of wampum of thirty-eight rows, having a white heart in the center, on either side of which are two white squares all connected with the heart by white rows of beads shall be the emblem of the unity of the Five Nations.
The first of the squares on the left represents the Mohawk nation and its territory; the second square on the left and the one near the heart, represents the Oneida nation and its territory; the white heart in the middle represents the Onondaga nation and its territory, and it also means that the heart of the Five Nations is single in its loyalty to the Great Peace, that the Great Peace is lodged in the heart (meaning the Onondaga Lords), and that the Council Fire is to burn there for the Five Nations, and further, it means that the authority is given to advance the cause of peace whereby hostile nations out of the Confederacy shall cease warfare; the white square to the right of the heart represents the Cayuga nation and its territory and the fourth and last white square represents the Seneca nation and its territory.

White shall here symbolize that no evil or jealous thoughts shall creep into the minds of the Lords while in Council under the Great Peace. White, the emblem of peace, love, charity and equity surrounds and guards the Five Nations.


Should a great calamity threaten the generations rising and living of the Five United Nations, then he who is able to climb to the top of the Tree of the Great Long Leaves may do so. When, then, he reaches the top of the tree he shall look about in all directions, and, should he see that evil things indeed are approaching, then he shall call to the people of the Five United Nations assembled beneath the Tree of the Great Long Leaves and say: "A calamity threatens your happiness."
Then shall the Lords convene in council and discuss the impending evil. When all the truths relating to the trouble shall be fully known and found to be truths, then shall the people seek out a Tree of Ka-hon-ka-ah-go-nah, [ a great swamp Elm ], and when they shall find it they shall assemble their heads together and lodge for a time between its roots. Then, their labors being finished, they may hope for happiness for many days after.


When the Confederate Council of the Five Nations declares for a reading of the belts of shell calling to mind these laws, they shall provide for the reader a specially made mat woven of the fibers of wild hemp. The mat shall not be used again, for such formality is called the honoring of the importance of the law.

Should two sons of opposite sides of the council fire agree in a desire to hear the reciting of the laws of the Great Peace and so refresh their memories in the way ordained by the founder of the Confederacy, they shall notify Adodarho. He then shall consult with five of his coactive Lords and they in turn shall consult with their eight brethern. Then should they decide to accede to the request of the two sons from opposite sides of the Council Fire, Adodarho shall send messengers to notify the Chief Lords of each of the Five Nations. Then they shall despatch their War Chiefs to notify their brother and cousin Lords of the meeting and its time and place.
When all have come and have assembled, Adodarhoh, in conjunction with his cousin Lords, shall appoint one Lord who shall repeat the laws of the Great Peace. Then shall they announce who they have chosen to repeat the laws of the Great Peace to the two sons. Then shall the chosen one repeat the laws of the Great Peace.


At the ceremony of the installation of Lords if there is only one expert speaker and singer of the law and the Pacification Hymn to stand at the council fire, then when this speaker and singer has finished addressing one side of the fire he shall go to the oposite side and reply to his own speech and song. He shall thus act for both sidesa of the fire until the entire ceremony has been completed. Such a speaker and singer shall be termed the "Two Faced" because he speaks and sings for both sides of the fire.

I, Dekanawida, and the Union Lords, now uproot the tallest pine tree and into the cavity thereby made we cast all weapons of war. Into the depths of the earth, down into the deep underearth currents of water flowing to unknown regions we cast all the weapons of strife. We bury them from sight and we plant again the tree. Thus shall the Great Peace be established and hostilities shall no longer be known between the Five Nations but peace to the United People. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:26:59 pm








Laws of Adoption





The father of a child of great comeliness, learning, ability or specially loved because of some circumstance may, at the will of the child's clan, select a name from his own (the father's) clan and bestow it by ceremony, such as is provided. This naming shall be only temporary and shall be called, "A name hung about the neck."

Should any person, a member of the Five Nations' Confederacy, specially esteem a man or woman of another clan or of a foreign nation, he may choose a name and bestow it upon that person so esteemed. The naming shall be in accord with the ceremony of bestowing names. Such a name is only a temporary one and shall be called "A name hung about the neck." A short string of shells shall be delivered with the name as a record and a pledge.

Should any member of the Five Nations, a family or person belonging to a foreign nation submit a proposal for adoption into a clan of one of the Five Nations, he or they shall furnish a string of shells, a span in length, as a pledge to the clan into which he or they wish to be adopted. The Lords of the nation shall then consider the proposal and submit a decision.

Any member of the Five Nations who through esteem or other feeling wishes to adopt an individual, a family or number of families may offer adoption to him or them and if accepted the matter shall be brought to the attention of the Lords for confirmation and the Lords must confirm adoption.

When the adoption of anyone shall have been confirmed by the Lords of the Nation, the Lords shall address the people of their nation and say: "Now you of our nation, be informed that such a person, such a family or such families have ceased forever to bear their birth nation's name and have buried it in the depths of the earth. Henceforth let no one of our nation ever mention the original name or nation of their birth. To do so will be to hasten the end of our peace. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:28:34 pm








Laws of Emigration



When any person or family belonging to the Five Nations desires to abandon their birth nation and the territory of the Five Nations, they shall inform the Lords of their nation and the Confederate Council of the Five Nations shall take cognizance of it.

When any person or any of the people of the Five Nations emigrate and reside in a region distant from the territory of the Five Nations Confederacy, the Lords of the Five Nations at will may send a messenger carrying a broad belt of black shells and when the messenger arrives he shall call the people together or address them personally displaying the belt of shells and they shall know that this is an order for them to return to their original homes and to their council fires. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:30:05 pm








Rights of Foreign Nations





The soil of the earth from one end of the land to the other is the property of the people who inhabit it. By birthright the Ongwehonweh (Original beings) are the owners of the soil which they own and occupy and none other may hold it. The same law has been held from the oldest times.

The Great Creator has made us of the one blood and of the same soil he made us and as only different tongues constitute different nations he established different hunting grounds and territories and made boundary lines between them.


When any alien nation or individual is admitted into the Five Nations the admission shall be understood only to be a temporary one. Should the person or nation create loss, do wrong or cause suffering of any kind to endanger the peace of the Confederacy, the Confederate Lords shall order one of their war chiefs to reprimand him or them and if a similar offence is again committed the offending party or parties shall be expelled from the territory of the Five United Nations.

When a member of an alien nation comes to the territory of the Five Nations and seeks refuge and permanent residence, the Lords of the Nation to which he comes shall extend hospitality and make him a member of the nation. Then shall he be accorded equal rights and privileges in all matters except as after mentioned.

No body of alien people who have been adopted temporarily shall have a vote in the council of the Lords of the Confederacy, for only they who have been invested with Lordship titles may vote in the Council. Aliens have nothing by blood to make claim to a vote and should they have it, not knowing all the traditions of the Confederacy, might go against its Great Peace. In this manner the Great Peace would be endangered and perhaps be destroyed.

When the Lords of the Confederacy decide to admit a foreign nation and an adoption is made, the Lords shall inform the adopted nation that its admission is only temporary. They shall also say to the nation that it must never try to control, to interfere with or to injure the Five Nations nor disregard the Great Peace or any of its rules or customs. That in no way should they cause disturbance or injury. Then should the adopted nation disregard these injunctions, their adoption shall be annuled and they shall be expelled.

The expulsion shall be in the following manner: The council shall appoint one of their War Chiefs to convey the message of annulment and he shall say,

"You (naming the nation) listen to me while I speak. I am here to inform you again of the will of the Five Nations' Council. It was clearly made known to you at a former time. Now the Lords of the Five Nations have decided to expel you and cast you out. We disown you now and annul your adoption. Therefore you must look for a path in which to go and lead away all your people. It was you, not we, who committed wrong and caused this sentence of annulment. So then go your way and depart from the territory of the Five Nations and from the Confederacy."

Whenever a foreign nation enters the Confederacy or accepts the Great Peace, the Five Nations and the foreign nation shall enter into an agreement and compact by which the foreign nation shall endeavor to pursuade other nations to accept the Great Peace.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:31:55 pm








Rights and Powers of War



Skanawatih shall be vested with a double office, duty and with double authority. One-half of his being shall hold the Lordship title and the other half shall hold the title of War Chief. In the event of war he shall notify the five War Chiefs of the Confederacy and command them to prepare for war and have their men ready at the appointed time and place for engagement with the enemy of the Great Peace.

When the Confederate Council of the Five Nations has for its object the establishment of the Great Peace among the people of an outside nation and that nation refuses to accept the Great Peace, then by such refusal they bring a declaration of war upon themselves from the Five Nations. Then shall the Five Nations seek to establish the Great Peace by a conquest of the rebellious nation.

When the men of the Five Nations, now called forth to become warriors, are ready for battle with an obstinate opposing nation that has refused to accept the Great Peace, then one of the five War Chiefs shall be chosen by the warriors of the Five Nations to lead the army into battle. It shall be the duty of the War Chief so chosen to come before his warriors and address them. His aim shall be to impress upon them the necessity of good behavior and strict obedience to all the commands of the War Chiefs. He shall deliver an oration exhorting them with great zeal to be brave and courageous and never to be guilty of cowardice. At the conclusion of his oration he shall march forward and commence the War Song and he shall sing:

Now I am greatly surprised
And, therefore I shall use it --
The powerr of my War Song.
I am of the Five Nations
And I shall make supplication
To the Almighty Creator.
He has furnished this army.
My warriors shall be mighty
In the strength of the Creator.
Between him and my song they are
For it was he who gave the song
This war song that I sing!

When the warriors of the Five Nations are on an expedition against an enemy, the War Chief shall sing the War Song as he approaches the country of the enemy and not cease until his scouts have reported that the army is near the enemies' lines when the War Chief shall approach with great caution and prepare for the attack.

When peace shall have been established by the termination of the war against a foreign nation, then the War Chief shall cause all the weapons of war to be taken from the nation. Then shall the Great Peace be established and that nation shall observe all the rules of the Great Peace for all time to come.

Whenever a foreign nation is conquered or has by their own will accepted the Great Peace their own system of internal government may continue, but they must cease all warfare against other nations.

Whenever a war against a foreign nation is pushed until that nation is about exterminated because of its refusal to accept the Great Peace and if that nation shall by its obstinacy become exterminated, all their rights, property and territory shall become the property of the Five Nations.

Whenever a foreign nation is conquered and the survivors are brought into the territory of the Five Nations' Confederacy and placed under the Great Peace the two shall be known as the Conqueror and the Conquered. A symbolic relationship shall be devised and be placed in some symbolic position. The conquered nation shall have no voice in the councils of the Confederacy in the body of the Lords.

When the War of the Five Nations on a foreign rebellious nation is ended, peace shall be restored to that nation by a withdrawal of all their weapons of war by the War Chief of the Five Nations. When all the terms of peace shall have been agreed upon a state of friendship shall be established.

When the proposition to establish the Great Peace is made to a foreign nation it shall be done in mutual council. The foreign nation is to be persuaded by reason and urged to come into the Great Peace. If the Five Nations fail to obtain the consent of the nation at the first council a second council shall be held and upon a second failure a third council shall be held and this third council shall end the peaceful methods of persuasion. At the third council the War Chief of the Five nations shall address the Chief of the foreign nation and request him three times to accept the Great Peace. If refusal steadfastly follows the War Chief shall let the bunch of white lake shells drop from his outstretched hand to the ground and shall bound quickly forward and club the offending chief to death. War shall thereby be declared and the War Chief shall have his warriors at his back to meet any emergency. War must continue until the contest is won by the Five Nations.

When the Lords of the Five Nations propose to meet in conference with a foreign nation with proposals for an acceptance of the Great Peace, a large band of warriors shall conceal themselves in a secure place safe from the espionage of the foreign nation but as near at hand as possible. Two warriors shall accompany the Union Lord who carries the proposals and these warriors shall be especially cunning. Should the Lord be attacked, these warriors shall hasten back to the army of warriors with the news of the calamity which fell through the treachery of the foreign nation.

When the Five Nations' Council declares war any Lord of the Confederacy may enlist with the warriors by temporarily renouncing his sacred Lordship title which he holds through the election of his women relatives. The title then reverts to them and they may bestow it upon another temporarily until the war is over when the Lord, if living, may resume his title and seat in the Council.

A certain wampum belt of black beads shall be the emblem of the authority of the Five War Chiefs to take up the weapons of war and with their men to resist invasion. This shall be called a war in defense of the territory. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:33:09 pm








Treason or Secession of a Nation



If a nation, part of a nation, or more than one nation within the Five Nations should in any way endeavor to destroy the Great Peace by neglect or violating its laws and resolve to dissolve the Confederacy, such a nation or such nations shall be deemed guilty of treason and called enemies of the Confederacy and the Great Peace.
 
It shall then be the duty of the Lords of the Confederacy who remain faithful to resolve to warn the offending people. They shall be warned once and if a second warning is necessary they shall be driven from the territory of the Confederacy by the War Chiefs and his men. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:34:19 pm








Rights of the People of the Five Nations



Whenever a specially important matter or a great emergency is presented before the Confederate Council and the nature of the matter affects the entire body of the Five Nations, threatening their utter ruin, then the Lords of the Confederacy must submit the matter to the decision of their people and the decision of the people shall affect the decision of the Confederate Council. This decision shall be a confirmation of the voice of the people.

The men of every clan of the Five Nations shall have a Council Fire ever burning in readiness for a council of the clan. When it seems necessary for a council to be held to discuss the welfare of the clans, then the men may gather about the fire. This council shall have the same rights as the council of the women.

The women of every clan of the Five Nations shall have a Council Fire ever burning in readiness for a council of the clan. When in their opinion it seems necessary for the interest of the people they shall hold a council and their decisions and recommendations shall be introduced before the Council of the Lords by the War Chief for its consideration.

All the Clan council fires of a nation or of the Five Nations may unite into one general council fire, or delegates from all the council fires may be appointeed to unite in a general council for discussing the interests of the people. The people shall have the right to make appointments and to delegate their power to others of their number. When their council shall have come to a conclusion on any matter, their decision shall be reported to the Council of the Nation or to the Confederate Council (as the case may require) by the War Chief or the War Chiefs.

Before the real people united their nations, each nation had its council fires. Before the Great Peace their councils were held. The five Council Fires shall continue to burn as before and they are not quenched. The Lords of each nation in future shall settle their nation's affairs at this council fire governed always by the laws and rules of the council of the Confederacy and by the Great Peace.

