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Arts & Literature => Sculpture & Statuary => Topic started by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:12:29 am



Title: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:12:29 am
(http://www.iec-okc.com/portals/0/ProjGalleryImages/Statue_of_Liberty.jpg)





Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:13:28 am
On May 2, 1885, Harper's Weekly featured a cartoon about construction of the Statue of Liberty

(http://elections.harpweek.com/NYT/0501/050285M.jpg)

A Sound Base-ist
"Kin I git yer to do a leetle suthin' for the Pedestul fun', sir?"

"Oh, get out; you're off your base."

"Right yer air, cap'n; but it's meself that takes the liberty of axin' yer fur a few pennies ter set me on it agin."

Artist: C. G. Bush


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:15:11 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/dropcap/i.gif)n this scene, the cartoonist intends for the beggar seeking change from an indignant and wealthy passerby to parallel the campaign to raise funds for construction of the Statue of Liberty's pedestal.
In late 1865, Eduoard-Rene Lefebvre de Laboulaye, a leader of the Liberal faction in Imperial France, held a private dinner for a group of like-minded friends.  During the evening, the host reflected on the alliance between France and the United States during the American Revolution, his satisfaction that the American republic had survived the Civil War, and his hope for the establishment of a similar democracy in France.  Calling the countries "two sisters," he raised the idea of France presenting the United States with a gift that symbolized liberty (and that would draw attention to the cause in France).  One of the guests, a young sculptor named Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, was particularly inspired.

After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), Bartholdi traveled to the United States at the suggestion of Laboulaye to promote the idea of a statue symbolizing liberty and to enhance the efforts of those trying to establish what would become the Third French Republic (1875).  Bartholdi replied, "I will try to glorify the Republic and Liberty over there, in the hope that someday I will find it again here."  He spotted the ideal location for a monument to liberty as he sailed into New York Harbor on June 8, 1871.  The artist presented his plan to President Ulysses S. Grant, editor Horace Greeley, and other influential Americans.  As he traveled across the land, he became impressed by the size of the country:  "Everything in America is big ... Here, even the peas are big."

Bartholdi returned to France with no commitment.  He and Laboulaye realized that the cost would be prohibitive unless shared by both countries, France paying for the statue and the United States for the pedestal.  In 1874, they established a fund-raising committee, the Franco-American Union, with members in both countries.  The goal was to unveil the statue of "Liberty Enlightening the World" at the centennial celebration of the United States on July 4, 1876.  Although not enough money was collected to finish the project on time, the 30-foot raised arm and torch was constructed hurriedly and arrived in August at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia.

Since raising the necessary funds for the project continued to be a problem, the French committee sold a limited series of specially commissioned clay models of the statue and lottery tickets for prizes (silver plate, jewelry, and art work). They collected nearly 250,000 francs by the end of 1879.  In June 1884, the completed statue was officially dedicated by Prime Minister Jules Ferry of France and Levi Morton, the U.S. minister to France (Laboulaye had died the previous December).

On the other side of the Atlantic, however, fundraising for the pedestal was stalled.  Although the Centennial Exhibition had spawned some interest, Americans were not opening their pocketbooks for what some considered a New York affair.  The press carped at its cost, and Congress refused to pass the $100,000 appropriation.  The New York legislature approved $50,000 for construction, but Governor Grover Cleveland vetoed it.

At that point, Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, decided to generate publicity for the pedestal and his newspaper by leading the charge to raise $100,000.  He insisted that the statue would represent the entire nation, shamed the wealthy for their stinginess, and added public pressure by publishing a list of all those who donated.  The theme of the poor asking the rich for a few pennies is aptly emphasized in this cartoon.  Pulitzer's campaign of the people's paper for the people's statue worked:  the $100,000 goal was reached on August 11, 1885, and the World's circulation had risen by 50,000.

In December 1881, the American committee had chosen Richard Morris Hunt, a distinguished architect, to build the pedestal, and in 1884 agreed on one of the designs he offered.  Charles P. Stone was the chief engineer for both the pedestal's construction and the reassembly of the statue (which arrived in June 1885).  Gustave Eiffel (later, designer of the Eiffel Tower in Paris) built the interior iron and steel frame.  It took four months to secure the statue on its base.  At the time, the 305-foot Statue of Liberty was the tallest structure in New York City.

On October 28, 1886, the formal dedication of the Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island (renamed Liberty Island in 1956) was attended by Bartholdi and his wife, President Grover Cleveland and his cabinet, the French ambassador, Joseph Pulitzer, and other dignitaries.  Most businesses in New York City closed to watch the parade and festivities, except in the financial district.  When the procession marched down Wall Street, the office boys inaugurated a New York tradition by gleefully throwing unfurled ticker tapes out the windows.

In 1903, Emma Lazarus's poem, "The New Colossus" (1883), welcoming "the tired and huddled masses [of immigrants] yearning to breathe free," was etched on a bronze tablet and affixed to an interior wall of the statue's base.  The poem's identification of the statue as "the mother of exiles" helped alter the emphasis of its symbolism of the United States from a beacon enlightening the world to a haven for those seeking liberty. 

In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge designated the Statue of Liberty as a national monument, and in 1933 the National Park Service assumed its administration.  In the early 1980s funds were collected for the restoration of the statue and Ellis Island.  On July 4, 1986, 1.5 billion people worldwide watched on television as the Statue of Liberty was rededicated by President Ronald Reagan and celebrated with an elaborate laser and fireworks show.

Robert C. Kennedy

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0502.html


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:17:22 am
Alexandra Kollontai 1916

The Statue of Liberty

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: Alexandra Kollontai: Selected Articles and Speeches, Progress Publishers, 1984;
First Published: Inostrannuya Literatura (Foreign Literature), No. 2, 1970, Moscow, pp. 244-5;
Transcribed: Sally Ryan for marxists.org, 2000;
Proofed: and corrected by Chris Clayton 2006.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Which of us in our childhood did not gaze in awe at the mighty Statue of Liberty, its burning torch lighting the entrance to an international port, to a New World that still retained all its alluring, fairy-tale strangeness for the European? Which of us in our childhood was not struck by its grandeur as it soared above the New York skyscraper skyline? How pitifully small and insignificant did the huge ocean-going ships appear in these pictures as they scurried at the feet of proud and victorious Freedom!...

As our Norwegian steamer Bergensfjord slowly and carefully picked its way among the business-like scurry of ships from all the great nations of the world, we naive Europeans eagerly strained our eyes to catch a glimpse of her, the Statue of Liberty promised us [from childhood].

Then, on my first visit to America a year ago, the Statue of Liberty was hidden by a thick autumn fog which shrouded from our naively searching eyes that symbol which once caused the hearts of our European fathers and grandfathers to beat with triumphant happiness and exultation.

For me, the Statue of Liberty remained shrouded, mysterious, beckoning, the powerful image of our imagination. I saw it for the first time four and a half months later, after my whirlwind tour of the United States... By then America had already ceased to be for me the promised land of possibility. During those four and a half months I had seen politicians insistently preaching in favour of militarism and the bitter struggle waged by labour against unrestrained American capital, the power wielded by the American police and the omnipotence of the trust kings, the corruption of American courts, the servility of the American capitalist press ... and the 'freedom' of the independent church... Now I had a clear picture of what America is really like, a clear picture of the 'land of freedom', of the New World discovered by Columbus and still enticing the European!

It was then, standing on board the steamer bearing me back to the Old World, that I first saw the Statue of Liberty. It was a clear, cold day in early spring. Slowly, as if unwilling to leave the safety of the port for the stormy unknown of the open sea, the same Bergensfjord sailed past the 'eighth wonder of the world', past the statue whose picture is known to all.

Now it was not hidden by fog, now the sun illuminated every line of this bronze image. And still I refused to believe my eyes. Is that the Statue of Liberty? So tiny, lost in the noise of the harbour and framed against the soaring skyscrapers of the Wall Street banks. Was this powerless, tiny figure shrinking before the all-powerful gigantic skyscrapers, those guardians of financial deals, the Statue of Liberty we had pictured to ourselves?

Perhaps it is the insolence of the politicians and the kings of capital, curtailing day by day the freedoms won by the blood of the forefathers of the modern Uncle Sam, that is forcing the Statue of Liberty to shrink, to curl up in dismay and shame? When you are at the mercy of the ocean, when you look ahead to fantastic adventures that seem to come straight from a medieval tale ... then you are inevitably inclined to the mystic, ready to believe in a great miracle, in fairy tales...

The outlines of the city, the huge, twisting, relentlessly upward-thrusting lines of the New York skyscrapers, begin to blur. The Statue of Liberty has long since become a scarcely visible dot. It has disappeared. A little while longer, and America will lose reality for us, will become one of the images of the succession of life's memories.

It was then that I realised that the New World, the Statue of Liberty, is simply an old and forgotten legend, a fairy tale of precapitalist times which can only be recounted from the reminiscences of our grandfathers.

For our grandfathers and great-grandfathers the New World was truly the land of freedom. Here, whatever they had been in ageing Europe, they felt themselves to be the sons and equal citizens of a free country. Here they could pray to their God according to their own beloved rites. Here they could still believe that a man could forge his own happiness, wealth and destiny, with his own hands. Here the fairy of success still freely beckoned to unsettled lands and fruitful plains, to barren mountains concealing gold.

