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Egypt & the Pyramids => Egypt: Latest Discoveries => Topic started by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:50:07 am



Title: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:50:07 am



                 (http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/fayum%20map.jpg)









                                             Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned






Mataha Expedition
Hawara 2008
Labyrinth of Egypt
NRIAG - Ghent University/Kunst-Zicht
A project funded by Louis De Cordier
www.louisdecordier.com

Pro Workshop
11-12.08.2008 Cairo Egypt
International Conference
28.10.2008 Ghent Belgium





intro


The Mataha-expedition discovered the lost labyrinth of Egypt at Hawara.

A colossal temple described by many classic authors like Herodotus and Strabo, to contain 3000 rooms full of hieroglyphs and paintings. A legendary building lost for 2 millenia under the ancient sands of Egypt. Bringing the highest level of technology to unlock the secrets of the past.

The sand of Hawara was scanned earlier this year (February-March 2008) by the Belgian Egyptian expedition team. Although ground penetrating techniques have been used by archaeologists for years, the Mataha-expedition (Mataha = labyrinth in Arabic) was the first to apply this technology at Hawara, to solve the enigma born in the Renaissance for once.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:54:59 am




                (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f4/Egypt-region-map-cities.gif/200px-Egypt-region-map-cities.gif)










Result



The conclusion of the Hawara geophysic-survey is officially released by the Egyptian authorities at the workshop in Cairo organized by the NRIAG on 11 of August 2008. This took place in the presence of some members of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, a representative of UNESCO, professors of international Universities, researchers of Cairo based archaeological institutes and a small selection of specialized archaeological press.

Before taking off with the conclusion, it needs to be said that the presented geo-archaeological results about the Labyrinth were received with positive scepticism by archaeologists and alike, who still prefer to believe actual excavation as confirmation of the discovery, without touching the integrity of the geophysic team professionalism. This feeling of doubt was expected like geophysic technics are new in the field of archaeology. Till very recently geophysics were namely only used by the military and oil industry. All geophysic results regarding the groundwater and the geologic situation, are in contrast fully taken for granted by all parties, and even formed the actual start of the existing preservation master plan for the Hawara archaeological site, by the Egyptian government and the Supreme council of Antiquities.

The mission of the Mataha-expedition was, besides preservation, to research the quarry theory by Petrie based on his finding of a great artificial stone surface (304meter on 244meter). Petrie interpreted the enormous artificial stone plateau he discovered at the depth of several meters, as the foundation of the labyrinth, concluding that the building itself was totally demolished, as a stone quarry in the Ptolemaic period. However, the “foundation” impenetrated by early expeditions, never lost the possibility of being the roof of the Labyrinth, described by Strabo as a great plain of stone.



The Mataha – expedition research confirms the presence of archaeological features at the labyrinth area south of the Hawara pyramid of Amenemhet III. These features covering an underground area of several hectares, have the prominent signature of vertical walls on the geophysical results. The vertical walls with an average thickness of several meters, are connected to shape nearly closed rooms, which are interpreted to be huge in number. Consequently, the geophysic survey initiated with the cordial permission of Dr. Zahi Hawass the president of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, and conducted by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (Helwan, Cairo) with the support of Ghent University/Kunst-Zicht, can now officially verify the occurrence of big parts of the Labyrinth as described by the classic authors at the study area. The Labyrinth data are acquired mainly from 2 scanned surfaces at the labyrinth area south of the pyramid. One scan survey of 150m by 100m on the right site of the Bahr Wahbi canal, and one on the left site (80m by 100m). Two considerations regarding the conclusion. Seen the survey provided only two big puzzles, the total size and shape of the labyrinth can not yet been concluded. Secondly, the data of the labyrinth are accurate, because of the exceptional dimensions of the structure, but the geophysic profiles still need some filtration to give more details. Groundwater affected the consistency of the survey. The partial defacement of the data is due to the high salinity of the shallow subsurface water and the seasonal fluctuation of this level. So we recommend also another episode of geophysical survey after the dewatering project to enhance the outcome to great extent.

In the upper ground zone above the water level, walls appear at the shallow depth ranging between 1,5 to 2,5 meters. These decayed mudbrick features are very chaotic and show no consistent grid structure and can be comfortably related with the historic period of the Ptolemaic and Roman times. A period in which is known, that the labyrinth area was used as a cemetery, and probably also changed to a living area in the Byzantine period. Underneath this upper zone, below the artificial stone surface appears (in spite of the turbid effect of the groundwater) at the depth of 8 to 12 meters a grid structure of gigantic size made of a very high resistivity material like granit stone. This states the presence of a colossal archaeological feature below the labyrinth “foundation” zone of Petrie, which has to be reconsidered as the roof of the still existing labyrinth. The conclusion of the geo-archaeological expedition counters in a scientific way the idea that the labyrinth was destructed as a stone quary in Ptolemaic times and validates the authenticity of the classical author reports. The massive grid structure of the labyrinth is also out of angle by 20° to 25° from the Hawara pyramid orientation. An analysis shifting the contemporary idea of the labyrinth as funerary temple and its supposed construction age, but on the other hand it hardens Herodotus accuracy, who described the nearby pyramid to be at the corner of the labyrinth. It might even be considered that the remains of the labyrinth run unaffectedly underneath the canal, which crosses the total Hawara area. Like the scanned Labyrinth sections on both sides of Bahr Wahbi canal have similar and parallel grids on the geophysical results.

From a preservative view of the Hawara archaeological site, humanity is now facing a great challenge. The water level, which raised dramatically since the last decades, is detected at a depth of about 4-5 meters below the ground surface at the labyrinth area. Drowning the whole site completely in the corrosive salty water, which agressively destructs the stones of the labyrinth on a great scale. Making environmental protection directly the utmost necessity. UNESCO committee members publicly considered after the official release of the research conclusion at the workshop in Cairo, to mark the total Hawara site “world heritage”, as the first UNESCO step towards the launch of an international safeguarding campaign. This should be a great honour en help, like Hawara not only contains important Middle Kingdom to late Roman antiquities, but also the greatest wonder of the classical world. With the words of Herodotus “surpassing even the great pyramids of Giza”. 

In contrast to many sites, which become vulnerable to illegal excavations and theft after the release of their discovery, the Labyrinth is contradictory protected from illegal human activity by the saline water that destroys it. A situation we can not push towards a next generation without presenting an empty box, like all hieroglyphic texts as described by the classic others will be very soon lost forever, eaten out by salt crystals.
An archaeological rescue operation as never seen before will therefore have to be organized, to raise the necessary media attention, experts, technology and funds to start the drainage, protection and the total excavation of the labyrinth of Egypt. The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities expressed their great devotion and responsibility by announcing the start of the actual renovate master plan for the site, but as a the labyrinth affects the whole world, we are responsible to work together with this great country that bears already the heavy weight to preserve and protect the remains of a giant civilization. A fantastic country with great people, that is reaching a warm hand to the rest of the world to share this new discovered global human heritage.

The Mataha-Expedition team therefore directs the need for any kind of support to all man. We believe that humanity reached the point of civilization to be able to work unconditional together at high efficiency with the honorary aim to protect and discover the colossal stone book that the ancients built with an unimaginable effort of love, to communicate with us from the deep black of time.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:56:35 am








Workshop



The "Hawara: Past, Present and future" workshop in Cairo, organized by the National Research institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, presented the total outline of the expedition results (including a visit to Hawara), and the consequential Hawara rescue and renovate masterplan of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

Workshop: 11-12 August 2008, NRIAG (Cairo)
Fore more info about this past workshop download > Hawara-Workshop.pdf

 




Conference



The Ghent University conference will present the prominent persons related to the Mataha-expedition. The main focus will be the exhibit of the NRIAG research conclusion, framed by an outline of the history and the future of the labyrinth. The featured Mataha-expedition conference guestspeakers are; Prof. Dr. Paul Van Cauwenberge (Rector Ghent University), General Director of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt Dr. Zahi Hawass (with all reserves), Prof. Dr. Salah M.Mahmoud (Ministery of Scientific Research, President of NRIAG), Prof. Dr. Moustafa Kamel El-Ghamrawy (Supreme Council of Antiquities), Associate Prof. Dr. Abbas Mohamed Abbas (National Research Institute of Astronomy & Geophysics, Director of the Hawara Geophysic Survey and Member of the Egyptian Committee of the Protection of Antiquities from Environmental Effects), Ghent University Prof. dr. Morgan De Dapper (Department of Geography: unit morphology & geo-archaelogy), Prof. Dr. Peter Vandenabeele (Ghent University, Department of Archaeology and ancient history of Europe), Prof. Dr. Johan Braeckman (Ghent University, Department of Philosophy) Guy Bovyn (Kunst-Zicht, Curator Mataha-project; curator Contemporary Art Ghent University; coordinator of the postgraduate program 'Exhibition and Conservation of Contemporary Art'), Louis De Cordier ( Mataha-expedition coordinator & funder ).



Conference: 28 th October 2008 18:00h-20:30h Ghent University (Belgium)

Aula Auditorium, Volderstraat 9, 9000 Gent, Belgium


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:58:33 am









Statement



Since Herodotus visited the legendary Labyrinth of Egypt 2500 years ago, the building dissapeared in the mist of time.

After millennia of desert winds the tip of its remains was finally found back by the famous archaeologist Flinders Petrie in 1889. Petrie interpreted the enormous artificial stone plateau he discovered at Hawara, as the foundation of the labyrinth and concluded, that the building itself was totally demolished, as a stone quarry in the Ptolemaic period.

The mission of the Mataha-expedition was, besides preservation, to question this theory. On account, the foundation impenetrated by early expeditions, could still be the roof of the Labyrinth, described by Strabo as a great plain of stone.

If this should indeed be the case, like it is proofed, it would not only be a historic discovery, but also
a huge challenge, because the whole area is seriously affected by corrosive salty groundwater.

Agressively destructing stone on a great scale, making environmental protection directly the utmost necessity. To be, or not to be anymore. A big question that is now scientifically answered by the geophysic survey, ending all contextual assumptions.

The Mataha-expedition made the statement to find this out with the realisation of a professional geo-archaeologic survey, and "watched with a qualified scientific team under the "foundation of Petrie. With the aim to unriddle the enigma of the lost labyrinth, full of hieroglyphs sculpted for enternity in its endless stone walls, as described by the classic authors, and believed today by many people to contain all knowledge of ancient Egypt.

After all, the principal aim of the Mataha-expedition is the search to better understand the history of Mankind.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:01:17 am








Expedition



From the 18th of February until the 12th of March 2008 the geo-archaeological survey was conducted by the NRIAG (National Research institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Egypt) on the archaeological site of Hawara (Faiyum oasis – Egypt).

Archaeological geophysics is a means to non-destructively gain information, about what features are below the ground to great depths without archaeological excavation.

Geophysics surveys are carried out to answer a specific question. This question is usually as simple as 'What is there?’.

The survey stood under the general direction of Associate Prof. Dr. Abbas Mohammed Abbas (NRIAG). Support and permission for this research was given by Mr. Zahi Hawass, General Director of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, to conduct the geophysic research of the Hawara Necropolis in order to map the underground to prepare for preservation works.

Stating the integration of a huge drainage system, to protect the location against the environmental effect of salty groundwater.

Caused by the site crossing water channel, agricultural irrigation and the disappearance of the annual
9 month dry period since the construction of the Aswan dam.

The conservation works will open the way to archaeological excavation before the destruction of the effected antiquities, also mapped by the geo-archaeological survey.






People



The Mataha Expediton is an art & science project by:


NRIAG, Ghent University/Kunst-Zicht & Louis De Cordier,
with the cooperation of the Supreme Council of Antiquities,
Horus Foundation & Isel Foundation.