If either a nephew or a niece see an irregularity in the performance of the functions of the Great Peace and its laws, in the Confederate Council or in the conferring of Lordship titles in an improper way, through their War Chief they may demand that such actions become subject to correction and that the matter conform to the ways prescribed by the laws of the Great Peace. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:35:49 pm








Religious Ceremonies Protected



The rites and festivals of each nation shall remain undisturbed and shall continue as before because they were given by the people of old times as useful and necessary for the good of men.

It shall be the duty of the Lords of each brotherhood to confer at the approach of the time of the Midwinter Thanksgiving and to notify their people of the approaching festival. They shall hold a council over the matter and arrange its details and begin the Thanksgiving five days after the moon of Dis-ko-nah is new. The people shall assemble at the appointed place and the nephews shall notify the people of the time and place. From the beginning to the end the Lords shall preside over the Thanksgiving and address the people from time to time.

It shall be the duty of the appointed managers of the Thanksgiving festivals to do all that is needed for carrying out the duties of the occasions.

The recognized festivals of Thanksgiving shall be the Midwinter Thanksgiving, the Maple or Sugar-making Thanksgiving, the Raspberry Thanksgiving, the Strawberry Thanksgiving, the Cornplanting Thanksgiving, the Corn Hoeing Thanksgiving, the Little Festival of Green Corn, the Great Festival of Ripe Corn and the complete Thanksgiving for the Harvest.

Each nation's festivals shall be held in their Long Houses.


When the Thansgiving for the Green Corn comes the special managers, both the men and women, shall give it careful attention and do their duties properly.

When the Ripe Corn Thanksgiving is celebrated the Lords of the Nation must give it the same attention as they give to the Midwinter Thanksgiving.

Whenever any man proves himself by his good life and his knowledge of good things, naturally fitted as a teacher of good things, he shall be recognized by the Lords as a teacher of peace and religion and the people shall hear him.   


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:37:06 pm








The Installation Song



The song used in installing the new Lord of the Confederacy shall be sung by Adodarhoh and it shall be:


"Haii, haii Agwah wi-yoh
" " A-kon-he-watha
" " Ska-we-ye-se-go-wah
" " Yon-gwa-wih
" " Ya-kon-he-wa-tha

translation

Haii, haii It is good indeed
" " (That) a broom, --
" " A great wing,
" " It is given me
" " For a sweeping instrument."


Whenever a person properly entitled desires to learn the Pacification Song he is privileged to do so but he must prepare a feast at which his teachers may sit with him and sing. The feast is provided that no misfortune may befall them for singing the song on an occasion when no chief is installed.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:38:33 pm








Protection of the House



A certain sign shall be known to all the people of the Five Nations which shall denote that the owner or occupant of a house is absent. A stick or pole in a slanting or leaning position shall indicate this and be the sign. Every person not entitled to enter the house by right of living within it upon seeing such a sign shall not approach the house either by day or by night but shall keep as far away as his business will permit. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on February 17, 2009, 09:41:56 pm








Funeral Addresses



At the funeral of a Lord of the Confederacy, say:

Now we become reconciled as you start away. You were once a Lord of the Five Nations' Confederacy and the United People trusted you. Now we release you for it is true that it is no longer possible for us to walk about together on the earth. Now, therefore, we lay it (the body) here. Here we lay it away. Now then we say to you, 'Persevere onward to the place where the Creator dwells in peace. Let not the things of the earth hinder you. Let nothing that transpired while yet you lived hinder you. In hunting you once took delight; in the game of Lacrosse you once took delight and in the feasts and pleasant occasions your mind was amused, but now do not allow thoughts of these things to give you trouble. Let not your relatives hinder you and also let not your friends and associates trouble your mind. Regard none of these things.'
"Now then, in turn, you here present who were related to this man and you who were his friends and associates, behold the path that is yours also! Soon we ourselves will be left in that place. For this reason hold yourselves in restraint as you go from place to place. In your actions and in your conversation do no idle thing. Speak not idle talk neither gossip. Be careful of this and speak not and do not give way to evil behavior. One year is the time that you must abstain from unseemly levity but if you can not do this for ceremony, ten days is the time to regard these things for respect."


At the funeral of a War Chief, say:

"Now we become reconciled as you start away. You were once a War Chief of the Five Nations' Confederacy and the United People trusted you as their guard from the enemy." (The remainder is the same as the address at the funeral of a Lord).


At the funeral of a Warrior, say:

"Now we become reconciled as you start away. Once you were a devoted provider and protector of your family and you were ever ready to take part in battles for the Five Nations' Confederacy. The United People trusted you." (The remainder is the same as the address at the funeral of a Lord).


At the funeral of a young man, say:

"Now we become reconciled as you start away. In the beginning of your career you are taken away and the flower of your life is withered away." (The remainder is the same as the address at the funeral of a Lord).


At the funeral of a chief woman, say:

"Now we become reconciled as you start away. You were once a chief woman in the Five Nations' Confederacy. You once were a mother of the nations. Now we release you for it is true that it is no longer possible for us to walk about together on the earth. Now, therefore, we lay it (the body) here. Here we lay it away. Now then we say to you, 'Persevere onward to the place where the Creator dwells in peace. Let not the things of the earth hinder you. Let nothing that transpired while you lived hinder you. Looking after your family was a sacred duty and you were faithful. You were one of the many joint heirs of the Lordship titles. Feastings were yours and you had pleasant occasions. . ." (The remainder is the same as the address at the funeral of a Lord).


At the funeral of a woman of the people, say:

"Now we become reconciled as you start away. You were once a woman in the flower of life and the bloom is now withered away. You once held a sacred position as a mother of the nation. (Etc.) Looking after your family was a sacred duty and you were faithful. Feastings . . . (etc.)" (The remainder is the same as the address at the funeral of a Lord).


At the funeral of an infant or young woman, say:

"Now we become reconciled as you start away. You were a tender bud and gladdened our hearts for only a few days. Now the bloom has withered away . . . (etc.) Let none of the things that transpired on earth hinder you. Let nothing that happened while you lived hinder you." (The remainder is the same as the address at the funeral of a Lord).

When an infant dies within three days, mourning shall continue only five days. Then shall you gather the little boys and girls at the house of mourning and at the funeral feast a speaker shall address the children and bid them be happy once more, though by a death, gloom has been cast over them. Then shall the black clouds roll away and the sky shall show blue once more. Then shall the children be again in sunshine.

When a dead person is brought to the burial place, the speaker on the opposite side of the Council Fire shall bid the bereaved family cheer their minds once again and rekindle their hearth fires in peace, to put their house in order and once again be in brightness for darkness has covered them. He shall say that the black clouds shall roll away and that the bright blue sky is visible once more. Therefore shall they be in peace in the sunshine again.


Three strings of shell one span in length shall be employed in addressing the assemblage at the burial of the dead. The speaker shall say:

"Hearken you who are here, this body is to be covered.
Assemble in this place again ten days hence for it is the decree of the Creator that mourning shall cease when ten days have expired. Then shall a feast be made."


Then at the expiration of ten days the speaker shall say:

"Continue to listen you who are here. The ten days of mourning have expired and your minds must now be freed of sorrow as before the loss of a relative. The relatives have decided to make a little compensation to those who have assisted at the funeral. It is a mere expression of thanks. This is to the one who did the cooking while the body was lying in the house. Let her come forward and receive this gift and be dismissed from the task."

In substance this shall be repeated for every one who assisted in any way until all have been remembered.



Department of Humanities Computing


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:18:00 am
(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44359000/jpg/_44359320_inuit_ap_203b.jpg)

The census also details where
aboriginal people live





                                             

                                              Canadian indigenous numbers soar 
 




BBCNews

Census figures in Canada show a big increase in the number of Canadians who describe themselves as belonging to one of the country's indigenous peoples.

Data from the 2006 census shows there are now almost 1.2 million aboriginal people - 4% of the population and a 45% rise since the last census in 1996.

The survey also shows that more than half live in or near urban areas.

A record number of indigenous people took part in the 2006 census, but some populous reserves still shunned it.

There are three indigenous groups in Canada: North American Indian or First Nations people; Inuit who live in Canada's far north and Metis, who are descendants of early marriages between native people and European settlers.

The new statistics show a dramatic increase - 45% in 10 years - in those people who identify themselves as belonging to of one of those groups.

The information also reveals that 54% of the country's indigenous people now live in or near cities.

Officials at Statistics Canada, which carried out the census, say the growth and change in demographics can be attributed to a soaring birth rate driven by an unusually young population, and greater pride in aboriginal heritage.





'Not Canadians'



Canada's native peoples have a median age of 27 and almost half are under 25.

The census found that since 1996 there had been some improvement in overcrowded housing conditions in traditional communities.

But one in four people living there report that their homes are dilapidated and in need of significant repairs.

The number of aboriginal peoples refusing to take part in the census has declined, but some are still opposed to the survey.

"We are not Canadian citizens. We are North American Indians," Chief Clarence Simon of Kanesatake, a Mohawk community, was quoted as saying by Canadian media.

His reserve was among 22 not included in the census.

Census officials say that their reach has improved since previous surveys and they have rejected arguments that there has been a significant under-counting of aboriginal people.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:20:11 am









                                              Tribes strive to save native tongues




By Aaron Clark
Fri May 23, 2008
 
Warm Springs, Ore. - Grass-roots efforts to preserve and teach youngsters native languages are intensifying around the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia as about 40 indigenous tongues are in danger of disappearing within the next decade.
 
Native leaders are compiling dictionaries, drafting lesson plans, and scrambling to save what scraps of language they can before the last of the fluent elders dies. In the case of Kiksht, a language spoken for centuries along Oregon's Columbia River, there are two remaining speakers and neither can remember the words for "yawn" or "brown."

"It's funny, but it's stuff we still need to know," says Radine "Deanie" Johnson, a former forklift operator spearheading efforts to preserve her grandmother's language on this hardscrabble reservation in central Oregon. "I think if we didn't have our languages, our customs, traditions, that we wouldn't be considered native Americans."

Many of these languages such as Skagit, Ichishkiin, or northern Haida still have dozens of fluent native speakers, but nearly all of them are middle-aged or older.

Attempts to record these languages vary, but most are underfunded. A few have the services of a dedicated linguist; others are more ad hoc. So-called "revitalization" programs may be successful at passing on a few traditional phrases, stories, or dances. But most attempts to bring a language back into common usage after the majority of speakers have reached middle age have failed.

Hebrew, taught by Zionist settlers in Palestine and which later became the official language of Israel, is the most notable exception. Today there are about 7 million speakers. New Zealand has spent millions of dollars promoting Maori, teaching it in schools, and in 1987 recognizing it as the third official language. But the number of fluent Maori speakers there has dropped by 10,000 – about 17 percent – over the past 10 years and some 80 percent of them are more than 35 years old.

"A language dies when you don't have children picking it up in the home," says Scott DeLancey, a University of Oregon linguist.

Here in America's Northwest, there are signs policymakers are beginning to take some notice. Last May, the Oregon State Legislature passed a resolution honoring Ms. Johnson's grandmother, Gladys Thompson, for her efforts to teach Kiksht and "her dedication to the preservation of Indian ways."

In 2006, the National Science Foundation awarded $5 million to support efforts to digitally record more than 60 endangered languages around the world. Included was $263,000 to document stories and conversations in Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian, spoken along the Alexander Archipelago in Alaska and islands off British Columbia.

"At least it's a validation of the implications of what is to be lost," says Patricia Shaw, director of the First Nations Languages Program in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Tribe members here in Warm Springs say preserving what they can of Kiksht, also known as Wasco, is critical to maintaining their distinctiveness as a people.

"Lose the language, lose distinct identity," says George Aguilar, the tribe's unofficial historian, who is half-Filipino but was raised by his Kiksht grandmother. "The Kiksht are in a time warp right now because we lost contact with the old way of life. We have lost our customs. The canoe songs are no longer known. The farewell songs are no longer known."

In 2005, Johnson shared a $100,000 federal grant with the local museum. She used a portion of the money to buy a video camera, an Apple laptop, and digital recording equipment to help document Kiksht. A few months ago, Johnson found a Mr. Potato Head doll at a garage sale and made a video to teach children Kiksht words for body parts. "Their jaws dropped when they saw it," says Johnson.

Johnson and her grandmother work in a dilapidated white trailer, a couple hundred feet away from brick buildings where hundreds of native American children were once herded into boarding schools and forced to learn English. The federal government routinely rounded up native children – kidnapped, tribe members say – and held them separate from their parents in boarding schools well into the 20th century in a systematic effort to eradicate Indian language and culture. In 2000, an official of the Bureau of Indian Affairs formally apologized for the "destructive efforts" of his agency, including the forced assimilation of native children in boarding schools.

" 'Chau chau asabal,' that's how you would explain toast," says Johnson as she pages through one of about a dozen notebooks. Her grandmother rests in a corner, surrounded by microphones. Johnson laughs as she reads another phrase that came from Thompson, " 'K'aya enluxwan qidau,' which means, 'I don't think that way.' "

Of 45 languages spoken in Oregon before native American contact with Europeans, most are extinct. There are about 20 remaining speakers of Ichishkiin on the Warm Springs reservation.

On a recent morning Arlita Rhoan sat in the middle of a playroom, surrounded by slices of wooden watermelon, building blocks, and paper cutouts of snowflakes. As a teacher of Ichishkiin – part of the reservation's language immersion classes for preschoolers who also receive instruction in Kiksht and Paiute – she told stories and handed out drums. Her 3-year-olds sang "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" and "If You're Happy and You Know It" in Ichishkiin.

In 2003, Dawn Smith, principal of the local elementary school, barred Ms. Rhoan, Johnson, and other tribal instructors from teaching native languages in the school district because she said their curriculum failed to build on itself. "As far as I know they are still working on getting a comprehensive program together," says Ms. Smith.

Other educators have been more encouraging.

On the Siletz Dee-ni reservation along Oregon's Pacific coast, a local high school recently allowed the weekly Athabaskan classes to count toward students' foreign-language requirement. Only five people speak Athabaskan, one of the tribe's original languages.

"We aren't producing fluent speakers yet," says Bud Lane, one of the youngest speakers, who has worked 14 years in the local paper mill. But he's optimistic. He is compiling the language's most comprehensive dictionary of 12,000 words online.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:21:35 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080611/capt.fd5fe6fca874430fb9de519485389391.canada_indian_apology_otth104.jpg?x=400&y=304&sig=.KIl49UaafW2HSMll6yJiQ--)

Assembly of First Nations Chief Phil Fontaine,right,
wearing headdress, watches as Canadian Prime
Minister Stephen Harper, left, officially apologizes
to native Canadians who were taken from their
families and forced to attend state-funded schools
aimed at assimilating them, at a ceremony in the

House of Commons on Parliament Hill
in Ottawa,
Wednesday, June 11, 2008.

