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Modern Historical Mysteries => New York City: Then & Now => Topic started by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:41:43 am



Title: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:41:43 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Empire_State_Building_by_David_Shankbone.jpg/449px-Empire_State_Building_by_David_Shankbone.jpg)

Location: 350 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10118
 United States[1]
Coordinates: 40°44′54.36″N 73°59′8.5″W / 40.7484333, -73.985694
Architect: Shreve, Lamb and Harmon
Architectural style(s): Art Deco
Added to NRHP: November 17, 1982 [2]
NRHP Reference#: 82001192


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:48:38 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Neighbourhoods_New_York_City_Map.PNG/616px-Neighbourhoods_New_York_City_Map.PNG)

The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. Its name is derived from the nickname for the state of New York. It stood as the world's tallest building for more than forty years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. Following the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, the Empire State Building again became the tallest building in New York City and New York State.

The Empire State Building has been named by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate.[3] It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[4][5][6] In 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. The building is owned and managed by W&H Properties


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:49:53 am
(http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/40/013_MR749~Empire-State-Building-Posters.jpg)

Empire State Building was the world's tallest building from 1931 to 1972.*
 
Preceded by Chrysler Building
Surpassed by One World Trade Center (1972)
Information
Location 350 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10118-0110
USA[1]
Status Complete
Constructed 1929 – 1931 [2]
Height
Antenna/Spire 1,472 ft (449 m)
Roof 1,250 ft (381 m)
Technical Details
Floor count 102
Floor area 2,768,591 RSF (2007)
254,000 sq. m
External: 2 acres[2]
Companies
Architect Shreve, Lamb and Harmon
Contractor Starrett Brothers and Eken
*Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see world's tallest buildings and structures for other listings.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:50:44 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Manhattan_at_Dusk_by_slonecker.jpg/480px-Manhattan_at_Dusk_by_slonecker.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:52:14 am
The present site of the Empire State Building was first developed as the John Thomson Farm in the late 18th century. At the time, a stream ran across the site, emptying into Sunfish Pond, located a block away. The block was occupied by the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in the late 19th century, and was frequented by The Four Hundred, the social elite of New York.

The Empire State Building was designed by Gregory Johnson and his architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, which produced the building drawings in just two weeks, using its earlier designs, for the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and the Carew Tower in Cincinnati, Ohio, as a basis.[8][9] The building was actually designed from the top down.[10] The general contractors were The Starrett Brothers and Eken, and the project was financed primarily by John J. Raskob and Pierre S. du Pont. The construction company was chaired by Alfred E. Smith, a former Governor of New York.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:52:48 am
Excavation of the site began on January 22, 1930, and construction on the building itself started symbolically on March 17—St.Patrick's Day—per Al Smith's influence as Empire State, Inc. president. The project involved 3,400 workers, mostly immigrants from Europe, along with hundreds of Mohawk iron workers, many from the Kahnawake reserve near Montreal. According to official accounts, five workers died during the construction.[12] Governor Smith's grandchildren cut the ribbon on May 1, 1931.

The construction was part of an intense competition in New York for the title of the world's tallest building. Two other projects fighting for the title, 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building, were still under construction when work began on the Empire State Building. Each held the title for less than a year, as the Empire State Building surpassed them upon its completion, just 410 days after construction commenced. The building was officially opened on May 1, 1931 in dramatic fashion, when United States President Herbert Hoover turned on the building's lights with the push of a button from Washington, D.C. Ironically, the first use of tower lights atop the Empire State Building, the following year, was for the purpose of signalling the victory of Franklin D. Roosevelt over Hoover in the presidential election of November 1932.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:53:30 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Old_timer_structural_worker.jpg/749px-Old_timer_structural_worker.jpg)

A worker bolts beams during construction; the Chrysler Building can be seen in the background.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:54:54 am
Opening

The building's opening coincided with the Great Depression in the United States, and as a result much of its office space went unrented. In its first year of operation, the observation deck took in approximately 2 million dollars, as much money as its owners made in rent that year. The lack of renters led New Yorkers to deride the building as the "Empty State Building".[14][15] The building would not become profitable until 1950. The famous 1951 sale of The Empire State Building to Roger L. Stevens and his business partners was brokered by the prominent upper Manhattan real-estate firm Charles F. Noyes & Company for a record $51 million. At the time, that was the highest price ever paid for a single structure in real-estate history.[16]

Imelda Marcos, wife of Philippines ex-president Ferdinand Marcos, was offered the property in the 1980s when the couple decided to buy New York real estate. She rejected it at $750 million on account of its being "too ostentatious".


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:55:50 am
Dirigible (airship) terminal

The building's distinctive Art Deco spire was originally designed to be a mooring mast and depot for dirigibles. The 102nd floor was originally a landing platform with a dirigible gangplank.[17] A particular elevator, traveling between the 86th and 102nd floors, was supposed to transport passengers after they checked in at the observation deck on the 86th floor.[citation needed] However, the idea proved to be impractical and dangerous after a few attempts with airships, due to the powerful updrafts caused by the size of the building itself. A large broadcast tower was added to the top of the spire in 1953.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:56:45 am
1945 plane crash

At 9:40 a.m. on Saturday, July 28, 1945, a B-25 Mitchell bomber, piloted in thick fog by Lieutenant Colonel William F. Smith, Jr., crashed into the north side of the Empire State Building, between the 79th and 80th floors, where the offices of the National Catholic Welfare Council were located. One engine shot through the side opposite the impact and flew as far as the next block where it landed on the roof of a nearby building, starting a fire that destroyed a penthouse. The other engine and part of the landing gear plummeted down an elevator shaft. The resulting fire was extinguished in 40 minutes. Fourteen people were killed in the incident.[18][19] Elevator operator Betty Lou Oliver survived a plunge of 75 stories inside an elevator, which still stands as the Guinness World Record for the longest survived elevator fall recorded.[20] Despite the damage and loss of life, the building was open for business on many floors on the following Monday. The crash helped spur the passage of the long-pending Federal Tort Claims Act of 1946, as well as the insertion of retroactivity provisions in the law, allowing people to sue the government for the accident.[21]



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:57:28 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/38/Empirestate540.jpg)

Crash by a U.S. Army B-25 bomber on July 28, 1945


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:58:05 am
Tallest skyscraper for 41 years

The Empire State Building remained the tallest skyscraper in the world for 41 years, and stood as the world's tallest man-made structure for 23 years. It was surpassed as tallest building by the North Tower of the World Trade Center in 1972. With the destruction of the World Trade Center in the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Empire State Building again became the tallest building in New York City, and the second-tallest building in the United States.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 02:59:31 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Skyscrapercompare.svg/756px-Skyscrapercompare.svg.png)

Height comparison with the Sears Tower, Taipei 101 and the Petronas Twin Towers

Similar skyscrapers
 
The Torre Latinoamericana in Mexico City looks very similar to the Empire State Building, including setbacks and antenna. The main differences are the size and outer paneling—the Torre Latinoamericana is glass-paneled on the outside. Also of similar design are the Seven Sisters in Moscow (such as the main building of Moscow State University) and the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, Poland. The Williams Tower in Houston is a glass-architecture version of the design, and the entrance on the ground floor is very similar.