Special thanks to:



dr. Zahi Hawass,

Prof. Dr. Moustafa Kamel El-Ghamrawy,

dr. Abbas Mohamed Abbas,

Prof. Dr. Alaaedin Shaheen,

Prof. Dr. Morgan De Dapper,

Guy Bovyn, Kaat Van de Velde,

Frank Clark,

Mark Beaver,

Seppe Slabbinck,

Peter Cooreman & Patrick Geryl


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:05:04 am










Art & Science



In the Mataha expedition, contemporary archaeology meets contemporary art. A cutting edge research featuring the relations between art, science and archaeology. The Mataha expedition is a total project mixing geophysicists, archaeologists, geomorphologists, artists, egyptologists, communicators, art curators, authors, aerospace and civil engineers, to create an innovative way of research. Louis De  Cordier felt that both the artist and scientist share the common believe in the impossible. Although these professions appear to be on the opposite side of the logic-creativity-spectrum, he recognized that they often use a similar language to communicate their ideas: they are both highly visual, comfortable with the abstract, and focused on the unknown. Fueled by the desire to express change, Louis De  Cordier realized the cooperation between the Ghent University and the NRIAG, which found enormous value in incorporating contemporary art as a catalyst to their traditional scientific process, inciting the evolution of the archaeologic research field. On balance, the historic relation between art research and archaeology is very close. Archaeology as a discipline has always been a department of the Faculty of Arts and Philosophy. In the last decades archaeology evolved to a hard science by working together with departments like geology and geography. A great evolution bringing along technics as radio carbon dating and geophysics, but gradually loosing the factor of the artistic imagination. So inherent to understand long lost civilizations, which left us mainly...Art. The realization of the Mataha-expedition founds its origin in the imagination of artists dating back to the Renaissance period. The Renaissance stimulated rising interest in Antiquity, and brought back into circulation classical authors such as Herodotus. As a result, once again authors and artists were the first to be interested in the Egyptian Labyrinth. The scholar Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680 CE) produced one of the first pictorial reconstructions, based on the accounts in Herodotus. In the centuries to follow, the legendary labyrinth of Egypt continued to inspire Romantic artists and artistic explores to search in Egypt. Like Paul Lucas, artist and antiquary of king Louis XIV of France. Reaching its peak with the exploration of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte, who realized an expedition constituted of artists and scientists forming one team of "savants which localized the Labyrinth in Hawara.

In this state of mind the artist Louis De Cordier continued the labyrinth story on a contemporary archaeological way. Devoted to the preservation and investigation of Egyptian antiquities, Louis De Cordier started the Mataha Expedition with a series of private lectures, funding the project with the sale profits of the Golden Sun Disk. A timepiece designed by Louis De Cordier to ignite the global fire of comprehensive awareness and awakening. The vision of the Mataha-expedition by Louis De Cordier is not a solitary experiment, but an early foray of a holistic movement to enable research and innovation through the cooperation of varied art & science disciplines.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:06:50 am









                                                       Labyrinth of Egypt






Location



The historic location of the labyrinth as described by the ancient authors has always been comfortably situated by most Egyptologists at Hawara in Egypt. There are several reasons for this. Like the described presence by Herodotus of the Pyramid (Amenemhet III) next to the water canal at the entrance of the nearby lake, called Lake Moeris and the town Medinet el-Faiyum which was also known as Crocodilopolis, the ancient town of Arsinoë. Reasons which where later supported by the archaeologic research of Flinders Petrie, who stated that the Labyrinth covered at Hawara an area of about 244m from east to west by 304m from north to south.

Hawara is situated 90 km south of modern Cairo, at the entrance to the depression of the Faiyum oasis. The Egyptian name Hw.t-wr.t, "great temple", refers to the labyrinth. The location is marked with the pyramid of Amenemhet III, the last great king of the 12th dynasty (about 1855-1808 Before Common Era). The pyramid he built at Hawara is believed to post-date the so called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at Dahshur. It is this pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place. In common with the Middle Kingdom pyramids constructed after Amenemhet II, it was built of mudbrick round a core of limestone passages and burial chambers, and faced with limestone. Most of the facing stone was later pillaged for use in other buildings (a fate common to almost all of Egypt's pyramids) and today the pyramid is little more than an eroded, vaguely pyramidal mountain of mud brick.
The entrance to the pyramid is today flooded to a depth of 4-5 by groundwater. Queen Sobekneferu of the twelfth dynasty also built at the complex. Her name meant "most beautiful of Sobek", the sacred crocodile.

The archaeological site of Hawara, is situated on the border area between the cultivated land of the Faiyum oasis and the desert. The Bahr Yussuf, passing in the south, connected the site with the nearby metropolis Crocodilopolis (Arsinoë), once situated at the border of Lake Moeris. The name "Moeris" is a Greek adaptation of ancient Egyptian Mer-Wer (= "The Great Lake"). In ancient Egypt, the lake was also variously called "the Lake", "the Pure Lake", and "the Lake of Osiris". During the Middle Kingdom, the whole area around the lake was often referred to as Mer-Wer as well. Similarly, the Late Egyptian word "Faiyum" (the Sea) came to be used as a reference for the entire region in later times. In the north a small part of the Hawara site is cut by the road to the governate capital Medinet el-Faiyum, while the east side is defined by the entrance road to the site.  The southern and also partly the western border of the site is formed by the Bahr Wahbi, a 180 year old canal which continues towards the north of the Faiyum. During the rule of Mohammed Ali (1805-1848), the French engineer Linant de Bellefonds supervised a major program of canal construction (Linant de Bellefonds, 1854). As part of these hydrological improvements, the Bahr Wahbi was constructed as a subsidiary canal in the late 1820s, to take water from the Bahr Yussef to the northeastern part of the Faiyum.

South of the pyramid, on both sides of the Bahr Wahbi canal, the remains are traced of  the labyrinth, the assumed funerary temple of the pyramid complex.
North of the pyramid a huge cemetary is situated, recognizable by the mudbrick constructions, tombs, mummy wrappings and bones. On the North - Eastern corner of the site an area with tomb shafts which functioned as a cemetery for human and crocodile burials, can be defined. Although the extent of ancient Hawara remains problematic, (part of) the centre can be located on the archaeological site. In the Ptolemaic period living areas were located north-west and south of the pyramid. In the latter area part of the houses were built on top of the western aisle of the Labyrinth, others in the area south and south-east, which bordered the ‘temple area of Souchos’ mentioned in the Demotic texts.

The same areas were occupied during the early Roman period as shown by the surface ceramics. Strabo mentions a Roman village on (top) of the trapezium-shaped platform, where the Labyrinth was located, i.e. in the area south-west of the pyramid. All tombs in this extended necropolis have the usual SW-NE lay-out in a strange contrast to the pyramid of King Amenemhat III, which is symmetrical with the N.S. meridian. The Roman houses were also constructed north-west of the pyramid. The north-west probably stayed in use for late gold faced mask mummies datable between ca. 30 Before Common Era and 50 CE and the gilded mask mummies of the early imperial period. Similar gold-faced mask mummies were found in the Labyrinth area, south-east of the pyramid, where in an earlier phase crocodiles had been buried (Petrie 1889, pp.6 and 17). In the 5th century CE the village was centered around a small church. The mud brick buildings may have lost their funerary function in the Byzantine period (or even earlier) and have become a living area. During the Ptolemaic period three or four clearly defined burial areas were in use, though Ptolemaic tombs also spread to other places on the site.

According to Petrie the most recent burials were in the northern part of the area of his 'tomb chambers', although it is not clear how far Petrie's excavation reached.  North-east of the pyramid Petrie discovered late burials with Coptic embroideries (Petrie 1889, p.8). The surface pottery in the rest of the area attests human occupation during the 6th-8th centuries CE, though it is unclear whether the activities were at this time still (exclusively) funerary.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:10:23 am









Historic Accounts



The colossal Egyptian temple was named "Labyrinth by the Greeks after their legendary complex of meandering halls designed by Daedalus for King Minos of Crete (wherein the Minotaur dwelt).

Herodotus wrote of the Labyrinth after his visit of the building in the fifth century Before Common Era. Herodotos describes the Labyrinth as a grand monument for the twelve kings (dodecarchs), surpassing even the pyramids.

According to Manetho's Aegyptiaca, preserved in an epitome of the early 3rd century CE, the Labyrinth was the tomb of king Lachares.

For Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE) the enormous collective tomb of the twelve kings was built by Mendes, alias Marros. Following a different tradition he that king Menas built a square pyramid and the Labyrinth.

Strabo, who visited Egypt in 25-24 BCE, gives an accurate topographical description, locating the Labyrinth and the pyramid in a trapezium shaped area. He also mentions a nearby village. In Strabo’s view the Labyrinth was a palace, a place for assembling, speaking justice and bringing offerings for
the nomes of Egypt.

Pliny's Natural History (ca. CE 70) ascribes the great Labyrinth to king Petesouchos or Tithoes. His contemporary Pomponius Mela attributes it to Psammetichus.

In Aelius Aristides (CE 117-181) book "Aigyptios the Labyrinth is a mere rhetorical topic illustrating
the greatness of Egypt
(Aigyptios 48, 1).

According to the Historia Augusta (written early 4th century CE), the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus visited the Labyrinth site during his journey in Egypt in 199-200 CE. The state of preservation of the building at that time is not clear, but its symbolic meaning and fame have remained
(Historia Augusta 17, 4).


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:13:25 am










Herodotus (ca. 484-430 BCE): One passage in Histories, Book, II, 148.



In the second book of his History, the Greek writer Herodotus gave the following account of the Labyrinth:

148. Moreover they (the 12 kings) resolved to join all together and leave a memorial of themselves;
and having so resolved they caused to be made a labyrinth, situated a little above the lake of Moiris and nearly opposite to that which is called the City of Crocodiles.

This I saw myself, and I found it greater than words can say. For if one should put together and reckon up all the buildings and all the great works produced by the Hellenes, they would prove to be inferior in labour and expense to this labyrinth, though it is true that both the temple at Ephesos and that at Samos are works worthy of note.

The pyramids also were greater than words can say, and each one of them is equal to many works of the Hellenes, great as they may be; but the labyrinth surpasses even the pyramids. It has twelve courts covered in, with gates facing one another, six upon the North side and six upon the South, joining on one to another, and the same wall surrounds them all outside; and there are in it two kinds of chambers, the one kind below the ground and the other above upon these, three thousand in number, of each kind fifteen hundred.

The upper set of chambers we ourselves saw, going through them, and we tell of them having looked upon them with our own eyes; but the chambers under ground we heard about only; for the Egyptians who had charge of them were not willing on any account to show them, saying that here were the sepulchres of the kings who had first built this labyrinth and of the sacred crocodiles. Accordingly we speak of the chambers below by what we received from hearsay, while those above we saw ourselves and found them to be works of more than human greatness.

For the passages through the chambers, and the goings this way and that way through the courts, which were admirably adorned, afforded endless matter for marvel, as we went through from a court
to the chambers beyond it, and from the chambers to colonnades, and from the colonnades to other rooms, and then from the chambers again to other courts.

Over the whole of these is a roof made of stone like the walls; and the walls are covered with figures carved upon them, each court being surrounded with pillars of white stone fitted together most perfectly; and at the end of the labyrinth, by the corner of it, there is a pyramid of forty fathoms,
upon which large figures are carved, and to this there is a way made under ground.

149. Such is this labyrinth; but a cause for marvel even greater than this is afforded by the lake,
which is called the lake of Moiris, along the side of which this labyrinth is built…


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:15:00 am









Manetho Aegyptiaca (2, frag. 34) (3rd century BCE):






Short fragment from his list of Egyptian kings.



"Fourth King. Lamares, eight years. He built the Labyrinth in the Arsinoite Nome as a tomb for himself."


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:18:33 am









Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE): Two passages in his history, Book I 61.1-2 and 66.3-6.



"When the king died the government was recovered by Egyptians and they appointed a native king Mendes, whom some call Mares. Although he was responsible for no military achievements whatsoever, he did build himself what is called the Labyrinth as a tomb, an edifice which is wonderful not so much
for its size as for the inimitable skill with which it was build; for once in, it is impossible to find one's
way out again without difficulty, unless one lights upon a guide who is perfectly acquainted with it.

