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Arts & Literature => Art History => Topic started by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:26:22 am



Title: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:26:22 am


            (http://z.about.com/d/atheism/1/0/3/T/MagnaGraeciaMap-l.jpg)





                                      (http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/19/64919-004-5F13D85D.gif)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:39:48 am



             (http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/maggrecia1.jpg)










                                                      M A G N A   G R A E C I A







Magna Graecia around 280 BCEMagna Graecia (Latin for "Greater Greece," Megalę Hellas/Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς in Greek) is the name of the area in Southern Italy and Sicily that was colonised by Greek settlers in the eighth century BCE, who brought with them the lasting imprint of their Hellenic civilization.


In the eighth and seventh centuries BCE, for various reasons, including demographic crisis (famine, overcrowding, climate change, etc.), the search for new commercial outlets and ports, and expulsion from their homeland, Greeks began to settle in southern Italy (Cerchiai, pp. 14-18). In this same time, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea and Massalia (Marseille). They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of the boot of Italy Magna Graecia (Latin, “Greater Greece”), since it was so densely inhabited by Greeks. The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria — Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions.

With this colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations. The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was adopted by the Etruscans; the Old Italic alphabet subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which became the most widely used alphabet in the world.

Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Kapuę (Capua), Neapolis (Νεάπολις, Naples), Syracuse, Akragas, Subaris (Σύβαρις, Sybaris). Other cities in Magna Graecia included Taras (Τάρας, Taranto), Epizephyrioi Lokroi or Locri (Λοκροί), Rhegion (Ρήγιον), Kroton (Κρότων, Crotone), Thurii (Θούριοι), Elea (Ελέα) and Ankon (Αγκων, Ancona).

Following the Pyrrhic War, Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:46:52 am

             (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Hero_Temple_at_Metaponto_%28Italy%29.JPG)

              Temple of Hera in Metaponto,
              Matera, Italy









The Middle Ages



During the Early Middle Ages, following the disastrous Gothic War, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks came to Magna Graecia from Greece and Asia Minor, as Southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire. The iconoclast emperor Leo III appropriated lands that had been granted to the Papacy in southern Italy and the Eastern Emperor loosely governed the area until the advent of the Lombards then, in the form of the Catapanate of Italy, superseded by the Normans. Moreover the Byzantines would have found in Southern Italy people of common cultural root, the Greek-speaking eredi ellenofoni of Magna Graecia.

Although most of the Greek inhabitants of Southern Italy became entirely Italianized (as Paestum had already been in the 4th century BCE) and no longer spoke Greek, remarkably a small Griko-speaking minority still exists today in Calabria and mostly in Salento. Griko is the name of a language combining ancient Doric, Byzantine Greek, and Italian elements, spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region. There is rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now, though once numerous, to only a few thousand people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Records of Magna Graecia being predominantly Greek-speaking, date as late as the eleventh century (the end of Byzantine domination in Southern Italy).


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:00:06 am

                (http://www.transitionsabroad.com/listings/living/livingabroadin/italy_map_south.gif)




                                     (http://www.terragrecia.it/img/img_dx.jpg)









Modern Italy



Today a small minority of around 30,000 Greeks live in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia; speaking the
Grico language.

Though Grico is closely related to the koine, or common Greek, which had spread throughout the Mediterranean in Hellenistic times, it is said to maintain some elements of Doric Greek, and some believe its origin may ultimately be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia.





(http://www.terragrecia.it/images/Grecia_in_Italia.jpg)


                                                                          (http://www.terragrecia.it/images/Grecia_in_Italia_1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:18:22 am









                                          THE GREEK LANGUAGE IN ITALY TODAY






Geographical and language background



The Greek language spoken in Italy, known by the names grico, griko, greco-bovese or greco-calabro, is written in Roman characters and is a highly corrupted form of modern Greek. Griko is not a unitary language since it is spoken in two geographically and linguistically distinct enclaves, one in the area known as Bovesia near Reggio di Calabria and the other near Lecce, in the area known by the name of Grecia Salentina.

The Greek-speaking territory of Bovesia lies in very mountainous terrain and is not easily accessible. In recent times, many descendants of the early inhabitants of the area have left the mountains to set up home by the coast. The Grico speakers of Calabria live in the villages of Bova Superiore, Bova Marina, Roccaforte del Greco, Condofuri, Bagaladi, Polizzi and Gallicianň. The villages of Chorio and Roghudi were abandoned after the floods of 1971 and 1972, and their inhabitants were resettled in Mélito di Porto Salvo.

In Grecia Salentina, the Grico speakers are to be found in the villages of Calimera, Martignano, Martano, Sternatia, Zollino, Corigliano d'Otranto, Soleto, Melpignano and Castrignano dei Greci, although Grico seems to be disappearing from Martignano, Soleto and Melpignano.

The number of Grico speakers is very limited in Bovesia. Some authors speak of 3,900 speakers at the end of the seventies, principally in Roghudi and Gallicianň. The number of Greek speakers also appears to have fallen by around 70% since the fifties.

Bovesia has lost large numbers of its indigenous population, especially from its mountainous areas. Around 10% of the population born there have left the area in a wave of emigration that peaked during the sixties because of the job shortage, the industrial crisis, the crisis in agriculture, crafts and trades and the redundancies that followed the closure of a factory. This contrasts with the fact that around 80% of the present population of Bovesia came to the area as a result of the development of the tourist industry, the establishment of second homes for the retired and the creation of new industries. Around 30% of the population are employed in agriculture, 35% in the construction industry and service sector and a substantial percentage, although no precise figures are available, in forestry and related occupations. Bovesia also has a very high unemployment rate.

The situation in Grecia Salentina is fairly similar, since until recently the economy of the province of Lecce depended more or less directly on the size of the harvest of grapes, olives, tobacco, tomatoes, etc. Moreover, the existence of numerous huge landed estates (masserie) was one of the main reasons for the underdevelopment of agriculture that persisted into the sixties. Nowadays there is still a marked tendency among the rural population to emigrate to the urban centres. It is this very situation of economic underdevelopment, added to the fact that, until the agrarian reforms of 1950-51 took effect, the Grico-speaking peasants lived out a virtually self-sufficient existence on the masserie, that has enabled them to preserve their language for such a long time.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:19:22 am








General history and history of the language



Towards the end of the 13th century, the political and cultural decline of the Byzantine Empire engulfed the Hellenism of Calabria in a crisis, which it withstood very effectively until the 15th century. From that time on, the various Romance dialects began to prevail in everyday interaction, especially in the urban centres that were open to external influences. There were even scattered pockets of bilingualism in the more remote towns and villages.

Italian and its regional dialects spread like wildfire among the population, due to their far superior social and cultural standing to that of Calabrian Greek. The results of this were a reduction to about twelve in the number of villages where Grico was still in common use at the start of the 19th century and the emergence of a situation of general bilingualism. Thus the first general census conducted in Italy after unification identified only seven Greek-speaking communes in Calabria, which represented some 8,000 people.

Universal schooling in Italian after the Second World War, compulsory military service, the law of 1901 granting freedom to emigrate (which caused serious depopulation throughout southern Italy) and the growing influence of the Italian mass media put an end to the bilingualism that had existed since the 17th century and reduced Greek to a dead language as far as social intercourse between communities was concerned.

Initiatives designed to promote the language were launched in the late fifties, thanks to the growing awareness of some intellectuals from the middle classes in Reggio di Calabria and Bova Marina and the interest shown by foreign researchers such as Rohlfs. A group of university students from Bovesia, for example, published a pamphlet entitled La Ionica.

In 1970, the group reconstituted itself as the La Ionica Cultural Circle, and the pamphlet became a periodical, in which poetry and prose in Italian and Greek are published.

The La Ionica Cultural Circle establishes contacts with the Greek speakers of Grecia Salentina, which brought about the creation of the UGIM (Unione dei Greci dell'Italia Meridionale). That association unsuccessfully petitioned the Regional Tourist Office for the introduction of bilingual road signs and five minutes' broadcasting time on Radio Cosenza. The private radio stations Radio Bova, Radio Mélito and Radio San Paolo in Reggio di Calabria proved to be more sympathetic.

The Greek Government, through the International Association of Greek Speakers (SFEE), has established close links with La Ionica and invites the Grico children from Calabria every year to attend summer camps in Greece. At the present time there are several Grico cultural groups: Zoí ce glossa (Life and Language) in Reggio di Calabria, Cinurio Cosmó (New World) and Jalň tu Vúa in Bova Marina, CUMELCA in Gallicianň and Roghudi and Apodiafázi (Daybreak) in Bova Superiore.

These groups have organized various different activities to promote the language: conferences on the Calabrian Greek language - one of which spawned the Istituto Regionale Superiore di Studi Ellenofoni in August 1993 - poetry prizes in 1990, 1991 and 1992, cultural exhibitions and the publication of the periodicals I Riza and CUMELCA.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:21:35 am









Legal status and official policies



The Calabrian Autonomy Statute accords recognition to the historical cultural heritage of the ethnic Albanian and Greek populations and makes provision for the promotion of instruction in both languages
in the places where they are spoken.

In 1993 the Calabrian regional authorities also set up the Istituto Regionale Superiore di Studi Ellenofoni, which is based in Bova Marina.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:24:01 am










                                         The use of the language in various fields







Education



A regional law of 1980 allows Greek-speaking school teachers or university lecturers to offer courses in the regions where the language is spoken, but there are no teachers or lecturers with sufficient command of Grico to be able to give such courses.

The Grico courses that are held in the schools of Bovesia are due to the initiative of the aforementioned Grico cultural groups. At a local level, the municipal authorities of Bova Marina provide a little economic help for the efforts of the Grico cultural groups to set up courses in the Greek language and training courses for teachers.

Although Calabrian Greek is not used as a classroom language anywhere, optional regional courses in Greek language and culture have been held for the past ten years or so in certain nursery and primary schools in Bovesia, thanks to funding from the regional and religious authorities and the EC. Although the number of pupils who choose to attend these courses is limited (fifty at the very most), there seems to have been a resurgence of interest in learning the Greek language and learning about Greek culture.

Greek is totally absent from the secondary curriculum. Only a handful of particularly motivated pupils attend the extracurricular courses offered by some Grico cultural groups. The same applies to the realm of technical education. The cultural group Jalň tu Vúa organizes Greek courses for adults. For some years now, thanks to European Community aid, Jalň tu Vúa has been organizing training courses in the Calabrian Greek language for teachers.

At the end of the eighties, the Jalň tu Vúa group formed a committee to lay down methodological standards for teaching Greek in each community and to draw up a Calabrian Greek grammar book for the schools in the region. The municipal administration in Bova published a Calabrian Greek grammar in 1979 and an informative pamphlet, La Glossa di Bova, some time later. As far as the Greek-speaking communities of Salento are concerned, there are also several educational publications designed for very young children.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:26:13 am










Judicial authorities



The language has never been used in the administration of justice since the need has never arisen.





--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Public authorities and services



The language does not feature at all within the public services. Only the municipalities of Bova and Bova Marina have bilingual road signs.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:27:08 am








Mass media and information technology



There are two periodicals in Grico: I Riza, which is trilingual and is published by Jalň tu Vúa, and CUMELCA, published by the organization of the same name.