Back in old Europe, feudalism had still not receded before the onslaught of the privileged trading aristocracy of the bourgeoisie, the air was still redolent with incense, society was still dominated by the inequality of social strata and classes, and men were still oppressed by ugly, age-old prejudices. Is it any wonder that our grandfathers and great-grandfathers stretched out their hands rapturously to the shores of the New World and fell down before the green-bronze Statue of Liberty?

But how distant that all is now! The tales of American freedom have become mere legend!

The Statue of Liberty has been suppressed. The skyscrapers have robbed her of her halo, and now it is no longer she who soars above the bay of this international city, no longer she who lights the way into the international port, into the New World. Millions of lights from the windows of the fifty-storey skyscraper office-blocks eclipse the light of the goddess of Liberty. The grey giants look out derisively over the narrow New York streets which, jammed with businessmen and their clerks, thread their way far below like canyon streams between cliff walls. And it is these solid walls of stone, the safe refuge of the kings of American capital, which now more completely express the 'spirit' that reigns over the continent of Columbus than the pitiful, shrunken, green statue that seems to be embarrassed.

I saw the statue a second time only recently, this time lit up by the rays of the early morning sun. And, strange to relate! – this time the passengers did not gaze out in search of the Statue of Liberty. It was as if the hard and bloody year that had just passed had taught its lesson to Europeans who had once so easily believed in a happiness to be found across the ocean. It was not the Statue of Liberty they were looking for, but the steamer carrying the American authorities and representatives of the emigration bureau who sorted out the passengers and dispatched the majority of the 3rd-class, and perhaps also some of us, the 2nd-class passengers, to the infamous 'Island of Tears'.

And, indeed, the steamer did pull up alongside our floating home... The long procession of 3rd-class passengers must undergo a humiliating interrogation and a number of unpleasant formalities, and must then wait upon a barren island until kind friends come to their assistance. It might even happen that 3rd-class, and sometimes even 2nd-class passengers are unceremoniously taken off to an American jail until their identity is confirmed.

However, God forbid that anything of the kind should happen to 1st-class passengers! Could a 1st-class passenger, carrying in his pocket cheques for a Wall Street bank, be an unwelcome foreigner in the great republic? The red carpet is put down for the 1st-class passenger, and for him the Statue of Liberty makes her dim torch blaze anew. This colleague of the modern kings of the free republic will receive everything that the Statue of Liberty once promised to every newcomer to the New World.

But how dimly that same statue lights the way to that New World for those who were only able to buy a 3rd-class ticket...

And one feels ashamed for the Statue of Liberty, and regrets those sweet moments of expectation a year ago when we, naive Europeans, strained our eyes to see in the autumn mist that statue we remembered from children's illustrations which taught us to love the 'New World', to love a land built by the people themselves, to love political liberty!

 


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http://www.marxists.org/archive/kollonta/1916/statue-liberty.htm


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:18:57 am
(http://www.arrigali.com/liberty/statue-of-liberty-national-monument-picture-02.jpg)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:19:50 am
(http://www.gatekeeperusainc.com/wp-content/themes/livingos-upsilon-20/smoothgallery/images/gatekeeper/statue-of-liberty-picture.jpg)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:21:21 am
(http://www.aquaphoenix.com/doc/nyc/statue_of_liberty1.gif)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:26:23 am
(http://neatorama.cachefly.net/images/2007-05/edward-moran-statue-liberty.jpg)

Liberty Enlightening the World (French: La liberté éclairant le monde), known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté), is a colossal statue given to the United States by France in 1886, standing at Liberty Island, New York in the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a welcome to all visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans. The copper-clad statue, dedicated on October 28, 1886, commemorates the centennial of the United States and is a gesture of friendship between the two nations. The sculptor was Frederic Auguste Bartholdi. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, the designer of the Eiffel Tower, engineered the internal structure. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was responsible for the choice of copper in the statue's construction and adoption of the Repoussé technique.

The statue shows a woman standing upright, dressed in a robe and a seven point spiked crown representing the seven seas and continents, holding a stone tablet close to her body in her left hand and a flaming torch high in her right hand. The statue is made of a sheeting of pure copper, hung on a framework of steel (originally puddled iron) with the exception of the flame of the torch, which is coated in gold leaf. It stands atop a rectangular stonework pedestal, itself on an irregular eleven-pointed star foundation. The statue is 151' 1" (46.5 m) tall, with the foundation adding another 154 feet (46.9 m). The tablet contains the text "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" (July 4, 1776) commemorating the date of the United States Declaration of Independence.

Worldwide, the Statue of Liberty is one of the most recognizable icons of the United States,[2] and, in a more general sense, represents liberty and escape from oppression. The Statue of Liberty was, from 1886 until the jet age, often one of the first glimpses of the United States for millions of immigrants after ocean voyages from Europe. In terms of visual impact, the Statue of Liberty appears to draw inspiration from il Sancarlone or the Colossus of Rhodes. The statue is a central part of Statue of Liberty National Monument and is administered by the National Park Service.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:28:20 am
(http://www.gra2.com/images/library/Image/statue-of-liberty-2.jpg)

Symbolism

The broken shackles lying at Lady Liberty's feet signify liberation from oppression and tyranny.  The USIA states that the seven spikes in the crown represent the seven seas and seven continents. As the statue's name indicates, the torch signifies enlightenment. The tablet in her hand shows the date of the nation's birth (July 4, 1776).

Since 1903, the statue has been associated with Emma Lazarus's poem "The New Colossus" and has acquired a new meaning as a symbol of welcome to immigrants.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:29:50 am
Discussions in France over a suitable gift to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence were headed by the politician and sympathetic writer of the history of the United States, Édouard René Lefèvre de Laboulaye. French sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi was commissioned to design a sculpture with the year 1876 in mind for completion. The idea for the commemorative gift then grew out of the political turmoil which was shaking France at the time. The French Third Republic was still considered as a "temporary" arrangement by many, who wished a return to monarchism, or to some form of constitutional authoritarianism which they had known under Napoleon. The idea of giving a colossal representation of republican virtues to a "sister" republic across the sea served as a focus for the republican cause against other politicians.

Various sources cite different models for the face of the statue. One indicated the then-recently widowed Isabella Eugenie Boyer, the wife of Isaac Singer, the sewing-machine industrialist. "She was rid of the uncouth presence of her husband, who had left her with only his most socially desirable attributes: his fortune and... his children. She was, from the beginning of her career in Paris, a well-known figure. As the good-looking French widow of an American industrialist she was called upon to be Bartholdi's model for the Statue of Liberty."  Another source believed that the "stern face" belonged to Bartholdi's mother, Charlotte Bartholdi (1801-1891), with whom he was very close.  National Geographic magazine also pointed to his mother, noting that Bartholdi never denied nor explained the resemblance.  The first model, on a small scale, was built in 1870. This first statue is now in the Jardin du Luxembourg in Paris.

While in a visit to Egypt that was to shift his artistic perspective from simply grand to colossal, Bartholdi was inspired by the project of Suez Canal which was being undertaken by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, who later became a lifelong friend of his. He envisioned a giant lighthouse standing at the entrance to Suez Canal and drew plans for it. It would be patterned after the Roman goddess Libertas, modified to resemble a robed Egyptian peasant, a fallaha, with light beaming out from both a headband and a torch thrust dramatically upward into the skies. Bartholdi presented his plans to the Egyptian Khediev, Isma'il Pasha, in 1867 and, with revisions, again in 1869, but the project was never commissioned.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:30:37 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9e/Statue_de_la_liberte.jpg/398px-Statue_de_la_liberte.jpg)

The first "Statue of Liberty", today located in the Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:31:07 am
It was agreed upon that in a joint effort the American people were to build the base, and the French people were responsible for the Statue and its assembly in the United States. In France, public donations, various forms of entertainment including notably performances of La liberté éclairant le monde (Liberty enlightening the world) by soon-to-be famous composer Charles Gounod at Paris Opera, and a charitable lottery were among the methods used to raise the 2,250,000 francs ($250,000). In the United States, benefit theatrical events, art exhibitions, auctions and prize fights assisted in providing needed funds.

Meanwhile in France, Bartholdi required the assistance of an engineer to address structural issues associated with designing such a colossal copper sculpture. Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) was commissioned to design the massive iron pylon and secondary skeletal framework which allows the Statue's copper skin to move independently yet stand upright. Eiffel delegated the detailed work to his trusted structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin.

Bartholdi had initially planned to have the statue completed and presented to the United States on July 4, 1876, but a late start and subsequent delays prevented it. However, by that time the right arm and torch were completed. This part of the statue was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, where visitors were charged 50 cents to climb the ladder to the balcony. The money raised this way was used to start funding the pedestal.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:32:03 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/U.S._Patent_D11023.jpeg/408px-U.S._Patent_D11023.jpeg)

Image of a page from U. S. Patent D11023, copied from USPTO website, http://patimg1.uspto.gov/.DImg?Docid=US0D0011023&PageNum=1&IDKey=B53692FA9883&ImgFormat=tif and cropped and reduced in size.