It is even said by some that Daedalus crossed over to Egypt and, in wonder at the skill shown in the building, built for Minos, King of Crete, a labyrinth like that in Egypt, in which, so the tales goes, the creature called the Minotaur was kept.

Be that as it may, the Cretan Labyrinth has completely disappeared, either through the destruction wrought by some ruler or through the ravages of time; but the Egyptian Labyrinth remains absolutely perfect in its entire construction down to my time.

And seized with enthusiasm for this enterprise they strove eagerly to surpass all their predecessors in the seize of their building.

For they chose a site beside the channel leading into Lake Moeris in Libya and there constructed their tomb of the finest stone, laying down an oblong as the shape and a stade as the size of each side, while in respect of carving and other works of craftsmanship they left no room for their successors to surpass them.

For, when one had entered the sacred enclosure, one found a temple surrounded by columns, 40 to each side, and this building had a roof made of a single stone, carved with panels and richly adorned with excellent paintings.

It contained memorials of the homeland of each of the kings as well as of the temples and sacrifices carried out in it, all skillfully worked in paintings of the greatest beauty.

Generally it is said that the king conceived their tomb on such an expensive and prodigious scale that if they had not been deposed before its completion, they would not have been able to give their successors any opportunity to surpass them in architectural feats.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 09:57:20 am









Strabo (ca. 64 BCE - CE 19): Three passages in his geography, Book 17, I, 3 and 37 and 42.




"... the total number of nomes was equal to the number of the courts in the Labyrinth; these are fewer than 30. In addition to these things there is the edifice of the Labyrinth which is a building quite equal to the Pyramids and nearby the tomb of the king who built the Labyrinth.

There is at the point where one first enters the channel, about 30 or 40 stades along the way, a flat trapezium-shaped site which contains both a village and a great palace made up of many palaces equal in number to that of the nomes in former times; for such is the number of peristyle courts which lie contiguous with one another, all in one row and backing on one wall, as though one had a long wall with the courts lying before it, and the passages into the courts lie opposite the wall.

Before the entrances there lie what might be called hidden chambers which are long and many in number and have paths running through one another which twist and turn, so that no one can enter or leave any court without a guide.

And the wonder of it is the roofs of each chambers are made of single stones and the width of the hidden chambers is spanned in the same way by monolithic beams of outstanding size; for nowhere is wood or any other material included. And if one mounts onto the roof, at no great height because the building has only one storey, it is possible to get a view of a plain of masonry made of such stones, and, if one drops back down from there into the courts, it is possible to see them lying there in row each supported be 27 monolithic pillars; the walls too are made up in stones of no less a size.


At the end of this building, which occupies an area of more than a stade, stands the tomb, a pyramid on a oblong base, each side about 4 "plethra" in length and the height about the same; the name of the man buried there was Imandes.

The reason for making the courts so many is said to be the fact that it was customary for all nomes to gather there according to rank with their own priests and priestesses, for the purpose of sacrifice, divine-offering, and judgement on the most important matters. And each of the nomes was lodged in the court appointed to it.

And above this city stands Abydos, in which there is the Memnonium, a palace wonderfully constructed of massive stonework in the same way as we have said the Labyrinth was built, though the Memnonium differs in being simple in structure.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 10:01:58 am










Pliny the Elder (CE 23-79): One passage in his Natural History, Book 36, 84-89



"Let us speak also of labyrinths, quite the most extraordinary works on which men have spent their money, but not, as may be thought, figments of the imagination.

There still exists even now in Egypt in the Heracleopolite Nome the one which was built first, according to tradition 3,600 years ago by king Petesuchis or Tithois, though Herodotus ascribes the whole work to Twelve Kings and Psammetichus, the latest of them.

Various reasons are given for building it.

Demoteles claims that it was the palace of Moteris, Lyceas the tomb of Moeris, but the majority of writers take the view that it was build as a temple to the Sun, and this is generally accepted. At any rate, that Daedalus used this as the model for the Labyrinth which he built in Crete is beyond doubt, but it is equally clear that he imitated only 100th part of it which contains twisting paths and passages which advance and retreat-all impossible to negotiate.

The reason for this is not that within a small compass it involves one in mile upon of walking, as we see in tessellated floors or the displays given by boys on the Campus, but that frequently doors are buried in it to beguile the visitor into going forward and then force him to return into the same winding paths.

This was the second to be built after the Egyptian Labyrinth, the third being in Lemnos and the fourth
in Italy, all roofed with vaults of polished stone, though the Egyptian specimen, to my considerable astonishment, has its entrance and columns made of Parian marble, while the rest is of Aswan granite, such masses being put together as time itself cannot dissolve even with the help of the Heracleopolitans; for they have regarded the building with extraordinary hatred.

It would be impossible to describe in detail the layout of that building and its individual parts, since it is divided into regions and administrative districts which are called nomes, each of the 21 nomes giving its names to one of the houses.

A further reason is the fact that it also contains temples of all the gods of Egypt while, in addition, Nemesis placed in the building's 40 chapels many pyramids of 40 ells each covering an area of 6 arourae with their base.

Men are already weary with travelling when they reach that bewildering maze of paths; indeed, there are also lofty upper rooms reached by ramps and porticoes from which one descends on stairways which have 90 steps each; inside are columns of imperial porphyry, images of the gods, statues of kings and representations of monsters.

Certain of the halls are arranged in such way that as one throws open the door there arises within a fearful noise of thunder; moreover one passes through most of them in darkness.

There are again other massive buildings outside the wall of the Labyrinth; they call them "the Wing".

Then there are other subterranean chambers made by excavating galleries in the soil.

One person only has done any repairs there-and they were few in number. He was Chaermon, the eunoch of king Necthebis, 500 years before Alexander the Great. A tradition is also current that he supported the roofs with beams of acacia wood boiled in oil, until squared stones could be raised up
into the vaults.


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Pomponius Mela (1st century CE): One passage in his chorographia, Book I, 9, 56.



"The building of Psammetich, the Labyrinth, includes within the circuit of one unbroken wall 1000 houses and 12 palaces, and is built of marble as well as being roofed with the same material.

It has one descending way into it, and contains within almost innumerable paths, which have many convolutions twisting hither and thither.

These paths, however, cause great perplexity both because of their continual winding and because of their porticoes which often reverse their direction, continually running through one circle after another and continually turning and retracing their steps as far as they have gone forwards with the result that the Labyrinth is fraught with confusion by reason of its perpetual meandering, though it is possible to extricate oneself.


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Papyri



The village Hw.t-wr.t/AuJh`riß (= great temple) is attested 119 times in 62 documents between
292 BC and 141 CE.

The concentration of documents in the 1st century BCE is due to the Hawara undertakers archives.

The Egyptian Labyrinth (Labuvrinqo") appears 18 times in 16 papyri between 258 BCE and the reign
of Hadrian (117-138 CE).

All texts but one are Ptolemaic.

Though the names Hw.t-wr.t/AuJh`riß and Labuvrinqoß disappear early from our records, archaeo-
logical finds show that the site was continuously occupied up to the 7th century CE.

The Egyptian name Hw.t-wr.t corresponds to Greek ÔAuh`riß in several bilingual documents, e.g. P.Hawara Lüdd. III (233 BCE), P.Ashm. I 14 and 15 (72/71 BCE) and P.Ashm. I 16 (69/68 BCE).

The aspiration at the beginning of the word shows in the phi in ajf&Mac198; ÔAgouhvrewß th`ß ÔHrakªleivdou merivdoߺ (where ÔAgouh`riß stands for AuJh`riß) in SB XIV 11303. Greek aJ for
Egyptian hw.t is found in other toponyms as well (Clarysse-Quaegebeur 1982, p.78).


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Renaissance



The Renaissance stimulated rising interest in Antiquity, and brought back into circulation classical authors such as Herodotus.

As a result, once again people became interested in the Egyptian Labyrinth.

The scholar Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680 CE) produced one of the first pictorial reconstructions, mainly based on the account in Herodotus.

At the centre of his architecture drawing, Kircher placed a maze, most likely to have been inspired
by Roman labyrinth mosaics, and surrounded it with the twelve courts described by Herodotus
(Kern 1995 : fig. 63).


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Early Explorers



A structure which evoked so much wonder and admiration in ancient times hardly failed arouse the curiosity of later generations, but no serious attempts to locate it seem to have been made by Europeans until several centuries later. It was then far too late to observe any of its glories, for it disappeared in Roman times, and a village sprang up on its site, largely constructed from surrounding debris.

 




Paul Lucas (1664 -1737 CE)

The artist, Paul Lucas (1664 Rouen - 1737 Madrid), and Antiquary to Louis XIV of France, is one of
the earliest sources of information from Upper Egypt, visiting Thebes and the Nile up to the cataracts.

In the book in which he subsequently published the account of his travels, he gives us some idea of
the state of the remains in his time, but his account is very rambling and unreliable.

His drawing is a partial view of the ruins of the alleged labyrinth. Remark the ruins on top of an intact and proportional colossal temple.

Lucas states that an old Arab who accompanied his party professed to have explored the interior of
the ruins many years before, and to have penetrated into its subterranean passages to a large chamber surrounded by several niches, "like little shops," whence endless alleys and other rooms branched off.

A statement that supports the probability that the labyrinth survived the Ptolemaic in Roman times unaffected. By the time of Lucas's visit, however, these passages could not be traced, and he concluded that they had become blocked up by debris.


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Richard Pococke (1704 – 1765 CE)



The next explorer to visit the spot seems to have been Dr. Richard Pococke. From 1737-40 CE he visited the Near East.

Exploring Egypt, Jerusalem, Palestine and Greece. In his book "Description of the East" that appeared
in 1743 he wrote;



"We observed at a great distance, the temple of the Labyrinth, and being about a league from it, I observed several heaps as of ruins, covered with sand, and many stones all round as if there had
been some great building there: they call it the town of Caroon (Bellet Caroon).

It seemed to have been of a considerable breadth from east to west, and the buildings extended on each side towards the north to the Lake Moeris and the temple.

This without doubt is the spot of the famous Labyrinth which Herodotus says was built by the twelve kings of Egypt."



He describes what he takes to be the pyramid of the Labyrinth as a building about 165 feet long by 80 broad, very much ruined, and says it is called the "Castle of Caroon".


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Luigi Canina(1795-1856 CE)



Many attempts have been made to visualize the labyrinth as it existed in the time of Herodotus.

The drawing of the Italian architect and archaeologist Luigi Canina(1795-1856) shows, in plan, one
such reconstruction.

Among Canina’s his works are:



some construction at the Villa Borghese and Casino Vagnuzzi outside of Porta del Popolo in Egyptian style.

He was professor of architecture at Turin, and his most important works were the excavation of Tusculum in 1829 and of the Appian Way in 1848, the results of which he embodied in a number of works published in a costly form by his patroness, the queen of Sardinia.

Canina is also noted for his studies of history and archeology: Ancient architecture described and represented in documents (1830-44).


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                                                      Previous Expeditions





At the beginning of the 19th century Hawara was studied by Napoleon Bonaparte’s famous expedition in Egypt. The French expedition (1799-1800) described the Hawara pyramid, and the pharaonic temple south of it. The remains in the north and the west were wrongly identified as the Labyrinth (Jomard-Caristie 1822) by Jomard who believed that he had discovered the ruins of the Labyrinth.

The first excavations at the site were made by Karl Lepsius, in 1843. Lepsius was commissioned by King Frederich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to lead an expedition to explore and record the remains of the ancient Egyptian civilization. The Prussian expedition was modeled after the earlier Napoléonic mission, and consisted of surveyors, draftsmen, and other specialists.

In Hawara K. R. Lepsius, carried out considerable excavations in the cemetery to the north and on the northern and south-eastern sides of the pyramid and in the area of the Labyrinth and claimed to have established the actual site of the Labyrinth (Lepsius 1849), attaching great importance to a series of brick chambers which they unearthed.

The data furnished by this party, however, were not altogether of a convincing character, and it was felt that further evidence was required before their conclusions could be accepted. Lepsius thought that the structures excavated by his team were parts of the temple of King Amenemhat III, but later research showed that they belonged to Roman tombs. Since the expedition of Lepsius, the place came to be known as a findspot for some high quality royal statues.