The Reynolds Building, headquarters for the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in Winston-Salem, North Carolina is said to be the prototype for the Empire State Building. The Carew Tower in Cincinnati, is also thought to be the basis of the tower, due to the similar design by the same architectural firm, Shreve, Lamb and Harmon Associates. Another tower thought to be an inspiration for the Empire State Building is the Penobscot Building in Detroit, Michigan, completed in 1928.

The PPL Building, headquarters for PPL - formerly Pennsylvania Power and Light located in Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA is another structure with great similarity. Local legend says that architects and construction personnel for the Empire State Building visited Allentown to view the PPL Building for research and inspiration. The PPL Building was completed in 1928.

The Altino Arantes Building in São Paulo, Brazil is considered among many people as the most similar building to the Empire State. Actually, its design was based in it.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:00:12 am
Suicides

Over the years, more than thirty people have committed suicide from the top of the building.[22] The first suicide occurred even before its completion, by a worker who had been laid off. The fence around the observatory terrace was put up in 1947 after five people tried to jump during a three-week span.[23] In 1979, Elvita Adams jumped from the 86th floor, only to be blown back onto the 85th floor and left with only a broken hip. The building was also the site of suicides in 2004 and 2006. The most recent suicide was by a lawyer who leapt from the 69th floor on Friday, April 13, 2007


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:01:24 am
Architecture

The Empire State Building rises to 1,250 feet (381 m) at the 102nd floor, and including the 203-foot (62 m) pinnacle, its full height reaches 1453 feet 8 9/16th inches (443 m). The building has 85 stories of commercial and office space representing 2,158,000 sq ft (200,500 m2). It has an indoor and outdoor observation deck on the 86th floor. The remaining 16 stories represent the Art Deco tower, which is capped by a 102nd-floor observatory. Atop the tower is the 203-foot (62 m) pinnacle, much of which is covered by broadcast antennas, with a lightning rod at the very top.

The Empire State Building was the first building to have more than 100 floors. It has 6,500 windows and 73 elevators, and there are 1,860 steps from street level to the 102nd floor. It has a total floor area of 2,768,591 square feet (257,211 m2); the base of the Empire State Building is about 2 acres (8,094 m2). The building houses 1,000 businesses, and has its own zip code, 10118. As of 2007, approximately 21,000 employees work in the building each day, making the Empire State Building the second-largest single office complex in America, after the Pentagon. The building was completed in one year and 45 days. Its original 64 elevators are located in a central core; today, the Empire State Building has 73 elevators in all, including service elevators. It takes less than one minute by elevator to get to the 86th floor, where an observation deck is located. The building has 70 miles (113 km) of pipe, 2,500,000 feet (760,000 m) of electrical wire,[27] and about 9,000 faucets.[citation needed] It is heated by low-pressure steam; despite its height, the building only requires between 2 and 3 pounds per square inch (14 and 21 kPa) of steam pressure for heating. It weighs approximately 370,000 short tons (340,000 t). The exterior of the building was built using Indiana limestone panels.

The Empire State Building cost $40,948,900 to build.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:02:45 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/EmpireStateBldg.jpg/450px-EmpireStateBldg.jpg)

Street level view of the Empire State Building


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:03:13 am
Unlike most of today's skyscrapers, the Empire State Building features an art deco design, typical of pre-WWII architecture in New York. The modernistic stainless steel canopies of the entrances on 33rd and 34th Streets lead to two story-high corridors around the elevator core, crossed by stainless steel and glass-enclosed bridges at the second-floor level. The elevator core contains 67 elevators.[3]

The lobby is three stories high and features an aluminum relief of the skyscraper without the antenna, which was not added to the spire until 1952. The north corridor contains eight illuminated panels, created by Roy Sparkia and Renée Nemorov in 1963, depicting the building as the Eighth Wonder of the World, alongside the traditional seven.

Long-term forecasting of the life cycle of the structure was implemented at the design phase to ensure that the building's future intended uses were not restricted by the requirements of previous generations. This is particularly evident in the over-design of the building's electrical system.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:04:10 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Looking_Up_at_Empire_State_Building.JPG/800px-Looking_Up_at_Empire_State_Building.JPG)

A series of setbacks causes the building to taper with height.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:06:09 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Empire-State-Building.JPG/800px-Empire-State-Building.JPG)



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:10:08 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/6a/EmpireStateNight.jpg/800px-EmpireStateNight.jpg)

Floodlights

In 1964, floodlights were added to illuminate the top of the building at night, in colors chosen to match seasonal and other events, such as St. Patrick's Day and Christmas.[28] After the eightieth birthday and subsequent death of Frank Sinatra, for example, the building was bathed in blue light to represent the singer's nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". After the death of actress Fay Wray (King Kong) in late 2004, the building stood in complete darkness for 15 minutes.[29]

The floodlights bathed the building in red, white, and blue for several months after the destruction of the World Trade Center, then reverted to the standard schedule.[30] Traditionally, in addition to the standard schedule, the building will be lit in the colors of New York's sports teams on the nights they have home games (orange, blue and white for the New York Knicks, red, white and blue for the New York Rangers, and so on). The building is illuminated in tennis-ball yellow during the US Open tennis tournament in late August and early September. It was twice lit in scarlet to support nearby Rutgers University: once for a football game on November 9, 2006, and again on April 3, 2007 when the women's basketball team played in the national championship game.[31]

In June 2002, during the Golden Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, New York City illuminated the Empire State Building in purple and gold (the monarchical colors of the Royal House of Windsor). New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg said that it was a sign of saying thank you to HM The Queen for having the National Anthem of the United States played at Buckingham Palace after the September 11, 2001 attacks, as well as the support the United Kingdom provided afterwards.[citation needed]

In 1995, the building was lit up in blue, red, green and yellow for the release of Microsoft's Windows 95 operating system, which was launched with a $300 million campaign.[32]

The building has also been known to be illuminated in purple and white in honor of graduating students from New York University.[citation needed]

The building was lit green for three days in honor of the Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr in October 2007. The lighting, the first for a Muslim holiday, is intended to be an annual event[33] and was repeated in 2008. And in December 2007, the building was lit yellow to signify the home video release of The Simpsons Movie.[34]



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:11:04 am
Features
 
The Empire State Building rises to 1,250 feet (381 m) at the 102nd floor, and its full structural height (including broadcast antenna) reaches 1,453 feet and 8 9/16th inches (443 m). The building has 85 stories of commercial and office space (2,158,000 square feet / 200,465 square meter) and an indoor and outdoor observation deck on the 86th floor. The remaining 16 stories represent the spire, which is capped by a 102nd floor observatory, and atop the spire is an antenna topped off with a lightning rod. The Empire State Building is the first building to have more than 100 floors. The building weighs approximately 370,000 tons (330,000 metric tonnes).

The Empire State Building has 6,500 windows, 73 elevators and there are 1,860 steps from street level to the 102nd floor. It has a total floor area of 2,768,591 square feet (approximately 254,000 square metres).The base of the Empire State Building is about two acres, and the lobby is five stories tall. The building houses 1,000 businesses, and has its own zip code. The building was completed in one year and 45 days. The building’s original sixty-four elevators are located in a central core. Today, the Empire State Building has 73 elevators in all, including service elevators. It takes less than one minute, by elevator, to get to the 86th floor, where an observation deck is located. The building has 6, 500 windows, 70 miles of pipe, and 2, 500 feet of wire. The building weighs approximately 370,000 tons. The Empire State Building cost $40,948,900 to build, and today, it is partly owned by Donald Trump.