This is Bartholdi's design patent for the Statue of Liberty, issued in 1879.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:32:52 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/09/Pedestal_for_Bartholdi%27s_Statue_of_Liberty.jpg)

Detail from Pedestal for Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor, drawn by W. P. Snyder and published in Harper's Weekly, June 6, 1885.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:33:56 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Statue_of_Liberty_plaster_mockup_circa_1880.jpg/800px-Statue_of_Liberty_plaster_mockup_circa_1880.jpg)

Circa 1880 model of the plaster mock-up of Statue_of_Liberty
 
Source Self-made photograph of the mock-up realized by Bartholdi circa 1880. The whole scenery with the small figurines etc... was made by Bartholdi himself circa 1880. Photographed at the Musee des Arts et Metiers.
 


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:34:57 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Statue_of_Liberty_copper_construction_circa_1880.jpg/436px-Statue_of_Liberty_copper_construction_circa_1880.jpg)

Statue_of_Liberty_copper_construction. Model complete with figurines made by Bartholdi circa 1880.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:36:02 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Frederic_Auguste_Bartholdi1898.jpg)


Frédéric Bartholdi

The Statue, which stayed eleven months in crates waiting for her pedestal to be finished, was then re-assembled in four months' time. On October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty was dedicated by President Grover Cleveland in front of thousands of spectators. (Ironically, it was Cleveland who, as Governor of the State of New York, had earlier vetoed a bill by the New York legislature to contribute $50,000 to the building of the pedestal.) [10] In any event, she was a centennial gift ten years belated.

The Statue of Liberty functioned as an actual lighthouse from 1886 to 1902 ([3] [4]). At that time the U.S. Lighthouse board was responsible for its operation. In fact there was a lighthouse keeper and the electric light could be seen for 24 miles (39 km) at sea. There was an electric plant on the island to generate power for the light.

In 1916, the Black Tom Explosion caused $100,000 worth of damage to the statue, embedding shrapnel and eventually leading to the closing of the torch to visitors. The same year, Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, modified the original copper torch by cutting away most of the copper in the flame, retrofitting glass panes and installing an internal light[citation needed]. After these modifications, the torch severely leaked rainwater and snowmelt, accelerating corrosion inside the statue. President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary (October 28, 1936).

As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, Statue of Liberty National Monument, along with Ellis Island and Liberty Island, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966[citation needed].

In 1984, the Statue of Liberty was added to the World Heritage List.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:39:56 am
(http://www.nyc-architecture.com/LM/LM-Statue_of_Liberty_1.jpg)

Discussions in France over a suitable gift to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence were headed by the politician and sympathetic writer of the history of the United States, Édouard René de Laboulaye. French sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi was commissioned to design a sculpture with the year 1876 in mind for completion. The idea for the commemorative gift then grew out of the political turmoil which was shaking France at the time. The French Third Republic was still considered as a "temporary" arrangement by many, who wished a return to monarchism, or to some form of constitutional authoritarianism such as they had known under Napoleon. The idea of giving a colossal representation of republican virtues to a "sister" republic across the sea served as a focus for the republican cause against other politicians.

The first model, on a small scale, was built in 1870. This first statue is now in the Jardin du Luxembourg in Paris.

A second model, also on a small scale, was further brought to Maceió, a city in the Northeast of Brazil. This model is in front of Maceió's first city hall, built in 1869, which is now a museum.

While on a visit to Egypt that was to shift his artistic perspective from simply grand to colossal, Bartholdi was inspired by the project of the Suez Canal which was being undertaken by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, who later became a lifelong friend of his. He envisioned a giant lighthouse standing at the entrance to the canal and drew plans for it. It would be patterned after the Roman goddess Libertas, modified to resemble a robed Egyptian peasant, a fallaha, with light beaming out from both a headband and a torch thrust dramatically upward into the skies. Bartholdi presented his plans to the Egyptian Khedive, Isma'il Pasha, in 1867 and, with revisions, again in 1869, but the project was never commissioned because of financial issues the country was going through.
It was agreed that in a joint effort, the American people were to build the base, and the French people were responsible for the Statue and its assembly in the United States. In France, public donations, various forms of entertainment including notably performances of La liberté éclairant le monde (Liberty enlightening the world) by soon-to-be famous composer Charles Gounod at Paris Opera, and a charitable lottery were among the methods used to raise the 2,250,000 francs ($250,000). In the United States, benefit theatrical events, art exhibitions, auctions and prize fights assisted in providing needed funds.

Meanwhile in France, Bartholdi required the assistance of an engineer to address structural issues associated with designing such a colossal copper sculpture. Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) was commissioned to design the massive iron pylon and secondary skeletal framework which allows the Statue's copper skin to move independently yet stand upright. Eiffel delegated the detailed work to his trusted structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin.

Bartholdi had initially planned to have the statue completed and presented to the United States on July 4, 1876, but a late start and subsequent delays prevented it. However, by that time the right arm and torch were completed. This part of the statue was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, where visitors were charged 50 cents to climb the ladder to the balcony. The money raised this way was used to start funding the pedestal.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:41:30 am
(http://stockimages.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/statue-of-liberty.jpg)

On June 30, 1878, at the Paris Exposition, the completed head of the statue was showcased in the garden of the Trocadéro palace, while other pieces were on display in the Champs de Mars.

Back in America, the site, authorized in New York Harbor by an act of Congress, 1877, was selected by General William Tecumseh Sherman, who settled on Bartholdi's own choice, then known as Bedloe's Island (named after Isaac Bedloe), where there was already an early 19th century star-shaped fortification named Fort Wood. United States Minister to France Levi P. Morton hammered the first nail in the construction of the statue.

On February 18, 1879, Bartholdi was granted a design patent, U.S. Patent D11,023 , on "a statue representing Liberty enlightening the world, the same consisting, essentially, of the draped female figure, with one arm upraised, bearing a torch, and while the other holds an inscribed tablet, and having upon the head a diadem, substantially as set forth." The patent described the head as having "classical, yet severe and calm, features," noted that the body is "thrown slightly over to the left so as to gravitate upon the left leg, the whole figure thus being in equilibrium," and covered representations in "any manner known to the glyptic art in the form of a statue or statuette, or in alto-relievo or bass-relief, in metal, stone, terra-cotta, plaster-of-paris, or other plastic composition."[14]

The financing for the statue was completed in France in July 1882.

Fund-raising for the pedestal, led by William M. Evarts, was going slowly, so Hungarian-born publisher Joseph Pulitzer (who established the Pulitzer Prize) opened up the editorial pages of his newspaper, The World, to support the fund raising effort in 1883. Pulitzer used his newspaper to criticize both the rich, who had failed to finance the pedestal construction, and the middle class who were content to rely upon the wealthy to provide the funds.[15] His campaign was an important contribution to the effort, but ultimately Senator Evarts and the American Committee he headed raised the majority of funds for the pedestal.

The construction of the statue was completed in France in July 1884.

The cornerstone of the pedestal, designed by American architect Richard Morris Hunt, was laid on August 5, 1884, but the construction had to be stopped by lack of funds in January 1885. It was resumed on May 11, 1885 after a renewed fund campaign by Joseph Pulitzer in March 1885. Thirty-eight of the forty-six courses of masonry were yet to be built.

The statue arrived in New York Harbor on June 17, 1885 on board the French frigate Isère. To prepare for transit, the Statue was reduced to 350 individual pieces and packed in 214 crates. (The right arm and the torch, which were completed earlier, had been exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and thereafter at Madison Square in New York City.)

Financing for the pedestal was completed on August 11, 1885 and construction was finished on April 22, 1886. When the last stone of the pedestal was swung into place the masons reached into their pockets and showered into the mortar a collection of silver coins.

Built into the pedestal's massive masonry are two sets of four iron girders, connected by iron tie beams that are carried up to become part of Eiffel's framework for the statue itself. Thus Liberty is integral with her pedestal.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:43:44 am
(http://www.rpparp.devisland.net/dominick/images/Statue-of-Liberty-3.gif)

The statue, which was stored for eleven months in crates waiting for its pedestal to be finished, was then re-assembled in four months. On October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty was unveiled by President Grover Cleveland in front of thousands of spectators. (Cleveland, as Governor of the State of New York, had earlier vetoed a bill by the New York legislature to contribute $50,000 to building of the pedestal.)[16]

The Statue of Liberty functioned as a lighthouse from 1886 to 1902.[17] At that time the U.S. Lighthouse board was responsible for its operation. There was a lighthouse keeper and the electric light could be seen for 24 miles (39 km) at sea. As a lighthouse, it is the first to use electricity;[18] there was also an electric plant on the island to generate power for the light.[17]

In 1913 a group of young pilots graduated from the Moissant School of Aviation based on Long Island. One of the graduates, the Mexican pilot Juan Pablo Aldasoro was selected to perform the first flight above the Statue of Liberty. All of the graduates later on became members of the Early Birds of Aviation.

In 1916, floodlights were placed around the base of the statue.[19] Also in 1916, the Black Tom explosion caused $100,000 worth of damage ($1.9 million in 2007 dollars) to the statue, embedding shrapnel and eventually leading to the closing of the torch to visitors. The same year, Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, modified the original copper torch by cutting away most of the copper in the flame, retrofitting glass panes and installing an internal light.[20] After these modifications, the torch severely leaked rainwater and snowmelt, accelerating corrosion inside the statue. President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary (October 28, 1936).