The pupil of Lepsius, G. M. Ebers, who did much to popularise the study of Egyptology by a series of novels, said that, if one climbed the pyramid hard by, one could see that the ruins of the Labyrinth had a horseshoe shape, but that was all.


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In 1882 the Italian Luigi Vassalli (1855-1899) started his excavations in the area near the pyramid of Hawara, after having surveyed the site. Vassalli searched in vain for the pyramid's entrance. He also excavated across the Bahr Wahbi, in the village east and south of the Labyrinth and in the necropolis to the north of the pyramid (Vassalli 1867, pp.62-65; Vassali 1885).





The pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology, Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie undertook the first large-scale excavations at Hawara in 1888-1889 and 1910-1911. He revealed attestations of human occupation and activity dating back from the Middle Kingdom to Coptic times.

The first object of Petrie’s archaeological work at Hawara was the study of the Middle Kingdom pyramid.

On the second place he was interested in the Labyrinth of the literary sources. Moreover he extended his activity area towards the area north of the pyramid where he discovered a huge cemetery. The most famous finds revealed by Petrie at the Hawara necropolis are the gilded masks and mummy portraits which he found in the late-Ptolemaïc and Roman tombs, e.g. the wooden panel of Hermione, the schoolteacher, being among the very few surviving examples of painted portraits from Classical Antiquity, the "Faiyum portraits".

In 1888 he first focused on the pyramid and the Labyrinth. He divided the necropolis north of the pyramid in chronological zones ranging from the Middle Kingdom to Byzantine times. Here he found the first Roman mummy portraits and masks.

In 1889 he identified the pyramid as that of the 12th dynasty pharaoh Amenemhat III and his daughter Neferuptah.

He continued working in the burial area in the northern part of the site and cleared a Byzantine basilica north-west of the pyramid.

His successful campaigns attracted other excavators, in search of papyri and mummy portraits.


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The actual site of the Egyptian Labyrinth was most important, finally identified by Professor Flinders Petrie in 1888.

Sufficient of the original foundations remained to enable the size and orientation of the building to be roughly determined. Namely about 304 meters [997 feet] long and 244 meters [800 feet] wide. Large enough to hold the great temples of Karnak and Luxor.

He found that the brick chambers which Lepsius took to be part of the Labyrinth were only remains of the Roman town built by its supposed destroyers.

He concluded that the Labyrinth itself being so thoroughly demolished that only the great bed of fragments remained on top of an artificial stone foundation.

Anyway Petrie drew up a tentative restoration based upon the descriptions of Herodotus and Strabo
so far as these tallied with the scanty remains discovered by him. He speculated that the shrines
which he found formed part of a series of nine, ranged along the foot of the pyramid, each attached
to a columned court, the whole series of courts opening opposite a series of twenty-seven columns arranged down the length of a great hall running east and west; on the other side of this hall would be another series of columned courts, six in number and larger than the others, separated by another long hall from a further series of six.

His finding at Hawara included also scattered bits of foundations, a great well, two door jambs, one to the north and one to the south, two granite shrines and part of another, several fragments of statues and a large granite seated figure of the king, who is still generally recognised to have been the builder of the Labyrinth.

Namely Amenemhet (or Amenemhat) III of the XIIth Dynasty (also known as Lampares), who reigned about twenty-three centuries BCE.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
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W.M. Flinders Petrie wrote (Ten Years Digging in Egypt, pp. 91-92):




"Though the pyramid was the main object at Hawara, it was but a lesser part of my work there.

On the south of the pyramid lay a wide mass of chips and fragments of building, which had long generally been identified with the celebrated labyrinth.

Doubts, however, existed, mainly owing to Lepsius having considered the brick buildings on the site to have been part of the labyrinth. When I began to excavate the result was soon plain, that the brick chambers were built on the top of the ruins of a great stone structure; and hence they were only the houses of a village, as they had at first appeared to me to be.

But beneath them, and far away over a vast area, the layers of stone chips were found; and so great was the mass that it was difficult to persuade visitors that the stratum was artificial, and not a natural formation.

Beneath all these fragments was a uniform smooth bed of beton or plaster, on which the pavement of the building had been laid: while on the south side, where the canal had cut across the site, it could be seen how the chip stratum, about six feet thick, suddenly ceased, at what had been the limits of the building.

No trace of architectural arrangement could be found, to help in identifying this great structure with
the labyrinth: but the mere extent of it proved that it was far larger than any temple known in Egypt.

All the temples of Karnak, of Luxor, and a few on the western side of Thebes, might be placed together within the vast space of these buildings at Hawara.

We know from Pliny and others, how for centuries the labyrinth had been a great quarry for the whole district; and its destruction occupied such a body of masons, that a small town existed there.

All this information, and the recorded position of it, agrees so closely with what we can trace, that no doubt can now remain regarding the position of one of the wonders of Egypt."


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
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In 1911, Petrie returned to Hawara to excavate in the Labyrinth and to find more of the so-called Faiyum portraits on the Roman Period mummies.

As usual, Petrie published his results soon after his work and also depicted partial reconstructions of
the complex within his volumes. These were still mainly based on the classical authors, and only few points depended on the little evidence he found for the original architecture (Petrie et al. 1912).

The crucial information Petrie knew ‘from Pliny and others’ about the disappearance of Labyrinth as a quarry is unscientificly vague and even completly lost for contemporary researchers.

That the whole of the structure of the Labyrinth could have been carried away was certainly a possibility, but it would have been a Herculean feat considering its size and the mass of the stones
used to build it.

If this was indeed the labyrinth described in antiquity, like it is proofed, no act of pillaging could match the total annihilation that should have occurred there.

During Petrie’s absence at Hawara excavations were subsequently undertaken in 1892 by Heinrich Brugsch, J. von Levetzau and von Niemeyer and Richard Von Kaufmann, who all discovered Roman mummy portraits.

In the same year R. von Kaufmann discovered the intact Roman mudbrick chamber of 'Aline' (see now Germer, Kischkewitz and Lüning 1993).

A local dealer discovered four or five portraits and an unknown number of gilded masks

(cf. Drower 1985, p.143).


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In 1910, G. Lefèbvre excavated on the site (cf. Parlasca 1966, p.34; Grimm 1974, p.35) and Petrie resumed his work in the Labyrinth and in the Roman cemetery, again finding lots of mummy portraits.

Among other parts of the site the area east of the pyramid was further excavated in more recent times by the Inspectorate of Faiyum Antiquities worked in the necropolis north and east of the pyramid and by the Egyptian archaeologists by



Fathi Melek and Hishmat Adib (1972),

Motawi Balboush (1974) and el-Khouli (1983).



(see the reports in Leclant 1973, p.404; Leclant 1975, p.208-209, and Leclant 1984, p.370)

The entrance to the pyramid was cleared by A. Al-Bazidy in 1995.

 




The last survey before the Mataha-expedition of the site was undertaken in 2000 by a Belgian mission.

From 5 to 23 March 2000 the Catholic University of Leuven mapped the architectural remains visible on the surface.

The complementary study of the surface pottery resulted in a chronological framework of the different areas of the site and in a representative catalogue of the Hawara ceramics covering the period between the Middle Kingdom (ca. 2000 BCE) and the 10th century CE.

Inge Uytterhoeven (field director Hawara 2000 survey) of the Leuven University expects to publish the survey report in fall 2008.


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                                                 Total Expedition Time Line






1800 31 December: survey by two engineers of the French expedition, Caristie and Martin, published by Jomard in "Description de l'Egypte, Antiquités, volume IV (Pancoucke edition, Paris1821), 478-485 Comment: valuable as the first scientific survey, carried out earlier than the cutting of the Bahr Wahbi canal across the site



1818 Labyrinth Field examination by Giovanni Battista Belzoni, as decribed in his book: "Narrative of the Operations and Recent discoveries within the pyramids, temples,tombs and excavations in Egypt and Nubia; and a journey to the coast of the Red Sea, in search of ancient Berenice; and another in the oasis of Jupiter Ammon (1820). After Belzoni’s early death in 1823, Sarah Banne his wife and travel companion still lived for many years in Brussels (Belgium).



1820s: date uncertain: survey by John Gardner Wilkinson, published in his "Modern Egypt and Thebes, being a description of Egypt, including the information required for travellers in that country, volume II (London, 1843), 337-340



1837: survey by Howard Vyse and Perring, published in their "Operations carried on at the Pyramids of Gizeh in 1837, volume III (London, 1842), 82-83 Comment: first record of the present canal across the site



1840s: survey and excavation by the expedition under Richard Lepsius, published in his "Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopen I (Berlin, 1849), plates 46-49, with posthumous publication of his notes in "Denkmaeler Text II (Berlin, 1904), 11-30 Comment: this is the most accurate published account of the site, from a time when the ruins of the Hellenistic and Roman village survived over the area of the Labyrinth. (Lepsius interpreted those ruins as part of the original complex.)



1862 August: excavations around the site by Luigi Vassalli, published in the journal "Recueil de Travaux 6 (1885), 37-41



1888-1889: excavations and survey by William Matthew Flinders Petrie, published in his reports "Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe" (London,1889) and "Kahun, Gurob and Hawara" (London, 1890): his letters home are now in the Griffith Institute, Oxford (the 'Petrie Journals'), and his pocket books (the 'Petrie Notebooks') are in the Petrie Museum (published with Secure Data Services in the Petrie Museum Archives CD-ROM, 1999) Comment: the main achievement of Petrie lies in his survey of the pyramid and its inner chambers, and in his discovery and rescue of the famous encaustic mummy portraits from the Roman Period burials north of the pyramid. In other areas the quality of his work falls below modern standards, reflecting the early date in the history of archaeology and in his own career. His survey of the area around the pyramid is inadequately recorded, and most of the tombs were emptied by workmen without Petrie himself ever seeing the finds in place.



1892: exploration of the Roman Period cemeteries at Hawara by R. v. Kaufmann, mentioned as the discoverer of a group burial containing eight mummies, in "Renate Germer, Das Geheimnis der Mumien, Ewiges Leben am Nil (Berlin 1998), 150-151



1911: excavation of the Labyrinth area and the Hellenistic and Roman Period cemeteries by William Matthew Flinders Petrie, published in his "The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh (London 1912), and "Roman Portraits and Memphis IV" (London 1911) Comment: in this season Petrie uncovered some of the most remarkable sculpture fragments, as well as more structures within the area of the Labyrinth.



1973 Fathi Melek and Hishmat Adib excavated 1972 some shaft tombs of the Middle and New Kingdom (Orientalia 42 (1973), 404)



In June 1974 excavated a mission of the Service des Antiquités under the direction of Motawi Balboush in the east of the pyramid from Hawara. They found the undisturbed tomb of a certain "Kheif Maakht". The tomb is not yet published, cf. Orientalia 44 (1975), 208-9



1984 Ali el-Khouli excavated 1983 about 20 tombs of the New Kingdom, Orientalia 53 (1984), 370



2000 Belgian survey "the Hawara 2000 surface-survey of the Faiyum Project" (Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo) (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven - Section: Ancient History). - Willy Clarysse (General director) - Inge Uytterhoeven (Field director) - Anny Cottry (Photographer) - Katrien Cousserier (Archaeologist) - Bart Demarsin (Archaeologist) - Lieven Loots (Archaeologist) - Sylvie Marchand (Pottery specialist - IFAO) - Veerle Muyldermans (Archaeologist) - Ilona Regulski (Egyptologist) - Katrien Slechten (Archaeologist) > - Ayman Mohammad Sedik el-Hakim (Inspector) - Ashraf Sobhy Rezkalla (Inspector)



21 april 2004 Groundwater examination of Hawara, by Keatings, K.; Tassie, G.J.; Flower, R.J.; Hassan, F.A.; Hamdan, M.A.R.; Hughes, M.; Arrowsmith, Carol. Published in Geoarchaeology magazine, volume 22 (n°5) 2007 Wiley interscience



2008 February-March Mataha-Expedition: the Egyptian-Belgian geophysic research of the Hawara Necropolis (Pyramid + Labyrinth) by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics and Ghent University. Associate Prof. dr. Abbas Mohamed Abbas (National Research Institute of Astronomy & Geophysics, with the support of Ghent University. General Director of the NRIAG Geophysic Survey was Associate Prof. dr. Abbas Mohamed Abbas (National Research Institute of Astronomy & Geophysics and Member of the Egyptian Committee of the Protection of Antiquities from Environmental Effects).