The periodical I Riza is published once every four months and half of it is written in Grico, while CUMELCA is a quarterly publication which is also 50% Grico, but in actual fact it appears at very irregular intervals.

The regional authorities award small grants to the Grico cultural groups to enable them to publish these periodicals.

At the time of writing the language is not used for radio broadcasting, although between 1977 and 1984, years that coincide with the zenith of private radio broadcasting in Italy, some stations did broadcast programmes in Greek, among them Radio Antenna Don Bosco in Bova Marina, Radio San Paolo in Reggio di Calabria and RTM in Mélito di Porto Salvo. Grico is never used on television.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:28:38 am










The Arts



Literary output is very restricted and is limited to some anthologies of poetry, books about the history of the region and a trilingual calendar in Italian, Grico and Greek.

There is a local traditional music group within the Jalň tu Vúa organization which sings at local festivities. The group produced a record in 1982.

Grico is not used in theatre productions, with the exception of two plays performed some years ago by an amateur company, La Clessidra.

An annual festival of Calabrian Greek music and song is held in Bova Marina, but it is now less prestigious than in bygone years.

The municipal authorities in Bova Marina provide a little economic assistance for the activities of the Grico cultural groups.





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The business world



Grico is never used in commercial and professional transactions as it is not spoken spontaneously by anyone.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:30:26 am








Family and social use of the language



It seems at the present time that nobody in Bovesia speaks Grico spontaneously, except for a few people will do so if encouraged - especially shepherds and farmers.

Grico, in other words, has given way to Italian and the region's various Italian dialects.

There has been a total breakdown in oral tradition, especially since the fifties, on account of economic changes, depopulation of the region and the growing percentage of the population who have attended school.

The Grico speakers attribute the decline of the language and their lack of interest in it to the following factors: its inferior social status, its lack of usefulness as a vehicle of communication, linguistic and geographical fragmentation, the difficulty involved in learning it and the use of Italian and the other Romance dialects for social advancement.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:31:21 am








Transnational exchanges



Since the early seventies there have been cultural exchanges with Greece, and these have subsequently been reinforced, especially through the various Greek Ambassadors to Italy and through the universities of southern Italy.

There are also some twinning arrangements between Calabrian and Greek villages, such as those between Bova and Paleio Fáliro and between Condofuri and Alimós, and a partnership between the Jalň tu Vúa cultural group and the Filologhiki Stéghi association in Piraeus.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:33:23 am








Conclusion



Since Grico no longer has any social influence and is not spoken spontaneously as a language of everyday communication, the general impression of all observers and, most significantly, of people from the ethnic Greek communities of Calabria, is that it will disappear within a generation, despite the fact that the initiatives taken by the various Grico cultural groups to introduce the language into the education system seems to have aroused a degree of interest in Grico among young people.

This rekindling of interest, however, relates more to the value of the language as a relic of the region's past than to its value as a means of communication.

The fact is that throughout the entire territory only 2,500 people know and understand the language.

 Among young people and adults below the age of 35, there are only about 50 who understand the language and even fewer who can speak it, despite the fact that several Greek courses are run each year.

The main cause of this terminal crisis of the Greek language in Italy have been the constant depopulation of the area since the early 20th century, universal compulsory schooling and the growing influence of communications and the mass media.

This situation has been exacerbated by the lack of interest in the language among young people.



http://www.uoc.edu/euromosaic/web/document/grec/an/i1/i1.html#1


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:06:51 am









                                                     M A G N A   G R A E C I A






MAGNA GRAECIA µey tXi `EXX6), the name given (first, apparently, in the 6th century B.C.) to the group of Greek cities along the coast of the "toe" of South Italy (or more strictly those only from Tarentum to Locri, along the east coast), while the people were called Italiotes ('IraXeivrac). The interior, which the Greeks never subdued, continued to be in the hands of the Bruttii, the native mountaineers, from whom the district was named in Roman times (Bperrfa also in Greek writers).

The Greek colonies were established first as trading stations, which grew into independent cities.

At an early time a trade in copper was carried on between Greece and Temesa (Homer, Od. i. 181).

The trade for a long time was chiefly in the hands of the Euboeans; and Cyme (Cumae) in Campania was founded in the 8th century B.C., when the Euboean Cyme was still a great city.

After this the energy of Chalcis went onward to Sicily, and the states of the Corinthian Gulf carried out the colonization of Italy, Rhegium having been founded, it is true, by Chalcis, but after Messana (Zancle), and at the request of the inhabitants of the latter.

Sybaris (721) and Crotona (703) were Achaean settlements; Locri Epizephyrii (about 710) was settled by Ozolian Locrians, so that, had it not been for the Dorian colony of Tarentum, the southern coast of Italy would have been entirely occupied by a group of Achaean cities.

Tarentum (whether or no founded by pre-Dorian Greeks - its founders bore the unexplained name of Partheniae) became a Laconian colony at some unknown date, whence a legend grew up connecting the Partheniae with Sparta, and 707 B.C. was assigned as its traditional date.

Tarentum is remarkable as the only foreign settlement made by the Spartans. It was industrial, depending largely on the purple and pottery trade.

Ionian Greeks fleeing from foreign invasion founded Siris about 650 B.C., and, much later, Elea (540).


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:11:02 am


                    (http://www.utexas.edu/courses/introtogreece/lect8/bMagnaGraecia9908010309.gif)










The Italian colonies were planted among friendly, almost kindred, races, and grew much more rapidly than the Sicilian Greek states, which had to contend against the power of Carthage.

After the Achaean cities had combined to destroy the Ionic Siris, and had founded Metapontum as a counterpoise to the Dorian Tarentum, there seems to have been little strife among the Italiotes.

An amphictyonic league, meeting in common rites at the temple of Hera on the Lacinian promontory, fostered a feeling of unity among them.

The Pythagorean and Eleatic systems of philosophy had their chief seat in Magna Graecia. Other departments of literature do not seem to have been so much cultivated among them.

The poet Ibycus, though a native of Rhegium, led a very wandering life.

They sent competitors to the Olympic games (among them the famous Milo of Croton); and the physicians of Croton early in the 6th century (especially in the person of Democedes) were reputed the best in Greece; but politically they appear to have generally kept themselves separate.

One ship of Croton, however, fought at Salamis, though it is not recorded that Greece asked the Italiotes for help when it sent ambassadors to Gelon of Syracuse


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:14:27 am








Mutual discord first sapped the prosperity of Magna Graecia.

In 510 Croton, having defeated the Sybarites in a great battle, totally destroyed their city. Croton maintained alone the leading position which had belonged jointly to the Achaean cities (Diod. xiv. 103); but from that time Magna Graecia steadily declined.

In the war between Athens and Syracuse Magna Graecia took comparatively little part; Locri was strongly antiAthenian, but Rhegium, though it was the headquarters of the Athenians in 427, remained neutral in 415.

Foreign enemies pressed heavily on it.

The Lucanians and Bruttians on the north captured one town after another.

Dionysius of Syracuse attacked them from the south; and after he defeated the Crotoniate league and destroyed Caulonia (389 B.C.), Tarentum remained the only powerful city.

Henceforth the history of Magna Graecia is only a record of the vicissitudes of Tarentum (q.v.).

Repeated expeditions from Sparta and Epirus tried in vain to prop up the decaying Greek states against the Lucanians and Bruttians; and when in 282 the Romans appeared in the Tarentine Gulf the end was close at hand.

The aid which Pyrrhus brought did little good to the Tarentines, and his final departure in 274 left them defenceless. During these constant wars the Greek cities had been steadily decaying; and in the second Punic war, when most of them seized the opportunity of revolting from Rome, their very existence was in some cases annihilated.

Malaria increased in strength as the population diminished.

We are told by Cicero (De am. 4), Magna Graecia nunc guidon deleta est.

Many of the cities completely disappeared, and hardly any of them were of great importance under the Roman empire; some, like Tarentum, 1 This passage should perhaps be referred to the 8th century B.C. It is the first mention of an Italian place in a literary record.

maintained their existence into modern times, and in these only (except at Locri) have archaeological investigations of any importance been carried on; so that there still remains a considerable field for investigation. (T. As.)



http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Magna_Graecia


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:23:24 am












                                                           Magna Graecia


                                                       Synthesis of cultures.
 





  From the eighth century B.C. the Greek started to found a series of colonies that extended along the coasts of the south of Italy , from Apulia to Campania,with some centres in Sicily:

"Taranto,Cuma, Metaponto, Sibari, Crotone, Reggio, Paestum and Naples"

these were the main centres of this big area colonized, that was then called Magna Graecia.




In these colonies, that were then defenitely submitted by the Romans between 280and 265b.C., commerces, agriculture and handcraft flourished: furthermore, very important is the role developed by these cities, spreading in Italy the Greek culture.

The philosophy, the literature and the art of the Greek world influenced in an evident way the artistic and cultural activities of these colonies, that gave life to refined expression: flourishing was the production of ceramics and the working in bronze, while the wonderful temples of Paestum attest the grade of refinement and the decent measure reached by the local architecture.


In this lively cultural and economic climate, even the jeweller's is diffused and finds a great variety of expressions. The most splendid period of the jeweller's of the Magna Graecia is the one included between the fourth and third century B.C.: the main centre of production and diffusion of jeweller's is "Taranto" and the literary sources testify that it was a very vivacious artistic and cultural centre.

We know the Hellenistic jeweller's through the archaeological rests effected in the tombs: in spite of
the repeated sacks that happened in the course of centuries, the funeral equipments of these ancient inhabitants are extremely rich and allow to find in a rather agile way the of a jeweller's production no doubt important.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:25:25 am












The typology of the jewels found in the tombs is evidently determined by the social class of the dead(deceased) ,yet, even in the most modest tombs a great number of earrings are found (the favourite ornament of these people), that in the most sumptuous tombs are often accompanied by diadems, crowns, necklaces and sometimes even by one ore two rings.

Near Taranto fibulas are very rare and like we know, they were a determinate element of the clothes of those days, and even when they are found they are generally made of a material that is less precious, like silver, bronze,and sometimes iron: very diffused are the funeral equipments coming from the colonies of "Campania", where there aren't any earrings.


The earrings, that were the most frequent ornament among the Italiots, inhabitants of the Magna Graecia, have a great quantity of designs and solutions, in which the goldsmiths from "Taranto have showed a fantasy without limits. In the fourth century a certain type of earring was very fashionable, it had the the shape of a gold leech, flanked by filigreed decorations and pendants.; very appreciated were also the models with the most singular forms, for example the one with an helix, like the one found in "Taranto" and reproduced in fig,1.



(http://www.stonesetting.com/images/culturale/storia/grecia/Grecia1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:29:29 am








But the earring that was most widely diffused and popular in the Hellenistic period was the disc one fig.2, sometimes, like in the precious exemplary of the fourth century, found in "Crispiano" fig.4, the decorative element , magnificent and exuberant , is balanced by the measure of the whole lot and by the Classic and severe line of the feminine line that is the centre of the earring. Human and animal figures fig.5. often recur as decorative motives in the jewels of these zones: in particular the leonine, retooken by the Classic art, is widely used in the decoration of necklaces, bracelets, rings and earrings. 