(AP Photo/The Canadian Press,
Tom Hanson)










                                         Prime Minister Apologizes To Native Canadians





By ROB GILLIES,
Associated Press Writer
June 11, 2008
 
OTTAWA - In a historic speech, Prime Minister Stephen Harper apologized Wednesday to Canada's native peoples for the longtime government policy of forcing their children to attend state-funded schools aimed at assimilating them.
 
The treatment of children at the schools where they were often physically and sexually abused was a sad chapter in the country's history, he said from the House of Commons in an address carried live across Canada.

"Today, we recognize that this policy of assimilation was wrong, has caused great harm and has no place in our country," he said, as 11 aboriginal leaders looked on just feet away.

Indians packed into the public galleries and gathered on the lawn of Parliament Hill.

From the 19th century until the 1970s, more than 150,000 Indian children were required to attend state-funded Christian schools as part of a program to assimilate them into Canadian society.

Hundreds of former students witnessed what native leaders call a pivotal moment for Canada's more than 1 million Indians, who remain the country's poorest and most disadvantaged group. There are more than 80,000 surviving students.

"The government of Canada now recognizes that it was wrong to forcibly remove children from their homes and we apologize," Harper said.

"We now recognize that it was wrong to separate children from rich and vibrant cultures and traditions, and that it created a void in many lives and communities and we apologize," Harper said.

Harper also apologized for failing to prevent the children from being physically and sexually abused at the schools.

Phil Fontaine, the national chief of the Assembly of First Nations and one of the leaders seated near Harper, wore a traditional native headdress and was allowed to speak from the floor after opposition parties demanded it.

"Finally, we heard Canada say it is sorry," Fontaine said.

"Never again will this House consider us an Indian problem for just being who we are," Fontaine said. "We heard the government of Canada take full responsibility."

He said the apology will go a long way toward repairing the relationship between aboriginals and the rest of Canada.

The federal government admitted 10 years ago that physical and sexual abuse in the schools was rampant. Many students recall being beaten for speaking their native languages and losing touch with their parents and customs.

That legacy of abuse and isolation has been cited by Indian leaders as the root cause of epidemic rates of alcoholism and drug addiction on reservations.

Fontaine was one of the first to go public with his past experiences of physical and sexual abuse.

The apology comes months after Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a similar gesture to the so-called Stolen Generations — thousands of Aborigines forcibly taken from their families as children under assimilation policies that lasted from 1910 to 1970.

But Canada has gone a step farther, offering those who were taken from their families compensation for the years they attended the residential schools. The offer was part of a lawsuit settlement.

A truth and reconciliation commission will also examine government policy and take testimony from survivors. The goal is to give survivors a forum to tell their stories and educate Canadians about a grim period in the country's history.

___


VIDEO:


http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/player/popup/?rn=3906861&cl=8280064&ch=4226714&src=news


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:23:12 am
(http://www.exceedrecruitment.ca/graphics/map-canada.gif)










                               Archaeologists find unique pre-European village in Western Canada






6/20/2008
Dragana Kovacevic
 

 


A mysterious First Nations society migrated to the Canadian Plains and eventually settled there, new archaeological findings suggest.

Siksika (Blackfoot) oral history has spoken of a peaceful group of people who broke from a tribe further south and who settled in the Blackfoot territory. The artefacts recently recovered at the site (about 120 kilometres east of Calgary) support these stories.

What's more, it appears its unknown inhabitants journeyed up from what is now north-central United States, to reach their eventual settlement site - the only one of its kind in the region.

Archaeologists found evidence of a living area surrounded by a trench and wooden palisade, along with pits often seen in communities where farming was a way of life. The team has uncovered bone and stone tools, arrowheads, pottery and glass trading beads.




Joining forces

The team excavating the dig is comprised of University of Calgary archaeology students who join the Blackfoot in studying the settlement site to help shed more light on the people who created it. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:24:12 am
(http://www.canadamaps.info/maps/albertapoliticalmap.jpg)









A woodland-style settlement



Known as the Cluny Fortified Village located on the Siksika First Nations reservation, the village may have been home to a small band of normally-sedentary people from North Dakota.

The style of settlement the team found at the site is a departure from the camp style typical to the region: "Tipi camps...were the usual dwelling sites of Alberta for thousands of years," says Dale Walde, a U of C field school director, overseeing the excavation.

He explains that evidence of tipi camps can be found in the rings left behind by tipi-anchoring stones. "This site has no tipi rings."

Instead its occupants left behind evidence of a woodland-style settlement. "It looks more like villages 1,500 kilometres away on the Missouri River in southern North Dakota," Walde says.

And there's more: "The pottery from Cluny is quite unlike other prehistory pottery found in Alberta, but it may be distantly related to ceramics from the Eastern Woodlands and the Middle Missouri region," says Walde. "The big mystery of Cluny is why this village site so different from everywhere else?"

"We're still unravelling the story and this site is like a gold mine," says Jack Royal, president of the Blackfoot Crossing Historical Park. "This is a very unique and valuable project because everything is uncovered, documented and prepared by the university and then it comes to our interpretive centre to be stored and used to teach the public about our history and culture."

The team now believes the unknown group descends from the Hidatsa culture. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:26:16 am
Courtney Caine
Hero Member

Posts: 214



    Magnetic fields used to date Indian artifacts
« on: July 01, 2008, 03:35:09 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





Magnetic fields used to date Indian artifacts






Associated Press
REPUBLIC COUNTY

- You might be surprised what you can learn from a campfire. A campfire that has been cold for, say, 300 years.

Stacey Lengyel hopes she can tell, within 30 years or so, when it was used.

Lengyel, a research associate in anthropology at the Illinois State Museum, is the country's leading authority on archeomagnetic dating, a process built around two phenomena: when heated, magnetic particles reorient themselves to magnetic north; and over time, magnetic north is, literally, all over the map.

"They call it a 'drunken wander,' " said Lengyel. "Around 1600, it was real close to Earth's rotational axis. Now, it is around 75 degrees latitude."

Lengyel is one of scores -- mostly volunteers, but also some highly credentialed professionals -- who were enlisted this summer to help uncover new information about a Pawnee Indian settlement in northwest Republic County.

"One of the things we're really hoping to learn is the actual age of the village," said Richard Gould, administrator of the Pawnee Indian Museum.

The museum encloses the floor of an 1820s earth lodge. It is surrounded by the remnants of many other structures. The earth has settled where each of the lodges once existed.

"We have 22 lodge depressions within the fenced area," Gould said. "What we really want to do is pinpoint when it was lived in."

The group also wants to learn more about this Pawnee Nation band's lifestyle.

The Kitkehahki band was one of four Pawnee Nation bands. It also was dubbed the Republican band by French traders, who were impressed by the Pawnee's collaborative culture. The Republican name then was adopted for the river and the county.

Band members were hunter-gatherers, Gould said, but they were moving into a farming lifestyle. They planted crops in the spring, went hunting for buffalo in the summer, harvested in the fall, and then left to hunt buffalo again in the winter.

The two-week archaeological dig is a project of the Kansas Archaeology Training Program, a venture in its 33rd year that involves the Kansas Historical Society, the Kansas Anthropological Association, the University of Kansas and Kansas State University.

Donna Roper, research associate professor at the University of Kansas, is one of the principal investigators.

"Almost everyone here is a volunteer," Roper said, pointing to dozens of people -- young and old, scraping and sifting, pouring and lifting -- swarming around intersecting trenches.

More than 150 volunteers, some of them students enrolled in KU's Kansas Archaeological Field School, participated in the two-week dig.

Whenever potentially significant fragments were uncovered, their location would be charted before they were moved. Dirt shaved from the floor was bagged and then shaken through a series of increasingly fine meshes.

The team was looking for any telltale objects, such as seeds, tools or building materials, that offered insights into the band's daily lives.

In archeomagnetic dating, once potential samples have been identified, their location and orientation are precisely measured, Lengyel said. About a dozen 1-inch cubes are then excised, encased to preserve them, then taken to a lab.

The chunks are then progressively demagnetized until their natural remnant magnetism can be measured, she said. The objects may have been partially magnetized by nearby lightning strikes, for example, or if they were stored near objects with strong magnetic fields. These weaker magnetic fields must be removed.

First their magnetic fingerprint is taken, and then they are slightly demagnetized. The process is repeated several times; eventually all that is left is the baseline magnetic signal, she said. If the material is fired to about 500 degrees Celsius or more, the magnetic field will point to where magnetic north was located at the time.

"The best dates we can get are within a 30-year time period," Lengyel said.



http://www.kansas.com/news/state/story/441912.html


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:28:50 am
Red Dawn, Fire People
New Member

Posts: 4



    UNBC team unearths ancient First Nation site
« on: August 17, 2008, 06:23:36 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






UNBC team unearths ancient First Nation site     





 
Written by BERNICE TRICK
Citizen staff     
Thursday, 14 August 2008 

UNBC archeological students have unearthed more than 200 ancient First Nations artifacts along with an "earth oven" believed to have heated and cured rock useful in making tools and weapons.

The dig west of Fort St. James, led by Farid Rahemtulla, UNBC anthropology professor, is an ancient village site of the Nak'azdli Band, whose members selected it based on oral history.

The site on the south shore of Stuart Lake could be from several hundred to several thousand years old, and pieces of charcoal found in various locations will be used for radiocarbon dating to determine when it was an active village, said Rahemtulla.

The 13-member student team, which includes members of the Nak'azdli Band, discovered dozens of stone tools and more than 100 stone flakes that indicate tools were manufactured at the site. A number of cultural depressions dotting the site may have been used for cooking, food storage or heating rock.

"The largest earth oven was excavated to a depth of more than four feet and is believed to be the first ever found in the Northern Interior," Rahemtulla said.

Carrier student Walter Tylee is excited about he find.

"It's important to actually get involved with our past and for the young people to understand where we came from and what we're all about," Tylee said. "In digging we learn a little bit about our past. Even finding something as small as a flake is exciting. It might be just a little flake of rock, but to think that someone was here maybe thousands of years ago and chipped that flake out to make something like an arrowhead is exciting."
Rahemtulla described the three-week project as a "remarkable success" both as a find and training band members and students .

"This kind of experience is very unusual in North America for aboriginal and non-aboriginal student alike."

He added that the northern and interior regions of B.C. have basically been ignored by archeologists with the last excavation on Nak'azdli land being done more than 50 years ago.

"These students have become immersed in history and have gained great personal knowledge, but their work is also making a major contribution to our collective knowledge about people who lived here thousands of year ago."

Last summer Rahemtulla and a 23-member UNBC student team discovered more than 100 ancient First Nations artifacts west of Prince George believed to be more than 400 years old.

The team, working near the confluence of the Chilako and Nechako rivers, recovered stone artifacts probably used for hunting like arrowheads and tools with projectile points.
At that time Rahemtulla said from the remnants of stone discovered, "it seems like the people who lived here brought in raw materials to manufacture stone tools which were then taken away."



http://www.princegeorgecitizen.com/20080814146551/local/news/unbc-team-unearths-ancient-first-nation-site.html


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:30:17 am








                                           Aboriginal relics destroyed by bikes



                           Artifacts near Harewood Mines Road run over by cars, bicycles






Dustin Walker,
Nanaimo Daily News
September 09, 2008

Dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles are grinding away ancient First Nations artifacts in the Nanaimo area.

Geraldine Manson, with the Snuneymuxw First Nation, said several petroglyphs located near Harewood Mines Road have been pounded by both vehicles and hikers over the years. She hopes a barrier will be put in place to protect the relics before they are destroyed.

"To First Nations, they have a lot of significance. It carries history, it carries direction," said Manson.


Julie Cowie, president of the Nanaimo branch of the Archaeology Society of B.C., said not only does vehicle use erode the surface of the petroglyphs, it removes vegetation on top of the stone exposing it to the elements. Vibrations from the vehicles also damage the artifacts. But Cowie thinks many people are unaware that there are even petroglyphs in the area or how they can be damaged.

Although the local archaeology society has been talking to local groups about conservation, there's also the risk of drawing too much attention and too many people to the relics. Popular spots to view similar pieces of history, such as Petroglyph Provincial Park and Gabriola Island, have also been damaged by vandalism and even people removing vegetation covering the stones to get a better look at them.

"It really comes down to the individual, you can educate them as much as you want but it comes down to if they care," she said.

Cowie thinks it's the responsibility of the province to ensure petroglyphs are protected.

The province has erected barriers in the past on several Gulf Islands to prevent vehicle use near petroglyphs, but it's not always effective as people find ways to bypass them. Often, whether or not a barrier is erected depends on whether the land is private and how co-operative landowners are.

Chris Sholberg, community and heritage planner for the City of Nanaimo, said it's likely that at least part of the land where the Harewood Mines Road petroglyphs are located are on privately owned land.

DWalker@nanaimodailynews.com

250-729-4244




© The Daily News (Nanaimo) 2008

British Columbia,
Canada


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:34:23 am
Lightning Strikes Twice
Full Member

Posts: 40



    Archaeological artifacts alone can't pinpoint an ethnic culture
« on: October 02, 2008, 03:19:14 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ARCHAEOLOGY









Archaeological artifacts alone can't pinpoint an ethnic culture






Tuesday,  September 30, 2008 2:58 AM
By Bradley T. Lepper

 Cultural anthropologists study living cultures -- from tribes that live in remote areas to ethnic groups that live in the world's largest cities.

Archaeologists study artifacts. By comparing artifacts, as well as architecture, food remains, burial practices and other aspects of daily life that leave traces in the ground, they define "archaeological cultures" based on similarities and differences across space and through time.

Some archaeologists assume that archaeological cultures correspond to the cultures studied by anthropologists. For example, the appearance in Ohio of maize agriculture, along with particular pottery styles, has been argued to signal the migration of Iroquoian people to the region about 1,500 years ago.

Other archaeologists believe Iroquois-speaking groups had been in the region for at least 10,000 years and that the appearance of new kinds of artifacts and changes in farming practices reflect resident groups that adopted those innovations.

In the July issue of American Antiquity, archaeologist Scott Martin of McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, argues that communities, both ancient and modern, interact in complex ways. Similar kinds of artifacts can be used by unrelated peoples and, conversely, closely related peoples can use different kinds of artifacts.

In his article on "languages past and present," Martin says there is no way to use artifacts alone as a means of identifying ethnic groups in the past.

Attempts to equate archaeological cultures with ethnographic cultures are problematic from more than just a scientific standpoint.

Martin argues that determinations of where and when Iroquoian groups entered the region have political implications that relate to such modern concerns as American Indian land claims.