In 1956, through an act of Congress, Bedloe's Island was officially renamed Liberty Island, though Liberty Island had been used informally since the turn of the century.

As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, Statue of Liberty National Monument, along with Ellis Island and Liberty Island, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[21]

In 1972, President Richard M. Nixon dedicated the American Museum of Immigration, housed in structural additions to the base of the pedestal on top of what was Fort Wood.[22]

In 1984, the Statue of Liberty was added to the list of World Heritage Sites.[23]

In 2007, the Statue of Liberty was one of 20 finalists in a competition to name the New Seven Wonders of the World.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:45:25 am
(http://www.tourismjunction.com/images/statue-of-liberty-ny.jpg)



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 01:49:52 am
(http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/EUR/1030-5001~New-York-Statue-of-Liberty-Posters.jpg)

Inspiration for the face

Unsubstantiated sources cite different models for the face of the statue. One indicated the then-recently widowed Isabella Eugenie Boyer, the wife of Isaac Singer, the sewing-machine industrialist. "She was rid of the uncouth presence of her husband, who had left her with only his most socially desirable attributes: his fortune and -- his children. She was, from the beginning of her career in Paris, a well-known figure. As the good-looking French widow of an American industrialist she was called upon to be Bartholdi's model for the Statue of Liberty." Another source believed that the "stern face" belonged to Bartholdi's mother, Charlotte Bartholdi (1801–1891), with whom he was very close. National Geographic magazine also pointed to his mother, noting that Bartholdi never denied nor explained the resemblance.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 02:25:45 am
(http://www.gallerym.com/images/work/big/bourke-white_margaret_1_statue_of_liberty_harbor_1951_L.jpg)

Physical characteristics

The interior of the statue used to be open to visitors. They arrived by ferry and could climb the circular single-file stairs (limited by the available space) inside the metallic statue, exposed to the sun out in the harbor (the interior reaching extreme temperatures, particularly in summer months), and about 30 people at a time could fit up into the crown. This provided a broad view of New York Harbor (it faces the ocean) through 25 windows, the largest approximately 18" (46 cm) in height. The view did not, therefore, include the skyline of New York City. The wait outside regularly exceeded 3 hours, excluding the wait for ferries and ferry tickets.

The green-blue coloration is caused by chemical reactions, which produced copper salts and created the current hue. Most copper statues in the outside elements, left to their own, will eventually turn this color in a process called patination.[27]

There are 354 steps inside the statue and its pedestal, with 25 windows in the crown which comprise the jewels beneath the seven rays of the diadem. The tablet which the statue holds in her left hand reads, in Roman numerals, "July 4, 1776" the day of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.

The Statue of Liberty was engineered to withstand heavy winds. Winds of 50 miles per hour cause the Statue to sway 3 inches (7.62 cm) and the torch to sway 5 inches (12.7 cm). This allows the Statue to move rather than break in high wind load conditions.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on November 18, 2008, 02:26:33 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Face_of_Statue_of_Liberty_2.jpg/800px-Face_of_Statue_of_Liberty_2.jpg)
Same-size replica of the face of the en:Statue of Liberty, seen as part of the exhibit in one of the corridors of the Statue's pedestal. Taken en:September 18, en:2006 by Nightscream.

Historical records make no mention of the source of the copper used in the Statue of Liberty. In the village of Visnes in the municipality of Karmøy, Norway, tradition holds that the copper came from the French-owned Visnes Mine. Ore from this mine, refined in France and Belgium, was a significant source of European copper in the late nineteenth century. In 1985, Bell Labs used emission spectrography to compare samples of copper from the Visnes Mines and from the Statue of Liberty, found the spectrum of impurities to be very similar, and concluded that the evidence argued strongly for a Norwegian origin of the copper. Other sources say that the copper was mined in Nizhny Tagil. The copper sheets were created in the workshops of the Gaget-Gauthier company, and shaped in the Ateliers Mesureur in the west of Paris in 1878. Funding for the copper was provided by Pierre-Eugène Secrétan.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:12:56 pm
Feature Imperial Metric
Height from base to torch 151 ft 1 in 46 m
Foundation of pedestal to torch 305 ft 1 in 93 m
Heel to top of head 111 ft 1 in 34 m
Length of hand 16 ft 5 in 5 m
Index finger 8 ft 0 in 2.44 m
Circumference at second joint 3 ft 6 in 1.07 m
Head from chin to cranium 17 ft 3 in 5.26 m
Head thickness from ear to ear 10 ft 0 in 3.05 m
Distance across the eye 2 ft 6 in 0.76 m
Length of nose 4 ft 6 in 1.48 m
Right arm length 42 ft 0 in 12.8 m
Right arm greatest thickness 12 ft 0 in 3.66 m
Thickness of waist 35 ft 0 in 10.67 m
Width of mouth 3 ft 0 in 0.91 m
Tablet, length 23 ft 7 in 7.19 m
Tablet, width 13 ft 7 in 4.14 m
Tablet, thickness 2 ft 0 in 0.61 m
Height of granite pedestal 89 ft 0 in 27.13 m
Height of foundation 65 ft 0 in 19.81 m
Weight of copper used in Statue[26] 60,000 pounds 27.22 metric tonnes
Weight of steel used in Statue 250,000 pounds 113.4 metric tonnes
Total weight used in Statue 450,000 pounds 204.1 metric tonnes
Thickness of copper sheeting 3/32 of an inch 2.4 mm


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:14:45 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Statue_of_Liberty_interior.jpg/736px-Statue_of_Liberty_interior.jpg)

Interior view of the Statue of Liberty.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:15:44 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8b/Truth.jpg/246px-Truth.jpg)

Truth, a French painting by Jules Joseph Lefebvre which is contemporary with the original small-scale model (1870) also depicts a symbolic torch-holding female figure.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:16:27 pm
The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each purchase made with an American Express card, American Express would contribute one penny to the renovation of the statue. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the Statue of Liberty restoration project. In 1984, the statue was closed so that a $62 million renovation could be performed for the statue's centennial. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca was appointed by President Reagan to head the commission overseeing the task (but was later dismissed "to avoid any question of conflict" of interest).[30] Workers erected scaffolding around the statue, obscuring it from public view until the rededication on July 3, 1986 — the scaffolding-clad statue can be seen in the 1984 film Desperately Seeking Susan, in the 1985 film Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins, and in the 1985 film Brewster's Millions. Inside work began with workers using liquid nitrogen to remove seven layers of paint applied to the interior of the copper skin over the decades. That left two layers of tar originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Blasting with baking soda removed the tar without further damaging the copper. Larger holes in the copper skin had edges smoothed then mated with new copper patches.[citation needed]

Each of the 1,350 shaped iron ribs backing the skin had to be removed and replaced. The iron had experienced galvanic corrosion wherever it contacted the copper skin, losing up to 50% of its thickness. Bartholdi had anticipated the problem and used an asbestos/pitch combination to separate the metals, but the insulation had worn away decades before. New bars of stainless steel bent into matching shapes replaced the iron bars, with Teflon film separating them from the skin for further insulation and friction reduction.

The internal structure of the upraised right arm was reworked. The statue was erected with the arm offset 18" (0.46 m) to the right and forward of Eiffel's central frame, while the head was offset 24" (0.61 m) to the left, which had been compromising the framework. Theory held that Bartholdi made the modification without Eiffel's involvement after seeing the arm and head were too close. Engineers considered reinforcements made in 1932 insufficient and added diagonal bracing in 1984 and 1986 to make the arm structurally sound.

Besides the replacement of much of the internal iron with stainless steel and the structural reinforcement of the statue itself, the restoration of the mid-1980s also included the replacement of the original torch with a replica, replacing the original iron stairs with new stairs, installing a newer elevator within the pedestal, and upgrading climate control systems. The Statue of Liberty was reopened to the public on July 5, 1986.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:17:39 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/2/2a/Liberty%27s_Light_a_Lure_to_Death.jpg/485px-Liberty%27s_Light_a_Lure_to_Death.jpg)

Used as a lighthouse, the original torch fatally disoriented birds

Liberty's Light a Lure to Death -- Thousands of Birds Blinded and Killed by the Flame in the Statue's Hand -- 1,375 Perish in a Single Night; sketch by a staff artist for Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, October 15, 1887.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:19:07 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Come_unto_me%2C_ye_opprest.jpg)

Political Cartoon
 
Source Literary Digest
 
Date July 5, 1919

Political cartoon of the First Red Scare depicting a monstrous "European Anarchist" attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:20:00 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Nancy_Reagan_reopens_Statue_of_Liberty_1986.jpg/393px-Nancy_Reagan_reopens_Statue_of_Liberty_1986.jpg)
First Lady Nancy Reagan waves from the Statue of Liberty after she re opened the structure on its 100th birthday
 
Source http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/large/c35943-10.jpg
 
Date July 4, 1986




Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:21:21 pm
New torch

A new torch replaced the original in 1986, which was deemed beyond repair because of the extensive 1916 modifications. The 1886 torch is now in the monument's lobby museum. The new torch has gold plating applied to the exterior of the "flame," which is illuminated by external lamps on the surrounding balcony platform.