(http://www.stonesetting.com/images/culturale/storia/grecia/GrOreFig2.jpg)

Fig. 2





                                                (http://www.stonesetting.com/images/culturale/storia/grecia/GrOreFig41.jpg)

                                                 Fig. 4





(http://www.stonesetting.com/images/culturale/storia/grecia/Aquila.jpg)

Fig. 5


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:37:37 am










Even the "Nodus Herculeus", very famous in the ancient times because it was considered a magic knot able to remove the evils, among the inhabitants of the Magna Graecia assumes the meaning of an amulet and with this magic valence the goldsmiths use it diffusely in jewelry, as pendants , centre of belts, decoration of diadems and bracelets.


                                    (http://www.stonesetting.com/images/culturale/storia/grecia/Pendaglio.jpg)

                                     Fig. 3


A pair of earrings found in "Taranto" fig.3., shows how sometimes the desire of decorative exuberance excels the limits of a contained measure: these pendants are infact decorated with an elaborated vegetal composition, and with a series of human and animal figures , all of them supported and enriched by chains and pendants with the form of a bud. In the jeweller of "Taranto" an extraordinary richness of technique and decorative solutions is dedicated also to the creation of crowns and diadems, that become different from the simple gold band used in the Classic age.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:41:17 am








The most rich and spectacular exemplary is the flourished diadem found in "Canosa" and dated back to the third century B.C. fig.6.


(http://www.stonesetting.com/images/culturale/storia/grecia/Diadema.jpg)

Fig. 6


The diadem is made up of two thick laminae joined together previously with a clasp, so it was easy to wear ; the structure is covered by a light green lamina decorated with more than one hundred and fifty country flowers, fixed with very thin gold stalks, and enamelled of green, white, light blue, and red, with stamens and pistils of gold granules, drops of vitreous dough and precious stones, that give it a varied polychromy.

In the third century B.C. the Magna Graecia colonies passed under the latin domination, and from that moment onwards the political vicissitudes of the Roman Italy followed; yet their cultural contribute to the hellinazation of the peninsula and of Rome was determinant, and in the latin jeweller's, clear traces of the motives and of the styles elaborated in the shops of these colonies, will found again.



http://www.stonesetting.com/us/culturale/storia/grecia/greciaart.html


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:52:47 am



             (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Colonne_Doriche_a_Taranto.jpg)

              TARANTO
              Doric Columns


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 11:59:11 am









                                                             Magna Graecia
 
 




Magna Graecia around 280 b. C.


Columns of doric temple at TarantoMagna Graecia (Latin for "Greater Greece," Megalę Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of the area in the southern Italian peninsula that was colonised by Greek settlers in the 8th century BC, who brought with them the lasting imprint of their Hellenic civilization.

Main article: Colonies in antiquity.






In the 8th and 7th centuries, driven by unsettled conditions at home, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea and Massilia (what is now Marseille, France).

They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian peninsula.

The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of the boot of Italy Magna Graecia (Latin, “Greater Greece”), since it was so thickly inhabited by Greeks.

The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and Calabria — Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions.

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ...

 ... Apulia (official Italian name: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in
the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south.

... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ...


With this colonisation, the Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, its traditions of the independent polis but it soon developed an original Hellenic civilisation, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations.

The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was firstly adopted by the Etruscans and subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which went on to become the most widely used alphabet in the world.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 12:05:50 pm










Many of the new cities become very powerful and rich, like



Kapuę (Capua),

Neapolis (Νεάπολις, Naples),

Syracuse, Akragas,

Subaris(Σύβαρις, Sybaris).





Other cities in Magna Graecia included


Taras (Τάρας, Taranto),

Epizephyrioi Lokroi or Locri (Λοκροί),

Rhegion (Ρήγιον),

Kroton (Κρότων, Crotone),

Thurii (Θούριοι),

Elea (Ελέα),

Ankon (Αγκων, Ancona), etc.

Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nà pule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City;





see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of

Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ...




Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ...

Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ...

Sybaris, a city of Magna Graecia, on the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Crathis (Crati) and Sybaris (Coscile), which now meet 3 miles from the sea, but in ancient times had independent mouths, was the oldest Greek colony in this region. ... Founded 706 BC as Taras () Region Apulia




see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the

Ionian Sea, near modern



Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West... The ancient city of Rhegion was one of the Magna Graecia colonies founded by Calcidians in 730 BC.



Thucydides wrote that before to found Rhegion, there was a consulting to the Delphi oracle, and then the Messenes, coming from Messene in the Peloponnesos participate to the foundation

Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ...

Elea (Velia by the Romans; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a Greek coastal city founded around 540 BC in Lucania in southern Italy, 15 miles southeast of the Gulf of Salerno.


... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of northeastern Italy, population 100,507 (2001). ...





Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic following the Pyrrhic War. Combatants Roman republic Magna Graecia, Epirus Commanders Publius Valerius Laevinus, Publius Decius Mus Pyrrhus of Epirus The Pyrrhic War was a war between Pyrrhus of Epirus and Rome that lasted from 280 BC to 275 BC.




http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Magna-Graecia


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 02:53:45 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/apuliaboar.jpg)

Apulia, Arpi Circa 3rd Century BC AE21 (6.12 gm)

Obv: Laureate head of Zeus left, [thunderbolt behind]

Rev: ARPANWN, boar right, spear above


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 02:56:10 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/hrianomos.jpg)

Campania, Hyria 405-385 BCE AR Nomos/didrachm (20.46 mm; 7.3 gm)


Obv:Helmeted head of Athena right, owl on helmet

Rev: Man-headed bull right; inscription above.

Ex: Ancient Imports

The Hyrian Celators didn't quite reach the level of most of the other city-states of Magna Graecia.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 02:58:34 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/Neapol.jpg)

Campania, Neapolis 400 - 350 BCE Nomos/didrachm (6.85 gm)


Obv: Head of Nymph right

Rev: Man-headed bull walking left being crowned by Nike


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:01:08 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/neaplftrt.jpg)

Campania, Neapolis. Circa 300-280 BC. AR Nomos (7.34 gm)


Obv: Diademed head of Nymph left; pendant earring

Rev: Man-headed bull walking right being crowned by Nike; IS below; inscription in exergue.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:05:13 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/metasymb.jpg)

LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 330-300 BC. AR Nomos (6.80 gm)


Obv: Wreathed head of Demeter right.

Rev: barley ear, leaf; to the right, a plow.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:08:02 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/metapleukipp.jpg)

LUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 330 BC. AR Nomos (7.79 grams. 21 mm)


Obv: Bearded head of Leukippos to right, wearing Corinthian helmet; behind, lion’s head right.

Rev: barley ear, club above leaf.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:11:03 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/kaulon76.jpg)

Bruttium, Kaulonia 470-440 BCE AR Nomos (7.4 gm)


Obv: Apollo holding laurel branch; small figure on arm, stag before, with head turned back.

Rx: Stag standing right

ex 500 bc


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:15:40 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/kroton.jpg)

Bruttium, Kroton 390-340 BCE AR Nomos (7.76 gm)


Obv: Eagle standing left on olive branch.

Rx: Tripod; Δ in field.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:18:35 pm
(http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/images/cal.jpg)

Tarsos, Calabria 272 - 235 BCE AR Nomos (6.4 gm)


Obv: **** warrior on horseback right holding shield and spearing.

Rx: Taras on Dolphin left holding kantharos and trident; head of nymph behind.



http://tjbuggey.ancients.info/Greek.html


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:47:34 pm
(http://i238.photobucket.com/albums/ff101/macedonia2/ancientgreekpro/odysseusblindscyclops520magnagrecia.jpg)

Oddyseus blinds the Cyclop,

Magna Grecia
- 520 BC


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 03:55:01 pm
(http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/siias/greek.jpg)

Skyphos






The vase comes from ancient Magna Graecia, the area which is now southern Italy and Sicily.

Long before the Romans came into power, settlers from Greece had colonized these lands and left objects like these amidst their tombs and cities. Although some vases were imported into southern Italy from Greece, many were made locally, in the style of the Greek vases.

This vase is called a skyphos, which was a drinking vessel.

The seated woman on the vase may represent the goddess of love, Aphrodite, who is often portrayed wearing much jewelry, although it could as well be a mortal woman or bride. 



http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/siias/greekwest.html


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 04:15:35 pm
(http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/med/re224ybgX_20080924.jpg)             

Photo of find 'shows shield handle, '
              sleuth says


                                                           (http://digilander.libero.it/divingpuntastilo/Images/Portofarticchio%20e%20i%20Bronzi%20di%20Riace.jpg)







                                                     Riace Riddle Thickens






 (ANSA) - Riace, September 24 - The riddle of an alleged theft from Italy's famed Riace bronzes has resurfaced 35 years after they were lifted from the Calabrian seabed.

A photo of the 1972 find has reignited speculation that the two figures were stripped of a shield and possibly other objects - and even a companion who has never been seen. The photo was put on display recently by a Riace cultural association and spotted by Riace bronze sleuth Giuseppe Bragho', an amateur archaeologist who has long been arguing that the site was raided by art thieves.

Bragho' says the snap, taken just after the statues were brought ashore, is ''unequivocal evidence'' that a shield was torn from the left arm of the so-called 'younger' statue.

''The photo clearly shows an object protruding from the statue's left hand. It's easy to guess that it was the handle of the shield that has never been discovered,'' Bragho' said. Bragho' said the photo should ''lend fresh impetus'' to an inquiry opened last year on the basis of his claims. The local sleuth, who has written a book outlining his suspicions, says he has ''tracked down and photographed a series of documents that indicate an alarming scenario''.

He says a third statue - ''completely different from the other two'' - as well as two shields and a lance, were seen lying on the seabed by the finder, scuba diver Stefano Mariottini.

Bragho' points to a statement made by Mariottini the day after he discovered the statues on 16 August 1972.

In the statement, he refers to ''a group of statues''.

Bragho' also highlights another section of Mariottini's statement in which he reportedly said he saw ''three statues, probably made of bronze...one of them lying on its side with a shield on its left arm''.

In addition, the expert has provided prosecutors with the name of a man who allegedly helped smuggle a shield and lance away from the scene of the discovery.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:41:48 pm
(http://www.brutium.it/itiner_turist/ricostrba.jpg)











ONE OF ITALY'S MOST IMPORTANT FINDS OF THE LAST 100 YEARS.



The bronzes were discovered by Mariottini, an amateur scuba diver from Rome, during a holiday on the Calabrian coast.

They turned out to be one of Italy's most important archaeological finds of the last 100 years.

The statues are of two virile men, presumably warriors or gods, who possibly held lances and shields at one time. At around two metres, they are larger than life.

The 'older' man, known as Riace B, wears a helmet, while the 'younger' Riace A has nothing covering his rippling hair.

Both are naked.

Although the statues are cast in bronze, they feature silver lashes and teeth, copper red lips and nipples, and eyes made of ivory, limestone and a glass and amber paste.

Italy is renowned for its archaeological treasures but the Riace bronzes have attracted particular attention.

This is partly because of their exceptionally realistic rendering and partly owing to the rarity of ancient bronze statues, which tended to be melted down and the metal reused.