Unlike most of today's high-rise buildings, the Empire State Building features a classic façade. The modernistic stainless steel canopies of the entrances on 33rd and 34th Streets lead to two-story-high corridors around the elevator core, crossed by stainless steel and glass-enclosed bridges at the second floor level. The elevator core contains 67 elevators.[3]

The lobby is three stories high and features an aluminum relief of the skyscraper without the antenna, which was not added to the spire until 1952. The north corridor contains eight illuminated panels, created by Roy Sparkia and Renée Nemorov in 1963, depicting the building as the Eighth Wonder of the World alongside the traditional seven.

Long-term forecasting of the life cycle of the structure was implemented at the design phase to ensure that the building's future intended uses were not restricted by the requirements of future generations. This is particularly evident in the over-design of the building's electrical system


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:12:21 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Skyline-New-York-City.jpg/1989px-Skyline-New-York-City.jpg)

Observation decks

The Empire State Building has one of the most popular outdoor observatories in the world, having been visited by over 110 million people. The 86th-floor observation deck offers impressive 360-degree views of the city. There is a second observation deck on the 102nd floor that is open to the public. It was closed in 1999, but reopened in November 2005. It is completely enclosed and much smaller than the first one; it may be closed on high-traffic days. Tourists may pay to visit the observation deck on the 86th floor and an additional amount for the 102nd floor.[35] The lines to enter the observation decks, according to the building's website, are "as legendary as the building itself." For an extra fee tourists can skip to the front of the line.[35]



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:20:21 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/Empire_State_Building_Cityscape_at_Dusk.jpg/800px-Empire_State_Building_Cityscape_at_Dusk.jpg)

Normal white lighting


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:21:29 am
New York Skyride

The Empire State Building also has a motion simulator attraction, located on the 2nd floor. Opened in 1994 as a complement to the observation deck, the New York Skyride (or NY Skyride) is a simulated aerial tour over the city. The theatrical presentation lasts approximately 25 minutes.

Since its opening, the ride has gone through two incarnations. The original version, which ran from 1994 until around 2002, featured James Doohan, Star Trek's Scotty, as the airplane's pilot, who humorously tried to keep the flight under control during a storm, with the tour taking an unexpected route through the subway, Coney Island, and FAO Schwartz, among other places. After September 11th, however, the ride was closed, and an updated version debuted in mid-2002 with actor Kevin Bacon as the pilot. The new version of the narration attempted to make the attraction more educational, and included some minor post-9/11 patriotic undertones with retrospective footage of the World Trade Center. The new flight also goes haywire, but this segment is much shorter than in the original


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:22:32 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Copy_of_IMG_2168.jpg/450px-Copy_of_IMG_2168.jpg)

View from Macy's


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:23:30 am
Broadcast stations

New York City is the largest media market in the United States. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, nearly all of the city's commercial broadcast stations (both television and FM radio) have transmitted from the top of the Empire State Building, although a few FM stations are located at the nearby Condé Nast Building. Most New York City AM stations broadcast from just across the Hudson River in New Jersey.

Broadcasting began at Empire on December 22, 1931, when RCA began transmitting experimental television broadcasts from a small antenna erected atop the spire. They leased the 85th floor and built a laboratory there, and—in 1934—RCA was joined by Edwin Howard Armstrong in a cooperative venture to test his FM system from the Empire antenna. When Armstrong and RCA fell out in 1935 and his FM equipment was removed, the 85th floor became the home of RCA's New York television operations, first as experimental station W2XBS channel 1, which eventually became (on July 1, 1941) commercial station WNBT, channel 1 (now WNBC-TV channel 4). NBC's FM station (WEAF-FM, now WQHT) began transmitting from the antenna in 1940. NBC retained exclusive use of the top of the Empire until 1950, when the FCC ordered the exclusive deal broken, based on consumer complaints that a common location was necessary for the (now) seven New York television stations to transmit from so that receiving antennas would not have to be constantly adjusted. Construction on a giant tower began. Other television broadcasters then joined RCA at Empire, on the 83rd, 82nd, and 81st floors, frequently bringing sister FM stations along for the ride. Multiple transmissions of TV and FM began from the new tower in 1951. In 1965, a separate set of FM antennas were constructed ringing the 102nd floor observation area. When the World Trade Center was being constructed, it caused serious problems for the television stations, most of which then moved to the World Trade Center as soon as it was completed. This made it possible to renovate the antenna structure and the transmitter facilities for the benefit of the FM stations remaining there, which were soon joined by other FMs and UHF TVs moving in from elsewhere in the metropolitan area. The destruction of the World Trade Center necessitated a great deal of shuffling of antennas and transmitter rooms in order to accommodate the stations moving back uptown.

As of 2007, the Empire State Building is home to the following stations:

TV: WCBS-TV 2, WNBC-TV 4, WNYW 5, WABC-TV 7, WWOR-TV 9 Secaucus, WPIX-TV 11, WNET 13 Newark, WNYE-TV 25, WPXN-TV 31, WXTV 41 Paterson, WNJU 47 Linden, and WFUT-TV 68 Newark
FM: WXRK 92.3, WPAT-FM 93.1 Paterson, WNYC-FM 93.9, WPLJ 95.5, WQXR-FM 96.3, WQHT-FM 97.1, WSKQ-FM 97.9, WRKS-FM 98.7, WBAI 99.5, WHTZ 100.3 Newark, WCBS-FM 101.1, WRXP 101.9, WWFS 102.7, WKTU 103.5 Lake Success, WAXQ 104.3, WWPR-FM 105.1, WCAA 105.9 Newark, WLTW 106.7, and WBLS 107.5


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:24:06 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/Empirestatebuilding29122005.JPG/800px-Empirestatebuilding29122005.JPG)

Communications devices for broadcast stations are located at the top of the Empire State Building.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:25:35 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/41/Redandgreenfloodlights.JPG/450px-Redandgreenfloodlights.JPG)

Red and green floodlights illuminate the building during Christmas.




Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:26:10 am
Empire State Building Run-Up

The Empire State Building Run-Up is a foot race from ground level to the 86th-floor observation deck that has been held annually since 1978. Its participants are referred to both as runners and as climbers. The race covers a vertical distance of 1,050 feet (320 m) and takes in 1,576 steps. The record time is 9 minutes and 33 seconds, achieved by Australian professional cyclist Paul Crake in 2003,[36][37] a climbing rate of 6,593 feet (2,010 m) per hour.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:26:55 am
Tenants

Notable tenants of the building include:

Alitalia, Suite 3700[38][39][40]
Croatian National Tourist Board, Suite 4003[41][38]
Filipino Reporter, Suite 601[38][42]
Garuda Indonesia, Suite 1421[43]
Human Rights Watch, 34th Floor[38][44]
Polish Cultural Institute in New York, Suite 4621[38][45]
Senegal Tourist Office, Suite 3118[46]
TAROM, Suite 1410[47][38]
The King's College, Suite 1500[48]
Former tenants include:

China National Tourist Office[38] (now located at 370 Lexington Avenue)[49]
National Film Board of Canada[38] (now located at 1123 Broadway)[50]
Nathaniel Branden Institute [51]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_State_Building



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:27:51 am
(http://www.wirednewyork.com/landmarks/esb/images/empire_state_building_entrance.jpg)

Entrance


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:28:26 am
(http://www.wirednewyork.com/landmarks/esb/images/esb_lobby.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:28:56 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3d/Empire_state_building_inside.jpeg/450px-Empire_state_building_inside.jpeg)

Lobby


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:29:54 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Empire-State-Building.JPG/800px-Empire-State-Building.JPG)

The Empire State Building in New York


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:30:27 am
In popular culture

Perhaps the most famous popular culture representation of the building is in the 1933 film King Kong, in which the title character, a giant ape, climbs to the top to escape his captors but falls to his death. In 1983, for the 50th anniversary of the film, an inflatable King Kong was placed on the actual building. In 2005, a remake of King Kong was released, set in 1930s New York City, including a final showdown between Kong and bi-planes atop a greatly detailed Empire State Building. (The 1976 remake of King Kong was set in then-modern times and held its climactic scene on the towers of the World Trade Center.)

Andy Warhol's 1964 silent film Empire is one continuous, eight-hour shot of the Empire State Building at night, shot in black-and-white. In 2004, the National Film Registry deemed its cultural significance worthy of preservation in the Library of Congress.

In the 1981 movie, The Man Who Saw Tomorrow, the building is destroyed in the Nostradamus nuclear attack.

The film Independence Day features the Empire State Building as ground zero for an alien attack; it is devastated by the aliens' primary weapon which incinerates most of New York City.

English progressive rock band Pink Floyd launched the U.S. release of their double live album, P*U*L*S*E*, with a laser light show beaming from the top of the Empire State Building in June 1995.

In the Latin American literary classic Empire of Dreams (Yale, 1994) by Giannina Braschi, the top of the Empire State Building is taken over by shepherds who dance and sing, "Now we do whatever we please. Whatever we please. Whatever we damn well please."

The Empire State Building featured in the 1966 Doctor Who serial The Chase, in which the TARDIS lands on the roof of the building; The Doctor and his companions leave quite quickly, however, because The Daleks are close behind them. A Dalek is also seen on the roof of the building while it interrogated a human. In 2007, Doctor Who episodes "Daleks in Manhattan" and "Evolution of the Daleks" also featured the building, which the Daleks are constructing to use as a lightning conductor. Russell T Davies said in an article that "in his mind", the Daleks remembered the building from their last visit.

The Discovery Channel show MythBusters tested the "urban myth" which claims that if one drops a penny off the top of the Empire State Building, it could kill someone or put a crater in the pavement. The outcome was that, by the time the penny hits the ground, it is going roughly 65 miles per hour (105 km/h) (terminal velocity for an object of its mass and shape), which is not fast enough to inflict lethal injury or put a crater into the pavement.[citation needed] The urban legend is a joke in the 2003 musical Avenue Q, where a character waiting atop the building for a rendezvous tosses a penny over the side—only to hit her rival.

The Empire State Building serves as the setting for the last scene and one of the main themes in the movie Sleepless in Seattle.

Many other movies that feature the Empire State Building are listed on the building's own website.[52]

H.G. Wells' The Shape of Things to Come, written in the form of a history book published in the far future, includes the following passage: "Up to quite recently Lower New York has been the most old-fashioned city in the world, unique in its gloomy antiquity. The last of the ancient skyscrapers, the Empire State Building, is even now under demolition in C.E. 2106!". [53]

In the Science Fiction novel The Rebel of Rhada by Robert Cham Gilman (Alfred Coppel), taking place at a decayed galactic empire of the far future, New York in an ancient city which was destroyed and rebuilt countless times. Its highest and most ancient building, covered with piled-up ruins up to half its height, is known simply as "The Empire Tower", but is obviously the Empire State Building.

In Godzilla: The Animated Series, Godzilla is shown sitting on the top of the Empire State Building in the show's main title sequence.

The Empire State Building is featured prominently as both a setting and integral plot device throughout much of Michael Chabon's 2000 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay.

In the Percy Jackson book series, Mount Olympus is located over the Empire State Building, and there is a special elevator in the building to the "600th floor," which is supposed to be Olympus.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:31:14 am
(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41625000/jpg/_41625276_charlierome_lobby.jpg) (http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41625000/jpg/_41625174_idrizbegovic_lobby.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:35:44 am
(http://www.newyorkphotoblog.com/blog/photos/IMG_1168.jpg)

(http://www.newyorkphotoblog.com/blog/photos/IMG_1186.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:36:55 am
(http://www.solarnavigator.net/films_movies_actors/actors_films_images/king_kong_empire_state_building_sunset.jpg)(http://www.bilderbook.org/tag_e_book/newyork_empire_state_building/extra_pictures/empirestatebuiling_lobby.jpg)
(http://images.google.com/url?q=http://www.thecityreview.com/empi50.jpg&usg=AFrqEzd2Mjv7KhKyutnDIuL0-UAyJj3PgQ)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:51:28 am
(http://ergocise.com/tc/ebldnglby.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:52:11 am
(http://www.mrfs.net/trips/2001/New_York_City/Midtown/empire_state.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:52:31 am
(http://www.lnl.com/images/empire/esb6.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:52:50 am
(http://files.turbosquid.com/Preview/Content_on_9_29_2006_14_02_04/Empire%20State%20Building.jpg5ef3ffa3-8364-40e6-829c-b94d94579b18Large.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:53:20 am
(http://greem.co.uk/pics/nyc/empire_state_building.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:53:39 am
(http://smv.berkeley.edu/features/2005/t63.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:54:09 am
(http://www.a2c2.org/conferences/acc2007/ACC2007_NYC_files/empire_state.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:54:35 am
(http://www.thesefleetingmoments.com/images/20060814173344_empire-state-building.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:54:59 am
(http://www.fantascienza.com/cinema/king-kong/media/empstate.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:55:11 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2005/12/05/nyregion/05kong1a_lg.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:56:47 am
(http://www.eugenewei.com/images/movies/kingkong-ny.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:57:57 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2005/12/05/nyregion/05kong1b_lg.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:58:21 am
(http://media.monstersandcritics.com/articles/1150248/article_images/artworkfromkingkong.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 01, 2008, 03:59:02 am
(http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect4/kingkong.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:17:43 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2a/ESB_Elevators.JPG/800px-ESB_Elevators.JPG)

Art deco elevators in the lobby


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:18:31 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4e/CNV00006.jpg/401px-CNV00006.jpg)

Looking Down


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:19:24 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/38/Empire_State_Building_up.jpg/800px-Empire_State_Building_up.jpg)

Looking up at the Empire State Building.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:20:03 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/34/Empire_State_Building_background.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_background.jpg)

The Empire State Building from the streets of New York City.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:20:49 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Empire_State_Building_Red_and_Green.JPG/450px-Empire_State_Building_Red_and_Green.JPG)