He writes that "archaeology's role in society is not purely academic." It can have immediate consequences for a variety of stakeholders.

Archaeologists, therefore, have a responsibility to become more attuned to the social context in which we do our work.




Bradley T. Lepper is curator of archaeology at the Ohio Historical Society.

blepper@ohiohistory.org

http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/science/stories/2008/09/30/sci_lepper30.ART_ART_09-30-08_B5_C4BE34S.html?sid=101


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:35:31 am
(http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/reference/provincesterritories/ontario/map.jpg)










                                                               CITY OF BONES



                               Many in the west ward have no idea what lies beneath their homes







By Colin McKim
Orillia, Ont.
Oct. 1, 2008
 
Lying forgotten under seven city blocks is a vast burial ground where the bodies of men, women and children rested for centuries, each one buried in a sitting position, facing east toward the rising sun.

The graves, believed to contain the remains of Algonquin people, were discovered along the Mount Slaven Creek between O’Brien Street and Westmount Drive in the 1870s, when the area was still a wooded expanse outside the city limits.

Orillia judge J. Hugh Hammond wrote more than a century ago about digging up bodies and artifacts along the creek as a youngster.

“In the early seventies (1870s) as a schoolboy I spent the greater part of some Saturdays and holidays with my playmates in excavating Indian graves on the lots north of the extension of Mississaga Street, on Mount Slaven, near Orillia Town. Our schoolmaster (Samuel McIlvaine) urged us to make available collections of any objects such as beads, wampum and the like.”

Hammond, whose account is quoted by historian Andrew Hunter in his 1903 study of 32 Indian villages in the Orillia area, gave a detailed description of the site.

“The graves were single and extended in long lines from the bank of the creek toward the hillside at the Coldwater Road, in a northwesterly direction. All of the bodies were buried in a sitting position, facing the east or morning sun.”

The lines of graves were about 20 feet apart, said Hammond, who drew a map in a notebook, showing more than 100 Xs where graves had been found running in lines from Mississaga Street northwest across Mary and John streets. The map also indicates the locations of ashpits and notes the character of the soil.

Digging around the bodies, Hammond found bugle-shaped beads, arrowheads, spear points and wampum — coin-shaped discs with holes drilled in the centre. In one grave, a black, bird-shaped amulet was found around the neck of a skeleton of a very large man.

“The lower jaw bone of this body was in place and I tried it over my own head and face and it passed clear of my face without touching it at any place.”

French iron axes from the 1600s indicate the site was inhabited after Samuel de Champlain and French priests arrived in the area, beginning in 1615. Copper kettles and knife blades and hatchets were also unearthed.

Hunter concluded the site, roughly 68 acres in size, was an Algonquin settlement, probably used in the winter when the community migrated south from hunting grounds north of the Severn River.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:36:27 am
(http://www.csiginseng.com/images/sw-ont-1.gif)









The creek would have provided plentiful fresh water and the hill rising to the northwest protection from the wind.

Most of the 500 native settlements identified between Orillia and Midland are Huron, but the Algonquin territory to the north and east merged with the Huron lands in the Orillia area.

The Hurons grew crops such as corn and beans and tended to be more sedentary than the Algonquins.

Hurons typically placed their dead on scaffolds and later buried the bones following Feasts of the Dead in large pits called ossuaries.

Algonquins, a more nomadic people, were more likely to bury their dead in individual graves. Two bone pits were also uncovered on the site. The first was found in 1870 at the base of a pine tree and the other, containing 10 skeletons, was exposed in 1902 when a lot on Mary Street was being levelled.

The combination of individual graves and bone pits could mean Hurons and Algonquins occupied the same site at different times or the burial customs were blending through the association of the two allied nations.

“There would have been cross-cultural influences,” says John Raynor, an avocational archaeologist from Midland.

“Just like we eat Chinese food and enjoy pizza today.”

Raynor agrees with Hunter the site would have been more typical of the Algonquin people who lived in low areas closer to lakeshores while the Huron preferred high plateaux for their settlements.

The Algonquin built small altars on top of each grave containing a carved figure of the deceased.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:37:28 am
(http://www.trisportcanada.com/images/orillia_map1.gif)

The Area of interest is in the middle of the map, on the left.









While archaeologists and historians are aware of the Mount Slaven site, it was largely forgotten as the city grew out over the site, block by block. There are no markers or plaques and the burial ground is not identified in the city’s official plan or defined on municipal maps. In fact, none of 32 sites inhabited by the Huron and Algonquin in Orillia and the immediate area have been located on municipal maps or marked with historical plaques.

Since digging up graves and making off with the artifacts was common practice for decades through the latter part of the 1800s and early 1900s and no effort was made to preserve the integrity of each site, it’s impossible to know how many burials escaped the predations of curiosity seekers.

What became of most of the pottery, pipes, jewelry, stone and metal weaponry, kettles, axe heads and other artifacts unearthed over the years is also unknown. There were no local museums and no one to place private collections into any kind of historical context.

Marcel Rousseau, a local history buff, wonders if the Mount Slaven site was the lost village of Contarea.

This native community somewhere near present day Orillia repelled the Jesuits in the early 1600s, spurning Christianity as the work of the devil. It was attacked by the Iroquois in 1641 and disappeared from the historical record, said Raynor.

Fraser Irvine, whose Mary Street home backs onto the creek, was astonished to learn the Algonquins had a settlement literally in his backyard and buried their dead where lawns and gardens now slope down to the water course.

“That’s amazing. Just amazing,” said Irvine, looking at Hammond’s hand-drawn map from 1904.

“I’m right smack dab in the middle of it. Nobody said anything about it.”


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:38:44 am









For most of its length, the creek now travels in buried pipes, but in the centre of the block bounded by Mississaga, Douglas, Mary and O’Brien streets, it emerges into the open air, trickling through a small ravine before entering another pipe and disappearing.

“It runs clear all year round,” said Irvine, who works in the city’s parks and recreation department.

In the four years he’s lived beside the creek, Irvine has never dug down very far anywhere in the yard.

“I’d like to get a team in here and root around,” he says.

“That stuff fascinates me. You never know what you’d find.”

The urge to satisfy curiosity is a double-edged sword, says Gloria Taylor, curator of the Orillia Museum of Art and History.

While the careful and respectful exploration of historic native settlements can yield valuable historical information, there is a risk sites can be ransacked by novelty seekers.

And often it has been the wish of First Nations that burial grounds be left undisturbed.

So the location of many archaeological sites has been kept under wraps somewhat, said Taylor.

“The province didn’t want places identified too closely for fear of grave-robbing.”

But the protective secrecy can result in communities such as those in the old west ward of Orillia living in total ignorance of the history literally lying under their feet.

There needs to be better communication between the province where archaeological finds are registered and municipalities where many of these sites are found, says Taylor.

Craig Metcalf, director of the city’s culture and recreation department, was not aware of the Mount Slaven site, but knows the area is dotted with the sites of former aboriginal villages, primarily along creeks.

“Where there’s water, there’s generally a hot spot.”

Recently attention has been focused on Orchard Point, where a developer wanting to build condominiums is being required to conduct an archaeological assessment of the property.

“Orchard Point is an area rich in archaeology,” said Metcalf.

In light of the limited information on file at the city, the Municipal Heritage Committee is recommending the city undertake an archaeological master plan, said Metcalf.

Such a plan, cataloguing sites of archaeological interest, would be a valuable planning tool in both established neighborhoods and areas of new development, alerting prospective developers of new projects and homeowners planning extensions or other work that might disturb the soil, said Metcalf.

“The Mount Slaven site could make sense as part of the overall mapping.”

Council will discuss undertaking an archaeological master plan at the city’s pre-budget meetings next month.

Taylor thinks further research into the Mount Slaven site and others within city limits could provide the material for historic plaques and a walking tour.

“People love historic signs. It makes them think about the history of the land. It helps kids understand where they belong.”

The Packet & Times was unable to get comment from Chippewas of Rama First Nation for these stories.





cmckim@orilliapacket.com

Article ID# 1226597 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:39:55 am
(http://galen-frysinger.com/ontario_waterways/orillia07.jpg)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:40:51 am
(http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2240/2423952207_c6017f880a.jpg)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:41:50 am
              (http://www.mnjikaning.ca/images/top.jpg)






                                       (http://www.mnjikaning.ca/photos/contact1.jpg)








                                                CHIPPEWAS OF RAMA FIRST NATION






5884 Rama Road, Suite 200
Rama, Ontario
L0K 1T0

Phone:     (705) 325-3611
Toll-free:   1-866-854-2121
Fax:          (705) 325-0879

Hours of Operation:

The Government Offices operate from:

Monday to Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
unless otherwise posted.

Government Offices are closed on Satuday, Sunday and Statutory holidays, including First Nations Day celebrated on June 21st each year.

General Contact Information:

Offices of Chief and Council
Phone:       (705) 325-3611
Facsimile:  (705) 325-0879
Toll-free:   1-866-854-2121

Email for Chief and Council:
Chief and Council
Chief Sharon Stinson Henry
Councillor Ron Douglas
Councillor Rodney Noganosh
Councillor Robert(Mush) Stinson
Councillor Byron Stiles
Councillor Brenda Ingersoll
Councillor Andrea Simcoe-Williams

Email: Administration
Email: Communications                 For information about the community, newsletter and events
Email: First Nation Manager (Dan Shilling)

Emergency services:

Chippewas of Rama Fire and Rescue
Chippewas of Rama Police
EMS (Emergency Medical Services)
Are available on a 24-hour call basis by calling 9-1-1.

For non-emergency service, please call:

Chippewas of Rama Fire and Rescue  (705) 325-3611
Chippewas of Rama Police Service     (705) 325-7773
EMS                                                (705) 325-3611 ext. 1717

Miigwech. Thank you for visiting our site. Please check back as our site is Under construction and will change often. Your input is important, please email any comments or suggestions to our Communications Department.



http://www.mnjikaning.ca/contact.asp


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:43:09 am
              (http://www.mnjikaning.ca/images/top.jpg)






                                       (http://www.mnjikaning.ca/photos/contact1.jpg)








                                                CHIPPEWAS OF RAMA FIRST NATION






5884 Rama Road, Suite 200
Rama, Ontario
L0K 1T0

Phone:     (705) 325-3611
Toll-free:   1-866-854-2121
Fax:          (705) 325-0879

Hours of Operation:

The Government Offices operate from:

Monday to Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
unless otherwise posted.

Government Offices are closed on Satuday, Sunday and Statutory holidays, including First Nations Day celebrated on June 21st each year.

General Contact Information:

Offices of Chief and Council
Phone:       (705) 325-3611
Facsimile:  (705) 325-0879
Toll-free:   1-866-854-2121

Email for Chief and Council:
Chief and Council
Chief Sharon Stinson Henry
Councillor Ron Douglas
Councillor Rodney Noganosh
Councillor Robert(Mush) Stinson
Councillor Byron Stiles
Councillor Brenda Ingersoll
Councillor Andrea Simcoe-Williams

Email: Administration
Email: Communications                 For information about the community, newsletter and events
Email: First Nation Manager (Dan Shilling)

Emergency services:

Chippewas of Rama Fire and Rescue
Chippewas of Rama Police
EMS (Emergency Medical Services)
Are available on a 24-hour call basis by calling 9-1-1.

For non-emergency service, please call:

Chippewas of Rama Fire and Rescue  (705) 325-3611
Chippewas of Rama Police Service     (705) 325-7773
EMS                                                (705) 325-3611 ext. 1717

Miigwech. Thank you for visiting our site. Please check back as our site is Under construction and will change often. Your input is important, please email any comments or suggestions to our Communications Department.



http://www.mnjikaning.ca/contact.asp


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:49:23 am


              (http://www.snuneymuxwvoices.ca/images/chalk_petro.jpg)

              Petroglyph

              Courtesy Snuneymuxw First Nation










                                              Petroglyph returned to first nation


                           Carving on boulder had been in museum for more than 30 years






Derek Spalding,
Nanaimo Daily News
Thursday,
October 30, 2008

NANAIMO -- The Snuneymuxw people officially celebrated the return of their salmon petroglyph this week, more than three decades after it was removed by the City of Nanaimo and hauled to a museum.

Snuneymuxw First Nation archeologist Lorraine Littlefield said the petroglyph, carved into a boulder, sat at Jack Point near the mouth of the Nanaimo River, marking a ritual that guaranteed the annual run of chum salmon.

Unlike most petroglyphs, the Jack Point petroglyph has a strong oral history attached to it.


A shaman would perform the ritual, singing a ceremonial song and marking male and female salmon with paint and down feathers, according to Homer Barnett, who wrote down the oral history. The Snuneymuxw could not smoke fish for winter until after completing the ritual, his account said.

City councillors and the Snuneymuxw gathered at the long house kitchen hall Monday to honour the petroglyph's return. Nanaimo Mayor Gary Korpan held open a red cape as elder Ellen White slipped inside. She buttoned up and slid on a braided cedar headband, traditional gear she wears to honour the creator.

"I'm happy that you are all here. This is an important day for us," White said before the feast, which took three people all day to prepare. "We need to protect the salmon and all our wildlife. There will soon be nothing left."

Korpan said the two communities have made significant progress in recent years, learning to work together "even if that means ganging up on upper levels of government."




© The Vancouver Sun 2008


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:50:57 am
(http://www.snuneymuxwvoices.ca/english/images/title.jpg)








                                                         Petroglyph






The Snuneymuxw First Nation has many stories associated with Jack Point (100 Kb) and the petroglyph that once stood there.

In one of the oral histories, the animals depicted on the Jack Point petroglyph are named. They are: Flounder, Spring Salmon (has a long hooked nose), Humpback Salmon (Pink), Coho Salmon, and Dog Salmon (Chum). A design of a bird that may be Great Blue Heron can also be discerned amongst the fish. The same story explains the petroglyph designs and how the petroglyph was used by the Snuneymuxw people.

"One day a man, who was a priest or spiritual person, caught a strange looking fish on the Nanaimo River. Later in the presence of the priest's daughter, the fish turned into a young man who asked the daughter to marry him. The man who was really a Dog Salmon took her away to his home. When the priest went looking for his daughter the next spring, he found her with the Dog Salmon. She would not return with him, but promised to return to Nanaimo with her husband and his family each year in the fall."

At the time of their return, the priest's family would be able to eat as many Dog Salmon as they liked. The day the daughter returned with her husband marked the first time the Dog Salmon entered the Nanaimo River for spawning. Another version of this story tells of the daughter and her husband leaping out of the water side by side, making themselves known to the Snuneymuxw people. In a ritual each year, to welcome the return of the daughter and Dog Salmon, the priest would paint the petroglyph at Jack Point in ochre, a type of red earth, and make offerings into a fire. The people were not to eat the first Dog Salmon that came back to the river, as they were believed to be the daughter and son-in-law.