March 2008 additional survey of the Hawara pyramid (Cairo University - Wroclaw University). General Director Prof. Dr. Alaaeldin Shaheen, Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology of Cairo University


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Labyrinth Bibliography



Arnold, D., Das Labyrinth und seine Vorbilder, Mitteilungen des Deutschen archäologischen Institus Kairo 35 (1979), 1-9

Arnold, D., Lexikon der Ägyptologie, entry: Labyrinth, 905-907

Blom-Boer, I., Sculpture Fragments and Relief Fragments from the Labyrinth at
Hawara in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, OMRO 69 (1989), 25-50.
Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, OMRO 69 (1989), 25-50

Lepsius, R., Denkmäler, I, 46-48, Berlin 1897

Lepsius, R., Denkmäler, Textband II, 11-30, Berlin 1849

Lloyd, A.B., The Egyptian Labyrinth, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 56 (1970), 81-100

Michalowski, K. The Labyrinth Enigma: Archaeological Suggestions, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 54 (1968), 219-222

Obsomer, C. in: Amosiadès (Mélanges offert au professur Claude Vandersleyen par anciens étudiants, Louvain-la-Neuve 1992), 221-324  Petrie, W.M.F., Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe, London 1889

Petrie, W.M.F., Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara, London 1890

Petrie, W.M.F., Wainwright, G.A. and Mackay, E., The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh, (British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account, 18th Year) London 1912

Uphill, E.P., Pharaoh´s Gateway to Eternity, The Hawara Labyrinth of King Amenemhat III, London 2000

O. Kimball Armayor, Herodotus' Autopsy of the Fayoum: Lake Moeris and the Labyrinth of Egypt (Gieben, Amsterdam 1985).

Geryl P., The Orion Prophecy, Adventures Unlimited Press 2002

Herman Kern,  Through the Labyrinth; Designs and Meanings over 5,000 Years, Prestel 1982

W.H.Matthews, Mazes & Labyrinths: Their History & Development, Dover Publications, New York 1970

Joyce Tyldesley, Egypt: How a Lost Civilisation Was Rediscovered, BBC Books 2007

Albert Slosman, L’Astronomie selon les Egyptiens, Laffont Paris 1983

Kevin Keatings & co, An Examination of Groundwater within the Hawara Pyramid, Egypt
Geoarchaeology magazine, volume 22 (n°5) 2007 Wiley interscience

Colin Renfrew, figuring it out,  The parallel visions of artists and archaeologists, Thames & Hudson 2003


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Mataha-expedition team

The Mataha-expedition is a project of joint forces, which would not been possible without the initial and encouraging support of Zahi Hawass, the president of the Supreme Council of Antiquities. The scan-project is coordinated and funded by Louis De Cordier, and realized by the Nriag with the support of Ghent University/Kunst-Zicht.

 

Supreme Council of Antiquities

The Mataha-expedition was personally granted to take place by Dr. Zahi Hawass,
the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities. The SCA is part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture and is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt.

Dr. Zahi Hawass has since longtime been forcefully working to realize the preservation of the Hawara Pyramid and necropolis. With encouraging support Dr. Zahi Hawass gave his permission to conduct the geophysic research of the Hawara Necropolis in order to prepare for preservation works, and to map the archaeological underground. The research was helpfully supervised by SCA councillor Prof. Dr. Moustafa Kamel El-Ghamrawy (Faculty of Engineering, Azhar University, Cairo) and supported by SCA councillor Prof. Dr. Alaaeldin Shaheen (dean Faculty of Archaeology Cairo University), who already started in July 2008 with the first renovations works at Hawara.

 

NRIAG

The Mataha cooperation with Ghent University was personally encouraged by the president of the National Research institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Prof. Dr. Salah M. Mahmoud and Dr. El-Said Ahmed Al-Sayed (apllied & environmental geophysics). The Mataha geophysic research is realized by the geophysicists of the NRIAG under the general direction of Associate Prof. dr. Abbas Mohammed Abbas (member of the Egyptian committee of the protection of antiquities from environmental effects). The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) is one of the oldest scientific institutions in Egypt. It was founded in Boulac (Cairo) in 1839 as an Astronomical Observatory. In 1865, it was transferred to Abbassia (Cairo). Finally, it was transferred to its current location (Helwan) in 1903. From that time up till now and along this time span of more than a century NRIAG has witnessed large developments and expansion phases in several disciplines such as Astronomy, Space research, Solar Research, Seismology, Geomagnetism, Geoelectric, Geothermal, Gravimetry, Geodesy, Geodynamics, and recently Crustal Movements. Nowadays NRIAG plays an important application role in the national development plan of Egypt.

 

Ghent University/Kunst-Zicht

Specially for the Mataha-expedition, Ghent University established a partnership with the NRIAG to corporate the geophysic scanning at Hawara. Ghent University has bundled a wide range of international partnerships, in which the cooperation with the NRIAG is framed. The Ghent University started the involvement in the geophysical survey to contribute to the preservation of the antiquities at Hawara and to support the contemporary art& science project by Louis De Cordier, framing in the new cross-bordering approach of the Ghent University Kunst-Zicht unit, directed by curator Guy Bovyn (Ghent University Department of Communication, curator Contemporary Art Ghent University; coordinator of the postgraduate program 'Exhibition and Conservation of Contemporary Art'). Ghent University is one of the most important institutions of higher education and research in Europe, with a worldwide high scientific & innovative reputation. Ghent University yearly attracts over 30,000 students, with a foreign student population of over 2,200 EU and non-EU citizens. Ghent University offers a broad range of study programs in all academic and scientific branches. With a view to corporate in research and community service, numerous research groups, centers and institutes have been founded over the years. Ghent University distinguishes itself as a socially committed and pluralistic university in a broad international perspective. At the basis of all education and research lie curiosity and ambition. Both on the regional and international level Ghent University has developed an extensive network, which is extended year by year. Ghent University wants its students and researchers to push frontiers. Curious and ambitious people shape the future world. A philosophy that was encouraged last year in the Ghent University publicity campaign with the slogan: "Dare to think" (Durf denken). Many thanks to Prof. Dr. Paul Van Cauwenberge (Rector Ghent University),  Prof. dr. Morgan De Dapper (Department of Geography, unit morphology & geo-archaeology), Prof. dr. Frank Vermeulen (Department of Archaeology), Guy Bovyn (Department of Communication, Ghent University curator Contemporary Art Ghent University; coordinator of the postgraduate program 'Exhibition and Conservation of Contemporary Art'), Prof. Dr. Peter Vandenabeele (Ghent University, Department of Archaeology and ancient history of Europe), Prof. Dr. Johan Braeckman (Ghent University, Department of Philosophy), Kaat Van de Velde (communication), Tom De Smedt (communication), Karen Wulgaert (apprentice).

 

Louis De Cordier

Contemporary artist Louis De Cordier is the expedition coordinator. The vision of the Mataha-expedition is seen by Louis De Cordier as an early foray of a holistic movement to enable research and innovation through the cooperation of varied art & science disciplines. Devoted to the preservation and investigation of Egyptian antiquities, he started the project with a series of private lectures, funding the project with the sale profits of the Golden Sun Disk. A timepiece designed by Louis De Cordier to ignite the global fire of comprehensive awareness and awakening. An opener of ways to meditate about our human condition and the destiny of our species. The record incorporates sacred geometry, earth sciences and astronomy. Its message reflects the state of Man, broken free, wandering endlessly around in an ever-changing space. The sculpture is a place for rest, a sacred instrument for moving through this dynamic and chaotic spacetime. The Golden Sun Disk, an archaeological artifact of the future, is an expression of artistic and technological creation and a symbol of human-scaled introspection. In the eventuality of the fall of civilization, the design of the time piece conceals the power and hope to transmit its content to very distant generations. For more info about his works and projects see > www.louisdecordier.com.


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 10:40:46 am









Thanks To





Horus Foundation

The HORUS Foundation (Herodotus Original Research Using Science) is an American non-profit organization founded by Frank Clark (US) and Mark Beaver (US). The foundation assembled experts and state-of-the-art technologies from the aerospace industry to maximize archaeologic research, in relation to the written records of Herodotus. The Horus foundation contributed to the geophysic survey with providing the NRIAG logistical support to obtain the Supreme Council of Antiquity permission to scan at Hawara.



Golden Sun Disk

The Mataha-expedition team wants to thank all the people who funded the project with the acquisition of a Golden Sun Disk for their encouraging support. Gratefulness to art curator Andree van de Kerckhove for the organisation of the Labyrinth exhibition (Tabularium #05 CBK Delft), and the production of the first Golden Sun Disk.



Cairo University

The Mataha-expedition team wants to thank Prof. Dr. Alaaeldin Shaheen, the Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology of Cairo University, and is looking forward to cooperate in the near future to proceed the preservation and renovation of the Hawara archaeological site.



Leuven University

Gratitude to Prof. Dr. Willy Clarysse & Dr. Inge Uyterhoeven (archaeologist), the team-leaders  of the "Hawara 2000 surface survey” for their interest, practical information and help in the research of the Hawara history.



Association Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth

Many thanks to the AERE Board of directors for their human network support.
The Association Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth was founded in memory of the Belgian Queen Elisabeth's visit to the tomb of Tutankhamun, on February 18, 1923. Its main purpose was to stimulate egyptological and papyrological research in Belgium. Over the years the association has become a scholarly institution, which promotes the study of the history and civilisation of Pharaonic, Graeco-Roman and Christian Egypt.



UNESCO

Many thanks for the encouraging UNESCO presence on the workshop in Cairo, and hopefully the support regarding the future of Hawara. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.



Isel Foundation

Many thanks to Peter Cooreman and Ilse Adam of the Isel foundation for the personal support. The Isel Foundation is a private foundation situated in Merelbeke, Belgium. The foundation publishes its own Isel magazine, but is in the first place a cultural platform where artists, cultural organisations and companies meet and are promoted. The foundation supported the Mataha-project by organizing several Labyrinth lectures, bringing the right people together to start the project’s realization.



Patrick Geryl

The Mataha expedition should never been possible without the beneficent help of author and independent researcher Patrick Geryl. Since many years Patrick Geryl researched the Labyrinth of Egypt. Experienced as team member of the Giza plateau geophysic scanning (2006), Geryl introduced Louis De Cordier to the Egyptian National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in December 2007. Opening the way to the effective realisation in Egypt. In his books, Patrick Geryl continues his scientific analysis with the millennia-old codes of the Maya and Egyptians. He determines that both cultures arose from a lost antediluvian civilization, which was able to calculate previous polar shifts and that we should take very seriously their calculations, that place the next reversal in 2012. Geryl expects in his books that the labyrinth of Egypt will contain the Circle of Gold, the forgotten hall of records of this ancient civilization, as an ultimate message for humanity .


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 10:42:01 am









Support





People can support the project on many ways, at the current stage much needs to be done. The most important thing right now is to raise global interest for Hawara.
This can be done by making your network aware by producing weblogs, articles, a mailing…

To open the possibility for companies to sponser the ongoing Mataha-project with a tax-deductible donation, the Mataha-team started with establishment of a non-profit organisation cooperated by the King Baudouin Foundation & King Baudouin Foundation United States. The Mataha Foundation will be operational in October 2008. For more info contact >

 

King Baudouin Foundation

21 rue Brederodestraat - B-1000 Brussels - Belgium
T +32 (0)2 511 1840, Fax +32.2.500.54.88, info@kbs-frb.be

King Baudouin Foundation United States
Jean Paul Warmoes Executive Secretary
10 Rockefeller Plaza, 16th Floor - New York - NY 10020
T (212) 713 7660, Fax (212) 713 7665, jeanpaul@kbfus.org


Title: Re: Lost Labyrinth Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 10:44:07 am








Press





This website is composed to give as much information as possible about the project.