Mariottini, who spotted the statues 300 metres off the coast and eight metres underwater, said the bronze was so realistic he initially thought he'd found the remains of a corpse.

When they first went on display in 1981, a million people came to see them and the pair were even featured on a commemorative postage stamp.

Today the statues pull some 130,000 visitors each year to the Reggio Calabria museum housing them.

How or when the statues sank to their watery resting place also remains a mystery, as divers uncovered no wreckage in the vicinity.

While remains could have drifted to the seabed some distance away it is more probable that the statues were tossed overboard, either to lighten the ship's load in a storm or to prevent them falling into the hands of pirates.

Italian cultural authorities recently sent a fresh scientific mission to the area after a US ship reported detecting traces of underwater metal near the spot the statues were discovered.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:49:22 pm



               (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Reggio_calabria_museo_nazionale_bronzi_di_riace.jpg)

               The Warriors
               in their current location.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:51:46 pm







                                         The Bronzi di Riace (Italian for "Riace bronzes")






are two famous full-size Greek bronzes of **** bearded warriors, cast about 460 - 430 BC and currently housed by the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in Reggio Calabria, Italy. The Riace Warriors are respectively termed "A" and "B", whereas Riace Warrior A is thought to be a depiction of a younger man than that of Riace Warrior B. They were found by Stefano Mariottini,[1] a Roman chemist on a scuba diving vacation at Monasterace,[2] on August 16, 1972, perhaps at the site of a shipwreck, off the coast of Riace, near Reggio Calabria. They are major additions to the surviving examples of Greek sculpture. The statues' eyes are inlaid with bone and glass, while the teeth are in silver and lips and nipples are in copper. Formerly they held spears and shields. Additionally, Riace Warrior B once wore a helmet pushed up atop his head and it is thought that Riace Warrior A perhaps wore a wreath upon his (Pedley). The Bronzi belong to a transition period from Archaic Greek sculpture to the early Classic style, disguising their idealized geometry and impossible anatomy (Spivey 2005) under a distracting and alluring "realistic" surface.

There is no clear testimony in ancient literature to identify the athletes or heroes depicted by the bronzes. It seems likely that the nudes originally formed part of a votive group in a large sanctuary. It is conjectured that the bronze sculptures represent Tydeus and Amphiaraus, two warriors from the Seven Against Thebes monumental group in the polis of Argos, noted by Pausanias[3], or that they are Athenian warriors from Delphi, part of the monument to the battle of Marathon, or that they are from Olympia. All three were prominent Greek sites for dedicated sculpture of the highest quality, and all were vulnerable to official thefts after the Roman occupation. Perhaps the Riace Warriors were being transported to Rome as booty when a storm overtook their ship, though no evidence of a wreck could be found.

These bronzes are from the early Classical Period, made about 445 BC. They are a fine example of contrapposto - the weight is on the back legs and is much more realistic than Archaic stances. The musculature is clear yet not incised and looks soft enough to be visible yet realistic. The turned head not only represents movement but also adds life to the sculptures. The asymmetrical layout of the arms and legs serves to add to the realism.

A local original destination is not impossible. Further explorations undertaken by a joint Italian-American team in 2004, have identified the foundations of an Ionic temple on this slowly subsiding coast. Undersea explorations by robotic vehicles along the submerged coastline from Locri to Soverato are providing a more detailed picture of this coast in Antiquity, though no further "Riace bronzes" have been found.

Attributions of such spectacular works of art to famous sculptors have followed traditional lines: "all the 'big' names of Classical times have been proposed in this connection," Brunilde Sismondo Ridgeway has written[4], but she finds it encouraging that at least a few scholars are willing to consider a non-Attic, even a 'colonial' workshop of origin, as contrasted with "the dominant Athenocentrism of previous years."

While it is certain is they are original works of the highest quality, it has also been argued that their torsos have been produced from a single model, which was then altered with direct modifications to the wax before casting, and that they may be seen as types.

The Bronzi di Riace emerged from conservation in 1981; their exhibition in Florence and Rome was the cultural event of the year in Italy, providing covers for numerous magazines (Gemelli). They are kept in the National Museum of Magna Grecia at Reggio Calabria. They have been commemorated in a pair of postage stamps issued by Italy, and, in another sure sign that they have joined the canon of Greek sculpture, they are widely reproduced.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:53:13 pm









Notes



^ Mariottini is currently a researcher for the Sovraintendenza Archeologica della Calabria,through a cultural association, KODROS.

^ the site is in six to eight meters of water. No associated wreck site has been identified, but in the immediate area, on a subsiding coast, architectural remnants have also been found (Mariottini interview).

^ "A little farther on is a sanctuary of the Seasons. On coming back from here you see statues of Polyneices, the son of Oedipus, and of all the chieftains who with him were killed in battle at the wall of Thebes. These men Aeschylus has reduced to the number of seven only, although there were more chiefs than this in the expedition, from Argos, from Messene, with some even from Arcadia. But the Argives have adopted the number seven from the drama of Aeschylus, and near to their statues are the statues of those who took Thebes: Aegialeus, son of Adrastus; Promachus, son of Parthenopaeus, son of Talaus; Polydorus, son of Hippomedon; Thersander; Alcmaeon and Amphilochus, the sons of Amphiaraus; Diomedes, and Sthenelus. Among their company were also Euryalus, son of Mecisteus, and Adrastus and Timeas, sons of Polyneices." Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.20.5.

^ "The study of Greek Sculpture in the Twenty-First Century", read 15 November 2003 before the American Philosophical Society, published in their Proceedings 2005. 


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:54:36 pm








External Links / Further Reading





Wikimedia Commons has media related to:



Riace bronzes[http://www.photographers.it/articoli/bronzidiriace.htm
"I Bronzi di Riace - Le altre veritŕ"
del Prof. Giuseppe Braghň

Nigel Spivey, "The beauty myth", The New Statesman, 2 May 2005
Mariottini interview (Italian)

Bruno Gemelli, "Vissi d'arte, vissi di code" (Italian)
"Sotto il mare caccia segreta ai “nuovi” bronzi di Riace" 14 September 2004

Lombardi, Satriani & Paoletti (eds.) Gli Eroi Venuti Dal Mare Heroes from the Sea: The Photographic Record of the Riace Bronzes. Gangemi Editore.

The Riace Warriors are extensively discussed and illustrated in Programme One ("More Human Than Human...") of the five part series How Art Made The World, written and narrated by Dr Nigel Spivey, who offers, in the programme, the opinion that they are the "best statues ever made." How Art Made The World is also available as a book (Basic Books, 2006 ISBN-10: 0465081827, ISBN-13: 978-0465081820).

Pedley, John Grffiths. "Greek Art and Archeology", Fourth Ed. Pearson- Prentice Hall, 2007. PP.234-237.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riace_Warriors"



Categories: 5th century BC Greek sculptures | Calabria



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riace_Warriors


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:56:12 pm



            (http://www.sacal.it/Images/cartina.JPG)





                                   (http://www.itana1.com/reggio_calabria/bnb/Riace_Marina/Dino_Valeria/dino_valeria_cartina2.gif)




(http://www.itana1.com/reggio_calabria/bnb/Riace_Marina/Dino_Valeria/dino_valeria_cartina1.gif)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 09:58:47 pm
(http://www.laquerciadialtomonte.it/img/800px-Bronzi_Di_Riace_Statua_A+B.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:00:22 pm




                                              (http://files.splinder.com/75c0dc5b9b34205fdeef9861e999b07d.jpeg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:04:38 pm




                                           (http://www.liberonweb.com/images/books/8843563076_imm2.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:06:39 pm



                                            (http://users.att.sch.gr/ikomninou/bronzi1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:09:29 pm




               (http://i206.photobucket.com/albums/bb122/mepinxit/ff06bronziriace.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:14:45 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Bronzi_Di_Riace_Statua_B.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:17:29 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Bronzi_Di_Riace_Statua_A.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:25:08 pm
(http://www.brutium.it/itiner_turist/bronz_a.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2008, 10:41:45 pm
(http://www.brutium.it/itiner_turist/bronz_b.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2008, 10:33:39 pm
(http://i.usatoday.net/travel/_photos/2007/04/24/pugliatopper.jpg)

Tourists visit the Santa Croce Basilica in Lecce, in southern
Italy's Puglia region.

By Ivan Tortorella,
AP
                                                                                     (http://images.usatoday.com/travel/graphics/italy_puglia.jpg)










                                            Puglia: Italy's heel has it all, except tourists








Updated 4/26/2007
By Giovanna Dell'orto,
Associated Press Writer

POLIGNANO A MARE, Italy — Puglia has some of the brightest seas, most diverse art and architecture, most mouthwatering peasant cuisine and kindest people in all of Italy — including strangers who will
go out of their way to lead you to one after another stunning beach on impossibly lapis-lazuli waters.

Puglia is the heel to Italy's boot, and after two weeks spent touring the region, I felt grateful that
charter airlines don't disgorge hordes of tourists here.

These are just some of the reasons:


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2008, 10:36:52 pm
(http://i.usatoday.net/travel/_photos/2007/04/24/pugliax-large.jpg)

Fishing boats sit in Porto Badisco, in southern Italy's Puglia region,
near Lecce. The region has some of the brightest seas.








Brilliant seas



"I said put it back, this is a natural park," a stern father told his son. He was pointing to the octopus
that sat with protruding eyes on the boy's shoulders after being plucked from the crystalline waters
at Natural Maritime Reserve of Torre Guaceto, just north of Brindisi.

With more than 500 miles of coast on two seas, the Adriatic and the Ionian, Puglia has all sorts of
gorgeous beaches. For white limestone cliffs spotted with the deep green of gnarled pine trees, try
the southernmost tip of Salento.

At opposite ends of this peninsula, I swam in the fingerlike cove of Porto Badisco, where legend has it
that Italy's mythological founder, Aeneas, landed, and I dove even deeper into history at Portoselvaggio,
where remains of Neanderthal men were found.

A few miles north, it's all about sandy expanses, like Punta della Suina, where the setting sun turns the
transparent water pink.

But it's Torre Guaceto that gets my gold medal — for the baby-powder white sand, the schools of silvery
fish flitting from reef-like rock formations in pools of turquoise water, and the scent of pine needles drifting
from the pristine forest that borders the beach.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2008, 10:39:52 pm
(http://www.prolocoagnone.com/photogallery/Agnone%20016.jpg)









Living history



No other image says Puglia better than the trullo, a rural home that's essentially a whitewashed
teepee of small limestone slabs stacked without mortar, with a cone surmounted by pagan or
religious symbols. They are scattered among olive groves and huge prickly pear cacti in the Valle
d'Itria, inland in a triangle between Bari, Taranto and Brindisi.

Of unknown origin and unique to Puglia, they date at least from the Middle Ages. Most are still in-
habited and more than 1,400 huddle in Alberobello. The town might feel a bit too touristy for Puglia,
with its souvenir shops exhibiting plastic trulli, but it only takes a look at the clotheslines in a trullo
backyard to realize that real life goes on in this primitive fairytale place.

Farther inland is the Murge, scorched highlands grooved by canyons where, in the Middle Ages,
people built cave dwellings as homes and churches when they fled from pirates.

The most famous dwellings of all are the Sassi in Matera, which is just across the state line in the
Basilicata region.