In the 1930s, Albert Wesley from the Snuneymuxw First Nation, told ethnographer Diamond Jenness the following creation story about the Jack Point petroglyph:

"Afterwards Haals(Xe.ls) [The Creator] came. Who he was, whence he came, and whither he went, no one knows. He changed people in many different places to rocks, why no one knows. Two persons accompanied him in his travels. Raven (spal) and Mink (tetceq.an). Around Snuneymuxw he performed these wonders. Off Snuneymuxw he made a long point 'Jack Point', at Spal's (Raven) bidding, so that women would have a long way to walk around and could say all they wanted to say during the journey."

That this creation story includes Jack Point confirms the significance of the Nanaimo estuary and River to the Snuneymuxw people. Raven, the Elders say, is always trying to spy on women and listen in on their secrets. That is why he made Jack Point such a long piece of land - would have longer to hear women talk as they walked the length of the Point. For this reason, Jack Point is linked to Snuneymuxw women.



http://www.snuneymuxwvoices.ca/english/petroglyph_elders.asp


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:52:16 am
              (http://www.snuneymuxwvoices.ca/images/jack_point.jpg)

              Petroglyph in original location at Jack Point

              Courtesy Loraine Littlefield








Nanaimo River estuary



The Nanaimo River Estuary (100 Kb) is the largest estuary on Vancouver Island. Estuaries are incredibly rich and diverse habitats where fresh water from rivers meets salt water from the ocean. The Nanaimo estuary, like other estuaries, provides important habitat for migratory birds, fish and wildlife. Understandably, the Nanaimo River estuary has been a significant place for Snuneymuxw First Nation for generations. Unfortunately, like so many estuaries, the pressures of urban development, industrialization, transportation and recreation have seriously damaged the health of this special place.

Of the four salmon species depicted on the Jack Point Petroglyph, only two, the Coho and Dog Salmon (or chum), run with any regularity or vitality. There are Chinook in the river, but they are very rare now and fishing for them is restricted. Unfortunately, the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans opens the season for sport fishing but not for food. Some Snuneymuxw Elders believe that the river is dying because the petroglyph has been removed. They believe the estuary will not be restored to what it once was and will not be able to fully support salmon populations until the petroglyph has been put back in its original place at Jack Point.



http://www.snuneymuxwvoices.ca/english/petroglyph_elders.asp


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:53:39 am




                          (http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/sei/images/imag72.jpg)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:54:39 am




              (http://www.vancouverisland.travel/img/maps/vancouverisland.gif)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:57:01 am



               (http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/ubcreports/2008/08nov06/lost.jpg)

               Steve Daniel,
               a UBC archaeology graduate student,
               used radar technology to locate burials
               in B.C. First Nation cemeteries -

               photo by Martin Dee









                         Finding the Lost: Ground Penetrating Radar Helps First Nations Honour Ancestors







UBC Reports
By Basil Waugh
Nov. 6, 2008

It may look like a lawnmower, but a new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) device is helping UBC researchers to find what is hiding deep underground.

Construction companies use the technology to find underground pipes and cables, but UBC archaeologists and B.C. First Nations recently used it to locate something much more sacred: missing loved ones.

At the Metro Vancouver-area Musqueam First Nation, numerous burials from the early 1900s, whose grave markers had been removed or lost due to weathering, were located using the GPR and several burials with questionable markers were confirmed.

Thanks to the GPR, there are now also more than 70 new markers at the Kwantlen First Nation’s cemetery in Maple Ridge, B.C. Each one honours an ancestor whose headstone or metal cross had gone missing from theft, vandalism and car accidents from a nearby highway.

The GPR burial surveys are the first of their kind in North America, says UBC archaeology professor Andrew Martindale. What’s more, the technology helped researchers locate these First Nations’ ancestors without lifting a shovel. GPR uses software to generate visual representations of underground objects based on radio signals that it sends and receives.
“Knowing where our loved ones are means a great deal for our people,” says Kwantlen Chief Marilyn Gabriel. “It was a very powerful moment when we first saw all those new markers above where are our ancestors lay.”

Chief Gabriel says the Kwantlen plan to replace the temporary markers with a permanent monument and are consulting with spiritual and cultural advisors. “In my heart, that will complete the work,” says Chief Gabriel.

“This was very important research,” said Delbert Guerin, Musqueam Councillor and Elder. “It is an opportunity to teach our youth about the history of our people and our land.”

In 2007, UBC and the Musqueam received $70,000 from UBC’s Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) to purchase the GPR device. It was piloted this past summer at an undergraduate field school created by UBC and the Musqueam.
“The field school enables UBC and the Musqueam to develop research projects that give students practical fieldwork experience and address the research interests of the Musqueam people,” says Martindale.

Martindale says the GPR burial surveys were made possible through the unique strengths of the Musqueam, the Kwantlen and UBC’s Laboratory of Archaeology in the Dept. of Anthropology.

“Archaeologists don’t typically work with contemporary burial sites, so this reminded us of the sacredness of our ties to the past,” says Martindale. “Having Musqueam and Kwantlen elders there to guide our work was as important as our archaeological expertise.”

UBC has an ongoing relationship with the Musqueam that goes back to the 1940s, Martindale adds. That was when UBC’s first archaeologist Charles Borden and a young Musqueum band member, Andrew Charles, initiated collaborative research between the two communities.

 Steve Daniel, a UBC archaeology graduate student and head statistician for the Canadian Football League, says he “learned more in six weeks than in any book” during his fieldwork experience on Kwantlen territory.

Daniel says GPR, which has a subterranean range of five metres, is an important archaeological tool, especially in urban areas. “It allows you to see what’s down there, because you can’t go around digging up city streets,” he says, noting that archaeological digs are expensive and destructive. “And if you do excavate, this helps you to be exact as possible, saving time and money.”

Daniel, who recently completed his undergraduate studies at UBC, credits the GPR, his professors and his experiences with the Musqueam and Kwantlen for his decision to pursue graduate research.

“I grew up in South Vancouver and that’s what I want to investigate – that’s where my passion is,” he says. “The area is rich in ‘European settler history’ and ‘First Nations time immemorial history.’ Trying to match them up is pretty interesting to me.”

For Musqueam Richard Sparrow, who helped conduct the GPR surveys, the projects had special meaning.

 “As a Musqueam myself, finding unmarked graves was very important to me,” said the 27-year-old, who trained students on how to use GPR technology. “I also think our ancestors would have really appreciated our efforts. That is what I kept thinking while we did the work.”
     
 
 

Last reviewed 06-Nov-2008

UBC.ca » UBC Public Affairs


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 14, 2009, 09:58:20 am








                                Ancient Dirty Pottery May Hold Key To Iroquoian Origin






ScienceDaily
(Apr. 18, 2000) —
Philadelphia, Pa. --

The last thing most people want is food-encrusted pots, but to one Penn State archaeologist, burned-on, crusty old food may be a key to determining the origins of the Iroquois.

"Before 1000 years ago in central New York, people were highly mobile hunter gathers who moved seasonally and lived in round shaped wigwams," says Janet Schulenberg, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. "About 1000 years ago, people became more sedentary, staying in the same place for up to 25 years, farming corn, hunting and gathering."

The multifamily long house that is the classic identifier of Iroquois-ness came into use at this time."We know that the switch from mobile to sedentary happened, but we do not know if it happened over 200 years, or over two years," says Schulenberg.

"The Iroquois have been studied since 1680, but, we do not know why they changed house styles or adopted corn," she told attendees today (April 7) at the annual meeting of the Society of American Archaeology in Philadelphia.

The model commonly accepted for the past 500 years is that hunter and gatherers in the area, called the Point Peninsula culture, simply became the Iroquois. Development in place could have occurred when they adopted corn agriculture and of necessity needed to be sedentary to tend the crops. Or, they could have become more sedentary and then adopted corn agriculture.

The third option is that the Iroquois are a separate group who came from somewhere else.

"Corn is not native to New York, so the key to the origin of the Iroquois lies in when corn was adopted," says Schulenberg. "Were the people sedentary before corn or afterwards?"

The Penn State researcher is testing food residue on pots from around 1000 years ago to see if corn is present. Because corn is not native to the Northeast and is more like tropical grasses and sugar cane than other local edible plants, comparison of the stable carbon isotopes in the residue can show whether corn was present.

To test if corn could be identified on ancient pottery, she first analyzed potsherds from Pennsylvania. Three potsherds were from 200 A.D., well before corn was available in the region and six were from groups historically known to use corn.

"The method worked and correctly showed no corn on the early pots and corn on the historic pots," says Schulenberg. ?

To answer the Iroquois question, however, the researcher had to find pots that contained residue. "Most potsherds are in museums and were thoroughly washed when brought into the collection," says Schulenberg. "Washed pottery may contain residue, but currently only destructive methods can extract that residue."

Luckily, Schulenberg found a private collector who collected pottery from the same site for nearly 60 years and had never cleaned the pottery or placed it in plastic bags, which degrade organic material.

"The pottery sherds are spectacularly dirty," she notes.

Results from this pottery indicate that, while according to the pottery types found there the site was seasonally occupied by both Point Peninsula and early Iroquois, no corn was evident on any of the pottery.

"Corn may not be present on the Iroquoian pottery because they only occupied the site seasonally," says Schulenberg, who is a Weiss Graduate Scholar in anthropology. "But it does suggest that corn may not have contributed significantly to early Iroquoian life."

While Schulenberg's results are not yet conclusive, she does note that stable carbon isotope studies do work and should be used more to determine when corn was adopted.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Adapted from materials provided by Penn State.
Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats:
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http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2000/04/000417100121.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on March 20, 2009, 07:35:46 am








                                        Arctic indigenous people cling to polar bear hunt
     





TROMSOE,
Norway
March 20, 2009
(AFP)

– Hunting polar bears has been banned since 1973 but the Arctic's indigenous peoples are exempt out of respect for their ancestral traditions, despite scientists' objections over how the quotas are divided.

"When I was a child, it was forbidden to speak our language, to do things like dancing because missionaries said we were worshipping the devils," said Charles Johnson, an Inuit from the small town of Nome, Alaska.

"We need to keep our traditions alive. That includes regaining our language, regaining our culture and polar bear hunting is part of that," he said on the sidelines of a follow-up meeting in the Norwegian town of Tromsoe on a 1973 polar bear conservation agreement.

Signed by the five Arctic states that have polar bears -- Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, Russia and the United States -- the pact bans the hunt except in rare cases.

Article 3 of the agreement stipulates that "any contracting party may allow the taking of polar bears when such taking is carried out ... by local people using traditional methods in the exercise of their traditional rights."

Indigenous people consider the practice essential to their survival even though the bear accounts for only a small part of their diet and despite the fact that the species is under threat from climate change.

In Canada, which is home to two-thirds of the world's polar bears, part of the hunting quotas go to sports hunting by wealthy tourists.

"Subsistence is not just about nutrition. It is also about economic subsistence for the community," said Virginia Poter, the director general of the Canadian Wildlife Service.

A 10-day hunting expedition with a guide can bring in up to 30,000 Canadian dollars (24,400 US dollars, 18,000 euros) to the local population, or 1.87 million Canadian dollars annually.

"And the meat and fat usually remain in the country," she said.

The situation in Alaska is very different, where sports hunting is not allowed.

"There's no money involved, it's all about sharing," said Taqulik Hepa, an Inuit from Barrow in northern Alaska.

"When a polar bear is harvested, an announcement is made in the community and people come to the hunter's house to share the meat. It goes in no time," she said.

Each year, some 700 bears are killed in Canada, Greenland and Alaska out of a total population of 20,000 to 25,000 -- a level that scientists generally deem sustainable.

But a bone of contention is how the quotas are divvied up between different polar bear populations.

In the winter of 2004, authorities in the Canadian territory of Nunavut sharply increased quotas in Baffin Bay located between Canada and Greenland, from 64 to 105 animals.

The decision was based on Inuit accounts of increasingly frequent bear sightings.

"Raising quotas was a mistake," said Canadian polar bear expert Ian Stirling.

"People reported seeing more polar bears and the interpretation was that there were more polar bears. But the truth is that it was probably linked to the melting of sea ice, which forced bears onto land," he told AFP.

Added to the Greenland Inuits' taking of about 100 bears from the same population, the Nunavut decision has endangered the survival of the species in the area, according to scientists who said a sustainable quota to be shared by the two countries was 93.

"The population I'm most concerned about is the one in Baffin Bay," Stirling said. 


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 03:36:24 pm








THE INUIT OF THE ARCTIC REGIONS OF CANADA ETC.




http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,16044.new.html




Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 03:45:50 pm
Stormbringer
Hero Member

Posts: 279



    Subsistence in the Great Plains of North America 10,000 Years Ago
« on: September 13, 2007, 10:54:27 pm » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Native Americans and Subsistence in the Great Plains of North America 10,000 Years Ago






Peter N. Jones

I'm a native of Colorado, having been born in the state and lived there for most of my life. My parents were of Welsh, Norweigen, and Choctow ancestry. I have worked with various American Indian tribes, indigenous peoples from the Dominican Republic, and Hispanic minorities as a social scientist. Currently I am director of the Bauu Institute located in Boulder, Colorado. My books include: Respect for the Ancestors and American Indian Genetics

 
September 12, 2007

When the ancestors of today’s Native American, Alaskan Natives, and First Nation peoples migrated to the North American continent, the variety and types of animals encountered were very different than those of northeast Asia. In North America these early migrants had to learn how to hunt and subsist not only in a new land, but also on new plants and animals. Yet, as is well established, these early Native Americans were excellent innovators, and shortly after migrating to North America had learned how to flourish in their new land. What these early Native Americans hunted, how they moved across the land, and what their general lifeway pattern looked like has always been of interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, and others researching the peopling of the Americas. To investigate these questions, researchers have come up with several ingenious methods, one of which is called “prey choice.” Prey choice is the examination and analysis of the animals found in archaeological sites (the prey) in order to gain insights into the diet, subsistence technologies, and general lifeway patterns (the choice) of these early Native Americans.