Empire State Building lit up red and green.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:22:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d8/Empire_State_Building_Cityscape_at_Dusk.jpg/800px-Empire_State_Building_Cityscape_at_Dusk.jpg)

New York City with the Empire State Building at dusk.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:23:43 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/NYC_Empire_State_Building.jpg/800px-NYC_Empire_State_Building.jpg)

Empire State Building as seen from Top of the Rock


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:24:55 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Mast_Empire_State_Building.JPG/800px-Mast_Empire_State_Building.JPG)

Mast van Empire State Building


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:30:14 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/..._but_new_york_cares.jpg/800px-..._but_new_york_cares.jpg)

Bright lights night view of New York City, featuring the Empire State Building lit up in all white. :... but new york cares


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:31:02 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/0373New_York_City_Empire_State_Building.JPG/800px-0373New_York_City_Empire_State_Building.JPG)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:32:04 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Copy_of_IMG_2168.jpg/450px-Copy_of_IMG_2168.jpg)
View of the Empire State from Macy's



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:33:03 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/EPS_in_NYC_2006.jpg/450px-EPS_in_NYC_2006.jpg)

The Empire State Building in New York City.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:34:21 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Empire_State_2003.JPG/800px-Empire_State_2003.JPG)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:35:52 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Empire_State_Building_%28from_Washington_Square_Park%29_2.JPG/451px-Empire_State_Building_%28from_Washington_Square_Park%29_2.JPG)

The Empire State Building, the moste renowned skyscraper of New York City.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:36:46 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Empire_State_Building_10_by_David_Shankbone.JPG/800px-Empire_State_Building_10_by_David_Shankbone.JPG)

Recently the door on my roof has been busted, so I can sneak up there to take some shots. I have excellent views from the East Village. This was the night of a big rain storm, literally moments before it began (I was caught in the downpour).


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:37:35 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Empire_State_Building_2.jpg/453px-Empire_State_Building_2.jpg)

Az Empire State Building távolról. The Empire State Building from a distance


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:39:29 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Empire_State_Building_2005.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_2005.jpg)

Empire State Building


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:41:17 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Empire_State_Building_Dec.2005.jpg/800px-Empire_State_Building_Dec.2005.jpg)


Empire State Building, New York City, USA, Dec.2005



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:42:08 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/Empire_State_Building_New_York_-_bottom_to_top.JPG/400px-Empire_State_Building_New_York_-_bottom_to_top.JPG)

The Empire State Building in New York, view from bottom to top


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:43:20 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Empire_State_Building_New_York_City_Dec-01-2003.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_New_York_City_Dec-01-2003.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:44:39 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Empire_State_Building_New_York_City_Flickr_Tjeerd.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_New_York_City_Flickr_Tjeerd.jpg)

"Empire State Building" by [Tjeerd] "A really really impressive building, but it's not as beautiful as the Chrysler building."

Source: [1]


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:45:26 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Empire_State_Building_Night.jpg/800px-Empire_State_Building_Night.jpg)

Empire State Building at night.
Picture taken in October 2004


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:46:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Empire_State_Building_Streetview.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_Streetview.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:47:39 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Empire_State_Building_at_Night_New_York_City_Dec-01-2003.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_at_Night_New_York_City_Dec-01-2003.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:48:39 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/40/Empire_State_Building_at_Night_New_York_City_November_2003.jpg/800px-Empire_State_Building_at_Night_New_York_City_November_2003.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:49:26 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Empire_State_Building_by_David_Shankbone.jpg/449px-Empire_State_Building_by_David_Shankbone.jpg)

Empire State Building from a Park Avenue skyscraper.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:50:13 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Empire_State_Building_from_Broadway_New_York_City.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_from_Broadway_New_York_City.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:50:56 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Empire_State_Building_pano.jpg/257px-Empire_State_Building_pano.jpg)

View of the Empire State Building as seen from the Rockefeller Center.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:51:51 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Empire_State_Building_yellow.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building_yellow.jpg)

Empire State Building illuminated yellow to promote the home video release of The Simpsons movie.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:52:32 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Empire_State_Building-Antenne.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building-Antenne.jpg)

Antenne des Empire State Buildings von der Aussichtsplattform aus fotografiert


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:53:14 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Empire_State_Building.JPG/450px-Empire_State_Building.JPG)

Empire State Building


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:53:52 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Empire_State_Building.jpg/453px-Empire_State_Building.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:54:41 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fd/Empire_State_Building2_Dec.2005.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building2_Dec.2005.jpg)

Empire State Building, New York City, USA, Dec.2005


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:55:33 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Empire_State_Building3_Dec.2005_Cropped.JPG/326px-Empire_State_Building3_Dec.2005_Cropped.JPG)

Cropped version of en::Image:Empire State Building3 Dec.2005.jpg, intended to highlight the Empire State Building in the center of the image. This picture is currently being considered to be the "logo" of WikiProject Skyscrapers.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:56:13 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Empire_State_Building3_Dec.2005.jpg/450px-Empire_State_Building3_Dec.2005.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:57:11 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Empire_State_building_19.JPG/450px-Empire_State_building_19.JPG)
The Empire State Building in New York City, taken from 5th Avenue.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:57:56 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Empire_State_building_P8180716.JPG/450px-Empire_State_building_P8180716.JPG)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:58:28 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Empire_State.jpg/450px-Empire_State.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:59:11 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Empire_state_building_1986.jpeg)

The Empire State building in New York photographed June 1986. The picture was taken with a Canon AE-1 camera and was scanned from the original.


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 06, 2008, 11:59:51 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Empire_state_building.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:27:44 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1f/Empire_state_christmas_floodlights.jpg/450px-Empire_state_christmas_floodlights.jpg)

Empire state christmas floodlights


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:31:42 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/04/Empire_state_from_chinatown.jpg/800px-Empire_state_from_chinatown.jpg)

Empire State building from Chinatown in Manhattan


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:32:50 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Empire_states3.jpg/356px-Empire_states3.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:33:27 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Empire-Broadway.jpg/400px-Empire-Broadway.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:34:18 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/EmpireState-Night-070131.jpg/398px-EmpireState-Night-070131.jpg)

Empire State Building at night


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:35:03 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/EmpireState-moon.jpg/800px-EmpireState-moon.jpg)

Empire State Building at night with the moon


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:35:31 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/EmpireStateBldg.jpg/450px-EmpireStateBldg.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:35:57 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/EmpireStateBldgn.jpg/474px-EmpireStateBldgn.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:36:25 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/EmpireStateBuilding_2007_amk_bw.jpg/385px-EmpireStateBuilding_2007_amk_bw.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:37:15 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/ba/EmpireStateBuilding_2007_amk.jpg/400px-EmpireStateBuilding_2007_amk.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:38:54 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/EmpireStateBuilding.jpg/450px-EmpireStateBuilding.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:53:15 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Empirestatebldg.jpg/140px-Empirestatebldg.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:53:58 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/Empirestatebuilding29122005.JPG/800px-Empirestatebuilding29122005.JPG)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:55:35 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/F-16_Fighting_Falcons_above_New_York_City%282%29.jpg/800px-F-16_Fighting_Falcons_above_New_York_City%282%29.jpg)