Below the modern town and built on the side of a steep ravine, two whole neighborhoods of single-room
cave dwellings and rock-hewn, frescoed churches were inhabited first by hermits and then by families
until the 1960s.

While some are now trendy hotels and restaurants, they still look so authentically ancient that Mel Gibson
filmed scenes here for "The Passion of the Christ."


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2008, 10:46:59 pm
(http://www.yourpage.it/wp-content/plugins/wp-o-matic/cache/82142_locorotondo.jpg)

LOCOROTONDO









Cities as art



Art is not a masterpiece in a museum but a whole downtown in Valle d'Itria cities like Locorotondo,
or, by the coast, in Bari, Ostuni and Lecce.

Locorotondo is a round nest of a village where everything is white except for the bright splashes
of red flowers that overtake its wrought-iron balconies. Ostuni is even more blinding, though a sea breeze
caresses you as you hike up and down its steep inclines and marvel at the sculpted baroque portals on its whitewashed houses.

But you haven't seen Baroque in all its theatrical, indulgent, luxuriant excess until you've spent an evening
among the wreaths of fruit and the pinup women sculpted on the golden limestone churches and palaces of
Lecce.

By comparison, the medieval downtown of Bari is austere, centered on the Basilica di San Nicola, built be-
tween the 10th and 12th centuries to honor its patron saint (yes, it's the real St. Nicholas, "Santa Claus").

The busy port city is trying to overcome its dangerous reputation, but the only person that chased
us in the narrow alleys was a grocery store clerk with a cold bottle of water, concerned that ours
had become too warm as friends and I waited for another clerk to make our sandwiches.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2008, 10:48:37 pm
(http://www.solotravel.it/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/castel_del_monte.jpg)

CASTEL DEL MONTE









Art gems



Medieval masterpieces are everywhere on the eastern coast, beginning with the inscrutable
Castel del Monte. We know the octagonal castle was built by Emperor Frederick II, one of the
most powerful men in the Middle Ages, in the early 13th century. But nobody quite knows why.

Isolated on a small hill, it lacks both the architecture and the location for a military fort, and it's
way too imposing to be a pleasure palace. The most evocative hypothesis is that it was an in-
tricate symbol, built around the magic intersection of astronomy, mathematics and the Christian
faith.

Traveling south, the Romanesque cathedrals at Trani and Otranto seem to rise from the sea. The
latter's floor is covered by a mosaic from 1165 representing the tree of life, a hopeful message in
the site of a massacre — a chapel houses the remains of the 800 citizens who were slaughtered in
the church where they had fled an assault by Islamic armies in 1481.

Puglia, like most of southern Italy, has been conquered over and over by northern and Mediterranean
armies since Greek colonizers established flourishing city-states on its coasts. More than 2,500 years
later, their heirs still speak Griko, a dialect of archaic Greek, in the inland Grecia Salentina.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2008, 10:50:40 pm
(http://www.buttalapasta.it/wp-galleryo/fichi-e-bottarga/fichi-bottarga-2.jpg)




                                 (http://www.lagazzettadelmezzogiorno.it/PUGLIA/immagini/gastronomico_polpi.jpg)









Octopus to figs



I'll admit that the powerfully alcoholic red Salentine wine played a role in my dancing the pizzica
pizzica, the local version of tarantella, one night in the streets of tiny Serrano.

But the food that went with it at the farmers' fair was just as worthy of celebrating, including
Puglia's staple, orecchiette (ear-shaped pasta), as well as horse meat steaks, ciceri e tria
(handmade tagliatelle with garbanzo beans), fave e cicoria (pureed fava beans and chicory),
cakes spilling over with figs.

Meat, grilled or cured, reigns inland, nowhere more spectacularly than at Cisternino in trulli land.

At night, the absurdly numerous butchers of this whitewashed village set up tiny tables on the
sidewalks and cook to order whatever you select from their marble counters, preceded by mini-
scule black olives, homemade cheeses and salami.

Seafood, including delicacies like octopus and sea urchins, rule the coast in hole-in-the-wall trattorie
like Nonna Tetti in Lecce.

I had a hard time finishing pignata di polpo there, when the whole octopus was brought to me in a clay
pot — especially since I had already had mozzarella di bufala, fried vegetables, and linguine with mussels.

I needed similar endurance when gratitude compelled me to start my last dinner in Puglia with a
humble pizza margherita. This must be the only region in Italy where the tomato-and-mozzarella
staple of generations of students and workers still only costs about $2.50.

Puglia is Italy's top olive oil producer, so, for 660 miles. back to northern Italy, I carried a three-
gallon tank of thick olive oil in front of my car seat, sheltering it from the sun that for two weeks
hadn't stopped blazing and that pervades every facet of life here.

I kept thinking about a verse from an Italian poem that was used on an old tourism ad for southern Italy.
Roughly translated, it was something like this:


"No earthly hope can give my heart peace as much

as the certainty of sun that overflows from your sky."




Copyright 2007 The Associated Press.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:40:26 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Trulli_Alberobello11_apr06.jpg/800px-Trulli_Alberobello11_apr06.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:42:45 pm
(http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/imgad?id=CKLhsoaEk7f06AEQ2AUYTzII0Y_qVCfNoKQ)








                                                                    T R U L L I






A trullo (plural, trulli) is a traditional Apulian stone dwelling with a conical roof.

The style of construction is specific to Itria Valley (in Italian: Valle d'Itria), in the Murge area of the Italian
region of Apulia (in Italian Puglia).

They may be found in the towns of Alberobello, Locorotondo, Fasano, Cisternino, Martina Franca and Ceglie Messapica.

Trulli were generally constructed as dwellings or storehouses. Traditionally they were built without any cement
or mortar. This style of construction is also prevalent in the surrounding countryside where most of the fields
are separated by dry-stone walls.

 The roofs are constructed in two layers: an inner layer of limestone boulders, capped by a keystone, and an
outer layer of limestone slabs ensuring that the structure is watertight.

Originally, the conical structure would have been built directly on the ground, but most of the surviving structures are based on perimeter walls.

In Alberobello atop a trullo's cone there is normally a pinnacle, that may be one of many designs, chosen for symbolism. Additionally, the cone itself may have a symbol painted on it (as shown in the picture of the trulli
in Alberobello.) Such symbols may include planetary symbols, the malochio (evil eye), the cross, a heart, a star and crescent, or quite a few others.

The walls are very thick, providing a cool environment in hot weather and insulating against the cold in the winter. The vast majority of trulli have one room under each conical roof: a multiroomed trullo house has many cones representing a room each. Children would sleep in alcoves made in the wall with curtains hung in front.

There are many theories behind the origin of the design. One of the more popular theories is that due to high taxation on property the people of Puglia created dry wall constructions so that they could be dismantled when inspectors were in the area.

Today the surviving trulli are popular among English and German tourists and are often bought and restored
for general use.

However, anyone wishing to restore a trullo needs to conform with many regulations as trulli are protected under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world heritage law.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:44:04 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Trullo_%28spaccato%29.jpg/800px-Trullo_%28spaccato%29.jpg)

Model showing the typical construction tecnique of a trullo of Alberobello


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:45:22 pm
(http://digilander.libero.it/tursiclaudio/Immagini/1136147.jpg)

ITRIA VALLEY





(http://www.casealbergo.it/cartine_geografiche_d'italia/cartin4.jpg)

A P U L I A  (P U G L I A)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:48:24 pm
(http://www.meyerbeer.com/images/Trulli.jpg)

TRULLI IN ALBEROBELLO


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:49:36 pm
(http://texi.altervista.org/ris/delitti/imperfetti/images/serie01/ep11/martina_franca.JPG)










                                                                Martina Franca





by Stephen A. Agus


Musings 



Several towns near Martina Franca bear exotic names. 

Alberobello perhaps is the most famous, for it is the place most associated with the Trulli, those white
cylindrical buildings with conical grey slate roofs found all over the countryside of this region of the Puglia. 

The Puglia (or Apulia) is in the heel of the boot of the peninsula which is Italy. 

A Trullo can be found here and there all over the region, in Martina Franca and the surrounding farm-
land of the valley as well; but in Alberobello, or at least, in a portion of Alberobello, there is a large
area which contains one Trullo after another, as far as the eye can see, built one next to another
along a slope, along impossibly narrow and picturesque streets.   

Recognizing its unique architectural character, the local authorities have turned the entire neighbor-
hood into an automobile-free pedestrian zone; and to visit it, one must park the car in a lot below the slope
and walk up into the Trulli-lined streets.  Judging from the considerable traffic in the parking lot,
it seemed to us that the whole area is quite popular to both local and foreign tourists, even though we are a
good five hours’ drive from Rome. 

True, the exotic and quaint character of this Trulli zone has to some extent been compromised and cheapened
by the very commercialization that has aided in preserving this area.   And yet, despite the proliferation of gift shops and Trulli souvenir stores in this alley and that byway, when we are there, surrounded entirely by Trulli,
we can forget that we are living in the 21st century. 

Though we are not quite sure where to place these Trulli in time, we feel transported back to another era, an
era of a simpler way of life. 

As for  the Trulli, not all of them are old; some in fact are built new, but all are built in the old style,
all whitewashed spotlessly clean, with those grey conical roofs.



http://www.meyerbeer.com/M-FMusings.htm


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:50:44 pm
(http://www.bed-breakfastpuglia.it/italiano/img/trulli/trulli01.jpg)






                                           (http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/00/11/82/e1/trulli-rooftops.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:51:49 pm
(http://www.pizzoccoviaggi.it/Offerte-Viaggi/Viaggi%20Pizzocco/images/Pouilles-Trulli-3.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:52:54 pm
(http://www.scriviamoperte.it/images/trulli_di_campagna_nostra.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:54:30 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/de/Trulli.jpg/800px-Trulli.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:55:34 pm
(http://www.incomingpuglia.com/tour/1/trulli.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:56:54 pm
(http://www.scuolacarlocollodi.it/images/trulli2.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:58:06 pm
(http://www.webalice.it/ignazioantonio/Panorama%20trulli.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 07:59:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Trulli_alberobello_02.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:01:56 pm
(http://www.trulliandtrulli.com/trulli-sfondi-800x600/trulli_puglia_002.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:03:21 pm
(http://www.viagginfamiglia.com/images/Trullo_agritrulli.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:04:29 pm
(http://www.lastminute.sk/data/Foto/1814325/1024/Italie-Apulie-Puglia-Trulli-v-Alberobello-18041.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:05:19 pm
(http://www.nettravel.cz/data/Foto/1814325/1024/Italie-Apulie-Puglia-Trulli-Alberobello-18042.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:06:43 pm
(http://www.perigolosi.it/Cicorielle%20e%20frantoi%2013_02_05/Trulli%20Scategna%20con%20Lello%20Mastrolindo.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:07:56 pm
(http://www.antonioguagnano.it/martinafranca/immagini/trulli_villa_tonino.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:09:36 pm
(http://www.antonioguagnano.it/martinafranca/immagini/trulli_villa_lucia.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:10:50 pm
(http://www.sweethomes.it/imgUser/trullomario_001.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:11:58 pm
(http://www.go2puglia.com/Foto/200742717249trullo-esterno-2.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:13:04 pm
(http://www.damicogruppo.it/public%5Cimg%5C899n1.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:14:12 pm
(http://www.trulliandtrulli.com/trulli-sfondi-800x600/trulli_puglia_001.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:15:29 pm
(http://www.trulliandtrulli.com/trulli-sfondi-800x600/trulli_puglia_009.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:16:36 pm
(http://www.nozio.com/user_fotos/1196_Trulli%20Esterni.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:17:55 pm
(http://photos1.hi5.com/0036/756/906/aqGyXn756906-02.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:19:00 pm