Recent research using this method has provided some key insights into the peopling of the Americas and the subsistence patterns of early Native Americans who lived during what is called by archaeologists as the Paleoindian period (13,500-8,000 years before present). During the Paleoindian period it has long been argued that Native American foragers’ diets were quite narrow; groups using Clovis tool technology were thought to subsist almost entirely on mammoths, while later groups using Folsom and subsequent technologies were thought to have mainly hunted bison. This concept of early Native Americans as specialized big-game hunters persisted through the 1960s and 1970s, despite discovery of a few sites demonstrating evidence of small game use. Beginning in the late 1980s, however, the view of early Native Americans as large mammal hunting specialists began to be questioned for several reasons. First, studies of modern hunter-gatherers suggested that specialized large mammal hunting strategies were economically unfeasible and possibly even dangerous to the hunters. Second, models proposing a big-game emphasis on a continental scale ignored regions, such as eastern North America and the Great Basin, where there was little evidence for the exploitation of large game throughout the historic record. Third, early research was influenced by biases in the type of sites (mostly kill and carcass processing sites) and the location where research occurred (primarily in the Great Plains), all of which erroneously pointed toward a specialized hunting model of subsistence. Finally, large-game hunting is more archaeologically visible than other subsistence activities because the preservation of the bones of large-bodied animals is significantly greater than the remains of small game, thus leading archaeologists to initially conclude that early Native Americans hunted large mammals almost exclusively.

Despite these facts arguing for a new understanding, a number of researchers continued to maintain into the late 1980s and early 1990s that large mammal hunting was not only a critical component of early Native American daily subsistence, but also greatly contributed to their technology, mobility, and land use strategies. Some even pointed to large-game hunting as a primary causal factor in the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna.


These conclusions, however, can no longer reasonably be supported, and there is now overwhelming evidence arguing that early Native Americans, like their modern-day relatives, utilized a wide variety of floral and faunal resources as part of their subsistence pattern. For example, research by Matthew E. Hill, Jr., at the University of Iowa indicates that different site types provide different perspectives on early Native American faunal use. Using data from 60 sites, Hill concluded that early Native Americans hunted not only bison and mammoth, but also rabbits, turtles, pronghorn, deer, bighorn sheep, prairie dogs, beavers, snakes, canids, fish, badgers, bears, raccoon, muskrat, and many other species.

What this evidence reveals is that early Native American diets were highly environmentally contextualized. For example, when early Native Americans were in the low diversity grasslands of the High Plains and Rolling Hills of the Great Plains, they hunted almost exclusively large fauna, especially bison, for the entire 5,000 years of the Paleoindian period. This strategy was possible because grassland environments maintained large herds of bison despite drastic environmental change through the Late Quaternary. However, when early Native Americans were in more diverse environments such as alluvial valleys and foothill/mountain environments, a higher diversity of fauna were used. Although large game continued to be of importance in these environments, other species were also hunted when available.

The empirical evidence overwhelmingly argues that early Native Americans relied on a broad, general subsistence pattern during the Paleoindian period. This overall subsistence pattern continued as other components of these early Native American lifeway patterns evolved into the Archaic period (8,000-1,000 years before present) and as subsequent generations built upon their ancestors traditions.



http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=37513


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:26:11 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080611/capt.fd5fe6fca874430fb9de519485389391.canada_indian_apology_otth104.jpg?x=400&y=304&sig=.KIl49UaafW2HSMll6yJiQ--)

Assembly of First Nations Chief Phil Fontaine,right,
wearing headdress, watches as Canadian Prime
Minister Stephen Harper, left, officially apologizes
to native Canadians who were taken from their
families and forced to attend state-funded schools
aimed at assimilating them, at a ceremony in the

House of Commons on Parliament Hill
in Ottawa,
Wednesday, June 11, 2008.

(AP Photo/The Canadian Press,
Tom Hanson)










                                         Prime Minister Apologizes To Native Canadians





By ROB GILLIES,
Associated Press Writer
June 11, 2008
 
OTTAWA - In a historic speech, Prime Minister Stephen Harper apologized Wednesday to Canada's native peoples for the longtime government policy of forcing their children to attend state-funded schools aimed at assimilating them.
 
The treatment of children at the schools where they were often physically and sexually abused was a sad chapter in the country's history, he said from the House of Commons in an address carried live across Canada.

"Today, we recognize that this policy of assimilation was wrong, has caused great harm and has no place in our country," he said, as 11 aboriginal leaders looked on just feet away.

Indians packed into the public galleries and gathered on the lawn of Parliament Hill.

From the 19th century until the 1970s, more than 150,000 Indian children were required to attend state-funded Christian schools as part of a program to assimilate them into Canadian society.

Hundreds of former students witnessed what native leaders call a pivotal moment for Canada's more than 1 million Indians, who remain the country's poorest and most disadvantaged group. There are more than 80,000 surviving students.

"The government of Canada now recognizes that it was wrong to forcibly remove children from their homes and we apologize," Harper said.

"We now recognize that it was wrong to separate children from rich and vibrant cultures and traditions, and that it created a void in many lives and communities and we apologize," Harper said.

Harper also apologized for failing to prevent the children from being physically and sexually abused at the schools.

Phil Fontaine, the national chief of the Assembly of First Nations and one of the leaders seated near Harper, wore a traditional native headdress and was allowed to speak from the floor after opposition parties demanded it.

"Finally, we heard Canada say it is sorry," Fontaine said.

"Never again will this House consider us an Indian problem for just being who we are," Fontaine said. "We heard the government of Canada take full responsibility."

He said the apology will go a long way toward repairing the relationship between aboriginals and the rest of Canada.

The federal government admitted 10 years ago that physical and sexual abuse in the schools was rampant. Many students recall being beaten for speaking their native languages and losing touch with their parents and customs.

That legacy of abuse and isolation has been cited by Indian leaders as the root cause of epidemic rates of alcoholism and drug addiction on reservations.

Fontaine was one of the first to go public with his past experiences of physical and sexual abuse.

The apology comes months after Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a similar gesture to the so-called Stolen Generations — thousands of Aborigines forcibly taken from their families as children under assimilation policies that lasted from 1910 to 1970.

But Canada has gone a step farther, offering those who were taken from their families compensation for the years they attended the residential schools. The offer was part of a lawsuit settlement.

A truth and reconciliation commission will also examine government policy and take testimony from survivors. The goal is to give survivors a forum to tell their stories and educate Canadians about a grim period in the country's history.

___


VIDEO:


http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/player/popup/?rn=3906861&cl=8280064&ch=4226714&src=news


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:28:54 pm
,


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:30:20 pm








                                Ancient Dirty Pottery May Hold Key To Iroquoian Origin






ScienceDaily
(Apr. 18, 2000) —
Philadelphia, Pa. --

The last thing most people want is food-encrusted pots, but to one Penn State archaeologist, burned-on, crusty old food may be a key to determining the origins of the Iroquois.

"Before 1000 years ago in central New York, people were highly mobile hunter gathers who moved seasonally and lived in round shaped wigwams," says Janet Schulenberg, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology. "About 1000 years ago, people became more sedentary, staying in the same place for up to 25 years, farming corn, hunting and gathering."

The multifamily long house that is the classic identifier of Iroquois-ness came into use at this time."We know that the switch from mobile to sedentary happened, but we do not know if it happened over 200 years, or over two years," says Schulenberg.

"The Iroquois have been studied since 1680, but, we do not know why they changed house styles or adopted corn," she told attendees today (April 7) at the annual meeting of the Society of American Archaeology in Philadelphia.

The model commonly accepted for the past 500 years is that hunter and gatherers in the area, called the Point Peninsula culture, simply became the Iroquois. Development in place could have occurred when they adopted corn agriculture and of necessity needed to be sedentary to tend the crops. Or, they could have become more sedentary and then adopted corn agriculture.

The third option is that the Iroquois are a separate group who came from somewhere else.

"Corn is not native to New York, so the key to the origin of the Iroquois lies in when corn was adopted," says Schulenberg. "Were the people sedentary before corn or afterwards?"

The Penn State researcher is testing food residue on pots from around 1000 years ago to see if corn is present. Because corn is not native to the Northeast and is more like tropical grasses and sugar cane than other local edible plants, comparison of the stable carbon isotopes in the residue can show whether corn was present.

To test if corn could be identified on ancient pottery, she first analyzed potsherds from Pennsylvania. Three potsherds were from 200 A.D., well before corn was available in the region and six were from groups historically known to use corn.

"The method worked and correctly showed no corn on the early pots and corn on the historic pots," says Schulenberg. ?

To answer the Iroquois question, however, the researcher had to find pots that contained residue. "Most potsherds are in museums and were thoroughly washed when brought into the collection," says Schulenberg. "Washed pottery may contain residue, but currently only destructive methods can extract that residue."

Luckily, Schulenberg found a private collector who collected pottery from the same site for nearly 60 years and had never cleaned the pottery or placed it in plastic bags, which degrade organic material.

"The pottery sherds are spectacularly dirty," she notes.

Results from this pottery indicate that, while according to the pottery types found there the site was seasonally occupied by both Point Peninsula and early Iroquois, no corn was evident on any of the pottery.

"Corn may not be present on the Iroquoian pottery because they only occupied the site seasonally," says Schulenberg, who is a Weiss Graduate Scholar in anthropology. "But it does suggest that corn may not have contributed significantly to early Iroquoian life."

While Schulenberg's results are not yet conclusive, she does note that stable carbon isotope studies do work and should be used more to determine when corn was adopted.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Adapted from materials provided by Penn State.
Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats:
 APA

 MLA Penn State (2000, April 18). Ancient Dirty Pottery May Hold Key To Iroquoian Origin. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 7, 2008, from



http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2000/04/000417100121.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:32:35 pm
Teutonic Knight
Full Member

Posts: 57



    Early engraving of English meeting aboriginals traced to N.L.
« on: November 20, 2008, 02:50:42 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Early engraving of English meeting aboriginals traced to N.L.


Randy Boswell ,  Canwest News Service
Published: Tuesday, November 18, 2008
A famous 17th-century illustration showing English explorers meeting New World natives on the Atlantic shore - identified for decades by American scholars as an early depiction of contact-era New England - has been reclaimed as a piece of this country's history after a sleuthing Canadian researcher traced the origins of the image to a well-documented 1612 encounter in Newfoundland.

The 380-year-old engraving shows two members of an English exploration party - their ship anchored in a quiet bay in the background - trading goods on a beach with a group of feather-dressed aboriginals who had arrived by canoe.

The illustration - first published in 1628 - has for years been described by U.S. historians as a sketch based on a 1602 encounter in Massachusetts involving Bartholomew Gosnold, the English adventurer who later founded Virginia's landmark Jamestown colony in 1607.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:34:16 pm



(http://a123.g.akamai.net/f/123/12465/1d/media.canada.com/c28b49cb-824e-4590-8065-1f6a14db8c91/boswell-engraving-1118.jpg?size=l)

John Guy's party meet a group
of Beothuk at Bull Arm,

Trinity Bay Newfoundland.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:36:42 pm
Teutonic Knight
Full Member

Posts: 57



    Re: Early engraving of English meeting aboriginals traced to N.L.
« Reply #2 on: November 20, 2008, 02:52:39 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gosnold's key role at the dawn of American history gained renewed attention recently ahead of Jamestown's 400th anniversary when archeologists discovered a colonial-era grave that they believe holds Gosnold's remains.

But Newfoundland history expert Bill Gilbert, who travelled to Virginia for the 2007 anniversary celebrations, noticed that several Jamestown history centres were using the 1628 engraving to illustrate Gosnold's exploration activities in the future United States.

Having seen the same image used in illustrations of early Newfoundland history, Gilbert began researching the provenance of the engraving, eventually discovering that the scene was created in 1628 by German engraver Matthaus Merian for a set of volumes recounting recent European voyages of discovery in North America.

Now Gilbert has published a study in the British journal Post-Medieval Archaeology detailing the numerous clues that definitively link the image to a notable moment from Canada's past: a Nov. 6, 1612 encounter at a site along Newfoundland's Trinity Bay between two sailors serving John Guy - the Bristol merchant who established this country's first English colony at Cupid's, Nfld., in 1610 - and the island's original Beothuk Indian inhabitants.

"It's so obvious," Gilbert told Canwest News Service on Tuesday, explaining how the image is clearly based on 17th-century accounts of the Guy-led colonization of Newfoundland. "I wanted to reclaim this image for Canadian history."

Having established the Cupids settlement on Conception Bay in 1610, Guy sailed north into Trinity Bay two years later on an exploration voyage. Guy's journals from the time describe how two of his men - a "Master Whittington" and Francis Tipton - were first to approach the natives, who greeted the Englishmen with gifts.

"The image incorporates so many details found in Guy's narrative" - but not in accounts of Gosnold's voyages - "that anyone familiar with both would have no problem telling the difference," writes Gilbert. "Guy tells us that the party they encountered consisted of two canoes with four Indians in each, just as depicted in the image. Guy also says that the Indians approached them waving a white wolf skin on a pole, 'which we tooke to be for a parley'; the engraving shows the Indians waving a white skin on a pole."

Gilbert also quotes accounts of how the native people presented the visitors with "a chaine of leather full of small perwincle shells, a splitting knife and a feather that stucke in his hair." All of these details are captured in the 1628 engraving.

"It's a wonderful image," said Gilbert, adding that establishing the illustration's Canadian origins is particularly important as Newfoundland prepares to mark the 400th anniversary of Guy's founding of the Cupids colony.




© Canwest News Service 2008
 
http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=b8458c50-4bfe-4c29-92b3-424f0b3a42e3


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:38:35 pm
Sir Walter Raleigh's Indian Interpreters, 1584–1618






Alden T. Vaughan




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SEVERAL Native Americans who journeyed to England during the colonial era have enjoyed scholarly and even popular attention: Manteo, the Roanoke colonists' interpreter-guide; Squanto, the Pilgrims' "spetiall instrument"; Pocahontas, the Virginia colony's fabled and often fictionalized Powhatan princess; and several well-publicized eighteenth-century diplomatic delegates to London, including Tomochichi of the Yamacraws and Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) of the Mohawks. 1 Almost entirely overlooked are many other Indian voyagers to the east, including those from North and South America who crossed the Atlantic between 1584 and 1618 under the direct or indirect aegis of Sir Walter Raleigh. During those thirty-five years, perhaps twenty American natives under his sponsorship were in England to receive instruction in the English language and to impart knowledge useful for colonial enterprises. Most of Raleigh's Indian recruits sooner or later returned to their homelands, where many played key roles in England's early overseas ventures.