Please read the content carefully before directing questions to the Mataha – Expedition contact persons. Like the communication team is very small, we will do our utmost best to deal with all press requests related to the NRIAG-UGent cooperated Mataha-Expedition. For general information contact Louis De Cordier, the coordinator of the Mataha-Expedition. For interviews and statements about the future of Hawara, please direct your questions to the Supreme Council of Antiquities represented by Dr. Zahi Hawass, the University of Cairo represented by the Dean of Archaeology Prof. Dr. Alaaeldin Shaheen, and the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.



Ghent University conference:
presscards & TV production crews >
please reserve your conference press-seat
contact > Kaat.VandeVelde@UGent.be or t +3292648275

 

downloads
 print version with images 1,55Mb)





free copyright images



map sketch (64KB)

Athanasius Kircher (3MB)

Luigi Canina (672 Kb)

Napoleon expedition (768 Kb)

labyrinth area (2,2 Mb)

Scanning 1 (3,1 Mb)

Scanning 2 (2,8 Mb)

Hawara Pyramid (2,2 Mb)

Mataha-scanners (2,5 Mb)

Louis De Cordier 1 (1,4Mb)

Golden Sun Disk (2,3 Mb)

 



contact



Louis De Cordier

Mataha-Expedition coordinator
T +32 486 20 85 33  info@louisdecordier.com



Ghent University

Kaat Van de Velde: conference communication & reservations
T +3292648275  Kaat.VandeVelde@UGent.be

Guy Bovyn: art curator & Kunst-Zicht director
T +32476984993  Guy.Bovyn@hogent.be



NRIAG

Dr. Abbas Mohamed Abbas (Director of the Hawara Geophysic Survey)
T +2012 1141626 dr.abbas.ali@gmail.com



WEBSITE

Seppe Slabbinck: webmaster mataha.org
Should you have any question or remark regarding this website,
please send an e-mail to: webmaster@mataha.org.



http://www.mataha.org/


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:13:07 pm











Patrick Geryl:



                                                        Labyrinth of Egypt

 



Introduction

The mission of the Mataha-expedition was, besides preservation, to research the quarry theory by Petrie based on his finding of a great artificial stone surface (304meter on 244meter). Petrie interpreted the enormous artificial stone plateau he discovered at the depth of several meters, as the foundation of the labyrinth, concluding that the building itself was totally demolished, as a stone quarry in the Ptolemaic period. However, the “foundation” impenetrated by early expeditions, never lost the possibility of being the roof of the Labyrinth, described by Strabo as a great plain of stone. The Mataha – expedition research goal was to confirms the presence of archaeological features at the labyrinth area south of the Hawara pyramid of Amenemhet III.


(http://www.world-mysteries.com/newgw/labyrinth0.jpg)

The Mataha-expedition discovered the lost labyrinth of Egypt at Hawara.

A colossal temple described by many classic authors like Herodotus and Strabo, to contain 3000 rooms full of hieroglyphs and paintings. A legendary building lost for 2 millenia under the ancient sands of Egypt. Bringing the highest level of technology to unlock the secrets of the past. The sand of Hawara was scanned earlier this year (February-March 2008) by the Belgian Egyptian expedition team. Although ground penetrating techniques have been used by archaeologists for years, the Mataha-expedition (Mataha = labyrinth in Arabic) was the first to apply this technology at Hawara, to solve the enigma born in the Renaissance for once.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:17:21 pm










Mataha Expedition: Labyrinth of Egypt at Hawara
©2008 Patrick Geryl



The conclusion of the Hawara geophysic-survey is officially released by the Egyptian authorities at the workshop in Cairo organized by the NRIAG on 11 of August 2008. This took place in the presence of some members of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, a representative of UNESCO, professors of international Universities, researchers of Cairo based archaeological institutes and a small selection of specialized archaeological press.


(http://www.world-mysteries.com/newgw/labyrinth1.jpg)


Before taking off with the conclusion, it needs to be said that the presented geo-archaeological results about the Labyrinth were received with positive scepticism by archaeologists and alike, who still prefer to believe actual excavation as confirmation of the discovery, without touching the integrity of the geophysic team professionalism. This feeling of doubt was expected like geophysic technics are new in the field of archaeology. Till very recently geophysics were namely only used by the military and oil industry. All geophysic results regarding the groundwater and the geologic situation, are in contrast fully taken for granted by all parties, and even formed the actual start of the existing preservation master plan for the Hawara archaeological site, by the Egyptian government and the Supreme council of Antiquities.





The mission of the Mataha-expedition was, besides preservation, to research the quarry theory by Petrie based on his finding of a great artificial stone surface (304meter on 244meter). Petrie interpreted the enormous artificial stone plateau he discovered at the depth of several meters, as the foundation of the labyrinth, concluding that the building itself was totally demolished, as a stone quarry in the Ptolemaic period. However, the “foundation” impenetrated by early expeditions, never lost the possibility of being the roof of the Labyrinth, described by Strabo as a great plain of stone.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:22:03 pm









The Mataha – expedition research confirms the presence of archaeological features at the labyrinth area south of the Hawara pyramid of Amenemhet III. These features covering an underground area of several hectares, have the prominent signature of vertical walls on the geophysical results. The vertical walls with an average thickness of several meters, are connected to shape nearly closed rooms, which are interpreted to be huge in number. Consequently, the geophysic survey initiated with the cordial permission of Dr. Zahi Hawass the president of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, and conducted by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (Helwan, Cairo) with the support of Ghent University, can now officially verify the occurrence of big parts of the Labyrinth as described by the classic authors at the study area. The Labyrinth data are acquired mainly from 2 scanned surfaces at the labyrinth area south of the pyramid. One scan survey of 150m by 100m on the right site of the Bahr Wahbi canal, and one on the left site (80m by 100m). Two considerations regarding the conclusion. Seen the survey provided only two big puzzles, the total size and shape of the labyrinth can not yet been concluded. Secondly, the data of the labyrinth are accurate, because of the exceptional dimensions of the structure, but the geophysic profiles still need some filtration to give more details. Groundwater affected the consistency of the survey. The partial defacement of the data is due to the high salinity of the shallow subsurface water and the seasonal fluctuation of this level. So we recommend also another episode of geophysical survey after the dewatering project to enhance the outcome to great extent.


In the upper ground zone above the water level, walls appear at the shallow depth ranging between 1,5 to 2,5 meters. These decayed mudbrick features are very chaotic and show no consistent grid structure and can be comfortably related with the historic period of the Ptolemaic and Roman times. A period in which is known, that the labyrinth area was used as a cemetery, and probably also changed to a living area in the Byzantine period. Underneath this upper zone, below the artificial stone surface appears (in spite of the turbid effect of the groundwater) at the depth of 8 to 12 meters a grid structure of gigantic size made of a very high resistivity material like granit stone. This states the presence of a colossal archaeological feature below the labyrinth “foundation” zone of Petrie, which has to be reconsidered as the roof of the still existing labyrinth. The conclusion of the geo-archaeological expedition encounters in a scientific way the idea that the labyrinth was destructed as a stone quary in Ptolemaic times and validates the authenticity of the classical author reports. The massive grid structure of the labyrinth is also out of angle by 20° to 25° from the Hawara pyramid orientation. An analysis shifting the contemporary idea of the labyrinth as funerary temple and its supposed construction age, but on the other hand it hardens Herodotus accuracy, who described the nearby pyramid to be at the corner of the labyrinth. It might even be considered that the remains of the labyrinth run unaffectedly underneath the canal, which crosses the total Hawara area. Like the scanned Labyrinth sections on both sides of Bahr Wahbi canal have similar and parallel grids on the geophysical results.


From a preservative view of the Hawara archaeological site, humanity is now facing a great challenge. The water level, which raised dramatically since the last decades, is detected at a depth of about 4-5 meters below the ground surface at the labyrinth area. Drowning the whole site completely in the corrosive salty water, which agressively destructs the stones of the labyrinth on a great scale. Making environmental protection directly the utmost necessity. UNESCO committee members publicly considered after the official release of the research conclusion at the workshop in Cairo, to mark the total Hawara site “world heritage”, as the first UNESCO step towards the launch of an international safeguarding campaign. This should be a great honour en help, like Hawara not only contains important Middle Kingdom to late Roman antiquities, but also the greatest wonder of the classical world. With the words of Herodotus “surpassing even the great pyramids of Giza”.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:23:33 pm









In contrast to many sites, which become vulnerable to illegal excavations and theft after the release of their discovery, the Labyrinth is contradictory protected from illegal human activity by the saline water that destroys it. A situation we can not push towards a next generation without presenting an empty box, like all hieroglyphic texts as described by the classic others will be very soon lost forever, eaten out by salt crystals.

An archaeological rescue operation as never seen before will therefore have to be organized, to raise the necessary media attention, experts, technology and funds to start the drainage, protection and the total excavation of the labyrinth of Egypt. The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities expressed their great devotion and responsibility by announcing the start of the actual renovate master plan for the site, but as a the labyrinth affects the whole world, we are responsible to work together with this great country that bears already the heavy weight to preserve and protect the remains of a giant civilization. A fantastic country with great people, that is reaching a warm hand to the rest of the world to share this new discovered global human heritage.


The Mataha-Expedition team therefore directs the need for any kind of support to all man. We believe that humanity reached the point of civilization to be able to work unconditional together at high efficiency with the honorary aim to protect and discover the colossal stone book that the ancients built with an unimaginable effort of love, to communicate with us from the deep black of time.



Mataha-Expedition website: www.mataha.org

 
 

©2008 Patrick Geryl


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 28, 2008, 08:25:10 pm






Herodotus' Egyptian Labyrinth



Even more generally, labyrinth might be applied to any extremely complicated maze-like structure. Herodotus, in Book II of his Histories, describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles," that he considered to surpass the pyramids in its astonishing ambition:

It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range exactly fronting the gates of the other. Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, and the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in the upper storey, so what I shall say of them is from my own observation, but the underground ones I can speak of only from report, because the Egyptians in charge refused to let me see them, as they contain the tombs of the kings who built the labyrinth, and also the tombs of the sacred crocodiles. The upper rooms, on the contrary, I did actually see, and it is hard to believe that they are the work of men; the baffling and intricate passages from room to room and from court to court were an endless wonder to me, as we passed from a courtyard into rooms, from rooms into galleries, from galleries into more rooms and thence into yet more courtyards. The roof of every chamber, courtyard, and gallery is, like the walls, of stone. The walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade.*


(http://www.world-mysteries.com/newgw/labyrinth2.jpg)


* Source:  Peck, Harry Thurston (chief editor). "Hieratic Papyrus. (Twentieth Dynasty.)" in the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, published 1898, page 29.




During the time of Sir William Smith, the remains of the "Labyrinthus" (as he calls it) were discovered "11 1/2 miles from the pyramid of Hawara, in the province of Faioum." As professor Smith states in the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1870), the Labyrinthus was likely modified and added upon "at various times. The names of more than one king have been found there, the oldest" name being that of Amenemhat III. "It is unnecessary to imagine more than that it was monumental, and a monument of more than one king of Egypt."


In 1898, the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities described the structure as "the largest of all the temples of Egypt, the so-called Labyrinth, of which, however, only the foundation stones have been preserved."



Source: www.wikipedia.org



http://www.world-mysteries.com/newgw/gw_pgeryl_hawara.htm


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 07:53:00 pm









                                           A Virtual Exploration of the Lost Labyrinth






                    Developing a Reconstructive Model of Hawara Labyrinth Pyramid Complex

                                         Narushige Shiode, Wolfram Grajetzki

                                        Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis

                                               University College London

 

Abstract



This paper reports on a case study* that explores the possibility of reproducing a destroyed historic site from its remaining artefacts. Using VR (virtual reality) technologies, we construct a series of low-end, 3D models that are navigable through the Web. This gives us the opportunity to visualise, explore and present ancient sites in their original form. We focus mainly on the Hawara Labyrinth site. However, the method developed is generic in that it is applicable to other sites and artefacts that require reconstruction and dissemination using digital technologies. The feedback from this pilot project will be integrated into an on-going project** on creating online learning and teaching resource.