Dominion resolved by default

In 1987 Representative Frank J. Guarini, a Democrat from New Jersey, and Gerald McCann, who was Mayor of Jersey City, sued New York City, contending that New Jersey should have dominion over Liberty Island because it is in the New Jersey portion of the Hudson River. The federally owned island is about 2,000 feet away from Jersey City and over two miles from New York City.[31] By default—since the court chose not to hear the case—the existing legal status of the portions of the island that are above water was left unchanged. The riparian rights to all of the submerged land surrounding the statue belong to New Jersey, however. The islands of New York harbor have been part of New York since the issuance in 1664 of the atypical colonial charter that created New Jersey, [3] which failed to provide a boundary in the middle of the Hudson river—although the boundary line for the water rights later was moved to the middle of the channel.

The federal park service states that the Statue of Liberty is on Liberty Island, which is a federal property that is administered by the National Park Service and that, officially, the island is located within the territorial jurisdiction of the state of New York because of a pact between the state governments of New York and New Jersey that declared a resolution to this issue, which was ratified by Congress in 1834.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:22:13 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/NYC_old_torch.jpg/400px-NYC_old_torch.jpg)

Original torch, replaced in 1986


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:22:48 pm
Aftermath of 9/11

Liberty Island closed on September 11, 2001; the island reopened in December, the monument reopened on August 3, 2004, but the statue has remained closed. The National Park Service claims that the statue is not shut because of a terrorist threat, but principally because of a long list of fire regulation contraventions, including inadequate evacuation procedures. The museum and ten-story pedestal are open for visitors but are only accessible if visitors have a "Monument Access Pass" which is a reservation that visitors must make in advance of their visit and pick up before boarding the ferry. There are a maximum of 3000 passes available each day (with a total of 15000 visitors to the island daily). The interior of the statue remains closed, although a glass ceiling in the pedestal allows for views of Eiffel's iron framework.

Visitors to Liberty Island and the Statue are subject to restrictions, including personal searches similar to the security found in airports.

The Statue of Liberty had previously been threatened by terrorism, according to the FBI. On February 18, 1965, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) announced it had uncovered a plot by three commandos from the Black Liberation Front, who were allegedly connected to Cuba, and a female co-conspirator from Montreal connected with the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), seeking independence for Quebec from Canada, who were sent to destroy the statue and at least two other national monuments — the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.

In June 2006, a bill, S. 3597, was proposed in Senate which, if approved, could re-open the crown and interior of the Statue of Liberty to visitors. In July 2007, a similar measure was proposed in the House of Representatives.

On August 9, 2006 National Park Service Director Fran P. Mainella, in a letter to Congressman Anthony D. Weiner of New York stated that the crown and interior of the statue would remain closed indefinitely. The letter stated that "the current access patterns reflect a responsible management strategy in the best interests of all our visitors." Critics contend that closing the Statue of Liberty indefinitely is an overreaction, and that safe access could easily be resumed under tighter security measures.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:25:30 pm
Jumps

At 2:45 p.m. on February 2, 1912, steeplejack Frederick R. Law successfully performed a parachute jump from the observation platform surrounding the torch. It was done with the permission of the army captain administering the island. The New York Times reported that he "fell fully seventy-five feet [23 m] like a dead weight, the parachute showing no inclination whatsoever to open at first", but he then descended "gracefully", landed hard, and limped away.

The first suicide was May 13, 1929. The Times reported a witness as saying the man, later identified as Ralph Gleason, crawled out through one of the windows of the crown, turned around as if to return, "seemed to slip" and "shot downward, bouncing off the breast of the statue in the plunge." Gleason was killed when he landed on a patch of grass at the base, just a few feet from a workman who was mowing the grass.

On August 23, 2001, French stuntman Thierry Devaux parasailed onto the monument and got hung up on the statue's torch in a bungled attempt to bungee jump from it. He was not hurt and was charged with four misdemeanor offenses including trespassing.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 08, 2008, 03:26:37 pm
Inscription

The interior of the pedestal contains a bronze plaque inscribed with the poem "The New Colossus" by Emma Lazarus. It has never been engraved on the exterior of the pedestal, despite such depictions in editorial cartoons.

Quote
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

The bronze plaque in the pedestal contains a typographical error: the comma in "Keep, ancient lands" is missing, causing that line to read "'Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!' cries she", and noticeably altering its meaning.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:47:52 pm
Replicas of the Statue of Liberty

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Statue_of_Liberty_New_York_Las_Vegas.jpg/449px-Statue_of_Liberty_New_York_Las_Vegas.jpg)
Replica of the Statue of Liberty at New York - New York Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:49:05 pm
Hundreds of other Statues of Liberty have been erected worldwide.

Boy Scouts of America placed a small-scale replica of the Statue of Liberty at the Gentry Building in Columbia, Missouri in 1950. Located at the Parks & Recreation Administration Offices, at 7th and Broadway, the plaque notes that the statue was dedicated as a pledge of everlasting fidelity and loyalty. The local project was a component of the Scouts' national 40th anniversary celebration which had Strengthen the Arm of Liberty as its theme. More than 200 replicas were placed nationally as a result.

There is also a replica statue in the middle of the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, PA. The statue is almost entirely white as viewed from US-322 East and West going past the river. Another replica, in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, stands at the entrance of Capaha Park.

There is a sister statue in Paris and several others elsewhere in France, including one in Bartholdi's home town of Colmar, erected in 2004 to mark the centenary of Bartholdi's death; they also exist in Austria, Germany, Italy, Japan, China, Brazil and Vietnam; one existed in Hanoi during French colonial days. There are replicas in theme parks and resorts, including the New York-New York Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas on the Strip, replicas created as commercial advertising, and replicas erected in U.S. communities by patriotic benefactors, including no less than two hundred donated by Boy Scout troops to local communities. During the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989, Chinese student demonstrators in Beijing built a 10 m image called the Goddess of Democracy, which sculptor Tsao Tsing-yuan said was intentionally dissimilar to the Statue of Liberty to avoid being "too openly pro-American." At around the same time, a copy of this statue was made and displayed on Connecticut Avenue in Washington, DC, in a small park across the street from the Chinese Embassy


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:50:04 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Odaiba_Statue_of_Liberty.jpg)

Statue of Liberty in Odaiba, Japan


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:52:12 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Ladyliberty_mackinacisland.jpg)

Lady Liberty at Haldimand Bay, Mackinac Island, Michigan
Part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:53:19 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Paris.seine.liberty.500pix.jpg/432px-Paris.seine.liberty.500pix.jpg)

The small Statue of Liberty on the river Seine in Paris, France. The Statue of Liberty in New York is much larger. It faces west, towards its American sister.

Two replicas of the Statue of Liberty are found in Paris, France. One stands in the Jardin du Luxembourg: this is a bronze model that Bartholdi used in designing the New York statue; the artist offered it to the Luxembourg museum in 1900 and it was placed in the park in 1906[3]. The date written on this statue's tablet (where the New York statue has "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI") is "15 de novembre 1889" (November 15, 1889), the date at which the larger Parisian replica was inaugurated. This second Statue of Liberty in Paris is near the Grenelle Bridge on the Île des Cygnes, an island in the river Seine (48°51′0″N 2°16′47″E / 48.85, 2.27972, 11.50 m (37 feet 9 inches) high. Dedicated on November 15, 1889, it looks towards the Atlantic Ocean and hence towards its "larger sister" in New York Harbor, which had been erected three years earlier. Its tablet bears two dates: "IV JUILLET 1776" (July 4, 1776: the United States Declaration of Independence) like the New York statue, and "XIV JUILLET 1789" (July 14, 1789: the storming of the Bastille). This statue is shown in the movie National Treasure: Book of Secrets as one of the historic locations.

A life-size copy of the torch, Flame of Liberty, can be seen above the entrance to the Pont de l'Alma tunnel near the Champs Elysees in Paris. It was given to the city as a return gift in honor of the Centennial Celebration of the statue's dedication. Since it is above the Pont de l'Alma car tunnel in which Princess Diana died, the torch became an unofficial memorial to the Princess.

A third replica is the Bordeaux Statue of Liberty. This 2.5 m (8 ft) statue is in the city of Bordeaux in Southwest France. The first Bordeaux statue was seized and melted down by the Nazis in World War II. The statue was replaced in 2000 and a plaque was added to commemorate the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks. On the night of March 25, 2003, unknown vandals poured red paint and gasoline on the replica and set it on fire. The vandals also cracked the pedestal of the plaque. The mayor of Bordeaux, former prime minister Alain Juppé, condemned the attack.

There is a fourth replica in the northwest of France, in the small town of Barentin near Rouen. It was made for a French movie, Le Cerveau ("the brain"), directed by Gérard Oury and featuring actors Jean-Paul Belmondo and Bourvil.

A fifth replica is located in the center of the town Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer near Marseilles, France.

A 12 m (39 ft 4 in) replica of the Statue of Liberty in Colmar, the city of Bartholdi's birth, was dedicated on July 4, 2004 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of his death. It stands at the north entrance of the city. The Bartholdi Museum in Colmar contains numerous models of various sizes made by Bartholdi during the process of designing the statue.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:55:27 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/liberty2.gif)

It was a 100-degree Fourth Of July in 1999 and I was staggering around Manhattan for want of anything else to do. Before I passed out from heat stroke, I took an idle glance skywards at 64th and Broadway, and it was then that I saw her. Not Hillary, not Barbra, not Cher, but the Liberty Belle herself.