     Because the historical records of late Tudor-early Stuart England are woefully incomplete, sometimes confusing, and occasionally contradictory, no precise enumeration of the Indians under Raleigh's nominal control who traveled to England is possible. A tentative roster includes six or more from Roanoke Island and the lower Chesapeake Bay between 1584 and 1603, of whom only Manteo has received much attention. The stories of twelve or more natives of Guiana and Trinidad who made the journey between 1594 and 1618 are barely known, although these diverse and generally long-lived travelers must have been more visible and notable in England than many of the Indians who attract greater historical attention. At least three of the South American natives were from ruling families; one returned home to assume the tribe's leadership at his father's death. Several had extensive stays in London--the longest for fourteen years--often lodging in Ralegh's mansion on the Thames. After returning to their homelands, several English-trained Indians provided crucial aid to later expeditions into Guiana, sometimes saving Englishmen, including Raleigh, from almost certain death. After his incarceration in 1603, two or more Guiana natives attended Raleigh in the Tower of London. The last of the Guianans he took to England witnessed his beheading. By the time King James contrived Raleigh's execution, that swashbuckling knight--far better known to posterity for battling Irishmen and Spaniards than for educating and employing Indians--had initiated and fostered the practice of transporting American natives to England, training them to speak English, introducing them to Anglican Christianity, assuring their return to America, and reaping tangible benefits from their support of England's imperial ventures.

     Language, Raleigh seems to have recognized from the outset, was an essential instrument of empire. Without communication between his explorers and colonists, on the one hand, and the natives of Roanoke and Guiana, on the other, viable English outposts would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to maintain, as would be effective exploration and exploitation of native territory. Ralegh and his linguistically talented friend Thomas Hariot accordingly implemented indoctrination in English speech and customs gentle enough for most of his interpreter-guides to develop lasting loyalty to Sir Walter and his nation. Roanoke native Wanchese excepted, they were not Calibans whose profit from language instruction was knowing how to curse or whose maltreatment inspired rebellion; rather, in both Carolina and Guiana, Raleigh's Indians appear to have been conscientious translators and staunch allies to his own and his agents' subsequent expeditions. Even if, like most adult learners of a second language, his repatriated Indians' facility in English often faded in the absence of opportunities to speak it, they frequently aided the monolingual explorers who later visited their lands. Ralegh and Hariot were proficient schoolmasters.



WILLIAM AND MARY QUARTERLY

http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/59.2/vaughan.html


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:43:18 pm








                                        Arctic indigenous people cling to polar bear hunt
     





TROMSOE,
Norway
March 20, 2009
(AFP)

– Hunting polar bears has been banned since 1973 but the Arctic's indigenous peoples are exempt out of respect for their ancestral traditions, despite scientists' objections over how the quotas are divided.

"When I was a child, it was forbidden to speak our language, to do things like dancing because missionaries said we were worshipping the devils," said Charles Johnson, an Inuit from the small town of Nome, Alaska.

"We need to keep our traditions alive. That includes regaining our language, regaining our culture and polar bear hunting is part of that," he said on the sidelines of a follow-up meeting in the Norwegian town of Tromsoe on a 1973 polar bear conservation agreement.

Signed by the five Arctic states that have polar bears -- Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, Russia and the United States -- the pact bans the hunt except in rare cases.

Article 3 of the agreement stipulates that "any contracting party may allow the taking of polar bears when such taking is carried out ... by local people using traditional methods in the exercise of their traditional rights."

Indigenous people consider the practice essential to their survival even though the bear accounts for only a small part of their diet and despite the fact that the species is under threat from climate change.

In Canada, which is home to two-thirds of the world's polar bears, part of the hunting quotas go to sports hunting by wealthy tourists.

"Subsistence is not just about nutrition. It is also about economic subsistence for the community," said Virginia Poter, the director general of the Canadian Wildlife Service.

A 10-day hunting expedition with a guide can bring in up to 30,000 Canadian dollars (24,400 US dollars, 18,000 euros) to the local population, or 1.87 million Canadian dollars annually.

"And the meat and fat usually remain in the country," she said.

The situation in Alaska is very different, where sports hunting is not allowed.

"There's no money involved, it's all about sharing," said Taqulik Hepa, an Inuit from Barrow in northern Alaska.

"When a polar bear is harvested, an announcement is made in the community and people come to the hunter's house to share the meat. It goes in no time," she said.

Each year, some 700 bears are killed in Canada, Greenland and Alaska out of a total population of 20,000 to 25,000 -- a level that scientists generally deem sustainable.

But a bone of contention is how the quotas are divvied up between different polar bear populations.

In the winter of 2004, authorities in the Canadian territory of Nunavut sharply increased quotas in Baffin Bay located between Canada and Greenland, from 64 to 105 animals.

The decision was based on Inuit accounts of increasingly frequent bear sightings.

"Raising quotas was a mistake," said Canadian polar bear expert Ian Stirling.

"People reported seeing more polar bears and the interpretation was that there were more polar bears. But the truth is that it was probably linked to the melting of sea ice, which forced bears onto land," he told AFP.

Added to the Greenland Inuits' taking of about 100 bears from the same population, the Nunavut decision has endangered the survival of the species in the area, according to scientists who said a sustainable quota to be shared by the two countries was 93.

"The population I'm most concerned about is the one in Baffin Bay," Stirling said.   


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:45:47 pm








                                       Speedy Land Travelers Or Seagoing Sailors?



                                Temple Archaeologist Investigates Earliest Americans






ScienceDaily
(June 12, 1997)

— Were the first Americans coastal sailors or speedy bands of land-bound hunters? Once, most archaeologists agreed that ancient hunters raced southward over the Bering Land Bridge into Alaska, onto the Southern plains of Texas, and finally to Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America, completing this enormous journey in about 1,300 years.

But, in response to recent discoveries of what seem to be older human artifacts in South America, the archaeology profession has prematurely jettisoned this theory for an alternative view based on theoretical sea travel, says Temple University anthropology professor Anthony Ranere.

“Mine is a somewhat unpopular position, but I think the bulk of the evidence still supports the late entry, fast movement model,” says Ranere. “According to the model that I prefer, people first crossed the Bering Strait Land Bridge into North America about 12,000 years ago.”

However, older artifacts thought to date to 12,500 years ago have been found in Monte Verde, Chile. How could archaeologists explain these finds? By proposing that ancient travelers boated down the North American West Coast 25,000 or more years ago. “They could hardly have left Alaska any other way during the period from 25,000 to 12,000 years ago since a massive continental ice cap covered the entire upper half of North America, forming a barrier to overland movement,” says Ranere.

But Ranere points out that many other sites, once thought to be much older than the 12,000 years before present entry date, have been discredited one by one due to errors in dating. Only Monte Verde stands unchallenged. “If some flaw in the dating of Monte Verde is eventually discovered, which leads to a revision of its antiquity to say, 10,500 years before present, then the late entry model again makes sense,” says Ranere.

Ranere argues that, given the amount of game available, once on the North American continent, bands of hunters would have been able to move rapidly into new and strange areas without having to wait generations to gain intimate knowledge of the plants in different climates.

“Spear points are not root grubbing tools, they’re for killing game, and no specialized plant processing tools have yet to be identified in these early sites,” adds Ranere.

Ranere’s own painstaking field work at La Mula-West along the central Pacific coast of Panama backs up his claims. He has recovered spear points manufactured with the same technology as early spear points from North America.

“La Mula-West is essentially a workshop for manufacturing stone tools. In order to gear up for hunting, ancient people had to stop near sources of jasper, flint, obsidian, or other suitable rock types, and make large numbers of spear points. Since many points were broken in the manufacturing process, a large amount of workshop debris is left behind for us to analyze. So, if a lot of time had elapsed between occupation of sites in North America and our site in Panama, you would expect to see an evolution of technology, instead of the identical technology we found,” says Ranere.

The spear points could be quite deadly weapons. “There is some evidence that ancient people used an additional section of wood called a spear thrower to extend the length of their arms, allowing them to really hurl these spears 70 to 80 meters with some accuracy,” notes Ranere.

Ranere will take seven students along when he returns to central Panama this summer. This time, he is looking for remains of early crops that early hunters and gatherers added to their diet between 8,000 and 9,000 years ago.

Ranere presented his views in April at the meeting of the Society of American Archaeology in Nashville.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adapted from materials provided by Temple University.
Email or share this story:    Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats:
 APA

 MLA Temple University (1997, June 12). Speedy Land Travelers Or Seagoing Sailors? Temple Archaeologist Investigates Earliest Americans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from



http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/1997/06/970612101335.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:48:12 pm
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2007/10/071025160653-large.jpg)








                                       New Ideas About Human Migration From Asia To Americas






ScienceDaily
(Oct. 29, 2007)

— Questions about human migration from Asia to the Americas have perplexed anthropologists for decades, but as scenarios about the peopling of the New World come and go, the big questions have remained. Do the ancestors of Native Americans derive from only a small number of “founders” who trekked to the Americas via the Bering land bridge? How did their migration to the New World proceed? What, if anything, did the climate have to do with their migration? And what took them so long?

A team of 21 researchers, led by Ripan Malhi, a geneticist in the department of anthropology at the University of Illinois, has a new set of ideas. One is a striking hypothesis that seems to map the peopling process during the pioneering phase and well beyond, and at the same time show that there was much more genetic diversity in the founder population than was previously thought.

“Our phylogeographic analysis of a new mitochondrial genome dataset allows us to draw several conclusions,” the authors wrote.

“First, before spreading across the Americas, the ancestral population paused in Beringia long enough for specific mutations to accumulate that separate the New World founder lineages from their Asian sister-clades.” (A clade is a group of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs ) that share a recent common ancestor, Malhi said. Sister-clades would include two groups of mtDNAs that each share a recent common ancestor and the common ancestor for each clade is closely related.)

Or, to express this first conclusion another way, the ancestors of Native Americans who first left Siberia for greener pastures perhaps as much as 30,000 years ago, came to a standstill on Beringia – a landmass that existed during the last glacial maximum that extended from Northeastern Siberia to Western Alaska, including the Bering land bridge – and they were isolated there long enough – as much as 15,000 years – to maturate and differentiate themselves genetically from their Asian sisters.

“Second, founding haplotypes or lineages are uniformly distributed across North and South America instead of exhibiting a nested structure from north to south. Thus, after the Beringian standstill, the initial North to South migration was likely a swift pioneering process, not a gradual diffusion.”

The DNA data also suggest a lot more to-ing and fro-ing than has been suspected of populations during the past 30,000 years in Northeast Asia and North America. The analysis of the dataset shows that after the initial peopling of Beringia, there were a series of back migrations to Northeast Asia as well as forward migrations to the Americas from Beringia, thus “more recent bi-directional gene flow between Siberia and the North American Arctic.”

To investigate the pioneering phase in the Americas, Malhi and his team, a group of geneticists from around the world, pooled their genomic datasets and then analyzed 623 complete mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from the Americas and Asia, including 20 new complete mtDNAs from the Americas and seven from Asia. The sequence data was used to direct high-resolution genotyping from 20 American and 26 Asian populations. Mitochondrial DNA, that is, DNA found in organelles, rather than in the cell nucleus, is considered to be of separate evolutionary origin, and is inherited from only one parent – the female.

The team identified three new sub-clades that incorporate nearly all of Native American haplogroup C mtDNAs – all of them widely distributed in the New World, but absent in Asia; and they defined two additional founder groups, “which differ by several mutations from the Asian-derived ancestral clades.”

What puzzled them originally was the disconnect between recent archaeological datings. New evidence places Homo sapiens at the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site in Siberia – as likely a departure point for the migrants as any in the region – as early as 30,000 years before the present, but the earliest archaeological site at the southern end of South America is dated to only 15,000 years ago.

“These archaeological dates suggested two likely scenarios,” the authors wrote: Either the ancestors of Native Americans peopled Beringia before the Last Glacial Maximum, but remained locally isolated – likely because of ecological barriers – until entering the Americas 15,000 years before the present (the Beringian incubation model, BIM); or the ancestors of Native Americans did not reach Beringia until just before 15,000 years before the present, and then moved continuously on into the Americas, being recently derived from a larger parent Asian population (direct colonization model, DCM).

Thus, for this study the team set out to test the two hypotheses: one, that Native Americans’ ancestors moved directly from Northeast Asia to the Americas; the other, that Native American ancestors were isolated from other Northeast Asian populations for a significant period of time before moving rapidly into the Americas all the way down to Tierra del Fuego.

“Our data supports the second hypothesis: The ancestors of Native Americans peopled Beringia before the Last Glacial Maximum, but remained locally isolated until entering the Americas at 15,000 years before the present.”

The team’s findings appear in a recent issue of the Public Library of Science in an article titled, “Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders.”


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adapted from materials provided by University of Illinois.
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 MLA University of Illinois (2007, October 29). New Ideas About Human Migration From Asia To Americas. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from



http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2007/10/071025160653.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:49:30 pm
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2007/11/071126170543-large.jpg)






The U-M study, which analyzed genetic data from 29 Native American populations, suggests a Siberian origin is much more likely than a South Asian or Polynesian origin.



(Credit:
University of Michigan)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:50:28 pm








                          Gene Study Supports Single Main Migration Across Bering Strait






ScienceDaily
(Nov. 28, 2007)

— Did a relatively small number of people from Siberia who trekked across a Bering Strait land bridge some 12,000 years ago give rise to the native peoples of North and South America?

Or did the ancestors of today's native peoples come from other parts of Asia or Polynesia, arriving multiple times at several places on the two continents, by sea as well as by land, in successive migrations that began as early as 30,000 years ago?

The questions -- featured on magazine covers and TV specials -- have agitated anthropologists, archaeologists and others for decades.

University of Michigan scientists, working with an international team of geneticists and anthropologists, have produced new genetic evidence that's likely to hearten proponents of the land bridge theory. The study, published online in PLoS Genetics, is one of the most comprehensive analyses so far among efforts to use genetic data to shed light on the topic.

The researchers examined genetic variation at 678 key locations or markers in the DNA of present-day members of 29 Native American populations across North, Central and South America. They also analyzed data from two Siberian groups. The analysis shows:

o genetic diversity, as well as genetic similarity to the Siberian groups, decreases the farther a native population is from the Bering Strait -- adding to existing archaeological and genetic evidence that the ancestors of native North and South Americans came by the northwest route.

o a unique genetic variant is widespread in Native Americans across both American continents -- suggesting that the first humans in the Americas came in a single migration or multiple waves from a single source, not in waves of migrations from different sources. The variant, which is not part of a gene and has no biological function, has not been found in genetic studies of people elsewhere in the world except eastern Siberia.

The researchers say the variant likely occurred shortly prior to migration to the Americas, or immediately afterwards.

"We have reasonably clear genetic evidence that the most likely candidate for the source of Native American populations is somewhere in east Asia," says Noah A. Rosenberg, Ph.D., assistant professor of human genetics and assistant research professor of bioinformatics at the Center for Computational Medicine and Biology at the U-M Medical School and assistant research professor at the U-M Life Sciences Institute.