* This report is based on a short-term project supported by the Graduate School, University College London.



A version of the project output can be obtained from http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/.



**Digital Egypt for Universities is a three-year project to create online learning and teaching resource, funded by JISC (the Joint Information Systems Committee) that is currently carried out by Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, and the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 07:54:39 pm









1. Introduction



There has been much discussion about the capabilities of the Internet and cyberspace to promote increased accessibility to museum collections (Economow 1995, Johnston 1998). Potentially, visitors can indulge in virtual experiences of artefacts to which access in a real museum is limited by physical distance, conservation requirements, or limitations on exhibition space. In the virtual museum, the collection in the museum is available at any time online (Sweeney 1997). In addition, the flexible nature of such virtual environments can be further utilised in reproducing full-scale, 3D models of archaeological sites. In particular, we can adopt VR technology to generate a virtual reconstruction of an ancient site that was destroyed long time ago.
This is of immense importance for archaeological studies as it opens up many new dimensions in understanding and simulating such sites. Perhaps for the first time in archaeological terms, does it provide us with the opportunity to visualise, explore and present ancient sites in their original form. We may even be able to create dynamic models which incorporate chronological transitions and reflect the cultural and physical shifts that have taken place at each time period.

In other words, one of the effective ways to promote and provide archaeological resources online is to address the limitation on exploring real artefacts by creating a virtual archaeological site equipped with 3D visualisation utility. It should be complemented by web interface that includes the relevant information, so as to attract the user's interest and lead them to the models.
In this light, we set up a project on the VR modelling of ancient sites and propose a series of digital reconstruction, which is developed and disseminated using state-of-the-art digital technologies. We then popularise it in a web-based context so that various publics could view the exhibits as well as consider various reconstructions for themselves.

As a short-term case study, we focus on the Hawara Labyrinth site for which we have primary access to a wealth of artefacts and archaeological records. However, the techniques we develop would be of wide use in archaeological reconstruction; this study in fact is the pilot phase of a much larger project which is aimed at realising the full potential of these new media in archaeology and museum planning.
We will start by discussing the applicability of VR to archaeology. This is followed by revisions on some of the related studies. We will then trace the history of Hawara and examine how it was gradually destroyed. Based on this information, we construct online contents of Hawara including two models of the Labyrinth that are proposed by different archaeologists.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 07:55:57 pm









2 Revision and Methodology






2.1 Applicability of VR to Archaeology



Information technology has contributed to archaeology from innumerable different aspects. For instance, geographic information system (GIS) supports the excavation process through the provision of geo-reference data. Moreover, owing to the exponential growth of the Internet and the rapid advancement of VR, there is now vast potential for assisting excavation and reconstruction of historic sites as well as disseminating the relevant information to a wider public (Batty 1997).

Indeed, technology has come a long way in solving many of the early limitations of VR; Virtual worlds have quietly found growing acceptance in selected areas, from research to industrial training, entertainment, and medicine. Less than a decade ago, however, issues of graphic quality and speed troubled virtual world developers, forcing simplistic representations and triggering criticism from the heritage community (Addison and Gaiani 1998). In addition, until recently we were short of inexpensive software and data standards for creating visually realistic interactive environments. The development of VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) in 1994, the de facto standard 3D descriptive language, has broken the technical barrier and enabled the visualisation and distribution of 3D models on-line (Pesce 1996).

We adopt VRML97 as a primary means to visualise texture and create 3D models. This however, is complemented by other form of online material such as movies and still images so as to allow low-end users to access the contents and to deliver it to a wider audience.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 07:56:54 pm









2.2 Research Objectives



Our primary aim is to virtually reproduce the historic site of the Hawara Labyrinth which was built around 1800BC. Today the site resembles a moonscape, following its destruction in the first millennium AD. We thus have no clear picture of the plans of the entire Labyrinth or the cemetery; nor do we know their design or proportions. Nevertheless, with the aid of VR technology, we are able to devise visualisations of different probable forms. We also benefit significantly by the fact that many of the artefacts excavated from Hawara are now conserved at the Petrie Museum and that we have hands-on access to these artefacts as well as the archaeological records by Petrie.

There are two aspects to this contextualisation of objects in virtual space:

Reconstruction of ancient cities to exploit the medium - this includes successive historical phases of a single place as well as developing a range of possible forms where the original form is uncertain.
Spaces for an ideal exhibition space - using the medium to plan in the 3D space various future plans of museum layout which would best cater for the display of the artefacts.
As aforementioned, this project focuses on the single example of the Hawara site, but the methodology is generic and therefore applicable to the reproduction of other sites, at different time periods and reflecting very different collections of artefacts. Furthermore, the techniques we evolve may also find use in many other historical and artistic contexts where visualisation of unknown structures is the goal.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 07:58:31 pm









2.3 Related Studies



In archaeology, the Web is mostly used as a medium to introduce certain projects, or to swiftly provide preliminary reports from excavations. In some cases, the web contents are edited on the site; one of such examples being the Theban necropolis expedition led by Nigel Strudwick

 (http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/egypt/tt99/). Some attempts have been also made on Internet

publications which include the following two initiatives in the Netherlands: the Coffin Text database

(http://www.ccer.ggl.ruu.nl/ct/ct.html) and the Deir el-Medina database

(http://www.leidenuniv.nl/nino/dmd/dmd.html). Both are designed mainly for philologists.

Also, a few novel attempts have been made recently in the field of virtual preservation and reproduction of historical or heritage sites (Addison and Gaiani 1998). These include the virtual conservation of a large scale, ancient site such as Angkor Vat in South Asia and the Roman site of Sagalassos, south-west Turkey (Pollefeys et al. 1998). However, most of these projects aim to reproduce an existing site or to construct a realistic model where the original plan is known. In this project, we propose a generic method for visualising the possible forms of a historic site whose form is uncertain, and which has to be estimated from the few remaining artefacts.
At the Petrie Museum itself, there is an ongoing project involving the digitisation of the entire collection for dissemination using web-based technology. This project includes an association with the University of Manchester and has been funded by the Museum and Galleries Commission under the Designated Museum Challenge Fund.

In terms of virtual museums, there are a number of projects and studies relevant to the future planning of galleries in the virtual environment. Currently, there are over 500 web sites and projects that relate to the electronic reproduction of a collection of digital artefacts and information resources for public exploration in the form of a museum-like environments (Shiode and Kanoshima 1998). Using VRML and the proprietary technologies, some museums have already reproduced their galleries either partially or entirely in 3D visual form; the Philadelphia Museum of Art (http://www.libertynet.org/pma/) and the Hara Art Museum (http://www.haramuseum.or.jp/) to name but two. Nevertheless, as their primary intention is to imitate real museums, existing virtual museum contents appear similar to 3D CAD models and do not surpass the presentations of traditional museums, nor do they explore the potential for exploring the possible form of ancient archaeological sites (Worden 1997).


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:01:47 pm








3 A History of the Hawara Site and Its Excavation



Before we move onto the modelling and dissemination of the online contents, let us brief on the study area. Hawara is a cemetery site in the southeastern Fayum region, about 80km south of present day Cairo. It is the burial place of Amenemhat III, the last great king of the 12th dynasty (about 1855-1808 BC). To the south of the pyramid the king constructed a large cult complex (approximately 120 metres by 300 metres), in which the king was worshipped as a god. The complex was most probably built in the second half of his reign, and seems to have been called Ankh-Amenemhat. After some 1500 years, king Amenemhat III was still attested as a god in the Fayum region, especially in Hawara and, during the period of Classical Antiquity, the cult complex of the king came to be known as the "Labyrinth" (Arnold 1980).

The Greek historian Herodotus, who visited the temple in the 5th century BC, described a building complex with three thousand rooms connected by winding passages. Later Strabo visited the temple about 25 BC and also described an amazing building. Pliny the Elder gives the longest report on the "Labyrinth" even though he never saw it himself and was probably mixing direct observations from other authors with his own imagination of what he thought a Labyrinth might be. Since Ptolemaic times, especially under the Romans, the complex was used as a quarry and hence has mostly disappeared (Lloyd 1970). In Late Antiquity, the complex was considered as one of the wonders of the world.

The Renaissance stimulated rising interest in Antiquity, and brought back into circulation classical authors such as Herodotus. As a result, once again people became interested in the Egyptian Labyrinth. The scholar Athanasius Kircher produced one of the first pictorial reconstructions, mainly based on the account in Herodotus. At the centre of his architecture drawing, Kircher placed a maze, most likely to have been inspired by Roman labyrinth mosaics, and surrounded it with the twelve courts described by Herodotus (Kern 1995: fig. 63).

Around 1840, the original Labyrinth site at Hawara was rediscovered by the Prussian expedition of Richard Lepsius (Lepsius 1849). Lepsius thought that the structures excavated by his team were parts of the temple of King Amenemhat III, but later research showed that they belonged to Roman tombs. Since the expedition of Lepsius, the place came to be known as a findspot for some high quality royal statues. In 1888, Flinders Petrie started to excavate at Hawara. The results of his work on the Labyrinth itself were disappointing for him. Since Roman times the whole building had been totally destroyed, and he was unable to recover any part of the complex. Sensationally though, he found a series of portrait panel paintings, depicting the local elite in the period of Roman rule (Petrie 1889, 1890). With these findings, he restored to classical art history a field that had been virtually unknown until then.

In 1911, Petrie returned to Hawara to excavate in the Labyrinth and to find more of the so-called Fayum portraits on the Roman Period mummies. As usual, Petrie published his results soon after his work and also depicted partial reconstructions of the complex within his volumes. These were still mainly based on the classical authors, and only few points depended on the little evidence he found for the original architecture (Petrie et al. 1912).

Since Petrie’s excavations in 1911, no official excavation has been carried out in the Labyrinth, though some shorter expeditions from the Antiquity Service have dug in the necropolis of Hawara. Apart from some short notes in Egyptological journals nothing has been published from these excavations. Only this year a Belgian mission began a survey of the site, which has already begun to produce more accurate information. This should advance the research by colleagues such as Dieter Arnold (Arnold 1979, 1980), Ingrid Blom-Boer (Blom-Boer 1989), and Eric Uphill (Uphill 2000), who have published much stimulating work on Hawara (Figure 1).


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:02:46 pm
(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure1.jpg)

Figure 1. The pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara

(Image courtesy of
Christiane Mueller-Hazenbos).

 







4 Reconstruction of the Labyrinth



The fact that the Labyrinth was destroyed long time ago makes it almost impossible to depict its original form. Even its scale is still under dispute, and to a greater extent, we have to rely on older references such as the description by Herodotus as well as on brief archaeological notes from earlier excavations. In our project, we produced two versions of the Labyrinth model in VR.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:05:52 pm











4.1 The Labyrinth Model by Flinders Petrie



Soon after his second expedition, Petrie published a partial reconstruction of the Labyrinth (Figure 2a). It consists of 18 large chambers separated by three main corridors, two running sideways and one at the centre. Because he did not find enough evidence, these are considered to be primarily based on the classical authors, and only few points depended on the little evidence he found for the original architecture (Petrie et al. 1912).

Taking his plan for granted, we measured his drawings and redrew the plan as shown in Figure 2b. Heights were taken from another tomb chapel constructed by King Amenemhat III assuming that he used the same module. The model was then constructed in 3D Studio Max, a 3D Computer Aided Designing (CAD) package in its proprietary format, exported to VRML97 format, and manually edited to give it the right scale and light setting. The result is shown in Figure 3.

 
(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure2a.jpg)

Figure 2. (a) A plan of Hawara in late 19th century and
a partial diagram of the predicted structure of the
Labyrinth hand drawn by Petrie, and



(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure2b.jpg)

(b) The plan of the Petrie model of the Labyrinth
produced in the project.
 