                        (http://www.favolestoriche.it/immagini/imgAlberobello/gruppofolkloristicoalberobe.jpg)







                       (http://www.comune.alberobello.ba.it/folk/fotogrudue%20.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:20:26 pm
(http://www.apulialand.it/file/strutture/str31/01072007132.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:22:12 pm



              (http://www.trasportiinternazionaligrassi.it/MCpanel/gestioneGalleria/GalleriaFoto/Album40/alberobello_g.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:23:15 pm
(http://www.lapianadeitrulli.com/public/001.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:24:32 pm
(http://k53.pbase.com/g3/55/46655/2/52654544.3484877_IMG.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:25:59 pm
(http://www.trulliland.it/trulliland-incorso/images/Image/foto-esterno-king-02-ingrandimento-trulli-del-rebb41.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:27:31 pm




                       (http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1321/921210444_8aa1071540.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:31:03 pm
(http://digilander.libero.it/mikeiaco/alberobello/GiardinoNotte1.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:32:38 pm
(http://richpc1.ba.infn.it/~fap/trulli/interno.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:33:58 pm
(http://www.mmenterprises.co.uk/images/trulli-dining-kitchen.jpg)





                                   (http://www.ilquerciolo.eu/Cucina%20Trulli.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:36:20 pm




               (http://www.trulliland.it/trulliland-incorso/images/Image/foto-king-05-ingrandimento-trulli-del-redbfc.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:38:10 pm




               (http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/00/11/82/e0/inside-our-trulli.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:41:35 pm



               (http://www.bed-and-breakfast.it/foto/6624/i%20trulli%20di%20marittima%20013.jpg)





                                                              (http://www.bed-and-breakfast.it/foto/9270/trulli3.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:43:24 pm
              (http://www.villaparcodelvaglio.it/immagini/foto/07.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:44:31 pm
               (http://www.villaparcodelvaglio.it/immagini/foto/08.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:46:09 pm
(http://www.glo-con.com/images/AD1_11881_s.JPG)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:47:51 pm
(http://www.trullionline.com/assets/la_zisa/big/Matrimoniale-2_1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:48:53 pm
(http://www.valleincantata.it/interno640.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:51:15 pm
(http://www.valleincantata.it/camino640.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 11, 2008, 08:52:39 pm
(http://files.caprionline.it/card/palazzo_del_corso/image/2_d.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:32:57 pm
(http://www.pugliavacanza.it/images/puglia.jpg)










                                                       L I V I N G   H I S T O R Y






Farther inland is the Murge, scorched highlands grooved by canyons where, in the Middle Ages,
people built cave dwellings as homes and churches when they fled from pirates.

The most famous dwellings of all are the Sassi in Matera, which is just across the state line in the
Basilicata region.

Below the modern town and built on the side of a steep ravine, two whole neighborhoods of single-room
cave dwellings and rock-hewn, frescoed churches were inhabited first by hermits and then by families
until the 1960s.

While some are now trendy hotels and restaurants, they still look so authentically ancient that Mel Gibson
filmed scenes here for "The Passion of the Christ."


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:34:47 pm









                                                        T H E   M U R G E
 
 
 
 
Murge, the “sea of stone”.

A land whose riches are the space as interminable as a passion.

But the Murge only constitute a desert for visitors who are not familiar with its extraordinary variety
of life forms.

Overhead one can follow the birds of prey that circle in the search for food (small reptiles, rodents
or crickets); and in its expanses, green in the winter and ochre in the summer, blossom dozens of vegetable species of fluorescent colours.

The Karst territory of this area suddenly opens out onto the dolinas, like the Gurgo dolina, in the
vicinity of Andria.

Grottos have formed in these abysses many of which were inhabited by prehistoric men.

In ancient times, the Murge were covered by forests of oaks, now reduced to small and precious
woods like the one of Corato or the bosco di Acquatetta near Minervino.

One can search for fruit and blackberries under the cover of foliage.

The municipalities of Spinazzola, Minervino, Corato and Andria are part of the Alta Murgia National
Park, the first ever rural park in Italy.

In these areas one can admire landscapes of indefinite horizon, rough and rugged outcrops furrowed
by marshes and small canyons.

An impressive sight is the Rocca del Garagnone (near Spinazzola).

The hill-top and ancient castle of Frederick II is now in ruins. To the visitor, however, the castle bestows the hill with a particularly suggestive image of a “stone cathedral”, like the one of Monument Valley.

Naturally, it is practically impossible to tour the area and not notice the white hump of Castel del
Monte. This castle, perfect and mysterious, is surrounded by a spiral of pines that climb right up to
the top of the hill on which it stands. This is Frederick’s masterpiece and a view extending to Gargano can be admired from its windows.

Wandering along the Murge paths, as enjoyed by the English naturalist Jennyfer Ann Walter, who
wrote a lengthy and poetic Diary of the Murgia hills (published in Italy by Adda, Bari), one can still encounter herds of oxen and sheep and horse-riders, and purchase cheese products directly from producers met at the many farms and farm holiday centres.



http://www.pugliaimperiale.com/turismo/wheretogo/itinerari/content.asp?art=31


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:36:29 pm



                 (http://www.sitiunesco.it/pix/matera/sassi_panoramica_2_b.jpg)

                 SASSI IN MATERA








Matera is a town and a province in the region of Basilicata, sometimes referred to as Lucania, in the south of Italy.

Apart from an economy which has traditionally been based on agriculture, in the late 1990s the major economic base of Matera, and of surrounding cities, is the production of upholstered furniture.

The town lies athwart a small canyon, which has been eroded in the course of years by a small stream, the Gravina.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:37:54 pm



                       (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Cittadimatera1.jpg)








The area of what is now Matera has been settled since the Palaeolithic.

The city was allegedly founded by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, with the name of Metheola after
the consul Lucius Caecilius Metellus.

In AD 664 Matera was conquered by the Lombards and became part of the Duchy of Benevento.

In the 7th and 8th centuries the nearby grottos were colonized by both Benedictine and Greek-Orthodox
monastic institutions.

The 9th and 10th centuries were characterized by the struggle between Saracens, Byzantines and the
German emperors, including Louis II, who destroyed the city. After the settlement of the Normans in
Apulia, Matera was ruled by William Iron-Arm from 1043.

After a short communal phase and a series of pestilences and earthquakes, the city in the fifteenth century became an Aragonese possession, and was given in fief to the barons of the Tramontano family. In 1514,
however, the population rebelled against the oppression and killed Count Giovanni Carlo Tramontano.

In the seventeenth century Matera was handed over to the Orsini and then became part of the Terre d'Otranto
di Puglia. Later it was capital of Basilicata, a position it retained until 1806, when Joseph Bona-
parte reassigned it to Potenza.

In 1927 it became capital of the Matera province. On September 21, 1943, the Materani rose against the
German occupation, the first Italian city to fight against the Wehrmacht.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:39:10 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/Matera01.jpg/800px-Matera01.jpg)

THE 'SASSI'

UNESCO World Heritage Site


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:40:48 pm



            (http://www.sassiweb.it/gravina/gravina2.JPG)

            LA GRAVINA









Matera has gained international fame for its ancient town, the "Sassi di Matera" (meaning "stones
of Matera"). The Sassi originate from a prehistoric (troglodyte) settlement, and are suspected to
be some of the first human settlements in Italy.

The Sassi are houses dug into the tuff rock itself, which is characteristic of Basilicata and Puglia.

Many of these "houses" are really only caverns, and the streets in some parts of the Sassi often are located on the rooftops of other houses. The ancient town grew in height on one slope of the ravine created by a river that is now a small stream. The ravine is known locally as "la Gravina".

In the 1950s, the government of Italy forcefully relocated most of the population of the Sassi to areas of the developing modern city. However, people continued to live in the Sassi, and according to the English Fodor's guide:


“ Matera is the only place in the world where people can boast to be still living in the same houses

of their ancestors of 9,000 years ago. ”


Until the late 1980s this was considered an area of poverty, since these houses were, and in most
areas still are, mostly unlivable. Current local administration, however, has become more tourism-oriented, and has promoted the re-generation of the Sassi with the aid of the European Union, the government, UNESCO, and Hollywood. Today there are many thriving businesses, pubs, and hotels.

One of the benefits of the ancient city, is that there is a great similarity in the look of the Sassi with that of ancient sites in and around Jerusalem. This has caught the eye of film directors and movie studios.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:42:37 pm
(http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1171/1085561969_acca0e3bf2.jpg?v=0)
                                                                                 (http://www.sassiweb.it/duomo/duomorid.JPG)








Like every city or town in Italy, Matera has a number of churches. However, nowhere else in
Italy, and possibly even the world, will one see such a diverse collection of buildings related to
the Christian faith. Some even believe that the very first "churches" ever used for worship were
formed in the slopes of the surrounding ravine.

The Cathedral (1268–1270) is an important monument, and has been dedicated to Santa Maria
della Bruna since 1389. Built in an Apulian-Romanesque architectural style, the church has a 52m
tall bell tower, and next to the main gate is a statue of the Maria della Bruna, backed by those of
Sts. Peter and Paul. The main feature of the façade is the rose window, divided by sixteen small columns. The interior is on the Latin cross plan, with a nave and two aisles. The decoration is mainly from the 18th century Baroque restoration, but recently a Byzantine-style fourteenth-century fresco portraying the Last Judgment has been discovered.

There are many other churches and monasteries dating back throughout the history of the Christian church. Some are simple caves with a single altar and maybe a fresco, often located on the opposite side of the ravine. Some are complex cave networks with large underground chambers, thought to
have been used for meditation by the rupestric and cenobitic monks.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:44:11 pm




                            (http://www.sassiweb.it/castello/castellotramontano.jpg)

                            CASTELLO TRAMONTANO









The Tramontano Castle that was begun in the early sixteenth century by Gian Carlo Tramontano,
Count of Matera, is probably the only other structure that is above ground of any great significance
outside of the Sassi.

However, the construction remained unfinished after his assassination in the popular riot of 29 December
1514. It has three large towers, while twelve were probably included in the original design.

During some restoration work in the main square of the town, workers came across what was believed to
be the main footings of another castle tower.

However, on further excavation, large Roman cisterns were unearthed. Whole house structures were dis-
covered where one can see how the people of that era lived. Found under the main square of the modern
city was a large underground reservoir, complete with columns and a vaulted ceiling.

Matera was built above a deep ravine called Gravina of Matera that divides the territory into two areas.