(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/liberty2002a.jpg)

(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/liberty2002c.jpg)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:56:42 pm
No, the Statue Of Liberty hasn't been uprooted and moved to 64th Street.

According to the AIA Guide to New York City, this 37, or 55-foot tall (depending on who you believe) replica has been here since 1902. It was placed there to promote the Liberty Warehouse, which was the building's original use.
 


The residents of a high-rise apartment building across the street have a much better view of "Little" Liberty than is available from the street.

When first built, it must have dominated the neighborhood.

I always knew there was a large replica of the Statue Of Liberty somewhere in Manhattan, but I could never find it. Until now.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:57:46 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/liberty2002d.jpg) (http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/statue2.jpg)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:58:07 pm
Little Miss Liberty was cast in Akron, Ohio, in about 1900. She was shipped into NYC on a flatbed car after being sliced in half lengthwise, and then soldered together again. When first erected, the statue had a spiral staircase that allowed visitors to climb up to the top to get a panoramic view, just like in the real McCoy in the harbor. That staircase was closed in 1912 and has fallen into ruin. Perhaps it can be rebuilt when Little Liberty is moved. At the time, there were no taller buildings in the vicinity, so the view from here was panoramic.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:59:14 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/liberty2002e.jpg)

After a near-100 year run on the Liberty Warehouse, it looks like Little Miss Liberty's days in this location are numbered. The Athena Group, which owns the Liberty Warehouse, is going to add four floors to the 8-story building and sell them as luxury apartments. That means Little Miss Liberty has to go. But where?

2004: Little Liberty is currently in storage at the sculpture garden of the Brooklyn Museum.

(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/libertyABC.jpg)

Little Liberty, as viewed from the 8th floor at ABC network headquarters on Columbus Avenue.

The statue replicated most of the details of its larger mentor, matching the robe folds and pedestal!


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 08:59:52 pm
New Yorkers got a sneak preview of "Liberty Enlightening the World" in 1885, when the arm and torch were placed in Madison Square Park at Fifth Avenue and 24th Street.

The General William Worth monument at left is still standing; it has been there since 1857. The general himself can be located beneath the monument.

(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/statue4.jpg)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:00:17 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/bronxliberty1.jpg)

While the Manhattan Little Liberty isn't there anymore, this one, at River Avenue near Yankee Stadium, has kept her position.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:00:30 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/bronxliberty3.jpg)


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:01:05 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/bronxliberty4.jpg)

Yet one more Liberty, on Williamsbridge Road.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:01:34 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/bronxliberty2.jpg)

Closeup view of River Avenue Liberty.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:01:58 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/bronxliberty5.jpg)

Bronx Liberty photos: Donald Gilligan


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:02:26 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/little1.jpg)

Liberty's crown was replicated at El Teddy's night spot at Varick and Franklin Streets. The real crown has seven spikes.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:03:30 pm
(http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/statue3.jpg)

The real McCoy, of course, continues to greet the tempest tost, the homeless, and those yearning to breathe free in the harbor. Until Charlton Heston finds it washed up along the Brooklyn coastline in Planet Of The Apes.
SOURCES:

David Dunlap, "Kicking Out The Kid Sister," NY Times, January 16, 2002

Thanks to Charles Gallo for assistance with this page

HOME| LAMPS | SUBWAYS & TRAINS | ADS | TROLLEYS | SIGNS | COBBLESTONES | STREET SCENES | YOU'D NEVER BELIEVE YOU'RE IN NYC | LINKS | ALLEYS | NECROLOGY | CEMETERIES| FORGOTTENSTUFF

Got a beef? E me at erpietri@earthlink.net.
http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/STATUE/liberty.html


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:09:08 pm
Liberty Warehouse Statue of Liberty
64th and Broadway
New York City


40 foot tall Statue of Liberty (on pedestal) faithfully modeled after the original in New York harbor with practical exceptions such as a torch that looks more like a coffee can.

In "New York: A Serendipiter's Journey" (Harper & Brothers, 1961), Gay Talese recounted that the statue was installed in 1902 by William H. Flattau, a French immigrant and patriotic warehouse owner, who died in 1931 along with much of the statue's history.

The statue rests on top of the 8-story Liberty Storage Warehouse Building, 43 West 64th, (location of O'Neals' restaurant) near the corner of 64th Street and Broadway, overlooking Lincoln Center.

The Statue is made of molded sheet metal bolted to a frame. It has a circular stairway inside and a view down Broadway through the crown, but access for the public was closed in 1912. This Liberty was cast in Akron, Ohio in the early 1900s and sent to New York on a flatbed train car. At the time, it was one of the highest points on the city's West Side.

Widely reputed to be 55 feet tall, the actual height is more like 40 feet, about the same height as Bartholdi's 36 foot working model, now mounted near the foot of the Grenelle Bridge on the Seine River in Paris.

On 19 December 2001, Athena Group, a New York property developer, announced plans to renovate the building into a 12- story apartment house. The statue will be preserved "under all circumstances". Relocation sites are being considered.


Sunday, 17 February 2002
37 Foot Tall Statue of Liberty Removed from Liberty Warehouse for Relocation to Brooklyn Museum.
The Athena Group, owner of the Statue and Liberty Warehouse where it stood, donated the artwork to Brooklyn Museum of Art in honor of the police officers, firefighters and other emergency workers killed Sept. 11. It will be featured in the museum's sculpture garden.

Brooklyn Museum of Art: http://www.brooklynart.org/


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Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:09:35 pm
August 9, 2005
Arts, Briefly

Compiled by LAWRENCE VAN GELDER


Liberty Moves to Brooklyn

The Statue of Liberty that stood for years atop a Manhattan warehouse will rise again in October on the grounds of the Frieda Schiff Warburg Memorial Sculpture Garden at the Brooklyn Museum. The 47-foot-tall statue and pedestal, much shorter than the Bartholdi original (151 feet, 1 inch from base to torch), was created in the late 19th century by immigrant artisans as a gesture of patriotism and was installed in 1902 on the Liberty Storage Warehouse at 43 West 64th Street, at Broadway. Given to the museum in 2002, when the building was turned into cooperative apartments, it will join a collection of architectural fragments salvaged from other New York City structures like Pennsylvania Station and Steeplechase Park in Coney Island. Since arriving at the museum in 2002, the statue has been lying on its back in a secured area of the parking lot, pending conservation including cleaning, stabilization, a surface finish and a new base.


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Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:10:33 pm
August 13, 2005
Brooklyn Museum to Install Monumental Statue of Liberty Replica
HelloBrooklyn.Com


 A monumental replica of the Statue of Liberty will be raised on the grounds in the rear of the Brooklyn Museum in October 2005. Created in the late nineteenth century by immigrant artisans as a gesture of patriotism, it was originally installed atop a Manhattan building where it stood for one hundred years. The statue was a gift to the Brooklyn Museum in 2002 by The Athena Group, Athena Liberty-Lofts L.P., and Brickman Associates, who removed it from the building when it was being turned into cooperative apartments.

In its new ground-level home at the Brooklyn Museum, the statue will be viewable up close and on all sides. About one-fifth the height of the Bartholdi original, the sculpture will undergo conservation efforts in view of visitors beginning in the spring of 2006 while positioned in its new location. The 47-foot-high Statue of Liberty and pedestal was originally installed in 1902 on auctioneer William H. Flattau’s Liberty Storage Warehouse at 43 West 64th Street, where it was once one of the highest points on the Upper West Side. Until 1912 visitors were able to ascend an interior spiral staircase to view Broadway and Columbus Circle through Lady Liberty’s crown. Made of galvanized steel over an iron framework and fully modeled in three dimensions, it is thought to have been created in a foundry in either Pennsylvania or Ohio.

The statue is the latest and largest addition to the Brooklyn Museum’s Frieda Schiff Warburg Memorial Sculpture Garden –– a collection of architectural fragments salvaged from New York City buildings that were being demolished, including Pennsylvania Station and Coney Island’s Steeplechase Park.

Since its arrival at the Museum in 2002, the statue has been lying on its back in a secured area of the parking lot, where, along with other objects in the collection, it has undergone review and evaluation by Museum conservators in preparation for its reinstallation. The conservation treatment will include cleaning of the surface, stabilization of the structure, and an appropriate surface finish, along with a new base.

The Brooklyn Museum has been awarded a Cultural Grant from the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs to support the reinstallation and enhancement of the Frieda Schiff Memorial Sculpture Garden.

The donation of the statue to the Brooklyn Museum by The Athena Group, Athena Liberty-Lofts L.P., and Brickman Associates honors the Fire Department of New York, the New York Police Department, the Emergency Medical Services, and the New York State Court Officers and their heroism on September 11, 2001.

Visit the Brooklyn Museum Web site at http://www.brooklynmuseum.org


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http://www.endex.com/gf/buildings/liberty/worldstatues/.%5Cliberties%5Csol64.htm


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:14:28 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9e/Statue_de_la_liberte.jpg/398px-Statue_de_la_liberte.jpg)

Model in Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris, the bronze model that Bartholdi used in designing the New York statue.