"If there were a large number of migrations, and most of the source groups didn't have the variant, then we would not see the widespread presence of the mutation in the Americas," he says.

Rosenberg has previously studied the same set of 678 genetic markers used in the new study in 50 populations around the world, to learn which populations are genetically similar and what migration patterns might explain the similarities. For North and South America, the current research breaks new ground by looking at a large number of native populations using a large number of markers.

The pattern the research uncovered -- that as the founding populations moved south from the Bering Strait, genetic diversity declined -- is what one would expect when migration is relatively recent, says Mattias Jakobsson, Ph.D., co-first author of the paper and a post-doctoral fellow in human genetics at the U-M Medical School and the U-M Center for Computational Medicine and Biology. There has not been time yet for mutations that typically occur over longer periods to diversify the gene pool.

In addition, the study's findings hint at supporting evidence for scholars who believe early inhabitants followed the coasts to spread south into South America, rather than moving in waves across the interior.

"Assuming a migration route along the coast provides a slightly better fit with the pattern we see in genetic diversity," Rosenberg says.

The study also found that:

•Populations in the Andes and Central America showed genetic similarities.
•Populations from western South America showed more genetic variation than populations from eastern South America.
•Among closely related populations, the ones more similar linguistically were also more similar genetically.

In addition to Rosenberg and Jakobsson, study authors include Cecil M. Lewis, Jr., former post-doctoral fellow in the U-M Department of Human Genetics, and 24 researchers at U.S., Canadian, British, Central and South American universities.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adapted from materials provided by University of Michigan Health System, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
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 MLA University of Michigan Health System (2007, November 28). Gene Study Supports Single Main Migration Across Bering Strait. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from



http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2007/11/071126170543.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:52:09 pm
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2008/02/080213090524.jpg)






Maps depicting each phase of our three-step colonization model for the peopling of the Americas.



(Credit:


Kitchen A,

Miyamoto MM,

Mulligan CJ (2008) A Three-Stage Colonization Model for the Peopling of the Americas.
PLoS ONE 3(2): e1596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001596)


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:53:22 pm









                    Thousands Of Humans Inhabited New World's Doorstep For 20,000 Years






ScienceDaily
(Feb. 13, 2008)

— The human journey from Asia to the New World was interrupted by a 20,000 -year layover in Beringia, a once-habitable region that today lies submerged under the icy waters of the Bering Strait. Furthermore, the New World was colonized by approximately 1,000 to 5,000 people - a substantially higher number than the 100 or fewer individuals of previous estimates.

The developments, to be reported by University of Florida Genetics Institute scientists in PloS One, help shape understanding of how the Americas came to be populated - not through a single expansion event that is put forth in most theories, but in three distinct stages separated by thousands of generations.

"Our model makes for a more interesting, complex scenario than the idea that humans diverged from Asians and expanded into the New World in a single event," said Connie Mulligan, Ph.D., an associate professor of anthropology at the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and assistant director of the UF Genetics Institute. "If you think about it, these people didn't know they were going to a new world. They were moving out of Asia and finally reached a landmass that was exposed because of lower sea levels during the last glacial maximum, but two major glaciers blocked their progress into the New World. So they basically stayed put for about 20,000 years. It wasn't paradise, but they survived. When the North American ice sheets started to melt and a passage into the New World opened, we think they left Beringia to go to a better place."

UF scientists analyzed DNA sequences from Native American, New World and Asian populations with the understanding that modern DNA is forged by an accumulation of events in the distant past, and merged their findings with data from existing archaeological, geological and paleoecological studies.

The result is a unified, interdisciplinary theory of the "peopling" of the New World, which shows a gradual migration and expansion of people from Asia through Siberia and into Beringia starting about 40,000 years ago; a long waiting period in Beringia where the population size remained relatively stable; and finally a rapid expansion into North America through Alaska or Canada about 15,000 years ago.

"This was the raw material, the original genetic source for all of the Americas," said Michael Miyamoto, Ph.D., a professor and associate chairman of zoology in UF's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. "You can think of the people as a distinct group blocked by glaciers to the east. They had already been west, and had no reason to go back. They had entered this waiting stage and for 20,000 years, generations were passing and genetic differences were accumulating. By looking at the kinds and frequencies of these mutations in modern populations, we can get an idea of when the mutations arose and how many people were around to carry them."

Working with mitochondrial DNA - passed exclusively from mothers to their children - and nuclear DNA, which contains genes from both parents, UF scientists essentially added genetic information to what had been known about the archaeology, changes in climate and sea level, and geology of Beringia.

The result is a detailed scenario for the timing and scale of the initial migration to the Americas, more comparable to an exhaustive video picture rather than a single snapshot in time.

"Their technique of reading population history by using coalescence rates to analyze genetic data is very impressive - innovative anthropology and edge-of-the-seat population study," said Henry C. Harpending, Ph.D., a distinguished professor and endowed chairman of anthropology at the University of Utah and a member of the National Academy of Sciences who was not involved with the research. "The idea that people were stuck in Beringia for a long time is obvious in retrospect, but it has never been promulgated. But people were in that neighborhood before the last glacial maximum and didn't get into North America until after it. It's very plausible that a bunch of them were stuck there for thousands of years."

As for Beringia, sea levels rose about 10,000 to 11,000 years ago, submerging the land and creating the Bering Strait, which now separates North America from Siberia with more than 50 miles of open, frigid water.

"Our theory predicts much of the archeological evidence is underwater," said Andrew Kitchen, a Ph.D. candidate in the anthropology department at UF who participated in the research. "That may explain why scientists hadn't really considered a long-term occupation of Beringia."

UF researchers believe that their synthesis of a large number of different approaches into a unified theory will create a platform for scientists to further analyze genomic and non-genetic data as they become available.

Citation: Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM, Mulligan CJ (2008) A Three-Stage Colonization Model for the Peopling of the Americas. PLoS One 3(2): e1596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001596


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adapted from materials provided by University of Florida.
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 MLA University of Florida (2008, February 13). Thousands Of Humans Inhabited New World's Doorstep For 20,000 Years. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from



http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2008/02/080213090524.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 04:54:34 pm









                    Early Americans Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than Previously Believed






ScienceDaily
(Mar. 21, 2008)

— A team led by two Texas A&M University anthropologists now believes the first Americans came to this country 1,000 to 2,000 years earlier than the 13,500 years ago previously thought, which could shift historic timelines.

The team's findings are outlined in a review article in the journal Science entitled "The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas," which synthesizes new data suggesting the migration from Alaska started about 15,000 years ago.

This theory is supported by not only archaeological evidence, but also from genetic evidence from living and ancient populations, says Ted Goebel, an anthropology professor at Texas A&M and associate director of Texas A&M's Center for the Study of the First Americans. He conducted the research with Michael R. Waters, a fellow anthropology professor at Texas A&M and director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans, and Dennis H. O'Rourke, an anthropology professor at the University of Utah.

Previous theories stated that the first migrants spread from Beringia to Tierra del Fuego over a few centuries about. Goebel says scientists have concluded that the peopling of America was a much more complex process.

The team focused primarily on molecular genetic, archaeological and human skeletal evidence to create a working model that explains the dispersal of modern humans across the New World.

Molecular geneticists have used refined method and an increasing sample of living populations and ancient remains to provide information on the Old World origins of the first Americans, the timing of their initial migration to the New World and the number of major dispersal events.

Archaeologists have found new sites and reinvestigated old ones using new methods to explain how early populations colonized North and South America.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adapted from materials provided by Texas A&M University.
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 MLA Texas A&M University (2008, March 21). Early Americans Arrived Thousands of Years Earlier Than Previously Believed. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from



http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2008/03/080320120714.htm


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 06:59:26 pm








                                 Canada's governor shows solidarity with Inuit seal hunt






           
YAHOO NEWS
 Michel Comte
Wed May 27, 2009
OTTAWA (AFP)

– Canada's governor general gutted a seal slaughtered for her during an official Arctic trip and ate
a piece of its heart raw to show solidarity with embattled Inuit seal hunters.

Hundreds of Inuit gathered for a community feast in Rankin Inlet in Nunavut, the first stop on Governor General Michaelle Jean's trip to nine remote northern communities this week as Canada's head of state and representative of Queen Elizabeth II.

Jean knelt over the carcass of a freshly slaughtered seal and used a traditional ulu blade to cut through the flesh and slice off some meat. She then asked one of her hosts: "Could I try the heart?"

Jean said it was "absolutely delicious" and tasted "like sushi," according to images broadcast by CTV.

"And it's very rich in protein," she added.

As she wiped the blood off her fingers with a tissue, Jean explained her support for Canada's traditional Inuit seal hunt and trade, which some fear will be devastated by a European ban on seal products.

The European Parliament recently voted to endorse an EU ban on seal products in protest against commercial hunting methods.

Northern aboriginals are exempt from the ban, but they worry it will inevitably affect their livelihoods too when it takes effect in 2010.

Inuit leader Mary Simon applauded Jean for her support of the hunt.

"Once you destroy a market for one group, it is destroyed for all," Simon said in a statement.

Defense Minister Peter MacKay, who hails from Atlantic Canada, said ahead of a trip to monitor annual Arctic military exercises that he looked forward to some "delicious seal."

"I would encourage all Canadians to try some," he said.

Animal rights groups, however, were critical of Jean for appearing to also support Canada's commercial hunt.

The Canadian government maintains that the 350-year-old commercial hunt is crucial for some 6,000 North Atlantic fishermen who rely on it for up to 35 percent of their total annual income.

Animal rights groups, however, say it is barbaric and have waged an aggressive campaign in recent years to stop the annual hunt.

"I was deeply disappointed," said Rebecca Aldworth of the Humane Society. "I felt that (Jean's) actions were inappropriate given the controversy over commercial seal hunting.

"It's my hope that the governor general will clarify her actions and tell Canadians that her intent truly was to show solidarity with Inuit seal hunters and not with the commercial side of the industry.

"Nobody opposes subsistence hunting by Inuit people. We're opposed to the industrial-scale slaughter of seals," said Aldworth, echoed by Sheryl Fink, spokeswoman for the International Fund for Animal Welfare.

Ottawa authorized the kill of 338,000 seals this year, insisting the hunt does not threaten the species.

But a slump in pelt prices has meant fewer hunters on ice floes off Canada's Atlantic coast. Fewer than 65,000 seals were expected to be killed, generating a mere 7,5 million Canadian dollars (6.4 million US) for sealers, a fisheries spokesman told AFP.


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 07:07:19 pm








                                                     Hypocrisy hard to swallow



                     Choose an EU nation and there's almost certainly a bloody stain on its flag






By MICHAEL PLATT
Calgary Sun
31st May 2009

As disgusting as it was to watch, Gov.-Gen. Michaelle Jean's snack of raw-and-bloody seal ventricle was a heart-warming moment for those of us sick and tired of European hypocrisy over Canada's seal hunt.

Any foreign politician slamming Canada's traditional seal harvest as barbaric, while approving the consumption of roast beef and foie gras by the bucketful, is either woefully ignorant or a two-faced fraud looking for votes.

Our heroic Governor General, by eating raw seal heart, did more to support a traditional source of food and income for Canada's northern communities than a thousand angry speeches could ever manage.

Not that the critics will listen.

The European Parliament, which earlier this month voted to ban the import of seal products from Canada, is filled with politicians willing to point fingers, while ignoring the cruelty under their own upturned noses.

Choose a European nation, and there's almost certainly a bloody stain on its flag, often worse than a hunt that's no more barbaric than what takes place in countless European slaughterhouses on a daily basis.

Behold, the hypocrisy of the European Union.

Let's start with France, and that fois gras their gourmands are so proud of, despite the hideous method used to produce it.

The French slurp back more than 19,000 tonnes of what translates to "fat liver" every year -- it's a pasty meat produced by force-feeding birds through a tube until their internal organs are bloated.

Cruel describes what the French do to geese and ducks, but it barely touches the savage blood sports enjoyed by European countries like Spain and Portugal, which also condemn Canada's seal hunt.

There, in front of leering audiences, bullfighting takes place -- if you can consider the slow and sadistic blood-letting of a frightened animal a fight, instead of a slaughter.

Perhaps Canada should hold the seal hunt inside a stadium, call it a sport and sell tickets.

Claiming the kill as a game would be sure to impress EU countries like Ireland, France and Italy, where fun pursuits like fox hunting and hare coursing take place.

In each case, the terrified target animal is chased by dogs, until it caught and torn to pieces.

Canada, take note.

Let dogs run down and rip apart the seals, instead of the traditional swift dispatch with a club: apparently, it's not cruel to kill animals when a pedigreed hound is involved.

Or Canada could call the seal-slaughter a "trophy hunt," thereby getting the Teutonic European countries on side with the fur harvest.

Austria, last year, boasted 1,053,000 animals stalked and shot, including deer, birds and wild boars, while German hunters continue to flock to Canada with rifles and skinning knives, all in the name of recreation.

Bulgaria might be applauded for finally banning dancing bears, but that country's animal cruelty laws are non-existent.

They oppose clubbing seals, but shrug over the brutal abuse of dogs and cats at home.

Greece, at least, ends the suffering of its domestic strays with mass poisoning, or so it's been reported by animal rights activists who've watched cats dying by the dozen.

Great Britain, having banned the fox hunt, is still no utopia of righteousness when it comes to animals.

The Royal Guard, including the soldiers outside of Buckingham Palace, still wear bearskin hats, each requiring the death of a Canadian black bear.

Norway must be mentioned for the annual harpooning of more than a thousand mike whales, which suffer painful and fear-ridden deaths at the end of a barbed spear.

Saving the most gruesome example for last, we have Denmark, a truly rotten place when it comes to cruelty.

Every year, Denmark's Faroe Islanders use motorboats to herd nearly 2,000 dolphins into a shallow bay.

There, hunters wade out and attack the animals with metal hooks, while using knives to skin the still-living dolphins, which thrash about the blood-red bay in dying terror.

Add in the meat-consuming culture which dominates Europe, and what you have is a group of countries soaked in blood and ignorance.

Canada's Governor General won't change a thing by nibbling raw seal heart as a symbol of support, but she will make such sanctimonious hypocrisy a little easier for Canadians to stomach.



MICHAEL.PLATT@SUNMEDIA.CA


Title: Re: FIRST NATIONS
Post by: Bianca on June 01, 2009, 07:08:53 pm






There's a simple, and scientific, way to determine which animals are hunted and killed:



If it's cute, then leave it alone.

If it's ugly, Bon Appétit.



Seals, dolphins, and bunnies? No.

Cows, pigs, and fish? Yes.