NEW YORK -- Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building during an air show May 26. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Sean Mateo White)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:56:56 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Frank_Sinatra_Park._Hoboken%2C_NJ.jpg/800px-Frank_Sinatra_Park._Hoboken%2C_NJ.jpg)

Description : New York City Skyline as seen from Frank Sinatra Park, Hoboken, NJ


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:57:43 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/IMG_1277.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 12:58:38 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Looking_Up_at_Empire_State_Building.JPG/800px-Looking_Up_at_Empire_State_Building.JPG)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 01:00:25 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/New_York_year_2000_02.JPG)

New York year 2000


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 01:02:15 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/RNC_04_protest_86.jpg/800px-RNC_04_protest_86.jpg)


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 01:04:07 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Top_of_the_rock_panorama_of_empire_state_building.jpg/303px-Top_of_the_rock_panorama_of_empire_state_building.jpg)
Panorama of the Empire State Building, New York City, from the top of the GE Building at 30 Rockefeller Center.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 01:24:01 am
Empire State Building Withstood Airplane Impact
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The World Trade Center towers were not the first of New York’s skyscrapers to be hit by an airplane. In 1945, the Empire State Building withstood the impact of a U.S. Army Air Corps B-25 bomber. Fourteen lives were lost, but the steel structure remained standing after the unarmed trainer plane slammed into the building’s 79th floor. The accident was ruled by authorities to be caused by pilot error, after Lieutenant Colonel William F. Smith Jr., a decorated veteran of World War II and experienced pilot, apparently lost his way in the dense fog that had enveloped Manhattan that Saturday morning in July. Smith was flying the twin-engine bomber from his home in Bedford, Massachusetts to Newark, New Jersey, where he had planned to pick up his commanding officer before continuing on to home base in South Dakota. Smith had been scheduled to land at La Guardia Airport, and the air traffic controller directed him to do so. Smith, however, asked for and received permission to land in Newark instead. The last words the air traffic controller spoke to Smith were ‘At the present time, I can’t see the top of the Empire State Building,’ according to the Empire State Building’s web site.

At 9:40 a.m., as workers went about their business in the Catholic War Relief Office on the 79th floor, the B-25 crashed into that office at 322 kilometers per hour. The impact reportedly tore off the bomber’s wings, leaving a five meter by six meter hole in the building. One engine was catapulted through the Empire State Building, emerging on the opposite side and crashing through the roof of a neighboring building. The second engine and part of the bomber’s landing gear fell through an elevator shaft. When the plane hit, its fuel tanks were reported to have exploded, engulfing the 79th floor in flames.

The 102-story building shook with the initial impact, according to witnesses, but within three months, the damage was repaired at a cost of about $1 million. Smith died in the crash, along with two other crew members. Eleven workers died in the Catholic War Relief Office, and at least two dozen people were injured.



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Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 02:03:30 am
The Day A Bomber Hit The Empire State Building
by Joe Richman


(http://media.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2008/july/empirestate540.jpg)
 


Bettmann/Corbis
The Empire State Building was enveloped in smoke after it was rammed by a U.S. Army B-25 bomber on July 28, 1945.

 
 
 
Hear Archived Audio
At the time the B-25 bomber slammed into the Empire State Building, an engineer for the American Society of Civil Engineers happened to be dictating a letter onto a recording device. He captured the sounds of the crash.


Listen: A B-25 Crashes Into The Empire State Building In 1945
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http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=92987873


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 02:04:29 am
(http://media.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2008/july/gloriapall540.jpg)

Courtesy Gloria Pall
Gloria Pall, pictured here in 1945, worked on the 56th floor of the Empire State Building when it was hit by a B-25 bomber.



Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 02:25:02 am
All Things Considered, July 28, 2008 · On July 28, 1945, residents of New York City were horrified when an airplane crashed into the Empire State Building, leaving 14 dead. Though the events of that day have largely faded from public memory, they remain etched in the minds of those who experienced them.

It was the waning days of World War II, and a B-25 bomber was flying a routine mission ferrying servicemen from Massachusetts to New York City's LaGuardia Airport. The day was foggy. Capt. William F. Smith, who had led some of the most dangerous missions in WWII in Europe, was the pilot.

When Smith arrived in the New York area, the weather was getting worse. He called LaGuardia and requested a clearance to land. With nearly zero visibility, the tower suggested that Smith not land.

"Smith said, 'Thank you very much' and signed off," says Arthur Weingarten, who wrote The Sky Is Falling, about what happened that day. "He ignored it … So he started to make a little bit of a turn that brought him over midtown Manhattan, and as he straightened out, the clouds broke up enough for him to realize he was flying among skyscrapers."

The bomber crashed into the Empire State Building, the tallest building in the world at the time. The collision killed Smith, two others on the plane and 11 people who worked inside the building.

Therese Fortier Willig, who was 20 years old at the time, worked for the Catholic Relief Services on the 79th floor.

"In the other side of the office, all I could see was flames," Willig said. "Mr. Fountain was walking through the office when the plane hit the building and he was on fire — I mean, his clothes were on fire, his head was on fire. Six of us managed to get into this one office that seemed to be untouched by the fire and close the door before it engulfed us. There was no doubt that the other people must have been killed."

Gloria Pall worked for the United Service Organization's headquarters on the 56th floor.

"I was at the file cabinet and all of a sudden the building felt like it was just going to topple over," Pall said. "It threw me across the room, and I landed against the wall. People were screaming and looking at each other. We didn't know what to do. We didn't know if it was a bomb or what happened. It was terrifying."

The fire trapped hundreds of office workers, including Willig and Pall. There was panic. A man named Paul Dearing jumped.

When the plane hit, parts of the engine flew ahead and severed the lifting cables of two elevators on the 79th floor, according to Weingarten. The elevators crashed to the subbasement. In one of the elevators was a 19-year-old elevator operator named Betty Lou Oliver. She broke her pelvis, back and neck — but she survived.

Willig recalled what she was thinking as the fire burned on the 79th floor. "It was a very small universe at that point. You're stuck there in an island, with fire all around us," Willig said. "A couple of the women had passed out from the smoke, and I had a handkerchief in my pocket, and so I used that to cover my nose and my mouth to protect me from the fumes. And somebody had opened the window. And I'm sitting there, and I thought about my rings. And I thought I won't be around to have them, someone else might as well have use out of them. So I took them off my fingers and threw them out the window."

Willig said a man on the street below saw the office workers trapped in the building and signaled to them to stay where they were.

"I guess he was trying to give us some solace — to say don't worry," Willig said. "And that was a connection with the rest of the world. We all felt a little better to know that someone knew we were there."

"And all of a sudden here were firemen and they're coming to rescue us, all dressed up in their raincoats, whatever they wear," Willig said. "It was just wonderful. We climbed out through the broken glass. I was just grateful to be alive."

Pall said she didn't know what happened until she was out of the building.

"I saw crowds of people just looking at each other and I said, 'What happened? What happened?' " Pall said. "He pointed up to the 79th floor and I looked up and saw the tail of a B-25 bomber."