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:15:19 pm
(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure3.jpg)

Figure 3. A 3D model of the Labyrinth
based on a drawing by Petrie (1890).

 

 






4.2 The Second Labyrinth Model



Based on some recent results and proposals, we have come up with an alternative to the Petrie model. The overall shape of the Labyrinth itself is based on the study by Arnold (1979) who assumed that the building follows the tradition of the Djoser complex in Saqqara. A large open court was placed in the front section, similar to that of the Djoser complex.

The small twelve open courts at the back are based on the description by Herodotus. There are also five chapels in this model, which are common for pyramid complexes in the Old and the Middle Kingdom. The pyramid was also decorated with two temples, one in the north and the other in the east side. These are based on the fact that traces of the temple to the north of the pyramid were still visible in the 19th century, and the one to the east of the pyramid is seen on parallels.





(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure4.jpg)

Figure 4 shows a bird's-eye view of this second model.

The columns are decorated in such way that they
resemble the ones that are found in a well preserved
example from the same period.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:18:05 pm










4.3 Other Models and Artefacts from Hawara

There are several important finds excavated in Hawara other than the Labyrinth. We have modelled some of the structures, including the pyramid itself, and have also included other relevant information in our Web interface. The following highlights some of the more significant contents.

Figure 5 shows its internal structure at the centre of which lie the sarcophagi of King Amenemhat III and his daughter. The figure also shows a group of 12th dynasty century tomb chapels later constructed towards the back of the pyramid. One of the smallest yet best-recorded tombs is that of a woman named Satrenenutet. The surviving finds from her tomb are preserved in the Petrie Museum, and the notebook and publication permit a reconstruction of the original appearance (Figure 6).

 




(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure5.jpg)

Figure 5. A 3D model of the internal structure of
the Hawara pyramid
(measurements taken from Petrie 1889).




 

(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure6.jpg)

Figure 6. A 3D model of the tomb of Satrenenutet
(12th dynasty).

The artefacts are preserved at the Petrie Museum.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:36:45 pm











Another important finding in Hawara is a collection of Roman period mummy portraits. Petrie (1890) recovered about 180 of these extremely fragile paintings, the largest group found in excavation and one of the most important discoveries for classical art history. Figure 7 shows one of the 41 portraits preserved at the Petrie Museum. The spatial constraints in the University gallery permits only nine of them to be displayed, but the entire portrait collection is archived and can be seen through our Web interface. Figure 7 incidentally shows one of the many non-displayed portraits which may not have been disclosed if it were not for the Web resource.

 




(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure7.jpg)

Figure 7. A Roman period mummy
portrait found in Hawara

(preserved at the Petrie Museum).


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:39:25 pm










Finally, the northern cemeteries at Hawara, and probably also the village south of the pyramid, were continually used after the official conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity in the 4th century AD. In 1888, workmen brought to Petrie the finds from some rich burials of this date, including one apparently of a child for which the grave goods are preserved in the Petrie Museum (Figure 8). They offer an instructive contrast to the finds from the tomb of Satrenenutet, though the position of the objects around the body or bodies was not recorded for the late burials.

 

 

(http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/figure8.jpg)

Figure 8. Toys and other objects found in a tomb

(later second century AD).
 


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:42:12 pm









5 Discussion



In this project, we proposed a case study for distributing an online resource of an ancient Egyptian site. In particular, we constructed 2 versions of VR model of the Hawara Labyrinth and presented its probable forms in 3D. The first reconstruction of the Labyrinth is based on a drawing by Petrie, and the second based on parallels from other mortuary temples of Pharaonic times as well as descriptions by classical authors. The models were complemented by Web interface where information relevant to the model and other data on artefacts were provided.

We may argue that the Petrie model looks "less Egyptian" in our contemporary interpretation, and that the second version seems to more accurate. However, both examples retain the right to be claimed as the correct reconstruction of the Labyrinth, for we do not and probably would never know for sure, what it really was like.

The project provides a generic approach in several different areas.

This project opens the door to exploration of spaces that have been lost and their structure unknown. Unlike more complex design tools, VR solution provides a range of possible options for combining existing artefacts and reconstructing entire sites from existing artefactual evidence. This approach is not only be useful to the experts who seek a modelling tool for their field of study, but is also useful to the wider public who are potentially interested in the appearance of ancient sites.
The temporal aspect of this research is also important, in that it enables us to build models of different periods. This could help in investigating transitional shifts associated with specific sites, especially when building a model of an archaeological site that has undergone transitions in its physical form as well as its culture.

From the museum-studies point of view, the project contributes by providing insight into how museums can use the full potential of web-based technologies to provide its resource in completely different modes of understanding and interpreting collections. There is also the potential in this approach to display and combine items from different collections in the same reproductions or reconstructions, and to explore different arrangements and interpretations of the same sets of artefacts.

In terms of our future output, we may further employ the potentials of VR space by developing a flexible and dynamic modelling system where users can visualise and explore interactively as they wish. The use of the virtual environment as a flexible, dynamic space is highly significant for it is fundamentally applicable to many other fields. In fact, enabling users to actively interact with the objects and arrange them in a virtual space that best suits their imagination, while moving the objects around and substituting them with new ones, is a radical challenge to the traditional control of exhibitions and information by curators.

We are currently building on the experience gained through this case study and are creating online learning and teaching resource under a three-year research project scheme.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:45:00 pm











Acknowledgements



We would like to thank Dr. Stephen Quirke of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London, for his suggestion on selecting Hawara for treatment and his many valuable comments.

 




References



Addison, A.C. and Gaiani, M. 1998. 'Virtualized' architectural heritage - new tools and techniques for capturing built history, in Thwaites, H.(ed), Future Fusion: Application Realities for the Virtual Age, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp.17-22.

Arnold, D. (1979). Das Labyrinth und seine Vorbilder, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Institus Kairo, vol.35, pp.1-9.

Arnold, D. (1980). Labyrinth, Lexikon der Ägyptologie III, pp.905-908.
 
Batty, M. (1997). Virtual geography, Futures, vol.29, pp.337-352.
 
Blom-Boer, I. (1989). Sculpture fragments and relief fragments from the Labyrinth at Hawara in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden, OMRO, vol.69, pp.25-50.

Economow, M. (1995). Museum collections and the information superhighway, Spectra, vol.23(1), pp.7-9.

Johnston, L. (1998). Imaging in museums; issues in resource development, in Jones-Garmil, K. (ed.), The Wired Museum, American Association of Museums, New York, pp.93-114.

Kemp, B.J. (1989). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization, Routledge, London.

Kern, H. (1995). Labyrinthe, Prestel-Verlag, Munich.

Lepsius, R.(1897).Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopten, Textband I, 46-48, (E. Naville ed) Berlin.

Lepsius, R. (1849). Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopten, II, 11-30, Berlin.

Lloyd, A.B.(1970). The Egyptian labyrinth, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol.56, pp.81-100.

Michalowski, K. (1968). The labyrinth enigma: archaeological suggestions, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol.54, pp.219-222.

Pesce, M. (1996). VRML: Browsing & Building Cyberspace, New Riders, Indianapolis.

Petrie, W.M.F. (1889). Hawara, Biahmu and Arsinoe, Field & Tuer, London.

Petrie, W.M.F. (1890). Kahun, Gurob and Hawara, Field & Tuer, London.
 
Petrie, W.M.F., Wainwright, G.A. and Mackay, E. (1912). The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh, (British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account, 18th Year), Bernard Quaritch, London.
 
Pollefeys, M., Koch, R., Vergauwen, M. and Gool, L.V. (1998). Virtualizing archaeological sites, in Thwaites, H. (ed.), Future Fusion: Application Realities for the Virtual Age, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp.600-605.

Shaw, I. And Nicholson, P. (1995). British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London.

Shiode, N. and Kanoshima, T. (1999). Utilizing the spatial features of cyberspace for generating a dynamic museum environment, in Spencer, S.N. (ed.), Proceedings for VRML'99 - Fourth Symposium on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language, The Association of Computing Machinery, New York, pp. 79-84.
Sweeney, T. (1997). Digital imaging, multimedia and museums of the future, in Earnshaw, R. and Vince, J. (eds.), The Internet in 3D: Information, Images and Interaction, Academic Press, London, pp.365-375.

Uphill, E.P. (2000). Pharaoh´s Gateway to Eternity, The Hawara Labyrinth of King Amenemhat III, Keagan and Paul, London.

Worden, S. (1997). Thinking critically about virtual museums, Archives & Museum Informatics, pp.93-103.




 

* This report is based on a short-term project supported by the Graduate School, University College London.

A version of the project output can be obtained from http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/.



**Digital Egypt for Universities is a three-year project to create online learning and teaching resource, funded by JISC (the Joint Information Systems Committee) that is currently carried out by Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, and the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London.



http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/digital_egypt/hawara/enco2000/enco2000_web.html


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 08:54:59 pm
(http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2175/2485786009_e8184ac5d7.jpg)









                                                    The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara






(http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/amenemhet%20III%20cartouche.jpg)

Amenemhet Lives

 

The Hawara enclosure, located on the south side of the pyramid, measured 385 x 158 m, is oriented north-south and was the largest of the middle kingdom pyramid enclosure.

As with Djoser, the pyramid was in the north while the entrance was on the far south end of the east side where, as in Senwosret III's layout, an open causeway approached from the east..

Between the entrance and the pyramid lay the 'mortuary temple' which here is a misnomer. This was apparently such an extraordinary architectural creation that it was seen by visitors in Classical times as a unique monument in a class of its own.

They called it the Labyrinth, comparing it with the legendary Labyrinth of Minos at Knossos in Crete.

It is all the more frustrating, therefore, that the temple is almost completely lost to us. Quarried since the roman times, very little is left except a foundation bed and limestone chips, which only hint at its vastness. This was not a labyrinth in the sense of nested passages and corridors.. Its complexity instead arose from the replication of small courts and shrines, in n arrangement that Strabo called ' a palace composed of as many smaller palaces as were former nomes'.

All the Classical authors write of multiple courts but disagree on the number. Herodotus spoke of 12 main courts, and said the visitor was conducted 'from courtyards into rooms, rooms into galleries, galleries into more rooms, thence into more courtyards'. He mentioned lower rooms and crypts devoted to the sacred crocodile Sobek, noted also by Pliny the Elder.

Close to the south side of the pyramid Petrie found remains of two great granite shrines weighing 8 to 13 tons, each containing two figures of the king.. These may have stood near the findspot at the back center of the temple.

Did they occupy a central place like the five statues in the Old Kingdom pyramid temples?

Also close to the pyramid Petrie found the remains of a colossal granite statue of the king. Other fragments must have belonged to statues that stood in the chapels and courts, including ones of the crocodile go, Sobek, as well as other deities like Hathor and an unusual palm goddess, statues of the king and offering bearers. Stadelmann sees these statues, probably assigned to their respective booths and courtyards, as the translation into three dimensions of flat painted relief scenes graced the walls of prior pyramid complexes.

But the rows of chapels most strongly the Heb Sed court of Djoser, which was more abbreviated than the fabled colonnaded courtyards. It seems fitting that Amenemhet III, with built the last major royal; pyramid complex in Egypt, borrowed and elaborated the architectural expression of 'the palace composed of smaller palaces' from Djoser. The builder of the first great royal pyramid.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 09:04:02 pm
(http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/amenemhet%20III%20hawara%20labyrinth1_640.jpg)

Overall view of the Labyrinth looking south. The canal can be seen at right.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 09:05:50 pm
(http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/amenemhet%20III%20hawara%20labyrinth2_640.jpg)

A more detail view of the Labyrinth showing some the remaining granite blocks strewn about.


Title: Re: Lost LABYRINTH Of Egypt Scanned
Post by: Bianca on September 30, 2008, 09:11:37 pm
(http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/amenemhet%20III%20hawara%20labyrinth%20plan.jpg)




http://egyptphoto.ncf.ca/amenemhet%20III%20hawara7.htm