Two replicas of the Statue of Liberty are found in Paris, France. One stands in the Jardin du Luxembourg: this is a bronze model that Bartholdi used in designing the New York statue; the artist offered it to the Luxembourg museum in 1900 and it was placed in the park in 1906[3]. The date written on this statue's tablet (where the New York statue has "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI") is "15 de novembre 1889" (November 15, 1889), the date at which the larger Parisian replica was inaugurated. This second Statue of Liberty in Paris is near the Grenelle Bridge on the Île des Cygnes, an island in the river Seine (48°51′0″N 2°16′47″E / 48.85, 2.27972, 11.50 m (37 feet 9 inches) high. Dedicated on November 15, 1889, it looks towards the Atlantic Ocean and hence towards its "larger sister" in New York Harbor, which had been erected three years earlier. Its tablet bears two dates: "IV JUILLET 1776" (July 4, 1776: the United States Declaration of Independence) like the New York statue, and "XIV JUILLET 1789" (July 14, 1789: the storming of the Bastille). This statue is shown in the movie National Treasure: Book of Secrets as one of the historic locations.

A life-size copy of the torch, Flame of Liberty, can be seen above the entrance to the Pont de l'Alma tunnel near the Champs Elysees in Paris. It was given to the city as a return gift in honor of the Centennial Celebration of the statue's dedication. Since it is above the Pont de l'Alma car tunnel in which Princess Diana died, the torch became an unofficial memorial to the Princess.[citation needed]

A third replica is the Bordeaux Statue of Liberty. This 2.5 m (8 ft) statue is in the city of Bordeaux in Southwest France. The first Bordeaux statue was seized and melted down by the Nazis in World War II. The statue was replaced in 2000 and a plaque was added to commemorate the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks. On the night of March 25, 2003, unknown vandals poured red paint and gasoline on the replica and set it on fire. The vandals also cracked the pedestal of the plaque. The mayor of Bordeaux, former prime minister Alain Juppé, condemned the attack.

There is a fourth replica in the northwest of France, in the small town of Barentin near Rouen. It was made for a French movie, Le Cerveau ("the brain"), directed by Gérard Oury and featuring actors Jean-Paul Belmondo and Bourvil.[4]

A fifth replica is located in the center of the town Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer near Marseilles, France.[5][6]

A 12 m (39 ft 4 in) replica of the Statue of Liberty in Colmar, the city of Bartholdi's birth, was dedicated on July 4, 2004 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of his death. It stands at the north entrance of the city.[7][8] The Bartholdi Museum in Colmar contains numerous models of various sizes made by Bartholdi during the process of designing the statue.[9]


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:22:36 pm
A bronze sculpture of the Statue of Liberty is on display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

Duluth, Minnesota, has a small copy on the west side of the Duluth Entertainment Convention Center, in the center of a clearing surrounded by pine trees where it may be passed unnoticed. It was presented to the city by some of Bartholdi's descendants residing in Duluth.

The Boy Scouts of America celebrated their fortieth anniversary in 1950 with the theme of "Strengthen the Arm of Liberty". Between 1949 and 1952, approximately two hundred 100-inch (2.5 m) replicas of the statue, made of stamped copper, were purchased by Boy Scout troops and donated in 39 states in the U.S. and several of its possessions and territories. The project was the brainchild of Kansas City businessman, J.P. Whitaker, who was then Scout Commissioner of the Kansas City Area Council. The copper statues were manufactured by Friedley-Voshardt Co. (Chicago, IL) and purchased through the Kansas City Boy Scout office by those wanting one. The statues are approximately 8 1/2 feet tall without the base, constructed of sheet copper, weigh 290 pounds, and originally cost $350 plus freight. The mass-produced statues are not great art nor meticulously accurate (a conservator notes that "her face isn't as mature as the real Liberty. It's rounder and more like a little girl's"), but they are cherished, particularly since 9/11. Many have been lost or destroyed, but preservationists have been able to account for about a hundred of them, and BSA Troop 101 of Cheyenne, Wyoming has collected photographs of over 100 of them.

There is a half-size replica at the New York-New York Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. Another smaller replica stands in Las Vegas, on West Sahara Avenue. The pedestal once housed a local business, Statue of Liberty Pizza. Today it advertises Liberty Tax Service, a tax preparation firm.

The city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota erected a replacement bronze reproduction standing 9 ft (2.7 m) tall in McKennan Park atop the original pedestal for a long-missing wooden replica.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:22:59 pm
A 36-foot (11 m) tall bronze replica, accurately based on Bartholdi's "Liberty Enlightening the World", stands in Vestavia Hills, a suburb of Birmingham, Alabama. It was cast in 1956 at the Société Antoine Durenne foundry in Somerville Haut Marne, France for placement in 1958 atop the Liberty National Life Insurance Company Building in downtown Birmingham.[10] It was relocated and placed on a 60-foot (18 m) tall granite pedestal adjacent to Interstate 459 in 1989.[26][27][28]

Two 30-foot (9.1 m) copper replicas stand atop the Liberty National Bank Building[10] in Buffalo, New York, nearly 108 m (354 ft) above street level.[29][30]

A 25 ft (7.6 m) tall replica sits on the ruins of the late Marysville Bridge (erected on a platform (pier)) in the Dauphin Narrows of Susquehanna River north of Harrisburg. The replica was built by a local activist Gene Stilp on July 2, 1986; it was made of venetian blinds and stood 18 feet (5.5 m) tall. Six years later, after it was destroyed in a windstorm, it was rebuilt by Stilp and other local citizens, of wood, metal, glass and fiberglass, to a height of 25 feet (7.6 m).[31][32][33]



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:23:20 pm
A Lego replica of the Statue of Liberty consisting of 2882 bricks and standing 0.9 m (3 ft) is a popular sculpture among Lego enthusiasts. The statue went out of production, but due to popular demand was returned to sale. (See External links below).[34] A much larger replica built entirely in Lego can be seen in Legoland Billund. A smaller version of the Billund model is on display at the Legoland California amusement park.

A 25-foot (7.6 m) replica of the Statue, lofting a Christian cross, holding the Ten Commandments, and named the "Statue of Liberation through Christ", was erected by a predominantly African-American church in Memphis, Tennessee on July 4, 2006. [35]

A small replica stands on the grounds of the Cherokee Capitol Building in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, a gift from the local Boy Scouts in 1950.[36]

There is a 6-foot tall replica in Lebanon, Tennessee, near the southwest corner of the intersection of East Main Street and South College Street.

Fargo, North Dakota also has a replica of the statue of liberty on the corner of Main Ave. & 2nd Street at the entrance of the Main avenue bridge. [37]

The Kansas State Capitol in Topeka, Kansas has a replica of the Statue of Liberty.

There is a replica on the shoreline of Lake Chaubunagungamaug in Webster, Massachusetts.[38]

In order to promote the 2008 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at Yankee Stadium, the city of New York has 42 different 8'6" Statue of Liberty replicas, each in different locations in the city (34 outdoors, 8 indoors). Each is uniquely designed with different team colors and logos, along with several ones with the All-Star Game logo or different New York landmarks. This is similar to what was done with the cows in Chicago, the crabs in Baltimore, the angels in Los Angeles, and the Mr. Potato Head's in the state of Rhode Island. 9" replicas can be bought of the larger replicas.

There is one also on Alki Beach, in Seattle, WA.



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:25:03 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Liberty_Enlightening_the_Parkway.jpg/428px-Liberty_Enlightening_the_Parkway.jpg)

"Liberty Enlightening the World" replica (36 ft tall) in Vestavia Hills, Alabama. Cast in bronze in 1956 at the Société Antoine Durenne foundry in Somerville Haut Marne, France for placement atop the Liberty National Life Insurance Company Building in downtown Birminghamin 1958. It was relocated and placed on a 60 foot tall granite pedestal adjacent to Interstate 459 in 1989.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:26:35 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0c/Legoland_Liberty.JPG/800px-Legoland_Liberty.JPG)

Statue of Liberty replica at Legoland California


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:27:29 pm
From 1887 to 1945, Hanoi was home to another copy of the statue. Measuring 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) tall, it was erected by the French colonial government after being sent from France for an exhibition. It was known to locals unaware of its history as Tượng Bà đầm xòe (Statue of the Open-Dress Dame). When the French lost control of French Indochina during World War II, the statue was toppled on August 1, 1945 after being deemed a vestige of the colonial government along with other statues erected by the French.[39]

During the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989, Chinese student demonstrators in Beijing built a 10 m (33 ft) image called the Goddess of Democracy, which sculptor Tsao Tsing-yuan said was intentionally dissimilar to the Statue of Liberty to avoid being "too openly pro-American." (See article for a list of replicas of that statue.)

In 1897 a 123 cm (4 ft 0 in) replica in iron and bronze was erected in Cenicero, Spain, to honor local fighters during the First Carlist War.

In 1936 it was removed during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco.

It was restored in 1976 and moved indoor in 1997 because of deterioration.