Eight months after the crash, the U.S. government offered money to families of the victims. Some accepted, but others initiated a lawsuit that resulted in landmark legislation. The Federal Tort Claims Act of 1946, for the first time, gave American citizens the right to sue the federal government
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=92987873


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 07, 2008, 02:45:54 am
Elevator World
3/01/96
July 28, 1945 - Plane Hits Building - Woman Survives 75-Story Fall
By William Roberts




NEW YORK Lost amid the hoopla surrounding the celebrations of the end of World War II has been the 50th anniversary of the army plane crash into the Empire State Building. Many do not know of the tragic incident of July 28, 1945 -- the day a B-25 bomber, lost in fog, rammed into what was then the world's tallest building. Fewer, still, remember the miraculous survival of the woman who fell 75 stories when the cables to her elevator were severed.

Lieutenant Colonel William F. Smith, Jr., a decorated veteran of 100 combat missions, was piloting the bomber from his home in Bedford, Massachusetts to Newark, New Jersey to pick up his commanding officer, before returning to home base in South Dakota. The flight plan called for Smith to land at LaGuardia Airport. A dense fog over the city led the air traffic controller to direct that a landing be made. Smith, however, apparently believing he could maneuver safely through the fog, asked and received permission to fly on to Newark -- on the other side of Manhattan from LaGuardia. The last thing the air traffic controller told Smith was, 'At the present time, I can't see the top of the Empire State Building.'

The War Department, now a section of the Defense Department, later determined the pilot erred in judgment when electing to fly over Manhattan in the weather conditions which prevailed at the time' -- Smith should never have been cleared to proceed on to Newark. Disoriented by the dense fog, he apparently believed he was on Manhattan's west side.

Smith's final blunder came when he passed the Chrysler Building. Had he kicked the left rudder, he would have been safe; instead, he went right rudder and directly on a path to the Empire State Building. At 200 miles per hour, the unarmed trainer bomber screamed down 42nd Street and banked south over 5th Avenue. The pilot tried desperately to climb, but it was too late. At 9:40 that Saturday morning, the B-25 slammed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building.

Luckily, the accident occurred on a weekend, with only about 1,500 people in the building -- compared with the 10,000-15,000 on an average weekday. Still, 14 died in the accident -- 11 in the building, plus Colonel Smith and the other two occupants of the plane. Hardest hit was the Catholic War Relief Office on the 79th floor, directly in the path of the bomber. Eight relief office workers were killed.

Extensive Damage Reported

Damage to the building and the surrounding area was extensive. An 18-by-20 foot hole was gouged by the B-25, and one of the plane's engines plowed through the building, emerging on the 33rd Street side and crashing through the roof of a neighboring building. Upon impact, windows shattered, and glass fell to the street. When the bomber hit, its fuel tanks exploded, sending flames racing across the 79th floor in all directions. According to Althea S. Lethbridge, a secretary for a trading company on the 72nd floor, 'Everything shook. (At the window), we saw flames below and above us. It was scary; we didn't know how fireproof the building was.'

Lethbridge and those not severely injured had to walk 70 flights down the darkened stairwell. Many reported seeing flaming debris fall down the elevator shafts. Unaware that the plane's other engine and part of its landing gear had fallen through the elevator shaft, rescue workers used elevators to transport casualties.

Unbeknownst to rescuers, when the hoist and governor cables of one of the elevators had been severed, ropes to other cars had been weakened. Nevertheless, the elevators had to be used to transport those severely injured, including Betty Lou Oliver. As the plane hit, Oliver, an elevator operator, was blown out of her post on the 80th floor and badly burned. After receiving first aid, she was put in another car to go down to an ambulance. As the elevator doors closed, rescue workers heard what sounded like a gunshot but what was, in fact, the snapping of elevator cables weakened by the crash. The car with Oliver inside, now at the 75th floor, plunged to the sub-basement, a fall of over 1,000 feet. Rescuers had to cut a hole in the car to get to the badly injured elevator operator.

Despite a harrowing experience, Oliver survived, due in large part to the elevator safety devices which served their function, though perhaps not as envisioned. The elevator car safety could not set because the governor cable had been severed by the plane's impact. Therefore, other factors contributed to slowing the elevator and 'cushioning' its fall. As the elevator fell, the compensating cables, hanging from beneath the car, piled up in the pit and acted as a coiled spring, slowing the elevator. Also, the hatchway was of a 'high-pressure' design, with minimum clearance around the car. In such a small space, the air was compressed under the falling elevator. With such a tight fit of the car in the hatchway, the trapped air created an air cushion in the lower portion of the shaft -- thereby further slowing the elevator car and allowing its occupant to survive.

Though this accident can certainly be noted as a tragedy, some comfort can be found; the loss of life was certainly not as great as it could have been. Had it occurred on a weekday, the accident would have claimed many more casualties. If the plane had been a fully armed B-25 bomber instead of a trainer, the destruction and devastation could have been catastrophic. In addition, had the elevator been installed improperly or had its safety devices been of poor quality -- even though they may not have worked exactly as envisioned, they still performed their duty by saving a human life -- Ms. Oliver could not have fallen 1,000 feet in an elevator and lived to tell about it.



In the March 1957 Reader's Digest, an article was published concerning the 'Nightmare on the 79th floor of the Empire State Building.' Following the Reader's Digest report, a letter was written by an Otis Elevator Company supervisor who was in charge of the elevator repair. The writer, who wished to remain anonymous, presented a detailed and colorful explanation of the damage and extensive repair effort. Following is a synopsis of the elevator supervisor's report.



I was superintendent for Otis Elevator Company and in charge of installing the 69 elevators when the Empire State Building was erected in 1930-31. When the steel was up to the main floor, I got in with my men -- the first week in May 1930. On May 1, 1931, the building with the elevators was completed, a remarkable undertaking in so short a time. On that day, we had lunch on the 86th floor. The party included James Walker, then New York City mayor; Franklin D. Roosevelt, then governor of the state; and my good friend Al Smith, ex-governor and president of the Empire State Corporation.

While the building was under construction, I always had a car running, so I could take Governor Smith and his party to the top. Architects and construction men from all over the world visited the building while it was under construction.

In September, at the peak, 3,500 men worked on the construction, and temporary elevators had to take them up and down. They never walked much -- six stories, at the most, to the top of the steel.

When the army bomber struck the building, I was called in to take charge of repairing the damage and get all 11 elevators running up to the 80th floor -- ten Bank 'G', one freight and #2 tower car, from 79th to 86th floor.

One plane motor went right through the bottom of the car equipment, hitting one of our guide rails (3-1/2 x 5"), doubling it in a 'V' shape. The motor then went through the building, tore a hole 20 feet wide, took the windows and wall down with it (78 floors) and landed in a building across the 33rd Street side. The plane was moving upward when it struck. (The pilot must have seen the building.) Walls between the three columns were torn 40 feet wide, the plane taking bricks and windows from the 78th and 79th floors with it, as well as one 10" I-beam -- eight feet inside the building -- supporting the 79th floor; the 20 foot long beam had a 30" bow. The plane penetrated the #6 and #7 car hatch walls, cutting the cable on the #6 car that was on its way down. Our selector in the motor room indicated the cables were cut when the car was at about the 38th floor.