Matera was built such that it is hidden, but made it difficult to provide a water supply to its inhabitants.
Early dwellers invested tremendous energy in building cisterns and systems of water channels.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matera


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:45:26 pm
(http://www.camperweb.it/camper_feste/basilicata/matera/images/matera%20i%20sassi1.jpg)

THE 'SASSI'


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:47:09 pm
(http://www.lagrandetta.it/var/ezwebin_site/storage/images/itinerari/foto-itinerari/i-sassi-di-matera/1340-1-ita-IT/I-sassi-di-Matera.jpg)

THE 'SASSI'


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:48:35 pm
(http://www.prenotazioni-online.info/immagini-italia/Basilicata/i-sassi-di-matera.JPG)

THE 'SASSI'


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:52:52 pm
(http://www.casadipia.it/immagini/dintorni/(Siti%20arch)I%20sassi%20di%20Matera.jpg)

THE 'SASSI'


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:56:30 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Sassi_di_Matera_aprile06_07.jpg/800px-Sassi_di_Matera_aprile06_07.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:57:52 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/30/Matera_Sassi.jpg/800px-Matera_Sassi.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 07:59:51 pm
(http://www.fotomulazzani.com/Italia/Basilicata/Matera/Sassi/2007-11-30-061.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 08:01:27 pm
(http://www.fotosassi.altervista.org/semplici/Sassi%20di%20notte.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 08:03:38 pm
(http://www.nickbooth.id.au/Images/MateraRoom3.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 08:04:46 pm
(http://digilander.libero.it/erbygla/foto%20da%20mettere%20in%20glasiai/puglia/interno%20sassi%20matera11.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 08:07:08 pm
(http://www.lacasadilucio.it/gallery/appartamenti1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 08:08:34 pm
(http://www.club-cmmc.it/images/2002/Datacontact_interno.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on December 29, 2008, 08:10:08 pm
(http://www.italianodoc.com/agriturismo/agriturismo.immagini/basilicata.sassoscritto.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on January 03, 2009, 10:03:09 pm
(http://www.archaeology.org/0809/trenches/jpegs/jocktomb2.jpg)

A fifth-century athlete's sarcophagus from Taranto, Italy,
has been re-created in Beijing from scans of the original.

(Marco Merola)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on January 03, 2009, 10:05:11 pm









                                               Tomb of the Unknown Jock 





Volume 61 Number
5, September/October 2008 
by Marco Merola 

A great athlete's glory often lasts well beyond his lifetime—think of Jesse Owens racing across the
finish line in Berlin in 1936 on his way to capturing his fourth gold medal.

Now the story of another great athlete who triumphed in four events is living on, almost 2,500 years after his death, at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing.

One of the showpieces of the Games is an exhibition at the World Art Museum that showcases ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman sports. The highlights include copies of the sarcophagus and bones discovered at the famous Tomb of the Athlete in Taranto, Italy. Also on display are the original four amphorae the tomb's occupant received for winning first place in various athletic contests at a pan-Mediterranean festival similar to the Olympics.

The tomb was discovered in 1959 during construction of a building near the center of Taranto. Work was stopped and archaeologists soon came across the large stone sarcophagus and the four prize amphorae, which date to 480 B.C. and are decorated with sporting scenes. Inside the sarcophagus were the bones of a man (whose name is lost to us) holding an alabastron, a container for ointment used during sporting events.

Immediately the archaeologists knew they had found an athlete's burial.

But it wasn't until this year, when the sarcophagus and the bones were examined using modern imaging techniques, that the athlete's true story could be told.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on January 03, 2009, 10:07:15 pm




               (http://www.archaeology.org/0809/trenches/jpegs/jocktomb1.jpg)

                Amphorae won by the athlete are also on display.

                (Marco Merola)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on January 03, 2009, 10:08:55 pm



                                   (http://www.archaeology.org/0809/trenches/jpegs/jocktomb3.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on January 03, 2009, 10:10:27 pm









Using high-resolution laser scanning, researchers measured the sarcophagus precisely and saw previously unknown details of its painted frieze and traces of its once-bright colors. The data from the scans were transferred to a robotic arm that carved the copy of the sarcophagus now in Beijing from a block of resin (a process called rapid prototyping). Artists then manually applied the colored decoration.

Scholars at the Taranto Archaeological Museum also scanned the five-foot-five-inch athlete's bones. "It is clear that this man had sturdy bones designed to support great stresses," says Gaspare Baggieri, an anthropologist at the Ministry of Culture who has studied the bones since 1999.

The new scans showed Baggieri that the athlete had enormous calves and thighs, leading him to believe that the sportsman was a great runner and strong jumper. Baggieri thinks that he also had large trapezius and deltoid muscles, as well as overdeveloped neck and shoulders, suggesting he was almost certainly a javelin or discus thrower and a boxer.

 These events are echoed on the sides of the amphorae found in the tomb, which show a long jumper with halteres (jumping weights), a discus thrower, a chariot race, and two hefty pugilists.

You can see the sarcophagus from the Tomb of the Athlete at the newly renovated archaeological museum in Taranto (www.museotaranto.it). The museum showcases artifacts from the eighth to third centuries B.C., when Taranto was one of the biggest Greek colonies in Italy.



© 2008 by the Archaeological Institute of America


www.archaeology.org/0809/trenches/jocktomb.html


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 08:54:03 pm


Buildings rise up from the emerald coast of Salerno, Italy, a center of mozzarella di bufala production along with Caserta farther inland in the Campania region.

(Gaetano Barone
/Corbis)








                                                           Beautiful, unspoiled Paestum






LA Times
By Susan Spano,
Reporting from Paestum,
Italy
May 08, 2009

Even if there were no fresh mozzarella cheese on the wide plain that edges the Gulf of Salerno in southern Campania, the Greek ruins of Paestum would be reason enough for coming here.

Paestum was settled around 600 BC as part of a wave of Greek expansion that created a chain of colonies,
known as Magna Graecia, around the Mediterranean basin. Now it's one of the most intriguing archaeological
sites in Italy, visible proof of the subsequent Roman Empire's classical Hellenic foundations. It's still unspoiled
enough to make modern-day visitors feel like discoverers.

Paestum's three huge, elegant, breathtaking Doric-columned Greek temples loom above the plain about five
miles south of the beach town of Capaccio. The modest entrance across the lane from the museum yields to
a greensward covered with dandelions and clover, where dogs and visitors roam freely.

Sightseers get scant explanation, so it's best to buy a guidebook at one of the shops by the entrance to find
less obvious features such as the large house with a marble pool, or impluvium, for collecting rainwater and the Roman-era amphitheater.

The Greeks who founded Paestum succumbed to the inland Lucan people, who left marvelously frescoed tombs
in the area, and then to the Romans in the 3rd century BC. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Paestum was all
but abandoned to the malaria-infested marshes.

It wasn't until the 18th century, when Pompeii and Herculaneum were rediscovered, that Grand Tour travelers stumbled upon the ruins of Paestum, as perfect and undisturbed as Sleeping Beauty.

The nearby museum has a rich cache of findings from the Paestum area, including a collection of Lucanian tomb slabs bearing brightly painted images that look almost like doodles. Most famous among them is a fresco of a
diver caught in midair, symbolizing the soul's plunge from this life to the next.

Take time to study the museum's series of metopes, or stone panels decorating the frieze above a row of Doric columns. They were found at the site of an important Greek temple, dedicated to Hera, at the mouth of the Sele River about 10 miles north of Paestum. With almost comic book vividness, the metopes depict mythological scenes, including Hercules' capture of the dwarfish Cercopes, tied by their feet to a pole hoisted on the hero's shoulders.

No standing ruins remain at the site of the Hera sanctuary, but the Museum of Hera Agriva Sanctuary has excellent multimedia exhibits on the cult of Hera and the work of Paola Montuoro and Umberto Bianco, Italian archaeologists who discovered the sanctuary in 1934.

The old stones of Foce Sele lie scattered near the river, surrounded by artichoke fields and pastures where water buffaloes graze -- a magical Italian landscape in which daily life goes on amid the ruins of an ancient civilization.




susan.spano
@latimes.com


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 08:55:32 pm
(http://www.amalfihome.com/area/lAmalfi-0928.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 08:57:09 pm
(http://www.amalfihome.com/area/lPositano-0889.jpg)
                  (http://www.cherba.com/i2p/050622/paestum1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 08:58:13 pm
(http://www.shopmagazine.it/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/agropoli-panorama.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 08:59:48 pm
(http://www.discovery-agropoli.co.uk/images/italymap.jpg)






                           (http://www.slow-dreams.com/images/map%20of%20paestum%20&%20castell.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 09:01:12 pm
(http://campania.italy-trip.org/paestum/map-paestum.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 09:02:31 pm
(http://www.amalfihome.com/area/lPaestum2105_bearbeitet-1-1.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 09:03:32 pm
(http://www.amalfihome.com/area/lPaestum-0902.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2009, 09:21:40 pm
(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01416/lecce1_1416326c.jpg)

Small spaces:
Floral display in the southern Italian town of Lecce

Photo:
Simon Watson
/Getty











                                            Small spaces in Italy: loving Lecce's flowers



                                       We can all learn from Italy's small urban courtyards





 
Kate Weinberg
Telegraph.co.uk
03 Jun 2009

Italy is big on flower festivals.

One of the most famous is the Infiorata in Noto, a baroque town in Sicily: on the third Sunday in May, a mosaic of petals and seeds covers one of the main streets like a giant, stained-glass window. The following day, children are allowed to run barefoot through the flowers

(Organisers of Chelsea Flower Show, please loosen ties and take note).

So when I discovered that my visit to Lecce in southern Italy was to coincide with its annual flower competition,
I became rather excited. Lecce is known – at least by the locals – as the "Florence of the South". It is a dramatic baroque city that would surely host a spectacular floral show. Arriving late on the last day of the competition I rushed straight to the exhibition.

As I walked round the show, carefully studying one floral display after the next, my excitement curdled. Granted, the temperature was an arid 86F (30C), and after two days on their stands, the flowers were past their best. But even allowing for this, most of the entries were, well… pretty bizarre. In one, a spray of orchids and grasses emerged from a ceramic swan like an overambitious wedding hat, in another a string of plastic butterflies seemed to be tangled – along with a few petunias – in a fishing net.

Sucking on my disappointment, my travelling companion and I continued our passeggiata round the city. It soon became clear that large numbers of people were streaming into the entrances of private palazzi. Turns out, our visit to Lecce had also coincided with the day of cortili aperti: one Sunday a year when dozens of private courtyards in the old city are made open to the public.

As we followed the crowds I realised that here was Lecce's real flower show. Rather than contrived poesies wilting on plinths, the courtyards were a miracle of gardening in small, urban spaces: long beards of purple clematis dangled from wrought-iron balconies, glossy ivy carpeted the honey-coloured walls and bundles of tiny starlike jasmine twisted up columns. In one of the larger courtyards the fruit on tall orange trees clashed beautifully with tumbling pink and red geraniums. In another, slender ivory arum lilies were the only contrasting colour in an otherwise austerely evergreen space.

As we visited courtyards each more exquisite than the next, I became incensed that something like this was not done in England. Surely the best way to encourage pride and delight in gardens is to allow the best of them to be open to general appreciation and nosiness once a year? Why were we so uptight that we couldn't be more like the Italians, who let their children trample through flowers in a life-affirming Mediterranean manner and then threw open their courtyards to the public?