A new bronze statue replaced it in the original plaza.[40] In Japan, the French Statue of Liberty came to Odaiba, the beach area of Tokyo since April 1998 until May 1999 in commemoration of "The French year in Japan". Because of its popularity, in 2000, a replica of the French Statue of Liberty was erected at the same place (Photo). Also in Japan, a small Statue of Liberty is in the Amerika-mura (American Village) shopping district in Osaka, Japan. Another one is located in a small town outside of Misawa,Japan where the United States has a USAF base with 8000 military members.

In Buenos Aires,Argentina there is a small replica in Barrancas De Belgrano Square, acquired by Argentina to France.

In Lima, Peru the New York casino in the Jesus Maria District has a small replica in the main entrance. The whole casino is a tribute to the state of New York and the USA.

A smaller replica is in the Norwegian village of Visnes, where the copper used in the original statue was mined.[41]

A replica stands atop the Hotel Victory in Priština, Kosovo.[42]

A replica stands in front of New York City Center, a shoopping in Barra da Tijuca, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Federation.

In Minimundus, a miniature park located at the Wörthersee in Carinthia, Austria is another replica of the Statue of Liberty.[43]

There is also a small replica located at RAF Lakenheath at the base flag plaza, made from leftover copper from original.[44]

At a highway intersection in Jerusalem called "New York Square," there is an abstract skeletal replica of the Statue.[citation needed]

A 35 m (115 ft) copy is in the German Heidepark Soltau theme park, located on a lake with cruising Mississippi steamboats. It weighs 28 tonnes (31 short tons), is made of plastic foam on a steel frame with polyester cladding, and was designed by the Dutch artist Gerla Spee.[45]

Camp John Hay, a former US base in the Baguio City (Philippines), also has a small replica of the statue near the amphitheater.

A 30-foot replica can also be seen at the Westfield Marion shopping complex in Adelaide, South Australia.

A 17-foot, 9 ton replica stood atop the Liberty Shoe factory in Leicester, England until 2003 when the building was demolished. The statue, which dates back to the 1920s, has since been in storage, however as of December 2008 is has now been restored upon a pedistal near Liberty Park Halls of Residence, Eastern Boulevard.[46][47]


A 15 feet high replica of the statue of liberty is seen in the western entrance to the village of Arraba in Israel, near a local restaurant.

A 10 feet high replica is situated on the stairwell of a bowling alley building in Warrington, England. It used to be above the entrance of a restaurant nearby.

There are at least two Statue of Liberty replicas (greater than 30 feet) in Taiwan. These two statues are in the cities of Keelung and Taipei. Here are two photos for reference. A replica of the torch was created for the 1968 film,Planet of the Apes, for the last scene, and the torch was later sent to be in the last episode of Lost in Space, titles "Junkyard of Space".


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 09:28:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Statue_Of_Liberty_Replica_Norway_Visnes.jpg/305px-Statue_Of_Liberty_Replica_Norway_Visnes.jpg)

Model of Statue of Liberty. Visnes Copper mine, Norway. N59 21.173 E5 13.161, WGS84


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 10:59:24 pm
The Statue of Liberty quickly became a popular icon, featured in scores of posters, pictures, motion pictures, and books. A 1911 O. Henry story relates a fanciful conversation between "Mrs. Liberty" and another statue;[39] it figured in 1918 Liberty Loan posters. During the 1940s and 1950s, pulp Science Fiction magazines featured Lady Liberty surrounded by ruins or by the sediments of the ages.

It has been in dozens of motion pictures. It is a setting in the 1942 Alfred Hitchcock movie Saboteur, which featured a climactic confrontation at the statue. Half submerged in the sand, the Statue provided the apocalyptic revelation at the end of 1968's Planet of the Apes. The statue became a character in the 1989 film, Ghostbusters II, in which it comes to life and helps defeat the evil villain, and was the setting for the climax of the first X-Men film. It can also be seen lying broken on the ground in the movie Independence Day, after the first wave of attacks by the extra-terrestrial biological beings from outer space. In the 2004 movie The Day After Tomorrow, the statue gets frozen, and in the 2008 movie Cloverfield, it is decapitated by a giant monster; its head lands in a Manhattan street. In the film, National Treasure: Book of Secrets, the sister statue in Paris provides a clue.

It was the subject of a 1978 University of Wisconsin-Madison prank in which Lady Liberty appeared to be standing submerged in a frozen-over local lake.[40] It has appeared on New York and New Jersey license plates, is used as a logo for the NHL's New York Rangers and the WNBA's New York Liberty, and it was the subject of magician David Copperfield's largest vanishing act.[41]

The statue is often used as a comparative measurement (usually referring to height rather than length) in books and documentaries.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:01:18 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/New_York_quarter%2C_reverse_side%2C_2001.jpg/600px-New_York_quarter%2C_reverse_side%2C_2001.jpg)

The reverse side of the New York State Quarter. It is a "proof".


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:02:44 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/LineartPresRev.png/600px-LineartPresRev.png)

The Statue of Liberty is on the reverse of all Presidential $1 coins. 2007 $1 Washington coin reverse.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:07:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/Fr%C3%BChe_Studie_der_Freiheitsstatue1875.jpg)

frühe Studie der Freiheitsstatue 1875


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:08:18 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Bartholdi%27s_Statue_of_Liberty.png)

Bartholdi's sculpture of the Statue of Liberty

Quelle: http://www.lindaeder.com/thevoice/thevoice/V4/ed1/v4/ed1/camilleclaudel



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:09:02 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/RahmenStatue1885.jpg)

Rahmenkonstruktion der Statue


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:09:46 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7b/Diagram_of_the_dimensions_of_the_Statue_of_Liberty.jpg/447px-Diagram_of_the_dimensions_of_the_Statue_of_Liberty.jpg)

Diagram of the dimensions of the Statue of Liberty
 
Source Illus. in: Le genie civil, 1883 Aug. 1, p. 468. Original was here
 
Date 1883 Aug. 1.
 


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:10:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/HARPER%27S_WEEKLY-NewYork_6_June_1885.jpg/800px-HARPER%27S_WEEKLY-NewYork_6_June_1885.jpg)

Pedestal for Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor.

Drawn by W.P. Snyder
Harper's Weekly, Volume XXIX, No. 1485, 6 June 1885, Page 356
Quelle: http://www.endex.com/gf/buildings/liberty/solnews/solhw18850606/solhw18850606.htm


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:12:05 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/SOLPedestalConstruction.1.png/437px-SOLPedestalConstruction.1.png)

Sockel der Statue of Liberty by Richard M. Hunt


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:13:00 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Sol_tete_atelier.png)

Statue of Liberty Atelier

Quelle: http://www.damienb.com/english/liberty.html


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:14:19 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Construction_of_the_Statue1.jpg)

Die linke Hand zeigt die Methode der Konstruktion

Quelle: http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/11/hh11f.htm


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:15:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Construction_of_the_Statue2.jpg)

Konstruction der Statue of Liberty

Quelle: http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/11/hh11f.htm



Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:16:10 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Libinside.jpg/405px-Libinside.jpg)

Statue of Liberty from inside
 
Source Pentax ME
 
Date March 1996
 


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:17:21 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Statue_of_Liberty_Arrives_in_New_York_Harbor.jpg/800px-Statue_of_Liberty_Arrives_in_New_York_Harbor.jpg)

The Statue of Liberty Arrives in New York Harbor, Reception of the Isère, June 20, 1885. Oil on canvas 18⅝ x 31⅝ Inches
 
Source http://www.vallejogallery.com/item.php?title=Statue_of_Liberty_Arrives_in_New_York_Harbor&category=Maritime_Paintings&id=1660
 


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on December 09, 2008, 11:19:22 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Liberty-park-main-building.jpg/800px-Liberty-park-main-building.jpg)

Terminal in the Liberty State Park, New Jersey.


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:33:41 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Lady_Liberty_of_Bloomfield.jpg/400px-Lady_Liberty_of_Bloomfield.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Bloomfield, Iowa

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Strengthen_the_Arm_of_Liberty


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:34:20 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Lady_Liberty_of_Burlington.jpg/411px-Lady_Liberty_of_Burlington.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Burlington, Iowa


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:34:54 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/70/Lady_Liberty_of_Cedar_Rapids_2.jpg/800px-Lady_Liberty_of_Cedar_Rapids_2.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Cedar Rapids, Iowa


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:35:30 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/Lady_Liberty_of_Cedar_Rapids.jpg/800px-Lady_Liberty_of_Cedar_Rapids.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Cedar Rapids, Iowa


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:36:19 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Lady_Liberty_of_Chimborazo.jpg/343px-Lady_Liberty_of_Chimborazo.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Chimborazo Park in en:Church Hill, Richmond, Virginia


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:37:10 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Lady_Liberty_of_Gary_2.jpg/400px-Lady_Liberty_of_Gary_2.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Gary, Indiana


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:37:41 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/ba/Lady_Liberty_of_Gary.jpg/800px-Lady_Liberty_of_Gary.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Gary, Indiana


Title: Re: the Statue of Liberty
Post by: Janelle Spyker on January 12, 2009, 11:38:19 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Lady_Liberty_of_Greeley.jpg/404px-Lady_Liberty_of_Greeley.jpg)

Lady Liberty, part of Strengthen the Arm of Liberty in Greeley, Colorado