All the governor and safety cables were sheared, so the car went into free fall. Fortunately for the female operator, the safety cable was severed; if not, the governor in the motor room would have applied the safety device under the cable. The car would then have stopped at the 34th and 35th floor in a blind hatch (blind hatch means no doors from the 40th to the main floor express cars) -- with marble and brick walls to break through to find where the car was located. When anything like that would happen, a mechanic can take the people off to the car next to his. Doors exist between the cars for that purpose, but the #7 car was hanging in the cables and burning on the 80th floor. The #6 car was afire -- it, too, stuck up there. The girl operator might have died from smoke suffocation.

A few seconds later, the car was in the basement. Fortunately, a basement door was in the #6 car shaft. The car doors were completely ripped out. No doubt, the air pressure -- caused by the car coming down -- blasted open the door in the pit. The operator stood in the corner, where the car switch was located. The rest of the car was filled with steel, bricks and plane parts. It surprised me that she was not more badly hurt.

When the installers first tested the safeties on the elevators, they had full load capacity -- 3500 lb -- in the car and ran them at 1,200 fpm from the tenth floor right down to the oil bluffers in the pits.

Now, the car was empty, and the cables under the car formed another cushion. The counterweight (balancing weight) was at about the 50th floor when the cables were cut. Over 10,000 lbs of iron started down. The two safety cables, also cut, struck the pit buffer block, went through 12" of concrete, shearing thirty 1" rivets; two 15" channels imbedded in concrete. (The column was only five feet away from the buffer block, the buffer piston and the weight oil buffer.) A steel rod -- 4" and about nine feet long -- went right through the concrete, broke a water main pipe, flooded the sub-basement, went through an 8" solid brick wall and landed in a storeroom in the sub-basement.

This was in addition to the oil, gas and bodies of the people from the 79th floor. We had the police emergency squad with us for ten days. When cleaned from the top of the car, we had to cut the cable by hand to get them out. It was a mess to clean up!

The motor went through the doors, the #6 and #7 cars, and over the hall, taking the wall and hatch doors with it down the #2 hatch. The motor cut the cables to that car. Cars #1 and #2 were shut down on the main floor and only slid down the bumpers with all the cables, doors, plane motor and parts on top of the #2 car. The counterweight was up at the 80th floor. When the cables were cut, 10,000 lbs of steel started down, but luckily, the two governor cables were okay. The governor and safety caught the weight at the 76th floor and hung there. When the #6 car was on the way down, the #7 car operator stood at the 80th floor -- awaiting orders from the starter at the main floor for the signal to start down. When the plane struck, the operator was blown out into the hall.

The #7 car hanging in the cables (at the 80th floor) was all burnt up. The metal trim and car-operating switch were all melted. The guide rails were all knocked out under the car at the 79th floor.

Five months after the accident, the girl (Betty Lou Oliver) who was in the #6 car visited the building. I talked with her. She did not know what happened. It was over in a few seconds. She took one of the cars and made a full trip with it. That took 'guts' after all she had been through.

I was there one year before the job was finished. The #1 car got all busted up and had to be replaced. In a week, we had six cars in operation, next #1-2 cars and finally #6-7 cars. We had some job keeping the men's time and the materials straight. The Army had to pay for all damage done by the bomber; the First Insurance Company paid for the damage by fire.

We had to replace all our equipment in four hatches from the 76th floor to the top, replacing all electric conduits and wiring from the 64th floor up. We had to get in an elevator hoist containing 5,000 ft of 1/2" steel cables on it. One armature had a cracked shaft; we had to replace it: a weight of 9,500 lbs. We took it in on the main floor, hoisted it up to the 79th floor in the #6 hatch, hauled it over the hall to the #2 tower car hatch, picked it up with a chain fall -- attached to the main rails -- to the 82nd floor motor room and up in the machine. The damaged armature had to go down the same way.

We also had to hoist the #6 counterweight frame up to the 80th floor.

Only one elevator fell. Number 1 and 2 cars were shut down at the main floor; #6 car was in the pit, with the #7 car hanging in the cables on the 80th floor. Cars three, four, five, eight, nine and ten were in their own wells. The only damage to them was hatch doors at the 78th and 79th floors being scorched by fire. We had to put in new compensating cables on the freight car running from the sub-basement to the 80th floor. They were damaged when the pit filled with water from the broken water main. After the pit was pumped and safety switches dried, we had that car running in a few days.

Part of the plane slid down the outside of the building on the 34th Street side, landing on the opposite side of the 5th floor. Some boys picked up plane parts and sold them to souvenir hunters on the street.



Industry Tribute



This historical report serves as a tribute to the members of the elevator industry who sprang into action to repair the elevators which were severely damaged during this unusual accident. Although this event was the first high-rise building catastrophe which wreaked havoc on elevator and escalator equipment, it would certainly not be the last.

The World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings, as well as earthquakes and fires which have occurred in and around high-rise structures over the last 50 years, have presented severe challenges to our industry's field personnel and repair mechanics. Through dedication and hard work, field workers have, time and again, restored elevator service in record time and, as so often reported in ELEVATOR WORLD, assisted in the rescue of building occupants. This report is dedicated to the elevator industry personnel who have risen to the occasion and performed with selfless, heroic effort.

REPRINTS of this historical supplement can be obtained by contacting Stacie Hyman at phone: (334) 479-4514.





ELEVATOR WORLD UNCOVERS NEW INFORMATION

During the investigation into the event at the Empire State Building, ELEVATOR WORLD uncovered a major misconception regarding the circumstances.

It has long been believed that the elevator operator who fell 75 stories was operating her elevator when the crash severed the cables to her car. Our recent investigation found that Betty Lou Oliver had actually been thrown from her car station post during the aircraft's initial impact. When the plane hit the building, Oliver's car was parked at the 80th floor. The crash severed elevator cables, but those supporting Oliver's car remained intact, although they and many other cable attachments were weakened. After receiving care for severe burns, Oliver was taking another elevator down from the 80th floor first aid station when this second car's weakened cables snapped, sending Oliver and her elevator on a 1,000-foot plunge.

Fortunately, the reports of Oliver's survival had not been exaggerated, nor were the accounts of her remarkable experiences during the plane's initial impact, its resulting explosion and fire, and the 1,000-foot free fall into the elevator pit.

An often-asked question is, 'Has there even been a case where all elevator ropes were severed, causing an elevator to fall?' The plane crash into the Empire State Building is the only such occurance. This final report provides an accurate accounting of one of the most unusual accidents to ever occur in elevator and aircraft history.

Coincidentally, just two weeks after the 50th anniversary of the B-25 crash, another accident occurred at the Empire State Building. Though far less severe, this most recent incident may be of greater concern to the elevator industry, for reasons behind the elevator crash of September 12, 1995 are still unclear. There were no fatalities, but four occupants slammed into the car ceiling -- receiving head, neck and back injuries when their elevator missed its 80th floor stop and crashed into the top of the shaft. Investigations into the accident are underway, and details pertinent to the elevator industry will be reported by ELEVATOR WORLD.
http://www.elevator-world.com/magazine/archive01/9603-002.htm


Title: Re: the Empire State Building
Post by: Jeannette Latoria on December 22, 2008, 02:07:05 am
Building of Empire State Building

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZJLrUa41Tw&feature=related