Returning home, I rang my friend Piers, gardener to the stars, and held forth on the subject of why Italy was better than England for a good few minutes. He listened to me patiently for a while before telling me to look up the National Garden Scheme (NGS), the gardeners' charity that is practically a national institution.

Tomorrow I will sit in the small un-Italian courtyard outside my house, and flick through the pages of The Yellow Book 2009, looking for private gardens around the country that I want to visit this summer and feeling proud to be British.

What's that great English expression again:
casa mia e` casa tua?

The Lecce open courtyards scheme in Puglia has been running for 15 years and each year open courtyards are combined with cultural events such as live classical concerts in the courtyards and churches. This year 19 palazzi and two churches were opened to the public.



The website is in Italian
www.leccenelsalento.it/cortili-aperti


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on June 26, 2009, 06:49:54 am
(http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/med/08d8596d5feaf1826ab80e015b4b7f64.jpg)









                                                  Ancient theatre on show in Naples



                                       Actors' masks from Pompeii among works on display






 (ANSA) - Naples,
June 23, 2009

- Naples is celebrating the ancient origins of the performing arts with a new exhibition that opens Thursday showcasing Greek and Roman mosaics, frescoes and masks with a connection to the theatre.

Among the relics on display at the National Archaeological Museum in Naples are vases painted with scenes from the so-called Phylax comic theatre that developed in Greek colonies in southern Italy. The vases are the only evidence of the existence of this type of comic theatre, in which ordinary mortals mix with legendary heroes.

Also on show is a set of 15 life-size plaster masks found at Pompeii that is on show to the public for the first time in its entirety. Experts believe the masks would have provided the models for a craftsman creating terracotta masks for actors to wear.

Included in the group is a 'Bucco', a stock male comic character with a large nose and puffed-out cheeks who played a bragging fool in early Roman farces in the Campania region.

Mosaics and frescoes with theatrical scenes and reproduction masks that would once have decorated gardens and houses and which were found during excavations of Pompeii and other towns buried by the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius are also on show.

The final section of the show is dedicated to the ancient stone theatres in the Campania region, including the open-air theatre in Neapolis (now Naples) and the 5,000-seater theatre dated to the first century BC in Pompeii, where there is also a small Odeon theatre that seated 1,000 from the second century BC.

'Ancient Theatre and Masks' runs at the National Archaeological Museum in Naples until August 31.




Photo: Remains of a Roman theatre near Posillipo.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2009, 07:23:30 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Pontine_Islands_map.png)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2009, 07:25:15 am



               (http://d.yimg.com/a/p/rids/20090723/i/r2381320385.jpg?x=400&y=278&q=85&sig=lC1fEvpmX3NgZ4HGoi5_bw--)

               Amphorae from one of the Roman ships










                             Archaeologists find graveyard of sunken Roman ships in the Bay of Naples






         
Jul 23, 2009
ROME
(Reuters)

– A team of archaeologists using sonar technology to scan the seabed have discovered a "graveyard"
of five pristine ancient Roman shipwrecks off the small Italian island of Ventotene.

The trading vessels, dating from the first century BC to the fifth century AD, lie more than 100 meters underwater and are amongst the deepest wrecks discovered in the Mediterranean in recent years, the researchers said on Thursday.

Part of an archipelago situated halfway between Rome and Naples on Italy's west coast, Ventotene historically served as a place of shelter during rough weather in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

"The ships appear to have been heading for safe anchorage, but they never made it," said Timmy Gambin, head of archaeology for the Aurora Trust (www.auroratrust.com). "So in a relatively small area we have five wrecks...a graveyard of ships."

The vessels were transporting wine from Italy, prized fish sauce from Spain and north Africa, and a mysterious cargo of metal ingots from Italy, possibly to be used in the construction of statues or weaponry.

Gambin said the wrecks revealed a pattern of trade in the empire: at first Rome exported its produce to its expanding provinces, but gradually it began to import from them more and more of the things it once produced.

In Roman times Ventotene, known as Pandataria, was used to exile disgraced Roman noblewomen. The Emperor Augustus sent his daughter Julia there because of her adultery. During the 20th century, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini used the remote island as a prison for political opponents.

Images of the wrecks show their crustacean-clad cargoes spilling onto the seafloor, after marine worms ate away the wooden hull of the vessels.

Due to their depth, the ships have lain untouched for hundreds of years but Gambin said the increasing popularity of deep water diving posed a threat to the Mediterranean's archaeological treasures.

"There is a race against time," he said. "In the next 10 years, there will be an explosion in mixed-gas diving and these sites will be accessible to ordinary treasure hunters."



(Reporting by
Daniel Flynn;

Editing by
Jon Boyle)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2009, 07:28:21 am
(http://z.about.com/d/goitaly/1/0/x/5/-/-/calabria-map.gif)










                                               Diver finds ruins of ancient city


 
                                         Stone blocks may come from Scylletium






 (ANSA) -
Squillace,
July 24, 2009

- An amateur scuba diver has discovered what may be the ruins of an ancient city off the coast of Calabria, a local town council said Friday.

Alessandro Ciliberto, an architect with a passion for scuba diving, discovered a group of stone blocks around 3-4 metres under water while he was diving 15 metres from the shore near the town of Squillace on Calabria's east coast.

''Standing out against the sandy seabed there's a dark-coloured form of around two metres in length and a metre and a half wide which seems to be man-made,'' Ciliberto said.

''Continuing to explore the zone a few metres away, I found a white-coloured plinth half a metre high. Further on, there are a pair of stone blocks, one rectangular and of modest dimensions and the other an undefined shape,'' he added.

Squillace town council said it was possible that the ruins belonged to the ancient seaside city of Scylletium, founded when southern Italy was a Greek colony.

The town became a Roman colony in 124 BC and was the birthplace of 6th-century Roman writer and statesman Cassiodorus, who claimed that its founder was legendary Greek king Ulysses.

Ruins from the city have previously been found in the nearby town of Roccelletta di Borgia.


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2009, 07:42:49 am









                                                          S C Y L L E T I U M







Scylletium or Scolacium – also spelled Scylacium, Scolatium, Scyllaceum, Scalacium, or Scylaeium in Latin.

– (Greek: Σκυλλήτιον , per Steph. B. and Strabo, or Σκυλάκιον, per Ptolemy), and later, Minervium and Colonia Minervia, was an ancient seaside city of Bruttium, Italy.

Its ruins can be found at the frazione of Roccelletta, in the comune of Borgia, near Catanzaro city, in the southern Italian region of Calabria, facing the Gulf of Squillace.



Scylletium was situated on the east coast of Calabria (ancient Bruttium), situated on the shores of an extensive bay, to which it gave the name of Scylleticus Sinus.

It is this bay, still known as the Gulf of Squillace (Italian: Golfo di Squillace), which indents the coast of Calabria on the east as deeply as that of Hipponium or Terina (the Gulf of Saint Eufemia, Italian: Golfo di Sant'Eufemia) does on the west, so that they leave but a comparatively narrow isthmus between them.

According to a tradition generally received in ancient times, Scylletium was founded by an Athenian colony, a part of the followers who had accompanied Menestheus to the Trojan War.

Another tradition was, however, extant, which ascribed its foundation to Ulysses.  But no historical value can be attached to such statements, and there is no trace in historical times of Scylletium having been a Greek colony, still less an Athenian one. Its name is not mentioned either by Scylax or Scymnus Chius in enumerating the Greek cities in this part of Italy, nor is there any allusion to its Athenian origin in Thucydides at the time of the Athenian expedition to Sicily.

We learn from Diodorus that it certainly did not display any friendly feeling towards the Athenians. It appears, indeed, during the historical period of the Greek colonies to have been a place of inferior consideration, and a mere dependency of Crotona, to which city it continued subject until it was wrested from its power by the elder Dionysius, who assigned it with its territory to the Loerians.

It is evident that it was still a small and unimportant place at the time of the Second Punic War, as no mention is found of its name during the operations of Hannibal in Bruttium, though he appears to have for some time had his headquarters in its immediate neighborhood, and the place called Castra Hannibalis must have been very near to Scylletium.

In 124 BCE the Romans, at the instigation of C. Gracchus, sent a colony to Scylletium, which appears to have assumed the name of Minervium or Colonia Minervia.

The name is written by Velleius Scolatium; and the form Scolacium is found also in an inscription of the reign of Antoninus Pius, from which it appears that the place must have received a fresh colony under Nerva. (Orell. Inscr. 136; Mommsen, l. c.). Scylletium appears to have become a considerable town after it received the Roman colony, and continued such throughout the Roman Empire.

Towards the close of this period it was distinguished as the birthplace of Cassiodorus (Aurelius Cassiodorus), founder of the Vivarium, a monastery dedicated to the coexistence of coenobitic monks and hermits, who has left us a detailed but rhetorical description of the beauty of its situation, and fertility of its territory.

Cassiodorus' writings also make mention of production of highly priced terra cotta.



RETRIEVED FROM

wikipedia.org


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on August 15, 2009, 07:08:20 am
(http://www.ansa.it/site/notizie/awnplus/english/med/493a912c575c8725be0e92005cf4381d.jpg)


Title: Re: MAGNA GRAECIA
Post by: Bianca on August 15, 2009, 07:10:22 am









                                             Puglia town ditches euro for ducat



                                        One- day celebration restores ancient coin






 (ANSA) -
Celenza Valforte,
August 13, 200

- The ducat, Europe's common currency for hundreds of years, made a brief reappearance on Thursday in this small town in the southern Puglia region. The euro is being temporarily shelved for one day, with stalls, bars and restaurants accepting only the ducat as Celenza Valforte residents celebrate their past. Visitors to the town will be able to exchange their euros to ducats at one of the town's five medieval gates, three of which have been specially reconstructed for the event. The initiative is part of a daylong event exploring the history of the town that aims to transport residents and visitors into a different world. Although people have lived in the area since prehistoric times, the town's current layout dates back to the Middle Ages. The celebrations encompass the many changes it has gone through since then: its years under Spanish domination in the 1500s, as part of the Austrian Empire in the 1700s and later under French rule towards the end of the 18th century, and eventually under the Bourbons in the 1800s. The monuments and architecture of the various eras are spotlighted in tours of the town and the coins are part of a broader initiative to recreate life as it was.

All the shops are closed for the day and the electric lighting around the town switched off, with the historic centre illuminated by burning torches when evening arrives. Over 100 of the town's residents have been officially tasked with helping recreate a historic atmosphere kitted out as knights, ladies, soldiers, brigands and traders, while medieval guards welcome new arrivals at the gates. From early evening, street artists, jugglers, fire-eaters, troubadours and jongleurs will wander the streets, while Medieval and Renaissance songs and music will be performed in different parts of the town.

The streets of Celenza Valfortore have been decked out in banners and heraldic signs of its various rulers from past centuries. The ducat, which was issued in both gold and silver, was Europe's common trade currency for centuries until World War I.

It is thought to have been minted for the first time in 1140 under Roger II of Sicily and soon spread across Europe, particularly after receiving official sanction in the mid-1500s.

The Celenza Valforte celebrations, Viva Il Borgo! (Long Live The Town!), are an annual event but this is the first year the ducat has been used as currency.=